Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease
Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
Lichen Planus, Oral
Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral
Herpesvirus 1, Bovine
Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human
Simian virus 40
Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
Leukemia Virus, Bovine
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Molecular Sequence Data
Hepatitis B virus
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
West Nile virus
Serum Albumin, Bovine
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
Typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses directly from blood of persistently infected cattle by multiplex PCR. (1/284)A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle. (+info)
Bovine herpes virus expressing envelope protein (E2) of bovine viral diarrhea virus as a vaccine candidate. (2/284)The gene encoding the envelope protein (E2) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was expressed under the thymidine kinase (TK) promoter of Korean bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate. Thymidine kinase negative (TK-) BHV-1 recombinants expressing E2 of BVDV were constructed and the expression of E2 was identified by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Compared to wild type BHV-1, the recombinant BHV-1 had a delayed cytopathogenic effect in cells. The immunogenicity of the recombinant BHV-1 was examined in guinea pigs and cattle. Although an increase in body temperature was detected for a few days, the inoculated cattle returned to normal temperature with the development of neutralizing antibodies to BVDV. (+info)
Experimental infection of calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype II (NY-93). (3/284)To ascertain the virulence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype II, isolate NY-93 was inoculated intranasally into 3 calves, 2 of which were treated with a synthetic glucocorticoid prior to and after virus inoculation. Anorexia, fever (up to 42 C), dyspnea, and hemorrhagic diarrhea developed 6 days after intranasal inoculation with BVDV NY-93. The condition of all calves deteriorated further until the end of the study on day 14 postinoculation. The most significant postmortem macroscopic changes in all calves were limited to the gastrointestinal tract and consisted of moderate to severe congestion of the mucosa with multifocal hemorrhages. Microscopic lesions found in the gastrointestinal tract were similar to those observed in mucosal disease, including degeneration and necrosis of crypt epithelium and necrosis of lymphoid tissue throughout the ileum, colon, and rectum. The basal stratum of the epithelium of tongue, esophagus, and rumen had scattered individual necrotic cells. Spleen and lymph nodes had lymphocytolysis and severe lymphoid depletion. Severe acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia was present in dexamethasone-treated calves. Abundant viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the squamous epithelium of tongue, esophagus, and forestomachs. BVDV antigen was prominent in cells of the media of small arteries and endothelial cells. The presence of infectious virus in tissues correlated with an absence of circulating neutralizing antibodies. These findings highlight the potential of BVDV genotype II to cause severe disease in normal and stressed cattle. (+info)
Nonhomologous RNA recombination in bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular characterization of a variety of subgenomic RNAs isolated during an outbreak of fatal mucosal disease. (4/284)Four bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) pairs consisting of cytopathogenic (cp) and noncp BVDV-2 were isolated during an outbreak of mucosal disease. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the four noncp BVDV-2 isolates were almost identical. For the cp BVDV-2 isolates, viral subgenomic RNAs were shown by Northern blot to have a length of about 8 kb, which is about 4.3 kb shorter than the genome of noncp BVDV. Cytopathogenicity and the expression of NS3 were both strictly correlated to the presence of viral subgenomic RNAs. By reverse transcription-PCR, Southern blot analysis, and nucleotide sequencing, a set of 11 unique subgenomes was identified with up to 5 different subgenomes isolated from one animal. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of a set of pestiviral subgenomes from individual animals. Common features of the BVDV-2 subgenomic RNAs include (i) deletion of most of the genomic region encoding the structural proteins, as well as the nonstructural proteins p7 and NS2, and (ii) insertion of cellular (poly)ubiquitin coding sequences. Three subgenomes also comprised 15 to 75 nucleotides derived from the 5' part of the NS2 gene. Comparisons of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed that the different BVDV-2 subgenomes evolved from the respective noncp BVDV-2 by RNA recombination. The presence of short regions of sequence similarity at several crossing-over sites suggests that base pairing between the nascent RNA strand and the acceptor RNA template facilitates template switching of the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (+info)
