A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.
A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.
A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.
Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.
Chronic endemic respiratory disease of dairy calves and an important component of bovine respiratory disease complex. It primarily affects calves up to six months of age and the etiology is multifactorial. Stress plus a primary viral infection is followed by a secondary bacterial infection. The latter is most commonly associated with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA producing a purulent BRONCHOPNEUMONIA. Sometimes present are MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS and mycoplasma species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.
A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS, subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, most often seen in conjunction with a secondary infection of MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA resulting in pneumonic pasteurellosis (PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC).
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.

Javelin diagrams: applications in veterinary medical decision analysis. (1/41)

This paper introduces javelin diagrams as an innovative way for depicting the results of medical decision analyses. The methods were used to determine whether, and at which values, blood lactate in Belgian White and Blue or maximum tidal volumes in Holstein calves should be measured before deciding to treat or not a calf suffering from the bovine respiratory disease complex. The different alternatives depended upon the probabilities of survival with and without treatment and upon the costs associated with a possible death, the test and the treatment. The chosen alternative was the one with the lowest expected costs. From data collected on the treated calves, the expected costs of measuring lactate (198.01 euro) and tidal volumes (27.38 euro) before deciding to treat or not were lower than the expected costs of directly treating sick Belgian Blue (215.39 euro) and Holstein (51.55 euro) calves, respectively. The treatment should be applied to sick Belgian Blue calves with blood lactate < or = 7.8 mmol/L and to Holstein calves with a maximum tidal volume > or = 1.81 L. At such test values, the treatment expected costs were lower than the expected costs associated with no treatment of calves with other test values. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showing benefits in treating animals with a positive test (over not treating the animals with a negative test) were mostly invariant to changes in any cost value but were sensitive to uncertainties in probabilities of survival with or without treatment. The javelin diagrams provided a clear visual indication of such results. They depicted how and by how much the benefits were affected by uncertainties in probabilities, they proposed different information values associated with the chosen alternative, and identified directions for further research.  (+info)

Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves. (2/41)

The objective of this study was to characterize genetic and environmental factors influencing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle. Records from nine purebred and three composite breeds and a variety of F1 and three-way crosses, including the progeny of 12 additional different sire breeds produced over a 20-yr period (1983 to 2002), were evaluated for breed and heterozygosity effects on the observed incidence of BRD. Heterozygosity fractions for calves and dams were defined by generalized breed origins: British, Continental, and tropically adapted. Variance components were estimated for each pure and composite breed, and across all breeds and crossbreeds. The effect of incidence of observed BRD was determined by comparing groups of low and high years of incidence. Respiratory disease in this herd followed a standard epidemiological pattern of initial introduction, reaching an epidemic stage at 70 to 170 d of age, followed by a period of rapid decrease to weaning. Estimates of heritability of incidence of BRD were low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.26, with overall estimates of 0.07 and 0.19 depending on the data set analyzed. The highest incidence of BRD in preweaned calves occurred in the Braunvieh breed (18.8%). The genetic correlation between the direct and maternal genetic effects was generally large and negative, suggesting dams genetically superior for resisting BRD raise calves that are more susceptible. Perhaps maternally superior dams provide passive immunity to their calves, which delays the development of the calves' direct immune system, making them more prone to BRD during the preweaning period. Heterozygosity of calves decreased the incidence of BRD compared with purebred cattle. Calves that were Continental x British or tropically adapted x British breeds had a lower incidence of BRD than did calves of British x British breeds. As the annual incidence of BRD increased, there was an associated increase in the heritability estimate. The estimated heritability based on an underlying continuous scale was large (h2 = 0.48), inferring response to selection for BRD resistance could be large if the phenotype for BRD resistance was known.  (+info)

Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots. (3/41)

This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.  (+info)

Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations with growth, carcass, and longissimus muscle palatability traits. (4/41)

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly feedlot disease in the United States. Selection for disease resistance is one of several possible interventions to prevent or reduce the economic loss associated with animal disease and to improve animal welfare. Undesirable genetic relationships, however, may exist between production and disease resistance traits. The objectives of this study were to estimate the phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations of BRD with growth, carcass, and LM palatability traits. Health records on 18,112 feedlot cattle over a 15-yr period and slaughter data on 1,627 steers over a 4-yr period were analyzed with bivariate animal models. Traits included ADG, adjusted carcass fat thickness at the 12th rib, marbling score, LM area, weight of retail cuts, weight of fat trim, bone weight, Warner-Bratzler shear force, tenderness score, and juiciness score. The estimated heritability of BRD incidence was 0.08 +/- 0.01. Phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations of the observed traits with BRD ranged from -0.35 to 0.40, -0.36 to 0.55, and -0.42 to 0.20, respectively. Most correlations were low or negligible. The percentage of carcass bone had moderate genetic, phenotypic, and environmental correlations with BRD (-0.42, -0.35, and -0.36, respectively). Hot carcass weight and weight of retail cuts had moderate, undesirable phenotypic correlations with BRD (0.37 and 0.40, respectively). Correlations of BRD with LM palatability and ADG were not detected. Low or near zero estimates of genetic correlations infer that selection to reduce BRD in feedlot cattle would have negligible correlated responses on growth, carcass, and meat palatability traits or that selection for those traits will have little effect on BRD susceptibility or resistance.  (+info)

Source of dietary lipid may modify the immune response in stressed feeder cattle. (5/41)


A comparison of 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease. (6/41)

