Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.Mannheimia haemolytica: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal: A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.Pasteurellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Respiratory Tract DiseasesPneumonia of Calves, Enzootic: Chronic endemic respiratory disease of dairy calves and an important component of bovine respiratory disease complex. It primarily affects calves up to six months of age and the etiology is multifactorial. Stress plus a primary viral infection is followed by a secondary bacterial infection. The latter is most commonly associated with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA producing a purulent BRONCHOPNEUMONIA. Sometimes present are MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS and mycoplasma species.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Carbofuran: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tylosin: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine: A species of RESPIROVIRUS, subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, most often seen in conjunction with a secondary infection of MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA resulting in pneumonic pasteurellosis (PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC).Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine: A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Foot Rot: A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Mannheimia: Genus of bacteria in the family PASTEURELLACEAE, comprising multiple species that do not ferment trehalose. Species include MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; M. glucosida, M. granulomatis, M. ruminalis, and M. varigena.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.

Javelin diagrams: applications in veterinary medical decision analysis. (1/41)

This paper introduces javelin diagrams as an innovative way for depicting the results of medical decision analyses. The methods were used to determine whether, and at which values, blood lactate in Belgian White and Blue or maximum tidal volumes in Holstein calves should be measured before deciding to treat or not a calf suffering from the bovine respiratory disease complex. The different alternatives depended upon the probabilities of survival with and without treatment and upon the costs associated with a possible death, the test and the treatment. The chosen alternative was the one with the lowest expected costs. From data collected on the treated calves, the expected costs of measuring lactate (198.01 euro) and tidal volumes (27.38 euro) before deciding to treat or not were lower than the expected costs of directly treating sick Belgian Blue (215.39 euro) and Holstein (51.55 euro) calves, respectively. The treatment should be applied to sick Belgian Blue calves with blood lactate < or = 7.8 mmol/L and to Holstein calves with a maximum tidal volume > or = 1.81 L. At such test values, the treatment expected costs were lower than the expected costs associated with no treatment of calves with other test values. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showing benefits in treating animals with a positive test (over not treating the animals with a negative test) were mostly invariant to changes in any cost value but were sensitive to uncertainties in probabilities of survival with or without treatment. The javelin diagrams provided a clear visual indication of such results. They depicted how and by how much the benefits were affected by uncertainties in probabilities, they proposed different information values associated with the chosen alternative, and identified directions for further research.  (+info)

Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves. (2/41)

The objective of this study was to characterize genetic and environmental factors influencing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle. Records from nine purebred and three composite breeds and a variety of F1 and three-way crosses, including the progeny of 12 additional different sire breeds produced over a 20-yr period (1983 to 2002), were evaluated for breed and heterozygosity effects on the observed incidence of BRD. Heterozygosity fractions for calves and dams were defined by generalized breed origins: British, Continental, and tropically adapted. Variance components were estimated for each pure and composite breed, and across all breeds and crossbreeds. The effect of incidence of observed BRD was determined by comparing groups of low and high years of incidence. Respiratory disease in this herd followed a standard epidemiological pattern of initial introduction, reaching an epidemic stage at 70 to 170 d of age, followed by a period of rapid decrease to weaning. Estimates of heritability of incidence of BRD were low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.26, with overall estimates of 0.07 and 0.19 depending on the data set analyzed. The highest incidence of BRD in preweaned calves occurred in the Braunvieh breed (18.8%). The genetic correlation between the direct and maternal genetic effects was generally large and negative, suggesting dams genetically superior for resisting BRD raise calves that are more susceptible. Perhaps maternally superior dams provide passive immunity to their calves, which delays the development of the calves' direct immune system, making them more prone to BRD during the preweaning period. Heterozygosity of calves decreased the incidence of BRD compared with purebred cattle. Calves that were Continental x British or tropically adapted x British breeds had a lower incidence of BRD than did calves of British x British breeds. As the annual incidence of BRD increased, there was an associated increase in the heritability estimate. The estimated heritability based on an underlying continuous scale was large (h2 = 0.48), inferring response to selection for BRD resistance could be large if the phenotype for BRD resistance was known.  (+info)

Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots. (3/41)

This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.  (+info)

Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations with growth, carcass, and longissimus muscle palatability traits. (4/41)

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly feedlot disease in the United States. Selection for disease resistance is one of several possible interventions to prevent or reduce the economic loss associated with animal disease and to improve animal welfare. Undesirable genetic relationships, however, may exist between production and disease resistance traits. The objectives of this study were to estimate the phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations of BRD with growth, carcass, and LM palatability traits. Health records on 18,112 feedlot cattle over a 15-yr period and slaughter data on 1,627 steers over a 4-yr period were analyzed with bivariate animal models. Traits included ADG, adjusted carcass fat thickness at the 12th rib, marbling score, LM area, weight of retail cuts, weight of fat trim, bone weight, Warner-Bratzler shear force, tenderness score, and juiciness score. The estimated heritability of BRD incidence was 0.08 +/- 0.01. Phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations of the observed traits with BRD ranged from -0.35 to 0.40, -0.36 to 0.55, and -0.42 to 0.20, respectively. Most correlations were low or negligible. The percentage of carcass bone had moderate genetic, phenotypic, and environmental correlations with BRD (-0.42, -0.35, and -0.36, respectively). Hot carcass weight and weight of retail cuts had moderate, undesirable phenotypic correlations with BRD (0.37 and 0.40, respectively). Correlations of BRD with LM palatability and ADG were not detected. Low or near zero estimates of genetic correlations infer that selection to reduce BRD in feedlot cattle would have negligible correlated responses on growth, carcass, and meat palatability traits or that selection for those traits will have little effect on BRD susceptibility or resistance.  (+info)

Source of dietary lipid may modify the immune response in stressed feeder cattle. (5/41)

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A comparison of 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease. (6/41)