Bovine viral diarrhea virus quasispecies during persistent infection. (5/284)Analysis of viral genome sequences from two calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus revealed a quasispecies distribution. The sequences encoding the glycoprotein E2 were variable, translating to a number of changes in predicted amino acid sequences. The NS3 region was found to be highly conserved in both animals. The number of E2 clones showing variant amino acids increased with the age of the animal and comparison of the consensus sequences at the different time points confirmed differences in the predicted E2 sequences over time. The immune tolerance that allows the lifelong persistence of this viral infection is highly specific. It is likely that some of the variant viruses generated within these animals will differ antigenically from the persisting virus and be recognized by the immune system. Evidence of an immune response to persisting virus infection was gathered from a larger sample of cattle. Serum neutralizing antibodies were found in 4 of 21 persistently infected animals. Accumulations of viral RNA in the lymph nodes of all animals examined, particularly in the germinal center light zone, may represent antigenic variants held in the form of immune complexes on the processes of follicular dendritic cells. (+info)
Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine. (6/284)Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A noncytopathic type I and a noncytopathic type II BVDV isolate were chosen for evaluation in feeder age swine based upon preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. A dose titration study was performed using 4 groups of 4 pigs for each viral isolate. The groups were inoculated intranasally with either sham (control), 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) TCID50 of virus. The pigs were examined daily and clinical findings were recorded. Antemortem and postmortem samples were collected for virus isolation. Neither the type I nor type II BVDV isolates resulted in clinical signs of disease in pigs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from antemortem and postmortem samples from groups of pigs receiving the 10(5) and the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type I BVDV isolate. In contrast, BVDV was only isolated from postmortem samples in the group of pigs receiving the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type II BVDV isolate. Type I BVDV was able to establish infection in pigs at lower doses by intranasal instillation than type II BVDV. Infection of pigs with a type II isolate of BVDV known to cause severe disease in calves did not result in clinically apparent disease in pigs. (+info)
Detection of viral antigen in placenta and fetus of cattle acutely infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. (7/284)The reproductive organs and fetuses of seven Norwegian Red heifers were investigated for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen during the time of initial transplacental transmission of the virus. The heifers were inoculated with a noncytopathogenic BVDV at day 85/86 of gestation and were slaughtered at day 7, 10, 14, 18, or 22 postinoculation (pi). Cryostat sections of uterus, ovaries, placentomes, intercotyledonary fetal membranes, and fetal organs were examined using immunohistochemical techniques. A double immunofluorescence technique was used to identify cells that showed staining with antibodies against the leukocyte common antigen CD45 or the intermediate filament vimentin and BVDV antigens. The earliest stage of infection at which BVDV antigen could be detected in the fetuses was 14 days pi. At this stage, BVDV antigen was detected in cells of mesenchymal origin in the lungs and in large cells that morphologically resembled immature megakaryocytes in the liver. In the intercotyledonary fetal membranes and in the placentomes, BVDV antigen was not detected until 18 and 22 days pi, respectively. BVDV antigen was not detected in maternal tissue from any of the heifers. The present results indicate that fetal infection with BVDV can take place without preceding or simultaneous high concentrations of BVDV in uterus or placenta of acutely infected heifers. (+info)
Differential cytokine responses of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in response to bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle. (8/284)Virus-specific T cell responses were measured in cattle seropositive for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and compared with those from BVDV-seronegative animals. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified and co-cultured in vitro with autologous, BVDV-infected monocytes over a time-course to assess the kinetics of the proliferative response. Supernatants from parallel T cell cultures were harvested and the presence of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were measured by ELISA (IFN-gamma) or by a bioassay (IL-2 and IL-4). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from all seropositive, but not seronegative, cattle proliferated specifically in response to BVDV-infected monocytes. Measurement of cytokines in the supernatants from proliferating T cell cultures showed that the CD4+ T cell response was type 2-like, with extremely high levels of B cell growth factor and IL-4 activity together with comparatively low levels of IL-2 activity and IFN-gamma protein. The CD8+ T cell response, although more variable, appeared to be type 1-like, with increased IL-2 and IFN-gamma but no IL-4 or B cell stimulatory activity. (+info)
The disease is typically transmitted through close contact with infected animals, and can be spread through respiratory droplets, contaminated feces, or contaminated surfaces. The virus can also be transmitted from dam to fetus during pregnancy, causing congenital BVD.