The aim of this study was to compare 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (UF)/bovine respiratory disease (BRD). At feedlot arrival, 3882 calves were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to 2 groups, which were housed by group in 12 pens. At the time of allocation, 1 group (MLV3-BT2) received a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) and types I and II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), as well as a Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) and Pasteurella multocida bacterin-toxoid. The other group (MLV4-BT1) received a vaccine containing IIBRV, type I BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus, as well as a MH bacterin-toxoid. At an average of 69 days post arrival, the groups received their respective viral vaccines. The initial UF treatment, overall chronicity, overall wastage, overall mortality, and BRD mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the MLV3-BT2 group than in the MLV4-BT1 group. Average daily gain and the proportions of yield grade Canada 3 and quality grade E carcasses were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the MLV3-BT2 group than in the MLV4-BT1 group. No significant (P > or = 0.05) difference in the dry matter intake to gain ratio was detected between the 2 groups. In economic terms, there was a net advantage of $20.86 CDN/animal in the MLV3-BT2 group. This study demonstrates that it is more cost effective to use an MLV3-BT2 vaccination program than a MLV4-BT1 vaccination program in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing UF/BRD.  (+info)

Microbiological and histopathological findings in cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease of feedlot cattle in Western Canada. (7/41)

The aim of this study was to describe the microbiologic agents and pathologic processes in fatal bovine respiratory disease (BRD) of feedlot cattle and to investigate associations between agents and pathologic processes. Ninety feedlot calves diagnosed at necropsy with BRD and 9 control calves without BRD were examined, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and histopathologic studies. Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) (peracute, acute, and subacute cases) and Mycoplasma bovis (MB) (subacute, bronchiolar, and chronic cases) were the most common agents identified in fatal BRD cases. Significant associations (P < 0.10) were detected between microbiologic agents and between agents and pathologic processes. When IHC staining was used, 25/26 (96%) of animals that were positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were also positive for MH; 12/15 (80 %) of animals that were positive for Histophilus somni (HS) were also positive for MB; and all of the animals that were positive for HS were negative for MH and BVDV. This quantitative pathological study demonstrates that several etiologic agents and pathologic processes are involved in fatal BRD of feedlot cattle.  (+info)

Effects of commingling beef calves from different sources and weaning protocols during a forty-two-day receiving period on performance and bovine respiratory disease. (8/41)


Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), also known as "Shipping Fever" or "Pneumonic Complex," is a significant respiratory disease in cattle, particularly affecting feedlot calves and animals undergoing transportation or commingling. It is a multifactorial disease, meaning that it results from the interaction of several factors, including:

1. Infectious agents: Viruses (such as bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine viral diarrhea virus) and bacteria (like Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis).
2. Environmental factors: Poor ventilation, dust, ammonia, and other air quality issues in confined spaces can contribute to the development of BRDC.
3. Stressors: Weaning, transportation, commingling, castration, and other management practices can cause stress and weaken the animal's immune system, making them more susceptible to BRDC.
4. Host factors: Age, genetics, nutritional status, and existing health conditions may also play a role in an animal's vulnerability to BRDC.

The clinical signs of BRDC can vary but often include coughing, nasal discharge, difficulty breathing, fever, lethargy, and reduced appetite. In severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia and even death. Prevention strategies typically involve vaccination programs, management practices that minimize stress, maintaining good air quality, and prompt treatment of sick animals.

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found as part of the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract of cattle and other ruminants. However, under certain conditions such as stress, viral infection, or sudden changes in temperature or humidity, the bacteria can multiply rapidly and cause a severe respiratory disease known as shipping fever or pneumonic pasteurellosis.

The bacterium is named "haemolytica" because it produces a toxin that causes hemolysis, or the breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the characteristic clear zones around colonies grown on blood agar plates. The bacteria can also cause other symptoms such as fever, coughing, difficulty breathing, and depression.

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a significant pathogen in the cattle industry, causing substantial economic losses due to mortality, reduced growth rates, and decreased milk production. Prevention and control measures include good management practices, vaccination, and prompt treatment of infected animals with antibiotics.

"Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" is a type of bacteria that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as Enzootic Pneumonia. It is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in pigs and can lead to reduced growth rates, decreased feed conversion efficiency, and increased mortality in infected herds.

The bacteria lack a cell wall, which makes them resistant to many antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They are also highly infectious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites such as feed, water, and equipment. Infection with "Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" can lead to the development of lesions in the lungs, which can make the animal more susceptible to secondary bacterial and viral infections.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as serology, PCR, or culture, and sometimes histopathological examination of lung tissue. Control measures may include antibiotic treatment, vaccination, biosecurity measures, and herd management practices aimed at reducing the spread of the bacteria within and between pig populations.

Sulfadimethoxine is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic antibacterial drug that contains the sulfanilamide nucleus and is used to treat various bacterial infections in both humans and animals. In human medicine, it is used to treat urinary tract infections, bronchitis, and traveler's diarrhea. In veterinary medicine, it is commonly used to treat coccidiosis in animals such as poultry, cattle, and pets.

The drug works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid, which is essential for bacterial growth. It is usually administered orally and is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powder for suspension. As with any medication, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure its safe and effective use.

Medical Definition:

Mycoplasmal Pneumonia of Swine, also known as Enzootic Pneumonia, is a respiratory disease in pigs caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. It primarily affects the lungs and is characterized by coughing, difficulty breathing, and reduced growth rates in affected animals. The disease is called "enzootic" because it is widespread among swine populations in many parts of the world.