The aim of this study was to compare 2 vaccination programs in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (UF)/bovine respiratory disease (BRD). At feedlot arrival, 3882 calves were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to 2 groups, which were housed by group in 12 pens. At the time of allocation, 1 group (MLV3-BT2) received a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) and types I and II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), as well as a Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) and Pasteurella multocida bacterin-toxoid. The other group (MLV4-BT1) received a vaccine containing IIBRV, type I BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus, as well as a MH bacterin-toxoid. At an average of 69 days post arrival, the groups received their respective viral vaccines. The initial UF treatment, overall chronicity, overall wastage, overall mortality, and BRD mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the MLV3-BT2 group than in the MLV4-BT1 group. Average daily gain and the proportions of yield grade Canada 3 and quality grade E carcasses were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the MLV3-BT2 group than in the MLV4-BT1 group. No significant (P > or = 0.05) difference in the dry matter intake to gain ratio was detected between the 2 groups. In economic terms, there was a net advantage of $20.86 CDN/animal in the MLV3-BT2 group. This study demonstrates that it is more cost effective to use an MLV3-BT2 vaccination program than a MLV4-BT1 vaccination program in feedlot calves at ultra-high risk of developing UF/BRD.  (+info)

Microbiological and histopathological findings in cases of fatal bovine respiratory disease of feedlot cattle in Western Canada. (7/41)

The aim of this study was to describe the microbiologic agents and pathologic processes in fatal bovine respiratory disease (BRD) of feedlot cattle and to investigate associations between agents and pathologic processes. Ninety feedlot calves diagnosed at necropsy with BRD and 9 control calves without BRD were examined, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and histopathologic studies. Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) (peracute, acute, and subacute cases) and Mycoplasma bovis (MB) (subacute, bronchiolar, and chronic cases) were the most common agents identified in fatal BRD cases. Significant associations (P < 0.10) were detected between microbiologic agents and between agents and pathologic processes. When IHC staining was used, 25/26 (96%) of animals that were positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were also positive for MH; 12/15 (80 %) of animals that were positive for Histophilus somni (HS) were also positive for MB; and all of the animals that were positive for HS were negative for MH and BVDV. This quantitative pathological study demonstrates that several etiologic agents and pathologic processes are involved in fatal BRD of feedlot cattle.  (+info)

Effects of commingling beef calves from different sources and weaning protocols during a forty-two-day receiving period on performance and bovine respiratory disease. (8/41)

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*Mycoplasma bovis

"Is Mycoplasma bovis a missing component of the bovine respiratory disease complex in Australia?". Australian Veterinary Journal ... arthritis and pneumonia in cattle and is implicated in the pathogenesis or exacerbation of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), ...

*Porcine adenovirus

Respiratory signs such as coughing can be seen if the infection is part of a mutlifactorial respiratory disease complex. ... Adenoviridae Bovine adenovirus Porcine Adenovirus, reviewed and published by WikiVet at http://en.wikivet.net/Porcine_ ... It causes gastrointestinal disease in young pigs and is thought to contribute to multifactorial porcine respiratory diseases ... complexes. Several strains of the virus can be found worldwide, and transmission occurs horizontally by the oro-faecal route. ...

*Mannheimia varigena

... a group of bacteria involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) . It is pathogenic. Angen, O.; Mutters, R.; Caugant, D. A.; ... "Pasteurella haemolytica complex of Pasteurella sensu stricto as new genus Mannheimia: changes in taxonomy."VETERINARNI MEDICINA ... Mannheimia glucosida and Mannheimia varigena from bovine and swine respiratory disease: intergeneric spread of the tet(H) ... Olsen, J. E.; Bisgaard, M. (1999). "Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA ...

*Sulfadimethoxine

... coli Treating cattle for bovine respiratory disease complex ("shipping fever complex"), necrotic pododermatitis (foot rot), ... It is used to treat many infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, enteric, and soft tissue infections and can be given ... Bauman, Robert W. (2015). Microbiology: With Diseases by Body System (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson. p. 296. ISBN 9780321918550. " ...

*List of MeSH codes (C22)

... bovine respiratory disease complex MeSH C22.196.090.600 --- pasteurellosis, pneumonic MeSH C22.196.090.660 --- pneumonia, ... bovine MeSH C22.735.050 --- ape diseases MeSH C22.735.500 --- monkey diseases MeSH C22.735.500.500 --- marburg virus disease ... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C22.196.148 --- brucellosis, bovine MeSH C22.196.250 --- encephalopathy, bovine ... bovine MeSH C22.196.927 --- tuberculosis, bovine MeSH C22.196.963 --- white heifer disease MeSH C22.268.265 --- distemper MeSH ...

*Bovine respiratory disease

... (BRD) is the most common and costly disease affecting beef cattle in the world. It is a complex, ... Bovine Respiratory Disease, Clell Bagley and the Utah State University Cooperative Extension. Bovine Respiratory Disease " ... Viral agents include Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ( ... "The bovine respiratory disease complex". The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne. 15 (9): 233-42. PMC ...

*Adenoviridae

National Center for Diseases--Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch ... Bat mastadenovirus A Bat mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus C Canine ... With the help of cellular microtubules, the virus is transported to the nuclear pore complex, whereby the adenovirus particle ... respiratory disease (mainly species HAdV-B and C) conjunctivitis (HAdV-B and D) gastroenteritis (HAdV-F types 40, 41, HAdV-G ...

*Streptococcus canis

The development of disease can occur rapidly, and symptoms in cats include skin ulceration, chronic respiratory infection, and ... Not limited to strains within the United States, instances of bovine mastitis due to S. canis have been reported in other areas ... However, it has been reported to form complexes with human albumin through the formation of binding sites. This ability to bind ... Additional horizontal disease transfer to other cows in the herd was facilitated due to poor udder health management procedures ...

*Coronavirus

Bovine coronavirus and canine respiratory coronavirus diverged from a common ancestor in 1951. Bovine coronavirus and human ... one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. Mouse hepatitis virus ( ... "Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor". Science. 309 (5742): 1864-8. doi:10.1126/ ... the other found in respiratory diseases). Turkey coronavirus (TCV) causes enteritis in turkeys. Ferret enteric coronavirus ...

*Chloride channel

The bovine EClC protein has 903 amino acids and four putative transmembrane segments. The purified complex, when reconstituted ... Thomsen disease is associated with dominant mutations and Becker disease with recessive mutations in CLCN1. CLCA1, CLCA2, CLCA3 ... The first member of this family to be characterized was a respiratory epithelium, Ca2+-regulated, chloride channel protein ... Another inherited disease that affects the kidney organs is Dent's Disease, characterised by low molecular weight proteinuria ...