BVD-MD is characterized by acute diarrhea, vomiting, and fever, as well as mucosal lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. In severe cases, it can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death.
Diagnosis of BVD-MD is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and histopathological examination of tissue samples. There is no specific treatment for the disease, but supportive care such as fluids, electrolytes, and antibiotics may be provided to manage symptoms.
Prevention of BVD-MD includes vaccination of animals at risk, strict biosecurity measures, and separation of infected animals from healthy ones. Control programs should also include testing of animals for the presence of the virus and monitoring of herds for signs of the disease.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
Symptoms of IBR can include fever, coughing, sneezing, runny eyes, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, the disease can lead to pneumonia, meningitis, and even death. The virus is highly adaptable and can survive for long periods of time in the environment, making it difficult to control and eliminate from infected herds.
Diagnosis of IBR is based on a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and serology. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications, and isolation of infected animals to prevent further spread of the disease. Vaccination is also an important tool in controlling IBR outbreaks, and several vaccines are available for use in cattle.
Prevention of IBR primarily involves good husbandry practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of facilities, proper feeding and watering, and avoiding close contact between animals from different herds. The disease is also reportable to animal health authorities, and strict biosecurity measures are in place to prevent the spread of the virus to other farms and regions.
IBR is a significant economic burden on the cattle industry worldwide, as it can lead to reduced productivity, increased mortality rates, and trade restrictions due to the risk of disease transmission to other animals and humans. Therefore, early detection, effective treatment, and strict control measures are essential for controlling outbreaks and minimizing the impact of IBR on animal health and the economy.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
Symptoms of stomatitis, aphthous include painful ulcers on the tongue, lips, gums, or inside the cheeks that can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. The ulcers are usually round, white, and shallow, with a red border. They can be accompanied by symptoms such as swelling, redness, and difficulty eating or speaking.
Stomatitis, aphthous is diagnosed based on the appearance of the ulcers and a physical examination of the mouth. In some cases, a biopsy may be performed to rule out other conditions.
Treatment for stomatitis, aphthous usually focuses on relieving symptoms and promoting healing. This can include avoiding spicy or acidic foods, using pain-relieving mouthwashes or gels, and taking over-the-counter pain medication. In severe cases, prescription medications such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and promote healing.
Preventing stomatitis, aphthous can be challenging, but maintaining good oral hygiene, avoiding triggers such as spicy foods, and managing stress can help reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks.
In conclusion, stomatitis, aphthous is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. While the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Symptoms can be painful and disruptive to daily life, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the condition and promote healing.
The exact cause of oral lichen planus is not known, but it is believed to be triggered by an allergic reaction or a viral or bacterial infection. It can affect anyone, but it is more common in women than men, and typically develops between the ages of 30 and 50.
The symptoms of oral lichen planus can vary from person to person, but they often include:
* Painful, inflamed lesions inside the mouth (on the tongue, lips, gums, or cheeks) that may be white, red, or purple in color.
* Burning sensation or stinging in the mouth.
* Difficulty eating or speaking due to pain and discomfort.
* Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue).
* Stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth).
* Ulcers or sores inside the mouth.
There is no cure for oral lichen planus, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include:
* Topical medications (such as corticosteroids) applied directly to the affected areas in the mouth.
* Oral medications (such as antihistamines or immunosuppressants) to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
* Phototherapy (exposure to specific wavelengths of light) to promote healing and reduce inflammation.
* Laser therapy to remove lesions and promote healing.
* Dietary changes to avoid spicy or acidic foods that may irritate the mouth.
While oral lichen planus is not a life-threatening condition, it can have a significant impact on quality of life, causing pain, discomfort, and difficulty eating and speaking. If you suspect you may have oral lichen planus, it is important to consult a dentist or healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
[Dorland's Medical Dictionary, 32nd edition]
Symptoms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis include:
* Ulcers on the face, mouth, or nose
* Difficulty swallowing
* Skin lesions on the face, arms, or legs
* Swelling of the liver or spleen
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or direct agglutination test (DAT).
Treatment for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications such as miltefosine, amphotericin B, or pentavalent antimonials. In severe cases, surgical debridement of skin lesions may be necessary.
Preventive measures for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis include avoiding sandfly bites and using insecticides to control sandfly populations.