The bacteria responsible for this condition are highly contagious and can spread rapidly among pigs through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated surfaces. Infection can also occur through aerosolized droplets expelled by coughing pigs. The disease is often associated with other respiratory pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis, which can exacerbate the severity of the symptoms.

Mycoplasmal Pneumonia of Swine is a significant economic concern for the swine industry due to its impact on growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, and increased mortality. Control measures typically involve a combination of management practices, vaccination, and biosecurity protocols to minimize the spread of the disease within herds.

Pasteurellaceae infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae. This family includes several genera of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, with the most common pathogenic genus being Pasteurella. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including pets like cats and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated fluids.

Pasteurellaceae infections can cause a range of clinical manifestations, depending on the specific species involved and the site of infection. Common Pasteurella species that cause human infections include P. multocida and P. pneumotropica. Infections caused by these bacteria often present as localized skin or soft tissue infections, such as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections, following animal contact.

In addition to skin and soft tissue infections, Pasteurellaceae can also cause respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, bronchitis), septicemia, and, rarely, meningitis or endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals, those with chronic lung disease, or those who have alcohol use disorder are at increased risk for severe Pasteurellaceae infections.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, doxycycline, or fluoroquinolones. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent potential complications and the spread of infection.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

"Mycoplasma bovis" is a species of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are characterized by their small size. They can cause various diseases in cattle, including pneumonia, mastitis (inflammation of the mammary gland), arthritis, and otitis (inflammation of the ear). The bacteria can be transmitted through direct contact between animals, contaminated milk, and aerosols. Infection with Mycoplasma bovis can result in decreased productivity and increased mortality in affected herds, making it a significant concern for the cattle industry. Diagnosis is often made through culture or PCR-based tests, and treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, although resistance to certain antibiotics has been reported. Prevention strategies include biosecurity measures such as testing and culling infected animals, as well as good hygiene practices to limit the spread of the bacteria.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

Enzootic pneumonia of calves, also known as shipping fever or calf pneumonia, is a respiratory disease caused by a complex of viral and bacterial pathogens. It primarily affects young calves that are under stress, such as those that have been recently weaned, transported, or mixed with other groups of calves. The primary viral pathogens involved in enzootic pneumonia include bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus 3 (PI-3), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). These viruses damage the lining of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to bacterial infections.

The most common bacterial pathogens involved in enzootic pneumonia are Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Other bacteria such as Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis can also contribute to the disease. These bacteria colonize the damaged respiratory tract and cause a severe, often fatal, bronchopneumonia.

Clinical signs of enzootic pneumonia include coughing, nasal discharge, fever, difficulty breathing, and decreased appetite. In severe cases, it can lead to death. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to control bacterial infections, as well as supportive care such as fluid therapy and anti-inflammatory drugs. Prevention measures include good nutrition, reducing stress, vaccination against viral pathogens, and management practices that reduce the spread of disease.

"Pasteurella multocida" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the respiratory tract of many animals, including birds, dogs, and cats. It can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with animals or animal bites or scratches. The bacterium is named after Louis Pasteur, who developed a vaccine against it in the late 19th century.

Carbofuran is a highly toxic systemic pesticide that belongs to the carbamate family. It is used primarily to control insects in soil before planting and on crops after emergence. Carbofuran works by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and results in overstimulation of the nervous system in insects, ultimately causing their death.

In humans, exposure to carbofuran can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Carbofuran is classified as a Category I toxic pesticide by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States, indicating that it is highly hazardous.

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental harm, carbofuran has been banned or restricted in many countries around the world. In the United States, the use of carbofuran on food crops was phased out in 2009, and its registration for most uses was canceled in 2010. However, it is still used in some parts of the world for non-food crop applications.

Tylosin is defined as a macrolide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae. It is primarily used in veterinary medicine to treat various bacterial infections in animals, such as respiratory and digestive tract infections caused by susceptible organisms.

Tylosin works by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and thereby preventing bacterial growth. It has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, tylosin is not commonly used in human medicine due to its potential for causing hearing damage and other side effects.

In addition to its use as an antibiotic, tylosin has also been used as a growth promoter in animal feed to improve feed efficiency and weight gain. However, this practice has been banned in some countries due to concerns about the development of antibiotic resistance and the potential risks to human health.

Thiamphenicol is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of medications called amphenicols. It works by preventing the growth of bacteria. Thiamphenicol is used to treat various infections caused by bacteria. This medication may also be used to prevent bacterial endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves) in people having certain dental or surgical procedures.

Please note that this definition is for informational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any questions about your medication, always consult with your healthcare provider.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pest control" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pest control refers to the regulation or management of species considered to be pests, which can include insects, rodents, and other organisms that can cause damage to crops, transmit diseases, or otherwise negatively impact human activities.

In a medical context, you might be looking for information on "pesticide exposure" or "insect-borne diseases." Pesticide exposure refers to the contact with pesticides, which are substances used to control pests. These exposures can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact and may lead to a variety of health effects depending on the type and amount of pesticide involved. Insect-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted to humans through the bite of infected insects, such as mosquitoes, ticks, or fleas. Examples include malaria, Lyme disease, and Zika virus infection.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine (PIV-3, Bovine) is a species-specific virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It primarily infects cattle and is one of the major causes of respiratory illness in young calves, known as bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated fomites and mainly affects the upper and lower respiratory tract.

The Bovine Parainfluenza Virus 3 has a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome that encodes for several structural and non-structural proteins. The viral envelope contains two glycoprotein spikes: the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and the fusion (F) protein. These proteins play crucial roles in the attachment, fusion, and entry of the virus into the host cell.

