Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.Pestivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE) in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. Infections range from clinically inapparent to severe, but do not correlate with biotypes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Border disease virus: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing a congenital sheep disease characterized by an abnormally hairy birth-coat, tremors, and poor growth.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.ScandinaviaFoot-and-Mouth DiseaseEnterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Central AmericaFlaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Flaviviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.GB virus C: A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Jackals: Medium-sized terrestrial carnivores, in the genus Canis, family CANIDAE. Three species are recognized, two found only in Africa and one found in Africa, Europe, and Asia.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections including BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE and BOVINE HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. The severity of disease appears to be strain dependent. Cytopathogenic effects do not correlate with virulence as non-cytopathic BVDV-2 is associated only with Hemorrhagic Disease, Bovine.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.ScotlandAlismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins: A family of MARVEL domain-containing proteolipid proteins involved in vesicular trafficking cycling between the GOLGI COMPLEX and the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE.RNA Virus InfectionsSilage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Phytoestrogens: PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Estrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.

Typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses directly from blood of persistently infected cattle by multiplex PCR. (1/284)

A nested multiplex PCR was developed for genotyping of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs). The assay could detect as little as 3 50% tissue culture infective doses of BVDV per ml and typed 42 out of 42 cell culture isolates. BVDV was also successfully typed, with or without RNA extraction, from all 27 whole-blood samples examined from 22 carriers or probable carriers and 5 experimentally infected cattle.  (+info)

Bovine herpes virus expressing envelope protein (E2) of bovine viral diarrhea virus as a vaccine candidate. (2/284)

The gene encoding the envelope protein (E2) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was expressed under the thymidine kinase (TK) promoter of Korean bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate. Thymidine kinase negative (TK-) BHV-1 recombinants expressing E2 of BVDV were constructed and the expression of E2 was identified by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Compared to wild type BHV-1, the recombinant BHV-1 had a delayed cytopathogenic effect in cells. The immunogenicity of the recombinant BHV-1 was examined in guinea pigs and cattle. Although an increase in body temperature was detected for a few days, the inoculated cattle returned to normal temperature with the development of neutralizing antibodies to BVDV.  (+info)

Experimental infection of calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype II (NY-93). (3/284)

To ascertain the virulence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype II, isolate NY-93 was inoculated intranasally into 3 calves, 2 of which were treated with a synthetic glucocorticoid prior to and after virus inoculation. Anorexia, fever (up to 42 C), dyspnea, and hemorrhagic diarrhea developed 6 days after intranasal inoculation with BVDV NY-93. The condition of all calves deteriorated further until the end of the study on day 14 postinoculation. The most significant postmortem macroscopic changes in all calves were limited to the gastrointestinal tract and consisted of moderate to severe congestion of the mucosa with multifocal hemorrhages. Microscopic lesions found in the gastrointestinal tract were similar to those observed in mucosal disease, including degeneration and necrosis of crypt epithelium and necrosis of lymphoid tissue throughout the ileum, colon, and rectum. The basal stratum of the epithelium of tongue, esophagus, and rumen had scattered individual necrotic cells. Spleen and lymph nodes had lymphocytolysis and severe lymphoid depletion. Severe acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia was present in dexamethasone-treated calves. Abundant viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the squamous epithelium of tongue, esophagus, and forestomachs. BVDV antigen was prominent in cells of the media of small arteries and endothelial cells. The presence of infectious virus in tissues correlated with an absence of circulating neutralizing antibodies. These findings highlight the potential of BVDV genotype II to cause severe disease in normal and stressed cattle.  (+info)

Nonhomologous RNA recombination in bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular characterization of a variety of subgenomic RNAs isolated during an outbreak of fatal mucosal disease. (4/284)

Four bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) pairs consisting of cytopathogenic (cp) and noncp BVDV-2 were isolated during an outbreak of mucosal disease. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the four noncp BVDV-2 isolates were almost identical. For the cp BVDV-2 isolates, viral subgenomic RNAs were shown by Northern blot to have a length of about 8 kb, which is about 4.3 kb shorter than the genome of noncp BVDV. Cytopathogenicity and the expression of NS3 were both strictly correlated to the presence of viral subgenomic RNAs. By reverse transcription-PCR, Southern blot analysis, and nucleotide sequencing, a set of 11 unique subgenomes was identified with up to 5 different subgenomes isolated from one animal. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of a set of pestiviral subgenomes from individual animals. Common features of the BVDV-2 subgenomic RNAs include (i) deletion of most of the genomic region encoding the structural proteins, as well as the nonstructural proteins p7 and NS2, and (ii) insertion of cellular (poly)ubiquitin coding sequences. Three subgenomes also comprised 15 to 75 nucleotides derived from the 5' part of the NS2 gene. Comparisons of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed that the different BVDV-2 subgenomes evolved from the respective noncp BVDV-2 by RNA recombination. The presence of short regions of sequence similarity at several crossing-over sites suggests that base pairing between the nascent RNA strand and the acceptor RNA template facilitates template switching of the BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.  (+info)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus quasispecies during persistent infection. (5/284)

Analysis of viral genome sequences from two calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus revealed a quasispecies distribution. The sequences encoding the glycoprotein E2 were variable, translating to a number of changes in predicted amino acid sequences. The NS3 region was found to be highly conserved in both animals. The number of E2 clones showing variant amino acids increased with the age of the animal and comparison of the consensus sequences at the different time points confirmed differences in the predicted E2 sequences over time. The immune tolerance that allows the lifelong persistence of this viral infection is highly specific. It is likely that some of the variant viruses generated within these animals will differ antigenically from the persisting virus and be recognized by the immune system. Evidence of an immune response to persisting virus infection was gathered from a larger sample of cattle. Serum neutralizing antibodies were found in 4 of 21 persistently infected animals. Accumulations of viral RNA in the lymph nodes of all animals examined, particularly in the germinal center light zone, may represent antigenic variants held in the form of immune complexes on the processes of follicular dendritic cells.  (+info)

Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine. (6/284)

Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A noncytopathic type I and a noncytopathic type II BVDV isolate were chosen for evaluation in feeder age swine based upon preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. A dose titration study was performed using 4 groups of 4 pigs for each viral isolate. The groups were inoculated intranasally with either sham (control), 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) TCID50 of virus. The pigs were examined daily and clinical findings were recorded. Antemortem and postmortem samples were collected for virus isolation. Neither the type I nor type II BVDV isolates resulted in clinical signs of disease in pigs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from antemortem and postmortem samples from groups of pigs receiving the 10(5) and the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type I BVDV isolate. In contrast, BVDV was only isolated from postmortem samples in the group of pigs receiving the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type II BVDV isolate. Type I BVDV was able to establish infection in pigs at lower doses by intranasal instillation than type II BVDV. Infection of pigs with a type II isolate of BVDV known to cause severe disease in calves did not result in clinically apparent disease in pigs.  (+info)

Detection of viral antigen in placenta and fetus of cattle acutely infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. (7/284)

The reproductive organs and fetuses of seven Norwegian Red heifers were investigated for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen during the time of initial transplacental transmission of the virus. The heifers were inoculated with a noncytopathogenic BVDV at day 85/86 of gestation and were slaughtered at day 7, 10, 14, 18, or 22 postinoculation (pi). Cryostat sections of uterus, ovaries, placentomes, intercotyledonary fetal membranes, and fetal organs were examined using immunohistochemical techniques. A double immunofluorescence technique was used to identify cells that showed staining with antibodies against the leukocyte common antigen CD45 or the intermediate filament vimentin and BVDV antigens. The earliest stage of infection at which BVDV antigen could be detected in the fetuses was 14 days pi. At this stage, BVDV antigen was detected in cells of mesenchymal origin in the lungs and in large cells that morphologically resembled immature megakaryocytes in the liver. In the intercotyledonary fetal membranes and in the placentomes, BVDV antigen was not detected until 18 and 22 days pi, respectively. BVDV antigen was not detected in maternal tissue from any of the heifers. The present results indicate that fetal infection with BVDV can take place without preceding or simultaneous high concentrations of BVDV in uterus or placenta of acutely infected heifers.  (+info)