Prognosis for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is generally good if treated promptly and effectively, but can be poor if left untreated or if there is significant damage to the mucous membranes or skin.
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare form of leishmaniasis that affects both the mucous membranes and the skin, causing ulcers, nosebleeds, and skin lesions. Prompt treatment with antiparasitic medications can improve the prognosis. Preventive measures include avoiding sandfly bites and using insecticides to control sandfly populations.
1. Tooth decay (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes tooth enamel to break down, leading to holes in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease: An infection of the gums and bone that support the teeth, caused by bacteria.
3. Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums, usually caused by poor oral hygiene or smoking.
4. Oral thrush: A fungal infection of the mouth, typically affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: Viral infections that cause sores on the lips, tongue, or gums.
6. Cold sores: Caused by the herpes simplex virus, these are small, painful blisters that appear on the lips, nose, or mouth.
7. Canker sores: Small, shallow ulcers that develop on the inside of the mouth, tongue, lips, or gums.
8. Leukoplakia: A condition where thick, white patches form on the insides of the mouth, usually due to excessive tobacco use or other irritants.
9. Oral cancer: Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, or throat.
10. Dry mouth (xerostomia): A condition where the mouth does not produce enough saliva, which can increase the risk of tooth decay and other problems.
These are just a few examples of mouth diseases. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to help prevent these conditions and ensure early detection and treatment if they do occur.
This condition is most commonly found in sheep and goats that are raised on overgrazed pastures or those that are fed moldy or contaminated feed. The worm that causes border disease is a type of liver fluke, which is a parasite that lives in the animal's liver and lungs.
Symptoms: The symptoms of border disease can include weight loss, anemia, coughing, difficulty breathing, and a thickened, irregular border to the hoof. The affected animals may also have a rough, scaly coat and may lose their appetite.
Diagnosis: Border disease is typically diagnosed based on a physical examination of the animal and laboratory tests, such as blood tests or X-rays. The presence of liver flukes in the animal's liver and lungs can be confirmed through these tests.
Treatment: Treatment for border disease typically involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs to kill the liver flukes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy.
Prevention: Preventing border disease involves taking steps to reduce the risk of infection with liver flukes. This can include providing animals with clean water and a balanced diet, avoiding overgrazing of pastures, and using anthelmintic drugs to control internal parasites.
Prognosis: The prognosis for animals with border disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. However, if left untreated, the condition can be severe and potentially fatal.
Infantile diarrhea is a common problem in infants and young children. It is characterized by frequent, loose, and watery stools that may be accompanied by vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, allergies, and intestinal malabsorption disorders.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Frequent, loose, and watery stools (more than 3-4 per day)
3. Fever (temperature >100.4°F or 38°C)
4. Abdominal pain
5. Blood in the stool
6. Dehydration (signs include dry mouth, decreased urine output, sunken eyes, and dry diaper)
1. Stool culture to identify the causative agent
2. Blood tests to check for electrolytes and signs of dehydration
3. X-ray or ultrasound abdomen to rule out any intestinal obstruction
4. Other tests such as urine analysis, blood glucose, and liver function tests may be done based on the severity of the diarrhea and the child's overall condition.
1. Fluid replacement: Replacing lost fluids with oral rehydration solutions such as Pedialyte or Gatorade is essential to prevent dehydration.
2. Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
3. Dietary modifications: Breastfeeding should be continued or initiated in infants under 6 months old. For formula-fed infants, a special formula that is easier to digest may be recommended. Solid foods should be introduced gradually.
4. Medications: Anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide may be given to help slow down bowel movements and reduce the frequency of stools.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor the child's condition and provide intravenous fluids if oral rehydration is not effective.
1. Dehydration: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to dehydration, which can cause serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death if left untreated.
2. Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, leading to muscle cramps, weakness, and heart problems.
3. Infection: Diarrhea can be a sign of an underlying infection, which can lead to more severe complications if left untreated.
4. Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, especially in children who are not getting enough nutrients.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease: Repeated episodes of diarrhea can lead to inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
1. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing is essential to prevent the spread of infection and diarrhea-causing bacteria.