Clinical signs of Bovine Parainfluenza Virus 3 infection include coughing, nasal discharge, fever, difficulty breathing, and reduced appetite. In severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia, which may result in significant economic losses for the cattle industry. Although vaccines are available to control the spread of this virus, they might not always prevent infection or transmission but can help reduce the severity of clinical signs and minimize the impact on animal health and productivity.

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects cattle and other animals such as yaks, deer, and occasionally humans. It is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae.

BCoV primarily causes respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle, resulting in symptoms such as pneumonia, coughing, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated food, water, or fomites.

In humans, BCoV infection is rare but has been associated with respiratory illnesses in people working closely with cattle, such as farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The symptoms of human BCoV infection are similar to those caused by other coronaviruses, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

Prevention measures for BCoV include good hygiene practices, wearing personal protective equipment when working with cattle, and vaccination of animals against the virus. There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for human BCoV infection.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), bovine refers to a species-specific strain of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus that primarily infects cattle. It is a member of the Pneumoviridae family and Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is closely related to human RSV, and it can cause respiratory infections in young calves, leading to symptoms such as nasal discharge, coughing, difficulty breathing, and pneumonia.

Bovine RSV shares many similarities with its human counterpart, including the ability to form syncytia (multinucleated giant cells) in infected tissues. However, bovine RSV is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans. It is primarily studied as a model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of RSV infections in general.