*NDUFB6

... is a subunit of the enzyme NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), the largest of the respiratory complexes. The structure is L ... Smeitink J, van den Heuvel L (Jun 1999). "Human mitochondrial complex I in health and disease". American Journal of Human ... Earley FG, Ragan CI (Nov 1980). "Identification of the subunits of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase that are ... complex, located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is also known as Complex I and is the largest of the five complexes of ...

*Oxidative folding

As is known these ROS may cause many diseases such as atherosclerosis and some neurodegenerative diseases. Classical examples ... In eukaryotes, the respiratory chain is separated from oxidative folding since cellular respiration takes place in the ... There, the reduction of molecular oxygen to water is carried out by a complex series of proteins, which catalyse this reaction ... Cell 98, 217-227 Lawrence K. Low, Hang-Cheol Shin and Harold A. Sheraga.(2002). Oxidative Folding of Bovine Pancreatic ...

*SLPI

... as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease". Respiratory Research. 1 (2): 87-92. doi:10.1186/rr18. PMC 59548 . PMID ... crystal structure of the acid-stable proteinase inhibitor from human mucous secretions analysed in its complex with bovine ... Several diseases, including those listed, are actually the result of SLPI and α1-antitrypsin defenses being overwhelmed by ... Many diseases, such as emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, are characterized by increased levels of ...

*Respiratory complex I

Carroll J, Fearnley IM, Skehel JM, Shannon RJ, Hirst J, Walker JE (October 2006). "Bovine complex I is a complex of 45 ... There is some evidence that complex I defects may play a role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease, perhaps because of ... Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial complex I) is the first large protein complex of the respiratory chains of myriad ... Conserved subunits of Complex I[30] # Human/Bovine subunit Human protein Protein description (UniProt) Pfam family with Human ...

*NDUFA12

... frequently lead to complex neurodegenerative diseases such as Leigh's syndrome that result from mitochondrial complex I ... The human NDUFA12 gene codes for a subunit of Complex I of the respiratory chain, which transfers electrons from NADH to ... Skehel JM, Fearnley IM, Walker JE (Nov 1998). "NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria: sequence of a ... NDUFA12 is a subunit of the enzyme NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), the largest of the respiratory complexes. The structure is ...

*NDUFV2

Triepels RH, Van Den Heuvel LP, Trijbels JM, Smeitink JA (2001). "Respiratory chain complex I deficiency". American Journal of ... of mitochondrial complex I and susceptibility to Parkinson disease". Genomics. 49 (1): 52-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.5192. PMID ... complementary DNA sequences of import precursors of the bovine and human 24-kDa subunit". Biochemistry. 28 (8): 3257-64. doi: ... for the 24-kDa iron-sulfur subunit of complex I in mitochondrial respiratory chain". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...

*NDUFA2

The human NDUFA2 gene codes for a subunit of Complex I of the respiratory chain, which transfers electrons from NADH to ... "NDUFA2 complex I mutation leads to Leigh disease". American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (6): 1306-1315. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg. ... ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria. Application of a novel strategy for sequencing proteins using the ... NDUFA2 is a subunit of the enzyme NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), the largest of the respiratory complexes. The structure is L ...

*Bovine coronavirus

In respiratory disease, diagnosis is confirmed by performing a direct fluorescent antibody test on nasal washes - which ... Infection causes 'calf enteritis' and contributes to the 'enzootic pneumonia complex' in calves. It can also cause 'winter ... using appropriate hygiene methods and ventilation of housing reduce disease incidence. "Bovine Coronavirus", reviewed and ... The disease can be controlled by vaccinating the dam with a live vaccine (ATCvet code QI02) whilst she is pregnant as this ...

*Culicoides

... bovine ephemeral fever (C. osystoma and C. nipponesis), Akabane virus, Queensland itch and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease. A ... Species belonging to the Culicoides obsoletus complex and the Culicoides pulicaris complex have been found capable of ... Pupae consist of a fused cephalothorax with slender respiratory trumpets and a segmented abdomen. Adults emerge through a ... Several species are known to be vectors of various diseases and parasites which can affect animals. The systematics and ...

*Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme

A study of the steroidogenic capacity of the adrenal cortex in infants with acute respiratory disease demonstrated that indeed ... These results demonstrated that the formation of a functional ternary complex is not possible. From these studies, it was ... Topological studies of cytochromes P-450scc and P-45011 beta in bovine adrenocortical inner mitochondrial membranes. Effects of ... "Selective increases in adrenal steroidogenic capacity during acute respiratory disease in infants". European Journal of ...

*Health crisis

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad-cow disease 1998: Doñana disaster, also known as the Aznalcollar ... A health crisis or public health crisis is a difficult situation or complex health system that affects humans in one or more ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 2004: Avian influenza (H5N1), sometimes avian flu, and commonly bird flu 2006: Côte ... Its severity is often measured by the number of people affected by its geographical extent, or the disease or death of the ...

*List of MeSH codes (C02)

... border disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.106 --- bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 --- classical swine ... aids dementia complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.080 --- aids-related complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.100 --- aids-related ... severe acute respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550.800 --- torovirus infections MeSH C02.782.620.365 --- influenza, human ... infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C02.256.466.606 --- malignant catarrh MeSH C02.256.466.650 --- marek disease MeSH ...

*NDUFA9

Mutations in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), also known as Complex I, frequently lead to complex neurodegenerative diseases ... The human NDUFA9 gene codes for a subunit of Complex I of the respiratory chain, which transfers electrons from NADH to ... Fearnley IM, Finel M, Skehel JM, Walker JE (Sep 1991). "NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria. cDNA ... NDUFA9 is a subunit of the enzyme NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), the largest of the respiratory complexes. The structure is L ...

*Lactoferrin

... forms reddish complex with iron; its affinity for iron is 300 times higher than that of transferrin. The affinity ... Bovine lactoferrin has more activity against H. pylori than human lactoferrin. Lactoferrin acts, mostly in vitro, on a wide ... Lactoferrin levels in tear fluid have been shown to decrease in dry eye diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome. A rapid, portable ... Respiratory tract antimicrobial defense system GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000012223 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...