2. Food safety: Ensure that food is cooked and stored properly to avoid contamination and infection.
3. Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some types of diarrhea-causing infections, such as rotavirus, which can help prevent severe diarrhea in children.
4. Breastfeeding: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life can help protect infants against diarrhea and other infections.
5. Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain a healthy gut microbiome and prevent diarrhea.
1. Oral rehydration therapy: ORS or other oral rehydration solutions can help replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
2. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat diarrhea caused by bacterial infections.
3. Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide can help slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
4. Probiotics: Probiotic supplements or probiotic-rich foods like yogurt can help restore the balance of gut bacteria and treat diarrhea.
5. IV fluids: In severe cases of diarrhea, IV fluids may be necessary to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
It's important to note that while these remedies can help alleviate symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the diarrhea. If diarrhea persists or worsens, medical attention should be sought. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat any underlying conditions or infections causing the diarrhea.
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.
Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.
Bovine viral diarrhea
List of MeSH codes (C22)
List of MeSH codes (C02)
Bovine malignant catarrhal fever
Feline leukemia virus
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NC1202: Enteric Diseases of Food Animals: Enhanced Prevention, Control and Food Safety - NIMSS
Beef Reproductive Management | Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health
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Norovirus: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
2007 Rhinovirus and Coronavirus Infections (PDF)
April | 2018 | Microrna21
- Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in cattle is a complex disease that is caused by bovine pestivirus. (wa.gov.au)
- Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the causative agent of the bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease, which is a leading cause of economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. (bvsalud.org)
- In our previous study, the lncRNA expression profiles of BVDV-infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were obtained by RNA-seq, and a significantly downregulated lncRNA IALNCR targeting MAPK8/JNK1 (a key regulatory factor of apoptosis) was identified through the lncRNA-mRNA coexpression network analysis. (bvsalud.org)
- IMPORTANCE Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease caused by BVDV is an important viral disease in cattle, causing severe economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. (bvsalud.org)
- Although a number of other febrile viral infections may produce hemorrhage, only the agents of Lassa, Marburg, Ebola, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fevers are known to have caused significant outbreaks of disease with person-to-person transmission. (cdc.gov)
- The system allows for an interactive search on animal disease outbreaks in Germany. (fli.de)
- The competent veterinary authorities must notify the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture about all animal disease outbreaks that occur in their area of responsibility. (fli.de)
- Furthermore, TSIS contains information on previous animal disease outbreaks as well as on individual epidemics and the functioning of national control measures. (fli.de)
- For example, the porcine epidemic diarrhea CoV (PEDV) first appeared from an unknown source in Europe and Asia in the 1970s and 1980s, causing severe diarrhea and widespread deaths in baby pigs before becoming endemic in swine ( Pensaert, 1999 ). (nih.gov)
- It is vegetarian if removed from the capsule, which is gela- tin (bovine inception, not porcine). (phantom-fc.com)
- We report the case of a 1-week old calf with severe central nervous system (CNS) lesions probably caused by in utero infection with the new virus. (cdc.gov)
- The virus generally causes a short-term infection. (veterinaryirelandjournal.com)
- These animals are only transiently infected (TI), as they recover from the infection when virus shedding stops. (veterinaryirelandjournal.com)
- However, infection during the first third of pregnancy results in the unborn calf becoming persistently infected (PI) as the calf's immune system will fail to recognise the virus as something foreign and the virus remains active in the calf throughout its life. (veterinaryirelandjournal.com)
- PIs' continual shedding of virus is the main source of infection to other cattle. (veterinaryirelandjournal.com)
- Variations in these surface proteins are respon- sible for antigenic diversity and the host immune response following infection.14 VP4 is on the inside of the virus and anchors the RNA core to the viral capsid. (pdfroom.com)
- C2959 Complication C128320 Infection C90259 Pediatric Terminology C C117984 Pediatric Infectious Disorder Pediatric Infectious Disease An infectious disorder that occurs during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. (nih.gov)