  • Viral agents include Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and Parainfluenza type-3 virus (PI-3). (wikipedia.org)
  • For this purpose, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of two metaphylactic protocols on the morbidity of feedlot cattle with a known sanitary history, occurrence of pulmonary lesions at slaughter, and the possible participation of Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) in the development of BRD. (scielo.br)
  • Examples of compromised defense mechanisms include, damage to the cells lining the upper respiratory tract by viruses such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), parainfluenza virus (PI-3), or bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). (thecattlesite.com)
  • Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) was first discovered in the 1970s and is now considered a principal pathogen implicated in the disease complex. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Additionally, we obtained the complete or near-complete genome of bovine rhinitis B, enterovirus E1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (sub-genotypes 1a and 1c) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and partial sequences of other viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 is the bacterial pathogen most frequently isolated from the lungs of recently weaned feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and in dairy, beef or veal calves with enzootic pneumonia. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • This organism may opportunistically colonize lungs with chronically damaged respiratory defenses, such as occurs with enzootic calf pneumonia or existing lung lesions of feedlot cattle, and cause a purulent bronchopneumonia. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • It is a complex, bacterial or viral infection that causes pneumonia in calves which can be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pneumonia (non-human) Pasteurellosis The name "shipping fever" is also sometimes used for related diseases affecting livestock including sheep, goats, and horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is suggestive of subacute bronchointerstitial pneumonia typically associated with multifactorial aetiology of bovine respiratory disease complex in young cattle. (flockandherd.net.au)
  • Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), also referred to as pneumonia or shipping fever, is the leading natural cause of death in U.S. beef and dairy cattle, causing the annual loss of more than one million animals and financial losses in excess of 1 billion dollars per year. (extension.org)
  • Decreasing the incidence of bovine pneumonia is much-needed given increasing concerns about food animal welfare and the use of therapeutic treatments. (extension.org)
  • Respiratory tract infections (pneumonia) due to these two bacteria occur when the organism is inhaled. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Pasteurella haemolytica (Ph) is the most important cause of the bovine acute fibrinohemorrhagic pneumonia that occurs in market stressed calves following shipment to feedyards. (usda.gov)
  • Aspiration pneumonia is a lung disease characterized by inflammation and necrosis due to inhalation of foreign material. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • A weakened immune system and stress also cause BRDC, which explains why it's also called "Shipping fever" because most animals catch this type of bovine pneumonia shortly after stressful transportation. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Approximately 1 million adults in the United States are hospitalized each year for pneumonia and 50,000 die from the disease. (pneumoniaprotalk.com)
  • Contains tylosin which is an antibiotic that treats certain diseases in cattle and swine including bovine respiratory complex such as shipping fever and pneumonia. (homelabvet.com)
  • The purchase of young, stressed cattle from saleyards that have been mixed from a number of other properties, then introduced into a feedlot situation is a very risky process that at some point is bound to introduce diseases, including the possibility of exotic diseases. (flockandherd.net.au)
  • Although all topics are important, this proceeding will review data on the infectious disease of feedlot cattle, briefly review antibiotics and vaccination considerations. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) continues to be the most significant and challenging feedlot health problem throughout North America. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease complex associated mortality and morbidity rates in feedlot cattle from southeastern Brazil. (openai.com)
  • While the severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) varies, it can account for up to 70% of the mortality observed in intensive beef production systems (i.e., feedlot cattle) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BRDC appears to be initiated by environmental stress combined with infections in the upper respiratory tract (URT), with resultant inflammation then allowing for the development of secondary infections in the lower respiratory tract (LRT). (moredun.org.uk)
  • Under normal conditions, M haemolytica remains confined to the upper respiratory tract, in particular the tonsillar crypts, and is difficult to culture from healthy cattle. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • After stress or viral infection, the replication rate of M haemolytica in the upper respiratory tract increases rapidly, as does the likelihood of culturing the bacterium. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The increased bacterial growth rate in the upper respiratory tract, followed by inhalation and colonization of the lungs, may occur because of suppression of the host's defense mechanism related to environmental stressors or viral infections. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • These two bacteria are considered as part of the normal bacterial flora found in the upper respiratory tract of most cattle but are not considered as normal flora of the lungs. (thecattlesite.com)
  • As long as these two organisms only inhabit the pharynx or upper respiratory tract, clinical respiratory disease, or BRD associated with them is uncommon. (thecattlesite.com)
  • The cause of respiratory disease is multifactoral and complex, but often includes the combination of stressors and exposure to infectious pathogens that compromise immunity and natural defense mechanism that allow for commensal "normal" bacteria of the nose and upper respiratory tract to reach the lung causing disease. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Mannheimia hemolytica, formally known as Pasteurella haemolytica, is a normal commensal of the upper respiratory tract of healthy cattle. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Once in the host organism, the virus starts its replication in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract, where it produces morphological and functional alterations in the mucociliary apparatus. (ivami.com)
  • The severity of the disease depends upon the pathogenicity of the bacterial organism(s) and the associated infections (IBR, PI-3, BVD, and BRSV, other viruses or bacteria). (thecattlesite.com)
  • M. haemolytica serovar A1 is known as a particularly common bacterial cause of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with either Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida is often due to secondary bacterial invasion by these organisms. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Two bacteria, Mannheimia haemolytica (f Pasteurella haemolytica) and Pasteurella multocida , are often associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) or shipping fever in cattle and are often referred to as secondary bacterial invaders. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Mannheimia haemolytica , the bacteria most frequently isolated from pneumonic lungs in cattle, and Pasteurella multocida often compound respiratory disease initiated by other pathogens (viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma). (thecattlesite.com)
  • The main bacteria involved in this disease is Pasteurella haemolytica and its mechanisms of producing disease is not well lunderstood. (usda.gov)
  • Pasteurella haemolytica ability to produce the neuraminidase enzyme while infecting stressed calves may be important in the bacterias ability to increase rapidly in the respiratory tract and induce disease. (usda.gov)
  • Mannheimia haemolytica is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. (pacb.com)
  • M. haemolytica is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. (pacb.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) affects beef and dairy herds worldwide causing significant welfare and economic impact. (moredun.org.uk)