Differential cytokine responses of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in response to bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle. (8/284)

Virus-specific T cell responses were measured in cattle seropositive for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and compared with those from BVDV-seronegative animals. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified and co-cultured in vitro with autologous, BVDV-infected monocytes over a time-course to assess the kinetics of the proliferative response. Supernatants from parallel T cell cultures were harvested and the presence of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were measured by ELISA (IFN-gamma) or by a bioassay (IL-2 and IL-4). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from all seropositive, but not seronegative, cattle proliferated specifically in response to BVDV-infected monocytes. Measurement of cytokines in the supernatants from proliferating T cell cultures showed that the CD4+ T cell response was type 2-like, with extremely high levels of B cell growth factor and IL-4 activity together with comparatively low levels of IL-2 activity and IFN-gamma protein. The CD8+ T cell response, although more variable, appeared to be type 1-like, with increased IL-2 and IFN-gamma but no IL-4 or B cell stimulatory activity.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (C22)

... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C22.196.148 --- brucellosis, bovine MeSH C22.196.250 --- encephalopathy, bovine ... bovine MeSH C22.735.050 --- ape diseases MeSH C22.735.500 --- monkey diseases MeSH C22.735.500.500 --- marburg virus disease ... bovine MeSH C22.196.927 --- tuberculosis, bovine MeSH C22.196.963 --- white heifer disease MeSH C22.268.265 --- distemper MeSH ... bovine MeSH C22.196.429 --- infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C22.196.497 --- lumpy skin disease MeSH C22.196.540 --- ...

*List of MeSH codes (C02)

... border disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.106 --- bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 --- classical swine ... kyasanur forest disease MeSH C02.782.417.505 --- lassa fever MeSH C02.782.417.560 --- marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782. ... infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C02.256.466.606 --- malignant catarrh MeSH C02.256.466.650 --- marek disease MeSH ... marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782.580.600 --- paramyxoviridae infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080 --- avulavirus infections ...

*Bovine viral diarrhea

Prolonged nasal shedding and viraemia of cytopathogenic bovine virus diarrhoea virus in experimental late-onset mucosal disease ... Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD ... Animal viruses Fray; et al. (2000). The effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on cattle reproduction in relation to disease ... Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, expert reviewed and published by Wikivet at http://en.wikivet.net/Bovine_Viral_Diarrhoea_Virus, ...

*Pestivirus

Border disease virus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Classical swine fever virus Viruses in ... Diseases associated with this genus include: hemorrhagic syndromes, abortion, fatal mucosal disease. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: ... Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 3 (BVDV-3) (HoBi group) List of viruses Virology Animal virology "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved ... There are currently four species in this genus including the type species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1. ...

*Veterinary virology

They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral diarrhea(BVD). Mucosal disease is a distinct, chronic persistent ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... Virus History of virology Virus evolution Social history of viruses Bourhy H, Gubala AJ, Weir RP, Boyle DB (2009). Mahy BWJ, ...

*Flaviviridae

Border disease virus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Classical swine fever virus Unclassified Other ... Diseases associated with this family include: hepatitis (hepaciviruses), hemorrhagic syndromes, fatal mucosal disease ( ... virus Jugra virus Jutiapa virus Kadam virus Kedougou virus Kokobera virus Koutango virus Kyasanur Forest disease virus Langat ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ...

*Bovine malignant catarrhal fever

The similarity of MCF clinical signs to other enteric diseases, for example blue tongue, mucosal disease and foot and mouth ... This phenomenon explains why it has been impossible to grow the virus on any one particular cell culture. Because the virus is ... inappetance and diarrhea. Some animals have neurologic signs, such as ataxia, nystagmus, and head pressing. Peracute, ... contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease and anthrax.Hartebeests and topi also may carry the disease. However ...

*Norovirus

The disease is usually self-limiting, and characterized by nausea, forceful vomiting, watery diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and ... Hawaii virus; Snow Mountain virus; Mexico virus; Desert Shield virus; Southampton virus; Lordsdale virus; Wilkinson virus. ... Immunity Against Mucosal Pathogens. Springer. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-4020-8412-6. Robert Matthews. "I've lost my appetite.." New ... Genogroups I, II and IV infect humans, whereas genogroup III infects bovine species, and genogroup V has recently been isolated ...

*Feline leukemia virus

... diarrhea and jaundice. Asymptomatic carriers will show no signs of disease, often for many years. The disease has a wide range ... The bovine protein is homologous with other mammalian species and is a homogeneous 50 kDa glycoprotein with an isoelectric ... The cat's body is overwhelmed by infection and mucosal and glandular epithelial cells (tissue that forms a thin protective ... doi:10.1007/s00436-003-0949-8. "Feline Leukemia Virus: A Cause of Immunodeficiency in Cats". "Feline Leukemia Virus Diseases". ...