- One person had worked with animals infected with live virus, but it is uncertain how the other person acquired the infection (4,5). (cdc.gov)
- The comparison of these lesions with those reported in humans affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) supports the hypothesis that these findings may be attributable to the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dog with breed predisposition to Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (CIPF), although direct evidence of SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigenic approaches remained unsolved. (biomedcentral.com)
- Shigella viruses Sf22 and KRT47 require outer membrane protein C for infection. (harvard.edu)
- Prompt diagnosis of underlying viral infection in cats with ophthalmic disease is paramount for accurate diagnosis and prognosis and is required for appropriate therapeutic decision-making. (vin.com)
- The immune system of human body defends the integrity of the body against external invaders or pathogens and internal factors  by relying on diversity, resilience to generate, maintain and resolve responses during an injury, infection or disease . (nanomedicine-rj.com)
- Additional mortality arose during the period when PIs were on the farm because of an increase in the number and severity of cases of respiratory disease. (veterinaryirelandjournal.com)
- The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) illustrates that coronaviruses (CoVs) may quiescently emerge from possible animal reservoirs and can cause potentially fatal disease in humans, as previously recognized for animals. (nih.gov)
- However, veterinary coronavirologists had previously recognized the potential for coronaviruses to cause fatal enteric or respiratory infections in animals and for new CoV strains to emerge from unknown reservoirs, often evoking fatal disease in naïve populations. (nih.gov)
- To evaluate associations between weather conditions and management factors with the incidence of death attributable to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in high-risk auction-sourced beef calves. (avma.org)
- Patients who are infants or elderly, have asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or are immunosuppressed have increased frequency of rhinovirus-related respiratory complications. (pdfroom.com)
- Newer diagnostic tests such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have greatly expanded our understanding of the importance of these respiratory viruses. (pdfroom.com)
- This review highlights recent advances in our knowledge of these two virus groups and their importance in respiratory viral infections. (pdfroom.com)
- Although a great number of anecdotal accounts of a chronic respiratory condition in dogs, the disease is poorly characterized in this species, partly due to the difficulty of accurate diagnosis and the lack of accurate biopsy or postmortem material from these cases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses ( DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL ). (nih.gov)
- An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. (bvsalud.org)
- Clinically severe acute disease of cattle caused by noncytopathic forms of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (DIARRHEA VIRUS 2, BOVINE VIRAL). (bvsalud.org)
- Norovirus, formerly referred to as Norwalk virus, is a very contagious virus that causes acute gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
- In patients with severe symptoms in whom acute abdomen is suspected and in those with preexisting disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, abdominal radiography or computed tomography scanning should be performed. (medscape.com)
- In addition, some people may be concerned about the ethics of how bovine colostrum is sourced and whether it's taken from calves that need it. (smartnesshealth.com)
1970s and 1980s1
- In the 1970s and 1980s, typing of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) relied solely on immunologic methods involving human clinical samples as the source of antigens and antibodies. (medscape.com)
- Bovine colostrum may strengthen your gut and fight infections in the digestive tract. (smartnesshealth.com)
- Follow up of infected neonates by Dr. Jayshree Ayer at AIIMS indicated that these neonatal infants mounted a robust serum and mucosal immune response to rotavirus. (nih.gov)
- Research suggests that bovine colostrum may strengthen your immune system, fight infections that cause diarrhea, and promote gut health. (smartnesshealth.com)
- Bovine colostrum may strengthen your immune system and help your body fight disease-causing agents. (smartnesshealth.com)
- The immune-boosting effects of colostrum are mostly due to its high concentration of the antibody's Immunoglobulin A and Immunoglobulin G. Antibodies are proteins that fight viruses and bacteria. (smartnesshealth.com)
- The PI calf's immune function is damaged permanently leaving it more susceptible other diseases eg. (veterinaryirelandjournal.com)
- The granulomatous form of FIP, which is caused by a partial cell-mediated immune response, is most often associated with ocular signs, and uveitis may even be present without concurrent signs of systemic disease. (vin.com)
- April 2019 - had a really random bout of intense urgent and watery diarrhea, which is totally out of the norm. (phoenixrising.me)
- I can't help but feel after all of my experiementation, that this is SIBO, and that this anomalous bout of diarrhea in 2019 just cleared my small intestine, which led to all of the symptoms fading. (phoenixrising.me)