*Defective interfering particle

Mosaic or complex DI genome, in which the various regions may come from the same helper virus genome but in the wrong order; ... Easton AJ, Scott PD, Edworthy NL, Meng B, Marriott AC, Dimmock NJ (2011). "A novel broad-spectrum treatment for respiratory ... Huang AS, Baltimore D (1970). "Defective viral particles and viral disease processes". Nature. 226 (5243): 325-7. doi:10.1038/ ... is a higher-order genomic structure implicated in the mediation of DIP production in bovine coronavirus, with apparent homologs ...

*VDAC3

In skeletal muscle, mitochondria were abnormally shaped, and the activities of respiratory chain complex enzymes were reduced. ... Mutations in VDAC3 have been linked to male infertility, as well as Parkinson's disease. The three VDAC isoforms in human are ... "Voltage-dependent anion-selective channels VDAC2 and VDAC3 are abundant proteins in bovine outer dense fibers, a cytoskeletal ... Mutations in VDAC3 are also associated with Parkinson's disease, as VDAC3 has been observed to target Parkin to defective ...

*Pasteur Institute

This made him realise that the vector of the disease were lice that were discarded with the patient's own clothes.[3] Nicolle ... That's how Michel Weinberg, Metchnikoff's scholar, disclosed the complex etiology of gas gangrene and created a vaccine for ... Having finally lost completely its virulence, the bovine tuberculosis germ grown with their method was the principal ... like the paralysis of the respiratory muscles.[1]:73 It is this last consequence of the diphtheria that provided the two ...

*Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase

1L0L​ In vertebrates the bc1 complex, or Complex III, contains 11 subunits: 3 respiratory subunits, 2 core proteins and 6 low- ... "Complete structure of the 11-subunit bovine mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex". Science. 281 (5373): 64-71. doi:10.1126/ ... Fisher N, Castleden CK, Bourges I, Brasseur G, Dujardin G, Meunier B (March 2004). "Human disease-related mutations in ... The bc1 complex contains 11 subunits, 3 respiratory subunits (cytochrome B, cytochrome C1, Rieske protein), 2 core proteins and ...
The objective of my research was to generate novel information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a common pre-weaning and post-weaning beef calf disease. To reach my objective, I conducted three prospective field trials within post-weaned calf populations, and one retrospective study of pre-weaned calves utilizing survey data. I evaluated differences in behavior, health and performance in calves receiving multiple component health programs. Calves in a minimally invasive program, which included primarily non-injectable products, displayed less aversion to initial product administration but experienced higher BRDC morbidity (P = 0.02) and poorer performance (P = 0.04) compared to calves in a more invasive (all injectable products) program. Secondly, in a study of Mannheimia haemolytica inoculated calves, I found that no parameter included in physical examinations, or common blood component evaluations could discern health from ...
Synonyms for bovine respiratory disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for bovine respiratory disease. 22 synonyms for bovine: cow-like, taurine, calf-like, cattle-like, dull, heavy, slow, thick, stupid, dense, sluggish, lifeless, inactive, inert, lethargic, dozy. What are synonyms for bovine respiratory disease?
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multi-factorial disease in which numerous factors, such as animal management, pathogen exposure and environm..
[110 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global BRD Treatment Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global BRD Treatment market is valued...
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated.. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3.. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with ...
R.L. Larson, D.L. Step, Evidence-Based Effectiveness of Vaccination Against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in Feedlot Cattle for Mitigating the Incidence and Effect of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 2012, 28, 1, ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8). This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV
Ned F. Kuehn, DVM, Diplomate, ACVIM. Feline respiratory disease complex includes those illnesses typified by rhinitis, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, salivation, and oral ulcerations. The principal diseases, Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR) and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) infections, affect exotic as well as ~domestic species. Feline Pneurnonitis (Chlamydia psittaci) and Mycoplasmal infections ,appear to be of lesser importance. Feline infectious peritonitis and pleuritis typically causes a more generalized condition but may cause signs of mild upper respiratory tract infection. I FVR and calliciviruses are host-specific and pose no known human risk. Human conjunctivitis caused by the feline chlamydial agent has been reported.. Etiology: Probably 40-45% of feline upper respiratory infections are caused by FVR s , which is a herpesvirus; incidence of FCV is similar. Dual infections with these viruses are common. Other organisms such as Chlamydia psittaci, Mycoplasma spp, and reoviruses are believed ...
... Cattle producers are fully aware of the expenses that go into herd management - feeding, housing, transporting and marketing - and perhaps most important, overall health care.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) accounts for up to 70 percent of health disruptions and $500 million in associated medical costs and production losses, thus receiving considerable attention from cattle health personnel in production and research alike. Experiments were conducted in 2 studies to investigate aspects of nutrition and animal health in receiving cattle. Blood chemistry and immune components of sick and healthy cattle, along with feed intake, growth, and feed efficiency were evaluated for methods potentially useful in BRD diagnosis or offsetting performance losses. Intake, blood chemistry analysis, and immune proteins known as acute phase proteins provided patterns with possible complementarity for more accurate objective BRD diagnosis. Feed efficiency was improved by supplementing amino acids to exceed nutrient requirements. Utilizing these findings could provide incremental improvements in the current stalemate against BRD, improving both beef industry profitability and animal ...
The therapeutic efficacy of an early treatment protocol with an infection-stage adjusted fluoroquinolone regimen was evaluated in a field study on Young Bulls (YB) presenting signs of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). A total of 195 YB (Charolais, Limousin and Rouge-des-Prés breeds) from 6 farms implementing or not prophylactic antimicrobial treatments (PROPHY or absence) were randomly assigned to one of two experiment groups based on time of detection of BRD and first line marbofloxacin regimen, early adjusted dose (E2) or late standard dose (L10). Each YB was administered orally a reticulo-rumen bolus, allowing continuous monitoring of ruminal temperature. In the E2 group, YB presenting early signs of BRD, i.e. an increase in ruminal temperature over 40.2 °C and persisting more than 12h, confirmed by a clinical examination showing no or mild signs of BRD, were given 2 mg/kg of marbofloxacin. In the L10 group, YB presenting moderate or severe signs of BRD at visual inspection, confirmed at clinical
Background Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. Next generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR amplicons (NGS 16S amplicon analysis) is a powerful culture-independent open reference method that has recently been used to increase understanding of BRD-associated bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of BRD cattle. However, it has not yet been used to examine the microbiome of the bovine lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to use NGS 16S amplicon analysis to identify bacteria in post-mortem lung and lymph node tissue samples harvested from fatal BRD cases and clinically healthy animals. Cranial lobe and corresponding mediastinal lymph node post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves diagnosed as BRD cases by veterinary laboratory pathologists and from clinically healthy calves. NGS 16S amplicon libraries, targeting the V3-V4 region ...
Ultimately, a mixture of disease organisms is usually responsible for the respiratory infection and illness, but a number of other factors influence the animals ability to withstand the infection and illness. Any one risk factor alone may be insufficient to trigger cases of BRD, but together they form an additive effect that can predispose the animal to BRD.. Environmental factors, particularly transport, have been associated with BRD for decades. Therefore, BRD may also be referred to as Shipping Fever. A study involving calves arriving at 21 US commercial feedlots from 1997 to 2009 concluded that distance traveled was correlated to BRD, average daily gain (ADG) and hot carcass weight (HCW). This, however, has not been substantiated in western Canada.. Weather has always been implicated in the occurrence of BRD, presumably because the greatest incidence of BRD occurs during the fall. However, this finding is confounded by the fact that it is also when the greatest number of calves is being ...
New macrolide expands treatment options for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle.. The new antimicrobial tildipirosin is now available on veterinary microbroth dilution susceptibility plates, enabling veterinary microbiology laboratories to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing on organisms that cause bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle.. The Thermo Scientific Sensititre System, recognized for including one of the largest and most up-to-date selections of antimicrobials for susceptibility testing, with more than 40 veterinary-specific antimicrobials, is now the first to offer tildipirosin on microbroth dilution susceptibility plates. Tildipirosin is available globally on Sensititre veterinary custom plates, and it will be featured on additional standard plates in the future. A variety of other species-specific, standard diagnostic formats are also available for applications related to avian and poultry, bovine and porcine, companion animals, ...