*Paul Offit

"Effect of microencapsulation on immunogenicity of a bovine herpes virus glycoprotein and inactivated influenza virus in mice". ... American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases (2007). "Prevention of rotavirus disease: guidelines for use of ... Offit worked for 25 years on the development of a safe and effective vaccine against rotavirus, which is a cause of diarrhea, ... Coffin SE, Moser CA, Cohen S, Speaker TJ, Offit PA (1997). "Enhanced protection and mucosal immunity induced by intramuscular ...
Paper: Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a dairy herd with high prevalence of persistently infected calves , Author:Mahmoud Atef Youssef Helal ; Hiroyuki Okamatsu ; Motoshi Tajima · , Year:2012 , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ,Department of Animal medicine ,Benha University
Biology Assignment Help, Bovine viral diarrhoea, Bovine viral diarrhoea Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) and mucosal disease (MD) are clinically dissimilar disease syndrome yet have a common viral etiology. The acute disease is called as BVD. The term mucosal disease is reserved for chronic diseas
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NJIRO, S M and NKOSI, C M. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.4, pp.229-232. ISSN 2224-9435.. Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar ...
The invention disclosed herein presents an antigen-capture immunoassay that utilizes serum, plasma, milk, urine, saliva, or other bodily fluid samples to identify cattle infected with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). The results of this assay allow an effective, reliable, quick, and cost efficient way to identify, and thereby remove, infected cattle and/or other ruminants from otherwise uninfected herds. The BVD virus causes an acute enteric disease with a variety of clinical manifestations, and is closely related to sheep border disease virus (BDV) and hog cholera virus (HCV). The traditional method of detecting infected animals, including persistently infected (PI) carriers, has been through .the .use of virus isolation procedures. While .this older test methodology can detect infected animals, the virus isolation test can only be performed by highly trained technicians in a highly specialized laboratory facility. The kit disclosed herein uses ELISA methodology, employs the BVDV antigen
A cross-sectional study was made in a major cattle-breeding area of Switzerland to investigate the prevalence and local distribution of animals antibody positive to bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus and of persistently infected animals. The sample size and statistical analysis took into account the possible clustering of persistently infected animals on individual farms. Of 3440 animals tested on 121 farms, 1982 were found to have antibodies to BVD virus (95 per cent confidence interval for the population prevalence: 57.6±4.5 per cent) and 22 were persistently infected (estimate for the population prevalence: 0.64±0.34 per cent). The detection of persistent infection in animals less than seven months old was improved either by retesting one year later, by using an antigen-capture ELISA or, in selected cases, by the analysis of original serum samples by reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that the prevalence of persistent infection may be underestimated by as much as one-third when ...
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD), is a significant economic disease of cattle that is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world. The causative agent, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is a member of the Pestivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. BVD infection results in a wide variety of clinical signs, due to its immunosuppressive effects, as well as having a direct effect on respiratory disease and fertility. In addition, BVD infection of a susceptible dam during a certain period of gestation can result in the production of a persistently infected (PI) fetus. PI animals recognise intra-cellular BVD viral particles as self and shed virus in large quantities throughout life; they represent the cornerstone of the success of BVD as a disease. BVDV is a member of the Pestivirus genus, belonging to the family Flaviviridae. Border disease virus (sheep) and classical swine fever virus ...
BioAssay record AID 436478 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against Bovine viral diarrhea virus infected in MDBK cells assessed as inhibition of virus-induced cytopathicity after 3 to 4 days by MTT assay.
A limited number of scientific publications dealing with aspects of BVDV infection have emanated from southern Africa. This study describes the isolation of BVD viruses, gene sequence analysis of the 5 non-translated region (5 NTR) of the genome, the generation of phylogenetic data of local strains and the recording of clinical signs associated with each isolate. Specimens (n=352) collected during 1998-1999, from live and dead animals from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens from buffaloes (cerus caffer the Kruger National Park were included as specimens from dead animals. Three cell lines and 200 tubes of pooled foetal bovine sera were also processed. Standard cell culture techniques to isolate virus were followed. Techniques designed to detect BVDV antigen or nucleic acid such as antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, were used on blood, organs and ...
The measurement of antibody responses of animals exposed to BVDV either through a natural exposure or an immunization protocol is still a standard procedure. For BVDV, the test formats have been largely limited to ELISA which is a valuable diagnostic test to measure the level of BVDV specific antibodies as well as antigen in blood samples. In the present study, 120 blood samples were collected from the cows with the history of abortion in different period of pregnancy from different industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad area of Iran. Also 30 samples were collected from the cows with no history of abortion as control. The presence of antibody against BVDV from the 120 serum samples was investigated by indirect ELISA. From 120 serum samples which were collected from aborted cows, 89 samples were positive (%74.16). From these positive samples, 12(13.48%), 54 (60.68%) and 23 (25.84%) samples belong to the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. From 89 positive samples, 12 (13.48%)
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Early detection and elimination of cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a key element for eradication programs. Testing dried skin biopsies derived from ear tagging might be useful for detection of BVDV in newborn calves. The aims of this study were the development of methods for antigen solubilization and RNA preparation, the investigation of the stability of these viral components and the comparison of the analytical sensitivity of different tests. Commercial antigen capture ELISAs for NS3, Erns and mixed antigens, a blocking ELISA for BVDV antibodies and two real time RT-PCR assays for 5UTR were used as BVDV specific tests. Ear biopsies were collected from nine BVDV antibody free PI animals (infected with BVDV-I CR4043) after slaughter and from twelve PI calves (fetal infection with BVDV-I PT810) after euthanasia at the age of 5-13 days in the time of colostral antibodies. For solubilization of the BVDV antigens the detergents dodecyl sulfate, sodium ...
We propose a stochastic model of BVDV spread in a structured beef cow-calf cattle herd. Originally, we accounted for a variation in exposure of animals (especially adults) between the indoor period, during which a homogeneous contact structure is assumed, and the outdoor period, during which groups are formed and raised on different pastures. Moreover, we accounted for a risk of continuous virus introduction in the herd through animal purchases and contacts with neighboring infected herds. This enabled the model to represent a large range of possible situations, from a single introduction into a naive herd to endemic situations potentially maintained by an external risk of virus reintroduction. Lastly, the model was flexible enough to represent beef herds of different sizes and management types, as illustrated by the different types of herds observed in Bourgogne, one of the main beef cattle farming regions in France. Such a model was pertinent to investigate the impact of BVDV spread on the ...
A world-first cattle vaccine based on nanotechnology could provide protection from the *Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), which costs the Australian cattle industry tens of millions of dollars in lost revenue each year.. The new BVDV vaccine that constitutes a protein from the virus loaded on nanoparticles, has been shown to produce an immune response against the industrys most devastating virus.. A group of Brisbane scientists has shown that the BVDV nanoformulation can be successfully administered to animals without the need of any additional helping agent making a new nanovaccine a real possibility for Australian cattle industries.. Scientists Dr Neena Mitter and Dr Tim Mahony from the Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI) a UQ Institute recently established in partnership with the Queensland Department of Employment Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI), partnered with nanotechnology experts Professor Max Lu and Associate Professor Shizang Qiao from the ...
The outcomes of a voluntary bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme that has been in place in the Netherlands since 1997 were analysed. This BVDV-free programme was studied in dairy herds in the period 1 August 2007 to 1 August 2013. The programme was based on a test and cull approach at the herd level, after which the BVDV status was monitored by testing young stock for antibodies ...
I joined initially as an Assistant Scientific Officer and I am now working as a Higher Scientific Officer within the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVD) eradication scheme and molecular testing laboratories section of Diagnostic Virology. I have been working in this role since December 2015.