Drop in milk1
- Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. (nih.gov)
- The syndrome was characterized by nonspecific clinical signs (fever, decreased milk production), severe diarrhea, and some abortions. (cdc.gov)
- The term viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) refers to the illness associated with a number of geographically restricted viruses. (cdc.gov)
- bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus and BTV-8 genomes were not detected. (cdc.gov)
- Animal diseases are infections of animals that are subject to national control programmes due to their economic importance or their risks for livestock or human health. (fli.de)
- It is a crucial pro-inflammatory cytokine in many heart disorders, including chronic heart failure and ischemic heart disease, contributing to cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. (bvsalud.org)
- To identify associations between microbes and host genes in cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS), a debilitating inflammatory oral mucosal disease with no known cause, compared with healthy cats and cats with periodontitis (control cats). (avma.org)
- These small, positive-sense, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses have icosahedral sym- metry. (pdfroom.com)
- Lassa virus, named after a small town in northeastern Nigeria, is an enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus classified in the family Arenaviridae. (cdc.gov)
- With the animal diseases information system (TSIS), the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute makes up-to-date information on notifiable animal diseases online available to the public. (fli.de)
- In addition to the animal health situation on district level, TSIS provides information on all infectious animal diseases in Germany and the respective control measures. (fli.de)
- Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. (nih.gov)
- The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test promoted the evaluation of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) type 4, which has been rarely studied. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although there are no currently approved antiviral agents for clinical use, our increased understanding of the virus-host interaction should lead to new intervention strategies. (pdfroom.com)
- Uveitis can be associated with many systemic diseases, and may in some cases be the first clinical sign observed. (vin.com)
- Reproductive diseases can have a devastating impact on your operation's success and your financial well-being. (bi-animalhealth.com)
- They either succumb to other disease or the BVD virus changes (mutates) and the animal develops mucosal disease. (veterinaryirelandjournal.com)
- Moreover, study of a cohort of infected and non-infected infants by Drs. Bhan and Judy Lew (from CDC) indicated that those newborns infected were protected against subsequent severe rotavirus disease. (nih.gov)
- Depending on how the cows are raised, bovine colostrum may also contain antibiotics, pesticides, or synthetic hormones. (smartnesshealth.com)
- on cellular receptors, unlike the major and minor group serotypes.17 Coronaviruses Coronaviruses are positive, single-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and bud into cytoplasmic vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (Table 1). (pdfroom.com)
- Puma feline foamy virus was detected in 9 of 13 FCGS-affected cats that were refractory to treatment and 5 healthy cats but was not detected in FCGS-affected cats that responded to tooth extractions. (avma.org)
- The most important causal agents are corona virus (feline infectious peritonitis), retrovirus (feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus), Toxoplasma gondii , and various mycoses. (vin.com)
- Feline herpes virus is probably also a cause of uveitis. (vin.com)
- The long-term goal of this collaborative project is to develop strategies to prevent and control enteric diseases of livestock and poultry, ultimately to decrease incidence of enteric diseases in food animals, and zoonotic gastroenteritis in humans. (nimss.org)
- Despite many concerted efforts to control enteric pathogens as well as zoonotic pathogens in food animals at both on-farm (pre-harvest) and food processing (post-harvest) environments, the incidence of enteric diseases of animals and food and water-borne illnesses of humans remains high, and some are increasing. (nimss.org)
- Lipids play a central role in the virus life cycle and are a crucial target to develop antiviral therapeutics. (biomedcentral.com)
- No data are yet available to predict how the emerging virus might affect the cattle industry. (cdc.gov)
- Dr. Bhan, then a young assistant professor of pediatrics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), mentioned that he had been following an outbreak of rotavirus in the newborn unit at AIIMS but noted surprisingly that the infected neonates did not develop diarrhea. (nih.gov)
- PMID- 214407 TI - Antibodies to Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of uterine cervix in India. (nih.gov)
- This service provides effective and efficient laboratory capacity, policy input, research and testing for early diagnosis of notifiable diseases and verification for market access importation protocols for the state's livestock industries. (wa.gov.au)
- We undertake notifiable disease rule outs and support the investigation of more than 1000 stock disease incidents and 200 animal exports consignments annually. (wa.gov.au)