All bulls purchased after February 1st, 2019 for use as natural service sires in the Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program™ must be DNA tested to have genomic-enhanced EPDs. All bulls used as natural service sires after February 1st, 2020 must have genomic-enhanced EPDs, regardless of when they were purchased. Seedstock producers classifying bulls as Show-Me-Select qualified in sale books must have genomic-enhanced EPDs on those lots ...
Respiratory Disease Complex or Multicausal in Laying Hens. Happenings / Clinical Signs. Although much is known about the individual agents responsible for respiratory diseases in poultry, uncomplicated infections with single agents are the exception. Under commercial conditions, complicated infections involving multiples aetiologies with viruses, mycoplasmas and other bacteria, immunosuppressive agents, and unfavourable environmental conditions are more commonly observed than simple infections. In addition, respiratory reactions induced by routine vaccination programs may themselves play a major role in the development of respiratory disease.. Mortality. ...
Learn more about Baytril® 100 (enrofloxacin) Injectable for Cattle, the first single-dose fluoroquinolone FDA-approved for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and the control of BRD in beef and non-lactating dairy cattle at high risk of developing BRD.
Click on the image above to open the PDF version of the Rice Cercospora Disease Complex Management presentation.. Photo By: West, Lisa. ...
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Feeder Cattle (Globex) daily price charts for the futures contract. See TradingCharts for many more commodity/futures quotes, charts and news.
Feeder Cattle futures price quote with latest real-time prices, charts, financials, latest news, technical analysis and opinions.
This historical price chart for January 2017 Feeder Cattle (Globex) futures (GF, CME) is part of an exhaustive collection of historical charts that covers decades of North America futures / commodity trading. In addition to charts covering single contracts, the collection also includes continuous price charts that can reveal long-term patterns and trends that might otherwise be difficult to detect.
I am going to start trading Feeder Cattle. I am looking for some help from some of the experienced FC traders. Is there a certain time of day , where...
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2016 Barchart.com, Inc. Quote data provided and hosted by Barchart Market Data Solutions. Information is provided as-is and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice, and is delayed. To see all exchange delay and terms of use please see disclaimer ...
Treating any one of these symptom-causing organisms may help the body function better and lighten the viral load. As one ME patient has said, its like carrying around a backpack of rocks. If you treat one virus successfully, its like tossing out one of the rocks. But lightening the load is not treating the whole disease complex. It does not remove the effect of that second circle; it simply makes it less. ...
Mannheimia haemolytica is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. M. haemolytica is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease.Wepresent the first two complete closed genome sequences of this species, determined using an automated assembly pipeline requiring no manual finishing.
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is the principal aetiological agent of the bovine respiratory disease complex. A BRSV subunit vaccine candidate consisting of two synthetic peptides representing putative protective epitopes on BRSV surface glycoproteins in soluble form or encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles were prepared. Calves (10 weeks old) with diminishing levels of BRSV-specific maternal antibody were intranasally administered a single dose of the different peptide formulations. Peptide-specific local immune responses (nasal secretion IgA), but not systemic humoral (serum IgG) or cellular responses (serum IFN-γ), were generated by all forms of peptide. There was a significant reduction in occurrence of respiratory disease in the animals inoculated with all peptide formulations compared to animals given PBS alone. Furthermore no adverse effects were observed in any of the animals post vaccination. These results suggest that intranasal immunisation with ...
Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the leading cause of calf death after weaning. Boehringer Ingelheim takes a holistic approach when helping producers fight the disease, said Professional Services Veterinarian Dr. Rich Linhart.. "We look at everything on the ranch, from personnel to feed bunk space to mud to wind to the way pens are set up, and cattle flow," said Linhart, who is based in Boise, Idaho.. He said the company does offer both vaccines and antibiotics to help prevent and battle BRD, but also recognizes the importance of good nutrition and many other factors when it comes to keeping the disease off the farm or ranch. Linhart answered questions from producers at the 2018 Cattle Industry Convention and National Cattlemens Beef Association Trade Show in Phoenix.. Listen to Jamies interview with Dr. Linhart: Interview with Dr. Rich Linhart, Boehringer Ingelheim 2018 Cattle Industry Convention & Trade Show Photo Album. ...
Recent studies have shown that major grapevine viruses for the Mediterranean region are prevalent in the native cultivars that have been grown for long in Albanian vineyards. Infectious Degeneration disease complex caused by Grapevine Fan Leaf Virus (GFLV), and other viruses, comprises a common phenotype in the field, but GFLV detection in random samplings has shown low frequency. In the present study we aimed at evaluating the association between Infectious Degeneration phenotype in the field and GFLV in the native cultivar Kallmet, by using DAS-ELISA of extracts from lignified canes of symptomatic plants. The results showed that Infectious Degeneration phenotype is widely spread but only 20% of the tested symptomatic plants were found positive for GFLV indicating that other viruses involved in the disease complex may account for the phenotype in the field. It is suggested that the full set of viral agents involved in Infectious Degeneration disease complex be tested to understand their ...
Julie Elkins and Paul Burr advocate a holistic approach to assessing respiratory disease risk factors and consider housing, management and treatment options.
Background: Mannheimia haemolytica is the primary bacterial pathogen in causing bovine respiratory disease with tremendous annual losses in the cattle industry. The leukotoxin from M. haemolytica is the predominant virulence factor. Several leukotoxin activity assays are available but not standardized regarding sample preparation and cell line. Furthermore, these assays suffer from a high standard error, a prolonged time consumption and often complex sample pretreatments, which is important from the bioprocess engineering point of view. Results: Within this study, an activity assay based on the continuous cell line BL3.1 combined with a commercial available adenosine triphosphate viability assay kit was established. The leukotoxin activity was found to be strongly dependent on the sample preparation. Furthermore, the interfering effect of lipopolysaccharides in the sample could be successfully suppressed by adding polymyxin B. We reached a maximum relative P95 value of 14%, which is more than ...
Respiratory tract infection in cats - also called cat flu or feline viral respiratory disease complex - affects their upper airway. Respiratory infections arent too uncommon in cats. The nose, mouth, throat, nose, and sinus, which are a part of the upper respiratory tract, are prone to bacterial and viral pathogens ...
Feedlot or intensive finishing environments present significant animal health challenges due to a large number of livestock being confined to a relatively small area. The more pathogens that livestock can be exposed to before the feedlot or intensive finishing system entry, the more likely they are to mount a successful immune response to a challenge once on feed.. Backgrounding plays an important role in minimising health issues once in the feedlot or intensive finishing system by allowing livestock to interact, experience low levels of contagions and develop immunity.. Viral infections such as Pesti Virus and Infectious Bovine Rhiotracheitis are extremely contagious but generally cause only mild signs in young stock. However, they cause marked transient immuno-suppression during the viraemia and this allows more serious pathogens to establish. This is particularly important for conditions such as bovine respiratory disease which is caused by bacterial pathogens that are commonly found in the ...