  • However, BRDC is also underdiagnosed, potentially by as much as 50%, suggesting that the impact of the disease could be much higher. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Complex diseases such as BRDC involve the influence of many genes and are by definition hard to predict. (extension.org)
  • The SNP assays are finding genomic regions associated with BRDC susceptibility, suggesting that genetic progress in these traits could be made by including the specific SNP markers that are indicators of BRDC disease risk in national cattle genetic evaluations. (extension.org)
  • family Orthomyxoviridae ) is one of the possible bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) causative agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen in BRDC, but has a complex role, debated significance, and will not be covered. (thebeefsite.com)
  • BRDC or bovine respiratory disease complex is a respiratory system infection common in young weaning cattle that is caused by several factors such as bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • BRDC will cause cattle to lose appetite, have a runny nose, develop a fever, and experience respiratory discomfort. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • You can treat BRDC using anti-inflammatory and prescription injectable antibiotics with the help of local veterinarians because the disease may have different resistance levels in different areas. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Betacoronaviruses contain a diverse range of viruses, including the recently-emerged Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV2 (the causeof COVID-19), as well as the original SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from 2012 (MERS-CoV). (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a completely distinct member of this group and believed to form part of the Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease (CIRD, or 'kennel cough') complex. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Other important members of the betacoronavirus group include mouse hepatitus virus (MHV) which is used in many experimental models of coronavirus biology, as well as human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43, bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and equine coronavirus (ECV), which are associated with respiratory (HCoV) or enteric (BCoV, ECV) infections in their target species. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • While there is a vaccine for use in cattle with bovine coronavirus, the components are not related to the virus currently affecting humans. (msstate.edu)
  • Bovine coronavirus infections have been known for many years to cause disease in cattle," he said. (msstate.edu)
  • Bovine coronavirus is not transmissible to people. (msstate.edu)
  • For the most current information on COVID-19, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html . (msstate.edu)
  • A canine respiratory coronavirus and a canine enteric coronavirus do exist and may cause illness in pets, but they are not related to the current human coronavirus infections. (richtondispatch.com)
  • A high abundance of bovine nidovirus, influenza D, bovine rhinitis A and bovine coronavirus was found in the samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease is considered a complex because many different viral and bacterial pathogens are known to be involved in causing disease symptoms. (extension.org)
  • The viral envelope glycoprotein D from bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and -5), two important pathogens of cattle, is a major component of the virion and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of herpesviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under the framework of the UNSGM, we organized an external quality assurance exercise for nominated laboratories, named the Disease X Test, to improve the ability to discover and identify new pathogens that may cause possible epidemics and to determine their animal origin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although several pathogens have been isolated and extensively studied, the complete infectome of the respiratory complex consists of a more extensive range unrecognised species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease has a complex aetiology that includes a combination of stressors, individual host factors and a varying number of pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While some viruses and bacteria have been widely studied and are known to be an important component of the respiratory complex, novel, emerging or unrecognised pathogens are not easily detected because they are not routinely considered in the differential diagnosis or laboratory diagnostic assays are not available. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) complex is a multifactorial entity, since there is interaction between stress factors and the susceptibility of the host to viral and bacterial agents ( DEDONDER & APLEY, 2015 DEDONDER, K.D. (scielo.br)
  • BRD complex is multifactorial," said Tarpoff. (redangus.org)
  • In the absence of vaccination (often because calves are bought unvaccinated), antibiotics can help to stop the bacterial factors of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • These calves ranged from 8 weeks to 5 months of age and initial signs observed were cattle showing respiratory signs, illness and then death. (flockandherd.net.au)
  • Purchasing of calves from a saleyard is a risky process in terms of biosecurity and introduction of new diseases to your property. (flockandherd.net.au)
  • Such challenges, including mixing procedures and transportation of calves to the veal farm, may have a negative influence on growth rate, feed intake, metabolism, immunity and disease susceptibility of calves. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some of these response variables might be useful as biomarkers of performance of calves at the veal farm as they might provide information about an ongoing disease process, or may predict future diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Calves may develop diseases, among which respiratory diseases (e.g., bovine respiratory diseases, BRD) and enteric diseases are most frequently observed ( 10 - 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Respiratory diseases are common health disorders in veal calves, which have a severe impact on both animal welfare and the income of producers, because they are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality ( 13 , 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CalfSpan Tablets are recommended for the treatment of infectious diseases of calves in which the causative organism is susceptible to sulfamethazine. (drugs.com)
  • At the feedyard, 73 calves had respiratory tract disease. (usda.gov)
  • This project is designed to investigate an innovative remotely delivered needle-less controlled release implant to provide antimicrobial (ceftiofur) therapy to calves with bovine respiratory disease complex. (sbir.gov)
  • Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically important (an economic impact of $624 million in 1992) infectious disease of calves in North American feedlots. (sbir.gov)
  • Globally, Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) remains the principal reason for mortality of calves over one month of age despite the availability of various vaccines on the UK market. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Cryptosporidium is one of the causative parasitic agents that causes gastrointestinal diseases in calves. (bvsalud.org)
  • Secondary bacterial invasions are infections caused by bacteria that invade tissue after an initiating event, such as a previous viral infection, which has established conditions that allow these secondary bacteria to invade tissue and cause disease. (thecattlesite.com)
  • This disease is induced by a complex of stress, viral, and bacterial infections. (usda.gov)
  • causes bacterial meningitis, fulminating septicaemia, pulmonary and ophthalmic infections, chronic synovitis (joint pain/inflammation), skin diseases, wound infections and postoperative urinary tract infections. (microgeninc.com)
  • causes severe respiratory infections in the immunocompromised. (microgeninc.com)
  • This virus produces bovine infections, in which it causes a highly contagious disease called bovine parainfluenza 3 (BPI3). (ivami.com)
  • Some specific indications are: respiratory infections such as pasteurellosis, bronchopneumonia, bovine respiratory disease complex. (com.vn)
  • The respiratory defense mechanism could also be depressed due to immunosuppression associated with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus is of special interest due to its impact on the cattle industry, involvement in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex and several unique virological features. (debategraph.org)
  • Clinical signs of infection usually involve calf diarrhea, adult dysentery or respiratory disease as part of the shipping fever complex. (msstate.edu)