- NC1202 originally started as NC62 in the 1960's and has been an important contributor to research on the enteric diseases of swine. (nimss.org)
- Over the last 20 years, our enteric diseases group has contributed significantly to an evolved and expanded effort to find evidence-based interventions to prevent enteric diseases in food animals and food-borne diseases in humans. (nimss.org)
- In this renewal proposal, we remain committed to the prevention and control of animal and human diseases caused by enteric pathogens. (nimss.org)
- A primary avenue for control is decreasing carriage and disease due to enteric pathogens in food animals. (nimss.org)
- Similarly, Brachyspira and Lawsonia species represent the most important causes of bacterial enteric diseases of grow/finish pigs in the US. (nimss.org)
- Therefore, effective prevention and control of enteric diseases are critical to maintain production efficiency, produce wholesome meat, enhance food security and safety, and animal well-being. (nimss.org)
- The analysis detected nucleotide sequences homologous to arthropod-borne Akabane, Aino, and Shamonda viruses, all belonging to the family Bunyaviridae , genus Orthobunyavirus , and Simbu serogroup ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Vaccines can prevent a wide range of diseases that cause reduced production, fertility or death in cattle and economic losses to Western Australian producers. (wa.gov.au)
- Because infectious diseases are important in the differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis, special microbiologic stains and cultures are necessary, thus, is excreted . (forexturboprofits.com)
- Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses are restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, and the differential diagnosis of VHF will most often be made for illness in travelers to this region. (cdc.gov)
- After intense investigation, the strain turned out to be a novel reassortant of a human rotavirus strain with a single VP4 gene segment replacement of bovine origin. (nih.gov)
- In January 2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that a new norovirus strain, GII.4 Sydney, which was first detected in Australia, had spread to the United States. (medscape.com)
- Taken together, the above data suggest that, like other Simbu serogroup viruses, the new virus crosses the placenta, contaminates the bovine fetus, infects the fetus' CNS, and causes necrosis and/or developmental arrest of the cerebral cortex. (cdc.gov)
- The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) was established in 1995 and is a collaborative program among CDC, 10 state health departments, the USDA FSIS, and the FDA. (nimss.org)
- The amount of IgA produced in association with mucosal membranes is greater than all other types of antibody combined. (smartnesshealth.com)
- AB - Antibody activity to Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and type-2 (HSV-2) was measured by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in sera from 124 women with squamous-cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, 46 women with non-cervical cancer and 116 matched normal women. (nih.gov)
- An infectious disease that occurs in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. (nih.gov)
- PMID- 214405 TI - Long-term T-cell-mediated immunity to Epstein-Barr virus in man. (nih.gov)
- The results strongly suggest that the regression phenomenon is an in vitro expression of long-term T-cell-mediated immunity to EB virus which the large majority, if not all, infected individuals possess. (nih.gov)
- Enfermedad aguda del ganado bovino causada por el grupo de los VIRUS DE LA DIARREA VÍRICA BOVINA. (bvsalud.org)
- Enfermedad aguda, muy contagiosa, que afecta a los cerdos de cualquier edad y está causada por el VIRUS DE LA FIEBRE PORCINA CLÁSICA. (bvsalud.org)
- Enfermedad aguda clínicamente grave de los bovinos causada por formas no citopáticas del VIRUS 2 DE LA DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA. (bvsalud.org)
- Las personas comúnmente usan L. acidophilus para la diarrea causada por antibióticos, así como para el síndrome del intestino irritable (SII), el crecimiento excesivo de bacterias en la vagina y una infección causada por la bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). (medlineplus.gov)
- Norwalk virus was officially renamed norovirus by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in 2002. (medscape.com)
- One 12-week study in 35 adult distance runners found that taking a daily bovine colostrum supplement increased the amount of saliva Immunoglobulin A antibodies by 79%, compared to baseline levels. (smartnesshealth.com)
- The presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is uncommon, although clusters of GBS cases were observed in China in 2018. (biomedcentral.com)
- Rodents are important virus reservoirs and natural hosts for multiple viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- In February 2006, a live, oral, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq® [RV5]) was licensed as a 3-dose series for use among U.S. infants for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis, and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use of RV5 among U.S. infants (CDC. (cdc.gov)
- We research significant livestock diseases and improve and develop new tests to support for research on animal production. (wa.gov.au)