Cattle Preconditioning: Prep Calves Before Weaning Cattlenetwork.com Weaning is stressful for calves and producers alike. In cattle, that stress can lead to bacterial infections, bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and extra labor and expense for the producer, says Dr. Joe Dedrickson, Director of Merial Large Animal Veterinary Professional Services. But, he says, by vaccinating for Pasteurella…
U.S. feeder cattle and live cattle futures hit their highest prices since August on Thursday, supported by strength in the cash market, before ending mixed.
In the modern world, respiratory diseases have emerged as one of the most prevalent medical conditions affecting individuals of all age groups. The term respiratory diseases is a broad term and as a norm usually covers common respiratory diseases to life threatening conditions that influence the respiratory system. When it comes to respiratory diseases, it is recommended that individuals should have an understanding of the most common causes of respiratory diseases so as to be able to protect themselves from these infections better. This said the following overview on causes of respiratory diseases will help shed more light on this.. ...
US - CME analysts Steve Meyer and Len Steiner preview the expected conclusions of the USDAs monthly commodity supply/demand estimates (WASDE).
In the modern world, respiratory diseases have become prevalent in individuals of all age sets. Respiratory diseases usually range from mild infections such as cold and flu to other more life threatening diseases. Most people tend to think that infections bringing about these conditions are a matter of chance but this is totally false. Some predisposing factors play a large part when it comes to this category of diseases, and the good news is they can be ...
The long-term effects of a single dose of meloxicam (Metacam 20mg/ml; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) in conjunction with antibiotic therapy in cattle with clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was evaluated in a blind, controlled, randomised study. Two hundred animals with clinical signs of BRD received a single subcutaneous injection of 20 mg/kg oxytetracycline; 100 of them also received a subcutaneous injection of 0·5 mg/kg meloxicam, and the other 100 received an injection of isotonic saline. The animals were weighed before they were treated and seven, 35, 70 and 105 days later, and finally before they were slaughtered. The mean bodyweight of the meloxicam-treated animals was significantly higher from day 70 until slaughter, and the mean average daily weight gain until slaughter and the mean carcase weight of the animals treated with meloxicam were significantly higher. In the animals with lung lesions, significantly less lung tissue was affected in those that had been treated ...
In a barn outside Manhattan, Kan., researchers from Kansas State University are trying to solve the riddle of bovine respiratory disease. They're
In a barn outside Manhattan, Kan., researchers from Kansas State University are trying to solve the riddle of bovine respiratory disease. They're
Receipts: 1734 Last Week: 764 Year Ago: 1078 Compared to two weeks ago, feeder steers and heifers sold 2.00 to 4.00 higher with spots of 5.00 to 6.00 higher, particularly on steers over 650 lbs. Slaughter cows 2.00 to 4.00 higher. Buyers were ready to get back to business after the holiday break at the local barn, and with several auctions shut down for the remainder of the year, demand was good for all weights and classes of cattle. A big thaw is expected by the end of the week, along with some rain in the forecast, and producers took the opportunity to market their stock before mud becomes a big issue. A Special Stock Cow Sale was held in conjunction with the regular weekly sale, featuring several partial dispersals. Supply moderate to heavy. Cows and bulls accounted for 57 percent of the total offering. The feeder supply consisted of 65 percent steers and bulls and 35 percent heifers; 59 percent of all the feeder cattle weighed over 600 lbs. Feeder Steers Medium and Large 1 Head Wt Range Avg ...
Cattle have been domesticated for at least 10,000 years. Brought to North America by European settlers in the 1500s, cattle were first used for their skins and tallow. By the 1850s, beef gained in popularity, especially in Northern markets. Today, cattle are raised worldwide and are used for milk, meat, leather and labor.
Take a look at the deferreds---- Someone buying cattle in this equation looks very wrong. Will fundamentals win over insanity in the end?...
All Senior Specialist Respiratory Diseases jobs in United States. Juju searches jobs from 1,000s of sites to make your Senior Specialist Respiratory Diseases job search faster and more comprehensive.
This is a collection of evidence that is supplemental and supportive to the JSNA Chapter: Respiratory Disease. It brings together all the most relevant intelligence, research and evidence to ensure best practice in decision making.. Please use the contents options to navigate the document, and then click on the title of any document that is of relevance. ...
About This ReportThis new 282-page report from VPGMarketResearch.com presents detailed analysis of the French Respiratory Diseases market, including sales forecasts ...
GLOBAL - Gamithromycin has been shown to have stronger potency against the four major pathogens causing respiratory diseases in pigs.
... encompass pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract,
Asthma Asthma is a respiratory disease. Asthma has a high reactivity of the bronchial tubes to various stimuli and that reaction blocks air flow by
Today, Merial announced ZACTRAN® (gamithromycin), Merials rapid-response weapon in the battle against Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) in high-risk cattle, is now approved for the treatment of Mycoplasma bovis.1 M. bovis is a significant pathogen in dai
In this episode of The Woof Meow Show on July 22, 2017, the second in a two-part series on vaccinations for dogs, Kate and Don talk with Dr. Judy Herman of the Animal Wellness Center in Augusta, Maine. In this show, we start by discussing what the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) classifies as non-core vaccines, those not required by every dog.. The first vaccine we discuss is the one for Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC), more commonly known as canine cough, or sometimes kennel cough. Dr. Hermans starts off by explaining that there are many infectious agents that can cause upper respiratory disease in a dog. This is a vaccination that should be considered for a dog that is around other dogs, such as a show dog, a dog that boards or goes to daycare, a dog that visits the dog park, or any dog that is frequently around other dogs. She explains that they are various types of vaccines; intranasal, intraoral, and injectable, which should not be mixed. Dr. Herman also ...
Free Shipping. Great Low Price. Nuflor (Florfenicol) Injectable Solution for Cattle is an antibiotic indicated for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and foot rot, and for the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk for developing BRD. Each ml of Nuflor Injectable Solution contains 300 mg florfenicol. For treatment of BRD or foot rot, the recommended dosage is 3 ml per 100 lbs body weight, given by IM injection. A second dose should be given 48 hours later. Alternati
Free Shipping. Great Low Price. Nuflor (Florfenicol) Injectable Solution for Cattle is an antibiotic indicated for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and foot rot, and for the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk for developing BRD. Each ml of Nuflor Injectable Solution contains 300 mg florfenicol. For treatment of BRD or foot rot, the recommended dosage is 3 ml per 100 lbs body weight, given by IM injection. A second dose should be given 48 hours later. Alternati
OK, lets talk about diagnosis of sick cattle. You want to detect sick cattle as soon as possible. This will require you to spend some time each day carefully observing the cattle.". Early recognition of cattle with bovine respiratory disease: Look and listen for a soft repetitive cough, watery dull eyes, and a clear nasal discharge. Sometimes affected cattle rapidly lick their nostrils, yet they appear to have a dirty nose. The membranes around the eyes and nostrils may be reddened. Sick cattle will also decrease the amount they eat and not be as aggressive at the bunk. Observe any cattle hanging behind the bunk after the feed wagon goes by or at the bunk without feed on their nose. Sick cattle may have their heads hanging down, a gaunt appearance, and hollow paralumbar fossa.. ...