  • Undetected, these could lead to diarrhea, loss of body weight and infected meat, but fortunately, most diseases aren't fatal for cows. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • From bovine viral diarrhea and mucosal disease to bloat, here are five common diseases in cattle that you must watch for in your new herd to ensure optimal animal health and eliminate production losses. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Bovine viral diarrhea or BVD is a common cattle disease caused by the notorious bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Because of the number of possible viral/bacterial precursors to BRD, there are a number of treatment options circling around the three main aggravators of the disease: Viruses, Bacteria, and Stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex is associated with a number of viruses with secondary bacterial involvement. (flockandherd.net.au)
  • The bovine respiratory 'virome' (all viruses in the cow's upper and lower respiratory tract) will be characterized, especially the normal changes that will occur during the cow's live, following vaccination, antimicrobial treatment and when a cow gets sick. (debategraph.org)
  • Gammacoronaviruses mainly consist of avian respiratory viruses, the most notable of which is infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a disease seen mainly in poultry production. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Importantly, not only did these studies identify previously unrecognised viral species, but they also consistently observed an abundance of viruses not part of the regular veterinary diagnostic laboratory detection range, including influenza D virus (IDV), bovine rhinitis viruses A and B (BRAV and BRBV), parvoviruses and bovine herpesviruses other than bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of bovine vaccines against respiratory viruses administered either intranasal or intramuscular on broncho-alveolar fluid cells of heifers. (shengsci.com)
  • abstract: BACKGROUND:The knowledge on bovine vaccines against respiratory viruses on bronchoalveolar fluid cells is scarce. (shengsci.com)
  • OBJECTIVE:To compare the effects of a commercial intranasal (IN) and intramuscular (IM) vaccine against bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex viruses on bronchoalveolar fluid cells of healthy heifers. (shengsci.com)
  • Additionally, vaccines are not completely effective in stopping the disease, but are merely helpful in mitigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virology experts recommend following a vaccination program for various bovine diseases, and vaccines for BVD are available as either killed virus or modified live virus vaccines. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Building on the response to recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the R&D Blueprint has facilitated a coordinated and accelerated response to research into diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics for the novel disease. (who.int)
  • Subsequently, the virus invades the lower respiratory tract, affecting the cells of the alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium, mainly the alveolar macrophage, thus altering the defense mechanisms of the lung. (ivami.com)
  • There is growing interest in the selective breeding of livestock for enhanced disease resistance. (extension.org)
  • Influenza D virus (IDV) can potentially cause respiratory diseases in livestock. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite being one of the most studied diseases in livestock, the impact of BRD on the industry remains high. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Livestock producers lose countless animals each year due to diseases. (reallifewithpets.com)
  • More recently, the concept of lysosomal storage disease has been expanded to include deficiencies or defects in proteins necessary for the normal post-translational modification of lysosomal enzymes (which themselves are often glycoproteins), activator proteins, or proteins important for proper intracellular trafficking between the lysosome and other intracellular compartments. (medscape.com)
  • We also collected serum samples from 8 cows on January 10 (acute phase of the disease) and February 4 (recovery phase) and examined them for antibodies against D/Yama2019 by using the HA inhibition (HI) test ( Appendix Table 1). (cdc.gov)
  • Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cost the feedyard producers at least 600,000,000 dollars a year because of acute sickness, chronic illness, and death loss. (usda.gov)
  • Yet, certain experience, namely, prepandemic manufacturing of related products, experience of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and being geographically located close to firms that produced medical supplies, could attenuate this effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • USA), include food security, food safety, antimicrobial resistance severe acute respiratory syndrome (Asia, Canada and and strengthening health systems ( 6-8 ). (who.int)
  • Mediterranean Region suffers from acute and chronic sector alone cannot prevent or adequately address these problems such as economic restrictions, conflict, civil complex problems at the human-animal-environment war, social unrest, political instability, human migration interface ( 2 ). (who.int)
  • 4. Treatment of bovine respiratory disease complex (shipping fever complex) ( Pasteurella spp. (drugs.com)
  • Overview of Respiratory Diseases of Dogs and Cats A varying flora of indigenous commensal organisms (including Pasteurella multocida , Bordetella bronchiseptica , streptococci, staphylococci, pseudomonads, and coliform bacteria). (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Disease-causing bacteria are increasingly able to resist antibiotics used for treatment creating an unprecedented and growing global threat to human and animal health. (genomealberta.ca)
  • When the defenses are compromised, the bacteria become attached to the lining of the respiratory tract (colonize), reproduce rapidly, and spread throughout the lungs. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease caused when bacteria attack the respiratory system. (michigan.gov)
  • Consumption of foods contaminated with B. cereus may result in disease either by the consumption of pre-formed toxin or by toxins produced by these bacteria in during growth the gut. (microgeninc.com)
  • Before the discovery of the bacteria that causes TB, the disease was thought to be hereditary. (cdc.gov)
  • The discovery of the bacteria proved that TB was an infectious disease, not hereditary. (cdc.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • program addressing animal disease prevention and management. (constantcontact.com)
  • It's a very complex system, and no prevention or treatment option is 100% effective. (beefmagazine.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Aiding in disease prevention - through astute management and proper vaccination protocols - is the first step in setting up a calf for a healthy life. (redangus.org)
  • The survey's findings identified immunization as the most important component of a healthy beef cattle herd to aid in the prevention of infectious diseases. (redangus.org)
  • Disease prevention via a thorough vaccination program is the foundation of good health. (redangus.org)
  • Data will be used for research to further define nutrient requirements as well as optimal levels for disease prevention and health promotion. (cdc.gov)
  • The diseases that make up BRD can persist in a cattle herd for a long period of time before becoming symptomatic, but immune systems weakened by stress can stop controlling the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • At a herd in Yamagata Prefecture in northern Japan, 15 Holsteins (37.5% of bred cattle in the herd) had respiratory signs develop during January 6-10, 2019 ( Appendix Table 1). (cdc.gov)
  • But we do not always get what we wish for, which is why now and then you'll have to deal with a cattle disease or another, even in a new herd. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • You must buy your cattle from a reputable, BVDV-free farm to avoid having the disease in your new herd. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Antibiotic treatment for a herd or flock stops a disease threat in the bud rather than allowing it to spread and cause suffering before signs become visible or animals start to die. (reallifewithpets.com)
  • Mucosal disease occurs when persistently infected cattle (PI cattle) suffering from BVDV-1 acquire a more severe BVDV strain. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • In the severe form, the signs of the disease include intense dyspnea, mouth breathing, bowed head, respiratory moan and death. (ivami.com)
  • Administer by deep intramuscular injection, a single dose, if the disease is severe, repeat the injection after 48 hours. (com.vn)