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea in Cattle Also known as: BVD, Mucosal disease Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) is a viral disease which infects mainly cattle, but can infect sheep, goats, deer and pigs (Hurtado et al.
Advice on what to do if you suspect there is an outbreak of this infectious disease and details of the screening programme in Scotland.
Advice on what to do if you suspect there is an outbreak of this infectious disease and details of the screening programme in Scotland.
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In fact BVDv has an affinity for the reproductive system, causing infertility, abortion and deformities in calves from infected adult cows, and respiratory disease in young calves ...
The use of heat shock proteins (HSP) to enhance activation of the immune response to chaperoned antigen is being explored for immunotherapy. Hsp110 chaperones large protein substrates more effectively than Hsp70, offering the potential to use complex antigens containing multiple epitopes in HSP-based vaccines. In this study, we investigated the ability of recombinant bovine Hsp110 to chaperone E2 glycoprotein, the major envelope protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and the dominant target of neutralizing antibodies. Hsp110 formed complexes with E2, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. When monocytes from BVDV-immunized cattle were stimulated with these complexes and incubated with autologous CD4(+) T cells, enhanced levels of proliferation were observed. To determine the ability of these complexes to improve immunogenicity in vivo, cattle were vaccinated with either Hsp110-E2 complex or E2 only, combined with Quil-A adjuvant. In contrast to the in vitro data, cellular and humoral responses
In keeping with our commitment to deliver the highest-quality next-generation molecular tools, we provide several farm animal diagnostic solutions that have been validated through the stringent USDA licensure process. This includes innovative USDA-licensed detection kits that offer rapid, easy-to-use PCR-based testing solutions that are designed to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), swine influenza virus (SIV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) with exceptional specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility.. ...
A new bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) vaccine that only requires one shot and protects cattle against BVD type 1 and 2 has been launched. Bovela, from Boehrin
Cindy, I work on various animal systems with various in house and commercial antibodies. I have not done a controlled study, but I have done enough with different antibodies to know that the strength of the staining can vary with precut specimens. In my spare time I would like to do precuts and hold some and RT and some at -80 then do staining at increasing time points. Now I just cut my control sections when I run the IHC. Cynthia Favara -----Original Message----- From: Cindy Chard-Bergstrom [mailto:[email protected]] Sent: Monday, August 27, 2001 9:19 AM To: [email protected] Subject: BVD staining I am experiencing problems with our BVD (bovine viral diarrhea) stain. My controls are precut, sometimes a week in advance. Slides are not heated until right before they are stained. At first the control stains very nice, but over time the staining on subsequent runs is diminished. Only a few cells will stain. I make up the antibody dilution fresh each time I use it. Is anyone else doing ...
20 September 1996 High hopes for BVDvaccine A NEW vaccine could stem the £70m a year lost by UK producers to bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD).Due
Question - How is viral diarrhea and its symptoms treated ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Diarrhea, Ask a Gastroenterologist
IL-4 Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: BVD6-24G2, eBioscience™ 50μg; FITC IL-4 Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: BVD6-24G2, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies IgY to...
Pravilnik o spremembah Pravilnika o ukrepih za ugotavljanje, preprečevanje in zatiranje goveje virusne diareje (BVD) - mukozne bolezni (MB) (Diarrhoea viralis bovum - Morbus mucosae bovum). SOP 2007-01-6199. EVA 2007-2311-0200. EPA -
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Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt.
A wave of abortions, stillbirths and deformities in sheep occurred at the Al-Ahsa oasis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia in the second half of 1999. The abortions were recorded in August and September and stillbirths and deformities in neonates were observed in October. Adult sheep were clinically normal. A virus was isolated in chicken embryos, adapted to Vero cell culture and further identified as bluetongue (BT) virus. The virus isolated was not neutralised by the Akabane virus. Reference hyperimmune serum against antibodies to BT virus detected in the sera of the dams gave positive results for BT but negative results for both Akabane and bovine viral diarrhoea virus. It was concluded that the outbreak was caused by a virus of the BT serogroup. The authors present the clinico-pathological and epidemiological situation of the disease outbreak.. ...
The pestivirus genome encodes a single polyprotein which is subject to co- and posttranslational processing by cellular and viral proteases. The map positions of all virus-encoded proteins are known with the exception of a hypothetical peptide (p?) which interlinks the glycoprotein E2 and the nonstructural protein NS2-3 approximately between amino acid positions 1060 and 1130. Expression studies with recombinant vaccinia viruses bearing a set of C-terminally truncated E2-p?-NS2-encoding sequences derived from a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain led to the identification of a minor fraction of E2 which had an increased molecular mass due to a C-terminal extension. This larger form of E2 (E2p7) was specifically recognized by an antiserum raised against the amino acid sequence from 1065 to 1125. In addition, the antibodies revealed a BVDV-encoded 7-kDa protein (p7) in infected cells. By radiosequencing it was determined that Val-1067 was the N-terminal amino acid of in vitro-synthesized p7. ...
The services of the Institute of Virology and Immunology (IVI) at the facilities in Bern include the diagnostics of viral diseases of cattle, horses and small ruminants with focuses on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and lentivirus infections, as well as equine viral diseases. The Swiss reference center for rabies (Swiss Rabies Center) is in charge of rabies diagnostics and rabies serology both in the veterinary and human sectors.. For the services of our Institute at the location in Mittelhäusern, see Diagnostics Mittelhäusern site. Our Institute plays an important role in the eradication and surveillance of specific animal diseases. We cooperate mainly with veterinarians, cantonal officials and the Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office (FSVO). The Institute also teaches apprentice laboratory technicians in general virology, serology, immunology and molecular biology.. ...
Kansas State University. Kelly Foster: Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus transmission from persistently infected cattle to non-persistently infected cattle when commingled: An evaluation of serum neutralizing antibody titers Feraidon Ataie: Utilization of high lignin residue ash(hilra) in concrete materials. University of Kansas. Grifin Roberts: Integrated approach to algal biofuels:Overcoming challenges for new industry Lei Shi: Mutlichannel sense-and-avoid radar for small uavs. University of Kansas Medical Center. Stephanie Bishop: A click chemistry-mediated approach to understanding surviving:Caspase-9 protein-protein interactions Natalie Tarbutton & Alison Nuttle: Retrospective chat review of distress among cancer survivors ...
Subject: BVD staining Forwarded to: [email protected] To: [email protected] > I am experiencing problems with our BVD (bovine viral diarrhea) stain. My controls are precut, sometimes a week in advance. Slides are not heated until right before they are stained. At first the control stains very nice, but over time the staining on subsequent runs is diminished. Only a few cells will stain. I make up the antibody dilution fresh each time I use it. Is anyone else doing this stain and if so have you experienced this problem? Any suggestions, anyone? > > > > Cindy Chard-Bergstrom B.S.,HT(ASCP),QIHC > Microbiologist III > Kansas State University > [email protected] ...
We are amending the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations regarding the packaging and labeling of veterinary biological products to provide for the use of an abbreviated true name on small final container labeling for veterinary biologics; require labeling to bear a consumer contact telephone number; change the format used to show the establishment or permit number on labeling and require such labeling to show the product code number; change the storage temperature recommended in labeling for veterinary biologics; require vaccination and revaccination recommendations in labeling to be consistent with licensing data; require labeling information placed on carton tray covers to appear on the outside face of the tray cover; remove the restriction requiring multiple-dose final containers of veterinary biologics to be packaged in individual cartons; require labeling for bovine virus diarrhea vaccine containing modified live virus to bear a statement warning against use in pregnant animals; reduce the ...
Fern ndez, F. et al. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs. Rev. argent. microbiol., June 2009, vol.41, no.2, p.86-91. ISSN 0325- ...
New Delhi: Indian scientists have developed an affordable vaccine that has shown strong efficacy in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea, the most severe...
If your foal is suffering from diarrhea, one possible culprit could be a virus. It should be treated as a medical emergency because his condition can decline very quickly, leading to a life threatening one. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
Fast Shipping. Great Low Price. IBR, BVD Types I and II, PI3 and BRSV. Give 2 ml SQ or IM. Repeat in 2-4 weeks and once annually. Calves vaccinated before 6 months of age should be revaccinated at 6 months of age. Safe for pregnant cows.Triangle 5 formerly Triangle 4 + Type II BVD Cattle Vaccine Boehringer Ingelheim Killed Virus |
Learn about One Shot BVD for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
Purified Anti-Mouse IL-4 antibody for use in flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry / immunocytochemistry, western blot, immunoprecipitation, ELISA, ELISpot, and multiplex assays.
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Viruses of the family Flaviviridae afflict millions of people worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the prototype member of the Hepacivirus genus, chronically infects approximately 2% of the global population. HCV infection can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is a leading reason for liver transplantation. There is no HCV vaccine, and current therapy, a combination of interferon-alpha and the nucleoside analog ribavirin, is frequently not effective. Viruses of the genus Flavivirus are insect-borne relatives of HCV. Flaviviruses include pathogens such as West Nile, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses, many of which are resurging and spreading to new environments. The genus Pestivirus includes animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). These viruses cause significant disease in wild and agriculturally important animals.. In the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, we are interested in understanding how ...
Gerl M. J, Bittl V, Kirchner S, Sachsenheimer T, Brunner HL, Lüchtenborg C, Ozbalci C, Wiedemann H, Wegehingel S, Nickel W, Haberkant P, Schultz C, Krüger M, Brügger B (2016). Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase deficient cells as a tool to study Protein lipid interactions. PloS one. 11:e0153009. Callens N, Brügger B, Bonnafous P, Drobecq H, Gerl MJ, Krey T, Roman-Sosa G, Rümenapf T, Lambert O, Dubuisson J, Rouillé Y (2016). Morphology and molecular composition of purified bovine viral diarrhea virus envelope. PLoS Pathog. 12(3):e1005476. Hacke M, Bjorkholm P, Hellwig A, Himmels P, de Almodovar CR, Brügger B, Wieland F, Ernst AM (2015). Inhibition of Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated cytotoxicity by targeting its transmembrane and cholesterol. Nat Commun. 6,7688, PMID 26158910. Gerl MJ, Sachsenheimer T, Grzybek M, Coskun U, Wieland FT, Brügger B (2014). Analysis of transmembrane domains and lipid modified peptides with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass ...
Competitive ELISA for the detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea / Mucosal Disease / Border Disease anti-p80-125 (anti-NSP2-3) antibodies in serum, plasma and milk from cattle, sheep, goats and other susceptible species ...
The subject of preventive medicine is one that is attracting world-wide attention to-day. We can hardly pick up a newspaper or magazine without seeing the subject discussed in some of its phases, and during the last few years several books have appeared devoted wholly or in part to the ways of preventing rather than curing many of our ills. Looking over the titles of these articles and books the reader will at once be impressed with the importance that is being given to the subject of the relation of insects to some of our common diseases. ...
The disinfectant Virocid, manufactured by Cid Lines, has been successfully tested against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea virus (PEDv).
Summary of Services: Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory Milk Pregnancy Blood Pregnancy Johnes BVD Medium Milk Blood Milk Blood Blood Ear Notch Bulk Tank
Discussion. The game farming industry is important for the Namibian economy and encourages tourism through hunting safaris and trophy hunting expeditions. Kudu comprise a large portion of the game farming industry in Namibia and also come into contact with several domestic species. Thus the prevalence of BVDV in kudu may pose a threat to the cattle farming industry in Namibia and neighbouring countries.. BVDV serology results showed a high seropositivity (68%) amongst all samples (kudu and eland). In this study, BVDV seropositivity of kudu in Namibia was determined to be 71% (27/38), which was similar to previous studies in Namibia (Depner et al. 1991; Soiné et al. 1992). For the South African samples, a seroprevalence of 71% (5/7) was observed. As no other study regarding the seroprevalence of BVDV in kudu in South Africa has been performed, these results can be compared only with those from other countries in the southern African region, such as Namibia (66%) (Depner et al 1991; Soiné et al. ...
Treatment of Diarrhea is more than three loose, liquid stools in a single day. Diarrhea can be, Acute - occurring suddenly, and lasting briefly, Chronic - long-term, Recurring - occurring in recurrent episodes, Diarrhea depletes your body of fluids and electrolytes. If you lose too much fluid, you can become dehydrated. Diarrhea is particularly dangerous for babies, young children, and elderly people, Diarrhea, Acute Diarrhea, Bloating Diarrhea, Blood Diarrhea, Causes Of Diarrhea, Diarrhea Symptoms, Diarrhea Treatment, Chronic Diarrhea, Diarrhea Cures, Diarrhea Disease, Diarrhea Infection, Diarrhea Medicine, Diarrhea Pain, Diarrhea Rash, Sickness And Diarrhea, Stomach Virus, Bacterial Diarrhea, Diarrhea Illness, Viral Diarrhea
Immunohistochemistry on ear notch samples pinpoints BVDV persistent infection. It is appropriate for cattle of all ages and is considered the test of choice for young animals.. Suggestions from the Academy of Veterinary Consultants have been published to help practitioners and producers in making decisions related to BVDV control strategies for their herds.. Immunohistochemistry on ear notch samples is one potential testing option.. ...
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Rat Monoclonal Anti-GM-CSF Antibody (BVD2-21C11) [DyLight 405]. Validated: WB, ELISA, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human, Primate. 100% Guaranteed.
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diarrhea - MedHelps diarrhea Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for diarrhea. Find diarrhea information, treatments for diarrhea and diarrhea symptoms.
Diarrhea, Read about Diarrhea symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Diarrhea articles about how to live with Diarrhea, and more.
Diarrhea is a feeling no one wants to experience. In this section, we aim to find remedies for occasional diarrhea. Severe diarrhea could be a sign of other health issues. Seeking medical attention is recommended.
Most cases of diarrhea are acute. This means it arises suddenly, is intense and lasts for only a short period of time. Typically with diarrhea this is just a few days and in many instances the diarrhea resolves on its own without any medical treatment. Sometimes it may persist for weeks and still be considered as acute. It ,, Read More ... ...
... - Get information about Treatment of Diarrhea, onlymyhealth.com is providing articles related to Diarrhea Treatment.
Diarrhea is a common condition that every dog suffers from in their life. Dogs parents have to go through this distressing and messy condition at some point. With that said, it is imperative to know how to stop dogs diarrhea. Before we start talking about this messy condition, and before we know how to stop … Read more How To Stop Dogs Diarrhea - 4 Simply Steps!. ...
Diarrhea is a disorder that affects people of all age groups. Medically speaking, Diarrhea is a mechanism that the body uses to eliminate germs fro...
Do you know different diarrhea causes? We will help you understand what diarrhea really is, its causes and how to treat it. Curious? Know them here.
Diarrhea is your bodys defense mechanism and DiaResQ works with your body to address the issue quickly. Learn more about our diarrhea relief today!
Most of the time, diarrhea is caused by a dietary indiscretion or stressful circumstances, and is self-limiting. Diarrhea is not a disease; rather, it is a symptom..
When is diarrhea dangerous for children and adults? This is an important question, and an even more important answer! Learn more and be ready to act.
News Analysis The Rising Research Profile of 23andMe An exploration of the genetics of earlobe attachment is just the latest collaborative research project to come out of the personal genetic testing company.. ...
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated.. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3.. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with ...
Looking for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis? Find out information about Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis. a viral disease in cattle characterized by general inhibition, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract , and by the development of... Explanation of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
Effective protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in cattle combine a life vaccine which is applied every 6 months.
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Mexico reported outbreaks of thedeadly Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea virus (PEDv) in 17 states outof 19 tested, the World Animal Health Organisation (OIE) said.
Another area would be to look at "normal" non-disease producing viruses in "ancient cattle digs" like some of the Herpesviruses of cattle, Chase adds. Most every species has its own Herpesviruses; cattle have five. "Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not recognized as a clinical entity until the 1950s," Chase explains. "What changed in the non-disease IBR virus to make it become a pathogen? One then could see if those new or different viral genes would be good targets for vaccines or preventive therapies ...
We know that a very small part of the population had severe allergy reactions on some vaccines. For some diseases the possible reactions are far more dangerous than the expected danger from the disease that is to be prevented. In the latest years there are vaccines for low risk diseases (viral diarrhea), that rarely have severe complications if correctly treated. Similar risks are true even for a trivial flu (influenza), you can even die if you have a too high fever. Fur such low risk diseases, usually on optional vaccine list, it might be less risky to not vaccinate. People that wants to be "early adopters" could do it, of course. It might be even recommended for people with severe immune problems, but it should not be mandatory. Its just to hard to calculate exactly the probabilities here ...