  • Neonatal hemochromatosis is a syndrome in which severe liver disease of fetal or perinatal onset is associated with deposition of stainable iron in extrahepatic sites. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of the disease is complex since there are multiple possible causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: Gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist? (wikipedia.org)
  • AAVLD membership is open to any individual interested in animal disease laboratory diagnosis. (constantcontact.com)
  • Bovine Parainfluenza type 3 (PI3) (presently Bovine Respirovirus 3) (-ssRNA, Paramyxoviridae, Respirovirus): Molecular diagnosis (RT-PCR). (ivami.com)
  • Anaplasmosis is a highly prevalent tick-borne intracellular bacterial disease that affects various host species globally, particularly ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • In October 2013 he was appointed as Assistant Professor of Global Health and Infectious Diseases at UCVM. (debategraph.org)
  • EIDM ☜The Emerging Infectious Diseases Modelling Initiative (EIDM) - by the Public Health Agency of Canada and NSERC - aims to establish multi-disciplinary network(s) of specialists across the country in modelling infectious diseases to be applied to public needs associated with emerging infectious diseases and pandemics such as COVID-19. (debategraph.org)
  • This is precisely what we have done, having amassed an amazing network of interdisciplinary people with a commitment to a One Health approach to stopping emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) at all levels. (debategraph.org)
  • Antibiotics treat painful illnesses in suffering animals and halt the spread of infectious diseases. (reallifewithpets.com)
  • 4Research Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • BoHV-1 is a pathogen of cattle associated with two major syndromes, called infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenetic trees for the 7 nucleotide genomic segments of D/bovine/Yamagata/1/2019 (arrow), an influenza D virus of a new phylogenetic lineage, Japan. (cdc.gov)
  • Two lineages of influenza D virus (IDV) have been found to infect cattle and promote bovine respiratory disease complex, one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality within the cattle industry. (cdc.gov)
  • Bovine Leucosis Virus and its impact on the dairy industry is his new target for exploration, a program funded by ALMA and Alberta Milk has started in September 2015 aiming to design a BLV control strategy for Alberta. (debategraph.org)
  • Hopefully, your virus complex vaccination program is effective. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • An animal may get infected by bovine viral diarrhoea virus after birth or through fetal congenital infection before birth (usually in the first 100 days of the gestation period. (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Pestivirus is a genus of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes in the family Flaviviridae, which also includes Border Disease Virus (BDV) and Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). (cowcaretaker.com)
  • Infection by the virus causes a mild respiratory disease that involves nasal and ocular secretions, moderate fever, cough, expectoration and increased respiratory rate. (ivami.com)
  • Overall, the most abundant RNA virus, was the bovine nidovirus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome are related inversely to the gestational age of the newborn infant. (medscape.com)
  • Although reduced, the incidence and severity of complications of respiratory distress syndrome can result in clinically significant morbidities. (medscape.com)
  • causes a bacterial upper respiratory disease in pigs, resulting in lethargy, cough, and other breathing difficulties. (microgeninc.com)
  • Bovine or swine respiratory disease is a complex bacterial infection that affects the respiratory system in cattle or pigs. (pharmazu.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and costly disease affecting beef cattle in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle, causing considerable economic losses. (genomealberta.ca)
  • Even so, a portion of the beef cattle population remains unvaccinated, leaving those animals susceptible to multiple diseases and lost profit. (redangus.org)
  • There are three types of TB - human, avian, and bovine. (michigan.gov)
  • Lysosomal storage diseases describe a heterogeneous group of dozens of rare inherited disorders characterized by the accumulation of undigested or partially digested macromolecules, which ultimately results in cellular dysfunction and clinical abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • Age of onset and clinical manifestations may vary widely among patients with a given lysosomal storage disease, and significant phenotypic heterogeneity between family members carrying identical mutations has been reported. (medscape.com)
  • This has led to active clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of intrathecal enzyme delivery in several lysosomal storage diseases (see www.ClinicalTrials.gov ). (medscape.com)
  • A private vet was contacted who diagnosed respiratory disease complex and dispensed antibiotic for blanket treatment of the surviving cattle. (flockandherd.net.au)
  • By adopting treatment decisions and protocols on a risk-group or individual basis, it would be possible to improve animal health and reduce both disease incidence and antibiotic use. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, antibiotic resistance can put their effectiveness at risk, threatening our ability to respond to deadly bacterial diseases. (reallifewithpets.com)
  • Instead, vets rely on additional indicators such as changes in behavior or physical symptoms, reports of disease in the neighborhood, and knowledge gained from earlier epidemics. (reallifewithpets.com)
  • Accumulated data indicate that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be effective under optimal conditions in preventing the progression of central nervous system symptoms in neuronopathic forms of lysosomal storage diseases (such as Krabbe disease), including some of the mucopolysaccharidoses, oligosaccharidoses, sphingolipidoses, and lipidoses as well as peroxisome disorders such as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (medscape.com)
  • Accumulated data indicate that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be effective under optimal conditions in preventing the progression of central nervous system symptoms in neuronopathic forms of lysosomal storage diseases, including some of the mucopolysaccharidoses, oligosaccharidoses, sphingolipidoses, and lipidoses. (medscape.com)
  • Scrofula was believed to be a different disease from TB in the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory disease is the most significant cause of morbidity (70-80%) and mortality (40-50%) in US feedlots. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common diseases in intensively managed cattle, often resulting in high morbidity and mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enormous strides have been made in understanding the pathophysiology and management of respiratory distress syndrome, leading to improvements in morbidity and mortality in infants with the condition. (medscape.com)
  • All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. (curehunter.com)
  • including absent respiratory sounds when auscultation is performed over the consolidated lung regions, increased bronchovesicular sounds in less-affected portions of lung, cough, fetid and/or mucopurulent nasal discharge, fever, dehydration, and anorexia. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • The fact that so many regions of interest were identified supports the idea that many genes are associated with susceptibility to this complex disease. (extension.org)
  • Newly-available genomic tools offer an opportunity to employ novel genetic approaches to select for cattle that are less susceptible to disease. (extension.org)
  • Global estimates of the need for rehabilitation based on the Global Burden of Disease study 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. (shengsci.com)
  • Incorporating disease-resistance into breeding decisions offers a sustainable, long-term approach to reduce disease incidence and improve animal health. (extension.org)
  • In contrast, animals that received a sham DNA vaccine (n = 12) had no detectable neutralizing antibodies against IDV, and viral RNA was readily detectable in respiratory tract tissues after intranasal challenge [3 x 10(5) TCID50] with IDV D/OK (n = 6) or D/660 (n = 6). (cdc.gov)
  • The owner decided to start using a vaccine (Bovi-Shield MH One (Zoetis)) when a veterinarian suggested the possibility of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRD). (flockandherd.net.au)

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