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Farmlands is New Zealands largest farmer owned rural supplies co-operative. We exist for one simple reason - to use the collective power of our shareholders to negotiate better deals and improve individual profitability.
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 178 conditions that can cause Worsening Diarrhea. There are 23 common conditions that can cause Worsening Diarrhea. There are 33 somewhat common conditions that can cause Worsening Diarrhea. There are 27 uncommon conditions that can cause Worsening Diarrhea. There are 95 rare conditions that can cause Worsening Diarrhea.
Diarrhea is extremely common all over the world and more than a billion individuals encounter a bout of diarrhea every year. The causes of diarrhea can be completely self-limiting or may be a manifestation of serious underlying disease; therefore, proper diagnosis of diarrhea is an absolutely critical clinical skill ...
In pregnancy, infections are a common complication-but women may not have obvious symptoms, or they may show different symptoms of an infection.
HealthDay News) -- Diarrhea typically is not a sign of a serious illness in children, says KidsHealth.. But its important to make sure that if your child has diarrhea, lost fluids and nutrients are replaced.. Depending on the severity of diarrhea, KidsHealth suggests:. ...
Another name for Diarrhea is Diarrhea. The evaluation of diarrhea begins with a medical history and physical examination. Physical findings in someone ...
There are over 100 different diseases that can cause diarrhea. Diarrhea is most often caused by a simple infection that is the result of a virus.
Diarrhea is an uncomfortable problem that now and then affects everyone. Diarrhea is characterized by frequent loose stool and leads to loss of fluids and minerals.
​Gastroenterologists shared the top ways to get rid of diarrhea in adults, from what foods stop diarrhea to what medicines to take. Plus, learn what not to do.
Keeping clean while having diarrhea can be difficult. Here you will find a low-tech, inexpensive way to keep clean without using toilet paper.
Q&A: How can I tell if my breastfed baby has diarrhea? - Have a question about your breastfed babys stool? Visit Breastfeeding.com for more information.
Pneumonia continues to lead to financial losses for farmers rearing dairy calves. But a better understanding of risk factors can improve control and help reduce reliance on antibiotics.
Accepted name: pestivirus NS3 polyprotein peptidase. Reaction: Leu is conserved at position P1 for all four cleavage sites. Alanine is found at position P1 of the NS4A-NS4B cleavage site, whereas serine is found at position P1 of the NS3-NS4A, NS4B-NS5A and NS5A-NS5B cleavage sites. Other name(s): border disease virus NS3 endopeptidase; BDV NS3 endopeptidase; bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 endopeptidase; BVDV NS3 endopeptidase; classical swine fever virus NS3 endopeptidase; CSFV NS3 endopeptidase; p80. Comments: The polyprotein of noncytopathogenic pestiviruses is cleaved co- and post-translationally into at least 11 proteins (Npro, C, Erns, E1, E2, p7, NS2-3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) [2]. The genomes of cytopathogenic pestivirus strains express at least one additional protein, called NS3 (p80) [2]. This enzyme, which resides in the N-terminal region of NS3 (nonstructural protein 3), is essential for generation of its own C-terminus and for processing of the downstream cleavage sites, ...
Virions from hog cholera virus (HCV), a member of the genus Pestivirus, were analyzed by using specific antibodies. The nucleocapsid protein was found to be a 14-kDa molecule (HCV p14). An equivalent protein could also be demonstrated for virions from another pestivirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus. The HCV envelope is composed of three glycoproteins, HCV gp44/48, gp33, and gp55. All three exist in the form of disulfide-linked dimers in virus-infected cells and in virions; HCV gp44/48 and gp55 each form homodimers, whereas gp55 is also found dimerized with gp33. Such complex covalent interactions between structural glycoproteins have not been described so far for any RNA virus. ...
see ORCID database. Selected publications:. Kaiser, V., Nebel, L., Schüpbach-Regula, G., Zanoni, R.G., and Schweizer, M. (2017) Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland. BMC Veterinary Research 13, 21. (PubMed). Lussi, C., and Schweizer, M. (2016) What can pestiviral endonucleases teach us about innate immunotolerance? Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 29, 53-62. (PubMed). Stalder, H., Hug, C., Zanoni, R., Vogt, H.R., Peterhans, E., Schweizer, M., and Bachofen, C. (2016) A nationwide database linking information on the hosts with sequence data of their virus strains: A useful tool for the eradication of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Switzerland. Virus Research 218, 49-56. (PubMed). Braun, U., Hilbe, M., Janett, F., Hässig, M., Zanoni, R., Frei, S., and Schweizer, M. (2015) Transmission of border disease virus from a persistently infected calf to seronegative heifers in early pregnancy. BMC ...
Looking for online definition of enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus in the Medical Dictionary? enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus explanation free. What is enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus? Meaning of enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus medical term. What does enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus mean?
816-231-4020 Order ID medium 7125. 2. Snap-cap milk tubes [please do not use whirl-pac bags].. 3. Shipping container rack that organizes individual tubes in slots.. 4. Submission form: Use the Ruminant Health Test Request form found here.. 5. Vaccination and tattoo ink do not affect ...
A recent study (C Alessandria et al JPGN 2019; 69: 39-44) enrolled 151 patients to examine for correlation between mucosal disease and autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were prescribed a gluten-casein free diet (GCFD) Key findings: 134 (89%) had negative celiac disease serology 56 (*37%) showed microscopic inflammation of duodenum Response to GCFD diet…
90 in calf 10 dry. Spring 2000 - 85 cows calved. 5 more empty ... Blood or milk test all the herd when not in calf (prior to mating) Test all the herd. ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 64f0b-ZDc1Z
UK - More than 50 organisations and companies from across the agricultural industry are backing a campaign which aims to eliminate a highly contagious disease of cattle from England.
Our experts possess all experienced it and understand how distressing it truly is actually- however exists even more to diarrhea our company should understand? Below is actually a fast best overview, so you understand how to handle diarrhea and also how to stop the dreadful health problem.. What is actually diarrhea?. Diarrhea is actually typically called a problem where loose, watered-down feces are actually passed 3 or even more opportunities a time. It often happens when liquid within the physical body is actually not able to become taken in, or even additional liquid is actually seeped in to the digestive tract.. What are actually the signs of diarrhea?. The majority of severe scenarios of diarrhea will definitely come on a handful of times, and also you are going to commonly see the seriousness in requiring utilizing the commode, in addition to constant death of loosened, watered-down feces.. Various other popular signs of diarrhea feature:. - Abdominal pains and/or discomforts. - Nausea ...
Allergic Pet | Diarrhea (Diarrhea) Find all-natural and safe dog diarrhea and cat diarrhea treatment from Allergic Pet. Find your pet relief from chronic diarrhea and improve digestion the natural way.
Animal Profiling International API - herd testing company providing disease, pregnancy and genomics testing services. BVD, BLV, Johnes, Neospora tests.
The present invention relates to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses which fail to produce any functional thymidine kinase as a result of an insertion in the thymidine kinase gene, vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis containing the same and methods for production and use of same. The present invention also relates to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-based viral vectors useful for the coexpression of foreign genes.
occurs in South America, Asia (including Indonesia) and certain European countries. Information on current country status can be obtained from the OIE World Animal Health Information Database. The last time CSF occurred in Australia was in 1962. Outbreaks have recently been reported in Bulgaria (in wild species), Israel and Lithuania.. Classical swine fever virus is a highly contagious Pestivirus which only infects swine, and is antigenically related to border disease virus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Pig to pig transmission is most common but CSF can also be spread by aerosol, swill feeding and mechanically by insects and fomites. Swill feeding of peri-urban pigs is a likely method of re-introduction of this virus to Australia and hence CSF may first be encountered by a veterinary practitioner servicing these areas. Strains vary greatly in their virulence. The last outbreak in Australia was caused by a mild strain that was detected only by a reported increase in fevered carcasses at ...
Reichert, C; Reichert, P; Monnet-Tschudi, F; Kupferschmidt, H; Ceschi, A; Rauber-Lüthy, C (2014). Seizures after single-agent overdose with pharmaceutical drugs: analysis of cases reported to a poison center. Clinical Toxicology, 52(6):629-634.. Braun, Ueli; Reichle, S F; Reichert, C; Hässig, Michael; Stalder, H P; Bachofen, Claudia; Peterhans, E (2014). Sheep persistently infected with Border disease readily transmit virus to calves seronegative to BVD virus. Veterinary Microbiology, 168(1):98-104.. Reichert, C. Infektion von Kälbern, Schafen und Ziegen mit Border-Disease-Virus. 2009, University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty.. Kupper, J; Reichert, C (2009). Vergiftungen mit Pflanzen. Therapeutische Umschau, 66(4):343-348.. ...

Reproduction of mucosal disease with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus selected in vitro | Veterinary RecordReproduction of mucosal disease with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus selected in vitro | Veterinary Record

Reproduction of mucosal disease with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus selected in vitro ... Reproduction of mucosal disease with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus selected in vitro ... Reproduction of mucosal disease with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus selected in vitro ...
more infohttps://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/127/8/200.share

Apoptosis in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)- Induced mucosal disease lesions: A histological, immunohistological, and...Apoptosis in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)- Induced mucosal disease lesions: A histological, immunohistological, and...

Apoptosis in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)- Induced mucosal disease lesions: A histological, immunohistological, and ... Download PDF Apoptosis in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)- Induced mucosal disease lesions: A histological, ... Apoptosis in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)- Induced mucosal disease lesions: A histological, immunohistological, and ... Cattle persistently infected with a noncytopathic Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are at risk of developing fatal "mucosal ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/71467/

Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using...Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using...

NJIRO, S M and NKOSI, C M. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ... Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) ... Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure ... virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine ( ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1019-91282009000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Bovinely | definition of bovinely by Medical dictionaryBovinely | definition of bovinely by Medical dictionary

bovine malignant catarrh. see malignant catarrhal fever. b. mucosal disease see bovine virus diarrhea (below). ... bovine virus diarrhea. an infectious disease of cattle caused by a pestivirus. Clinical disease is sporadic and is seen only in ... bovine polyomavirus. a virus not known to be pathogenic; up to 60% of cattle sera have antibody to the virus. ... bovine. /bo·vine/ (bo´vīn) pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from cattle.. bovine. (bō′vīn′, -vēn′). adj.. Of, ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bovinely

In UTERO Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Congenital Infection With ValacyclovirIn UTERO Treatment of Cytomegalovirus Congenital Infection With Valacyclovir

Bovine Virus Diarrhea-mucosal Disease. Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, ... Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER ... A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and ... Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/69568/In-UTERO-Treatment-of-Cytomegalovirus-Congenital-Infection-With-Valacyclovir.html

Etchison JR[au] - PubMed - NCBIEtchison JR[au] - PubMed - NCBI

A rapid, quantitative assay for titration of bovine virus diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus. ... Comparison of the oligosaccharide structure of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus and a thermolabile mutant (tl-17 ... Variations in the structure of radiolabeled glycopeptides from the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus grown in four ... Carbohydrate composition of the membrane glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus grown in four mammalian cell lines. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Etchison+JR%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Global Bovine Vaccines Market Research Report 2016 - RnR Market ResearchGlobal Bovine Vaccines Market Research Report 2016 - RnR Market Research

Global Bovine Vaccines Market Research Report 2016 is a market research report available at US $2900 for a Single User PDF ... 1.2.2 Bovine virus diarrhoea - Mucosal disease (BVD-MD). 1.2.3 Johnes disease. 1.2.4 Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). ... Figure Product Picture of Bovine virus diarrhoea - Mucosal disease (BVD-MD). Table Major Manufacturers of Bovine virus ... diarrhoea - Mucosal disease (BVD-MD). Figure Product Picture of Johnes disease. Table Major Manufacturers of Johnes disease. ...
more infohttp://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/global-bovine-vaccines-market-research-report-2016-market-report.html

United States Bovine Vaccines Market Report 2016 - RnR Market ResearchUnited States Bovine Vaccines Market Report 2016 - RnR Market Research

United States Bovine Vaccines Market Report 2016 is a market research report available at US $3800 for a Single User PDF ... 1.2 Classification of Bovine Vaccines. 1.2.1 Bovine virus diarrhoea - Mucosal disease (BVD-MD). 1.2.2 Johnes disease. 1.2.3 ... Figure Bovine virus diarrhoea - Mucosal disease (BVD-MD) Picture. Figure Johnes disease Picture. Figure Infectious Bovine ... 3.3 USA Bovine Vaccines Price by Type (2011-2016). 3.4 USA Bovine Vaccines Sales Growth Rate by Type (2011-2016). 4 USA Bovine ...
more infohttp://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/united-states-bovine-vaccines-market-report-2016-market-report.html

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 prime uninfected macrophages for lipopolysaccharide-triggered apoptosis...Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 prime uninfected macrophages for lipopolysaccharide-triggered apoptosis...

BVD virus. Here, supernatants of both Mφ infected with a wider range of cp BVD virus and Mφ infected with bovine herpesvirus-1 ... virus exists in two biotypes, cytopathic (cp) and non-cytopathic (ncp), defined by their effect on cultured cells. Cp BVD virus ... Macrophages (Mφ) infected with cp, but not ncp, BVD virus release a factor(s) in the supernatant capable of priming uninfected ... First, supernatants of Mφ infected with cp BVD virus contained much less IFN than is required for priming for apoptosis. Second ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-and-bovine-prime-for-Perler-Schweizer/2b585ad5a841064adf19a36de3aad94198b158f7

Biosecurity aspects of cattle production in Western Uganda, and associations with seroprevalence of brucellosis, salmonellosis...Biosecurity aspects of cattle production in Western Uganda, and associations with seroprevalence of brucellosis, salmonellosis...

Infectious diseases threaten the health and production of cattle, affecting both the farmers and their families as well as ... Many infectious diseases can be prevented by good biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to describe herd management ... An additive bayesian network model with biosecurity variables and a variable for the number of diseases the herd was positive ... This model associated the smallest herd size with herds positive to a decreasing number of diseases and having fewer employees ...
more infohttps://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-017-1306-y

Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study.  - Surrey Research Insight...Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study. - Surrey Research Insight...

Animals, Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease, Cattle, Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral, Europe, Hemorrhage, Models, Biological ... Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first ... 2013) Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study. PLoS One, 8 (12). ... Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study. ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/827925/

DI-fusion Sequence-optimised E2 constructs from BVDV-1b and BVDV-2 for...DI-fusion Sequence-optimised E2 constructs from BVDV-1b and BVDV-2 for...

Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease -- immunology. Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease -- prevention & control. ... Point mutations in an infectious bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 cDNA transcript that yields an attenuated and protective ... Assessment of the clinical and virological protection provided by a commercial inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus ...
more infohttps://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/57064/Details

Critterology.com | Veterinary Pet Care Info & AdviceCritterology.com | Veterinary Pet Care Info & Advice

"Bovine Virus Diarrhea", "Mucosal Disease", or "Bovine Pestivirus Disease Complex". ... Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, or BVDV. Filed Under: Cows, Diseases. Did you know that "Bovine Viral Diarrhea" is actually an all ... two viral states of infection and five distinct clinical forms of acute disease are seen with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus ( ... adoption aggression breeds cancer contagious diseases dental diet heartworms plants poisoning ticks viruses more tags ...
more infohttp://www.critterology.com/?page=1§ion=horse%2FLhYlZ%2F

Livestock disease surveillance | Agriculture and FoodLivestock disease surveillance | Agriculture and Food

... such as mad cow disease and bluetongue virus. Fulfilling the requirements of these programs is essential to satisfy ... appropriate disease investigations. These investigations enable reportable diseases (those of national and trade significance) ... provides strategic disease surveillance and testing programs for nationally important diseases as required, ... As part of the livestock disease surveillance program DAFWA supports the Department of Health in notification and control of ...
more infohttps://www.agric.wa.gov.au/pests-weeds-diseases/diseases/livestock-health-diseases/livestock-disease-surveillance?f%5B0%5D=field_topics%253Aname%3AControl%20methods

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) | Critterology.comEquine Viral Arteritis (EVA) | Critterology.com

... viral disease that causes sporadic outbreaks of respiratory infection and abortion in horses. ... "Bovine Virus Diarrhea", "Mucosal Disease", or "Bovine Pestivirus Disease Complex". ... Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, or BVDV. Did you know that "Bovine Viral Diarrhea" is actually an all-inclusive term for a ... two viral states of infection and five distinct clinical forms of acute disease are seen with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus ( ...
more infohttps://www.critterology.com/articles/equine-viral-arteritis-eva

List of MeSH codes (C22) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (C22) - Wikipedia

... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C22.196.148 --- brucellosis, bovine MeSH C22.196.250 --- encephalopathy, bovine ... bovine MeSH C22.735.050 --- ape diseases MeSH C22.735.500 --- monkey diseases MeSH C22.735.500.500 --- marburg virus disease ... bovine MeSH C22.196.927 --- tuberculosis, bovine MeSH C22.196.963 --- white heifer disease MeSH C22.268.265 --- distemper MeSH ... bovine MeSH C22.196.429 --- infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C22.196.497 --- lumpy skin disease MeSH C22.196.540 --- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(C22)

Weight loss or illthriftWeight loss or illthrift

Other diseases with similar signs May resemble some forms of Bovine Virus Diarrhoea mucosal disease (caused by bovine ... Copy Link Bovine Johnes disease Bovine Johnes Disease. Bovine Johnes Disease (BJD) is a chronic, incurable disease of adult ... Virus normally found in sheep without causing clinical signs of disease.. Spread of the disease Most sheep are infected with ... very successful in eradicating the EBL virus from the Australian dairy herd.This virus is also known as Bovine Leukemia Virus ( ...
more infohttps://www.dairyaustralia.com.au/farm/animal-management/animal-health/weight-loss-or-illthrift?section=enzootic_bovine_leaucosis

Ovaritis - definition of ovaritis by The Free DictionaryOvaritis - definition of ovaritis by The Free Dictionary

Association of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease virus with ovaritis in cattle.. Deteccion inmunohistoquimica del antigeno ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/ovaritis

Vertical transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus) and spread to domestic cattle,...Vertical transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus) and spread to domestic cattle,...

"Vertical transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus) and spread to domestic cattle, ... Experimental production of fatal mucosal disease in cattle. Brownlie, J; Clarke, MC; Howard, CJ ... The prevalence of antibody to the viruses of bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1, rift valley fever, ephemeral fever ... Distribution of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in tissues and white blood cells of cattle during acute infection ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/vertical-transmission-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-bvdv-in-4Rh9oEGZ60

Hilbe, M<...Hilbe, M<...

Apoptosis in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)- Induced mucosal disease lesions: A histological, immunohistological, and ... persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 39(1):124-127. ... Mucosal lesions in a sheep infected with the Border Disease Virus (BDV). Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 151(8):391-396. ... Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats. ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/view/authors_for_linking_in_citation/Hilbe=3AM=3A=3A.html

List of MeSH codes (C02) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (C02) - Wikipedia

... border disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.106 --- bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 --- classical swine ... kyasanur forest disease MeSH C02.782.417.505 --- lassa fever MeSH C02.782.417.560 --- marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782. ... infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C02.256.466.606 --- malignant catarrh MeSH C02.256.466.650 --- marek disease MeSH ... marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782.580.600 --- paramyxoviridae infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080 --- avulavirus infections ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(C02)

Dairy cattle | Agriculture and FoodDairy cattle | Agriculture and Food

Bovine pestivirus or bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and mucosal disease in cattle. ... Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in cattle is a complex disease that is caused by bovine pestivirus. ... Pests, weeds & diseases (22) Apply Pests, weeds & diseases filter *Livestock health & diseases (22) Apply Livestock health & ... Emergency Animal Diseases: 1800 675 888 Exotic Plant Pest Hotline: 1800 084 881 Pest and Disease Information Service (PaDIS):. ...
more infohttps://www.agric.wa.gov.au/livestock-animals/livestock-species/dairy-cattle?f%5B0%5D=field_topics%253Aname%3ABiosecurity%20%26%20quarantine&f%5B1%5D=field_topics%253Aname%3ADiseases

Hoof and Mouth Disease  - Dairy CattleHoof and Mouth Disease - Dairy Cattle

... bovine virus diarrhea/mucosal disease complex, mycotic stomatitis, and rinderpest.. *Swine -Vesicular stomatitis and swine ... Hoof and Mouth Disease (HMD) is an acute infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The name Foot and Mouth Disease is a ... The virus probably entered Britain in food products but it is unknown where these products originated. The disease first ... The virus can also cause degeneration of heart muscle, which may result in sudden death of the host. The virus can be found in ...
more infohttp://livestocktrail.illinois.edu/dairynet/paperDisplay.cfm?ContentID=603

Investigation of a dual fetal infection model with bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV)-1 and BVDV-2, Archives of Virology |...Investigation of a dual fetal infection model with bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV)-1 and BVDV-2, Archives of Virology |...

"Investigation of a dual fetal infection model with bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV)-1 and BVDV-2, Archives of Virology" on ... Pathogenesis of bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease: distribution and significance of BVDV antigen in diseased calves ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1- and type 2-specific bovine T lymphocyte-subset responses following modified-live virus ... The effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on cattle reproduction in relation to disease control ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/investigation-of-a-dual-fetal-infection-model-with-bovine-viral-jtggqD92Vf
  • Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Calf scours' is when young calves develop diarrhoea and become dehydrated. (wa.gov.au)
  • Satoda K. Congenital abnormalities in The spine showed no sign of scoliosis, the same is true for the new virus, the newborn calves after inoculation of preg- and movement of the limb joints was above calf was probably infected during nant cows with Akabane virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), an enveloped virus with a positive-sense RNA genome in the Coronaviridae family, has been studied widely as a model of viral pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • MHV-A59 and MHV-JHM both replicate in the central nervous systems (CNS) of susceptible mice, yet these viruses differ markedly in pathogenesis ( 18 , 34 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Much circumstantial evidence shows that the persistently infected animals, referred to as carriers, can transmit virus to other animals and thereby cause new outbreaks of disease, but such transmission has not been shown under controlled laboratory conditions. (illinois.edu)
  • Virus in Calf Born PCR detected the genomic RNA of the from mild to severe depression. (cdc.gov)
  • Distribution of Borna disease virus antigen and RNA in tissues of naturally infected bicolored white-toothed shrews, Crocidura leucodon, supporting their role as reservoir host species. (uzh.ch)
  • Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). (scielo.org.za)
  • Serum samples are taken 3 to 4 weeks apart from an individual horse to measure their antibody levels to the virus. (critterology.com)
  • Up to 70% of stallions will become persistent carriers of the virus without exhibiting any overt clinical signs of disease. (critterology.com)
  • However, endemic infections with less dramatic clinical manifestations, such as reproductive disturbances, diarrhoea, or poor growth, may be part of what farmers perceive as "normal" and not as something possible and/or worthwhile to control, despite negative effects on income and food security. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical signs of disease include: anorexia (lack of appetite), conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva surrounding the eyes), petechial or small hemorrhages on the mucous membranes, and dependent ventral edema of the limbs, mammary glands, prepuce scrotum, and ventral body wall. (critterology.com)
  • Horses that are acutely infected will typically shed the virus in nasal secretions for up to sixteen days following the onset of clinical signs. (critterology.com)
  • Virus normally found in sheep without causing clinical signs of disease. (dairyaustralia.com.au)
  • Cerebrovascular disease: Clinical and histopathological findings in 16 cats. (uzh.ch)
  • mesenteric lymph node, liver, of Schmallenberg (51°842N, 8°17 ac.be spleen, kidney, and striated muscle), 18E), 2 months before the emergence and 3 independent real-time PCR of the clinical syndrome that led to the protocols were conducted to detect identifi cation of the new virus. (cdc.gov)
  • The MHV-JHM strain of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus is much more neurovirulent than the MHV-A59 strain, although both strains use murine CEACAM1a (mCEACAM1a) as the receptor to infect murine cells. (asm.org)
  • Although Ceacam1a −/− mice were completely resistant to i.c. inoculation with 10 6 PFU of recombinant wild-type MHV-A59 (RA59) virus, these mice were killed by recombinant MHV-JHM (RJHM) and a chimeric virus containing the spike of MHV-JHM in the MHV-A59 genome (SJHM/RA59). (asm.org)
  • Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The virus sequence in 247 nucleotides in the 5′-UTR was 100% identical in mousedeer and calf. (deepdyve.com)
  • An additive bayesian network model with biosecurity variables and a variable for the number of diseases the herd was positive to resulted in three separate directed acyclic graphs which illustrate how herd characteristics can be grouped together. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This model associated the smallest herd size with herds positive to a decreasing number of diseases and having fewer employees. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease has been contained to sporadic outbreaks in Asia despite its endemic status, until last year when it caused Japan's first outbreak in 90 years and South Korea's first in 60 years. (illinois.edu)
  • The disease is named after Norwalk, Ohio where an outbreak occurred in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak was attributed to a Norwalk-like virus (norovirus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Virological and pathological findings in Bluetongue virus serotype 8 infected sheep. (uzh.ch)
  • Hepatitis G virus encodes protease activities which can effect processing of the virus putative nonstructural proteins. (ictvonline.org)
  • The Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia (DAFWA) provides strategic disease surveillance and testing programs for nationally important diseases as required, such as mad cow disease and bluetongue virus. (wa.gov.au)
  • The adherent monocytes were isolated from PBMCs and differentiated into Mo-DC using bovine recombinant interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The name 'Foot and Mouth Disease' is a misnomer since the animals this disease affects technically do not have 'feet. (illinois.edu)
  • The disease is enzootic in many areas of the world, including most of Asia, Africa, and South America. (illinois.edu)
  • In enzootic areas, the incidence of disease ranges from sporadic to more or less continuous and appears to be related to the efficacy of available vaccines and the proportion of the susceptible animal population immunized. (illinois.edu)
  • These investigations enable reportable diseases (those of national and trade significance) to be ruled out, or if detected, promote early and rigorous response in line with national agreements. (wa.gov.au)
  • Many biosecurity measures are not disease-specific, e.g. to keep animals separated from other herds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. (biomedcentral.com)