by Tamara Scully. The Veterinary Feed Directive, going into effect fully in Jan. 1, 2017, will change the way producers handle some common treatments for diseases. Any medically important antibiotics will have to be prescribed by a veterinarian. But before cattle get sick, vaccination is a preventative step available for many diseases.. Dr. Heidi Ward, DVM, of the University of Arkansas Department of Animal Science, recently discussed common cattle diseases, prevention and treatments. The top disease concerns, ranging in severity, are: bovine respiratory disease; diarrheal disease; reproductive disease; and muscoskeletal disease. Vector diseases, transmitted by a bite, typically from a fly or tick, are also of concern. [Read more…]. ...
In a barn outside Manhattan, Kan., researchers from Kansas State University are trying to solve the riddle of bovine respiratory disease. Theyre
The beef cycle begins with the cow-calf operation, which breeds the new calves. Most ranchers breed their herds of cows in summer, thus producing the new crop of calves in spring (the gestation period is about nine months). This allows the calves to be born during the milder weather of spring and provides the calves with ample forage through the summer and early autumn. The calves are weaned from the mother after six to eight months and then usually spend six to ten months in the stocker operation, growing to near full-sized. When the cattle reach 600-800 pounds, they are typically sent to a feedlot and become "feeder cattle.". In the feedlot, the cattle are fed a special food mix to encourage rapid weight gain. The animal is considered "finished" when it reaches full weight and is ready for slaughter, typically at around 1,200 pounds, which produces a dressed carcass of around 745 pounds. After reaching full weight, the cattle are sold for slaughter to a meat packing plant.. When dealing with ...
New York Dept of Ag Mrkt News Mon May 13, 2019. Special Note: Next Feeder Cattle Special will be held on Saturday, June 15th.. Compared to the last report, Number 1 Steers sold steady to 5.00 higher; Number 1-2 and Number 2 Steers under 600 lbs sold steady, over 600 lbs sold 10.00 to 20.00 higher. Holstein Steers under 600 lbs sold weak, over 600 lbs sold firm, both on a light test. Number 1 Heifers under 500 lbs sold steady to 5.00 lower, 500-600 lbs sold 10.00- 20.00 lower; over 600 lbs sold 10.00 lower; Number 1-2 and Number 2 Heifers sold steady. Number 1 Bulls not tested; Number 1-2 Bulls sold under 600 lbs sold steady to 5.00 higher, over 600 lbs not tested; Number 2 Bulls under 500 lbs sold steady to 10.00 lower, over 500 lbs sold firm. Supply included: 100% Feeder Cattle (41% Steers, 5% ...
Receipts: 1305 Last Week: 1275 Year Ago: 1869 Compared to last week, all weights of feeder steers sold steady to 2.00 higher. Heifer calves under 600 lbs regained all of last weeks losses and traded 5.00-8.00 higher with spots as much as 10.00 higher. Heavier heifers were mostly steady with light comparable sales from last week. Offerings were generally more attractive than last week, including two loads of top quality 7 weight steers. Slaughter cows and bulls sold firm to 2.00 higher. Supply consisted of 17 percent cows and bulls with the balance mostly feeders. The feeder run included 50 percent steers, 35 percent heifers, and 15 percent feeder bulls with around 42 percent over 600 lbs. Feeder Steers: Medium and Large 1 few 350-400 lbs 129.00-138.00; 400-500 lbs 115.00-130.00; 500-550 lbs 112.50-120.25; 550-600 lbs 108.00-115.75, pkg full 570 lbs 105.00; 600-700 lbs 105.00-113.50, fancy/thin 114.25-115.25; 700-750 lbs 105.00-111.50; two loads 765-775 lbs 115.00-116.00; 800-900 lbs ...
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Looking for Avian leucosis virus? Find out information about Avian leucosis virus. A disease complex in fowl probably caused by viruses and characterized by autonomous proliferation of blood-forming cells Explanation of Avian leucosis virus
Find the best Cattle Ranches Dude Ranch online at Ranchweb.com--your one stop resource for finding and planning your next ranch vacation...
Find the best Cattle Ranches Dude Ranch online at Ranchweb.com--your one stop resource for finding and planning your next ranch vacation...
US - Slaughter and feeder cattle prices have been under steep pressure this week, reports Steiner Consulting Group, DLR Division, Inc.
... A Problem-Oriented Approach to Diagnosis & Management by Laurant Couetil and Jan Hawkins http://img195.imageshack.us/img195/4008/respdishorsecover.png Pages: 238 Publisher: -- Edition: 1st., 2013
The number of Americans who die from chronic respiratory diseases has skyrocketed over the past 35 years, led in large part by deaths from COPD, a new report indicates.
Erika Larsens cattle ranch photographs have a surreal yet timeless quality to them. I would never have guessed that they were commissioned by a business m
In this article we will review the impact of cigarettes to lung function and then will focus in more detail on the common lung disease caused by smoking.
Written by Becky James BSc MSc Non-infectious inflammatory lower airway diseases of horses share marked similarities to human asthma in terms of causes, clinica
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Edited by Claudia Bausewein David C Currow and Miriam J Johnson Palliative care aims to optimise function and to enhance quality of life for patients
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BY27 是一种有效、选择性的 BET BD2 抑制剂,对 BRD2,BRD3,BRD4 和 BRDT 的 BD2 结构域的选择性分别是 BD1 的 38、5、7 和 21 倍。BY27 具有抗癌作用。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
Respiratory disease is a major cause of economic losses for the swine industry and ranks as a primary contributor to mortality in swine. Over the last 20 years, as swine production operations have continued to consolidate, respiratory disease in swine has become increasingly multifactorial in nature. The work presented in this dissertation centers around the development of vaccines utilizing the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) for two viral pathogens associated with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex (PRDC), a multifactorial respiratory disease syndrome affecting growing and finishing phase pigs. The work in this dissertation demonstrates that vaccines formulated with subunit hemagglutinin (HA) fused to an IgG Fc domain, VLP-displayed HA, or baculovirus-displayed HA may be viable alternatives to the traditional inactivated whole virus approaches currently utilized in the veterinary vaccine industry. In addition, this work uncovers a potential problem for the development of VLP-based
is an important cause of bovine respiratory disease worldwide. phosphotransferase system enzyme IIB and IIA components, enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, glycerol, and multiple sugar ATP-binding cassette transporters, ATP binding proteins, NADH dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, transketolase, and a variable surface protein. Fifteen genes were shown to be enriched in 15 metabolic pathways, and they included the aforementioned genes encoding pyruvate kinase, transketolase, enolase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in strains representing seven passages from P1 to P180 decreased progressively with increasing numbers of passages and increased attenuation. However, eight mutants specific to eight individual genes within the 14.2-kb deleted region did not exhibit altered H2O2 production. These results enrich the genomics database, and they increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virulence. is a member of the family in the class ...
Feeder cattle are steers (castrated males) or heifers (females who have not dropped a calf) mature enough to be placed in a feedlot where they will be fattened prior to slaughter. Feeder calves are less than 1 year old; feeder yearlings are between 1 and 2 years old. Both types are often produced in a cow-calf operation. This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document "Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition" by Jasper Womach ...
Beef/Cattle: Despite continuing drought in the Southwestern United States, winter precipitation has kept feeder cattle on Southern Plains wheat pasture. Placements of heavier feeder cattle...
of Calves are 100% Hereford. of Calves are 100% Hereford x English. of Calves are 100% Hereford x Continental. of Calves are 100% Hereford x Brahman. of Calves are 100% Non-Hereford. ...
Bryan- I like everyone, religious or not. This is a discussion of medical philosophy. It is not personal. I reread your book Top Ten and it was indeed presented as cutting edge treatment for Lymes disease (did I get the punctuation correct for you and doc- he hates that also). Perhaps the others were different. I do NOT think you are ignorant (other than perhaps the overseas treatment where the guy died in bed next to you)- I think you have massed a great deal of knowledge. I dont think much of the antibiotics either and yes I know how much they cost. I dont think we have a top 10 treatments INCLUDING the antibiotics. If you are treating someone for years and you dont get them all better- you dont have a good treatment. This is a horrible, devestating disease complex (in its worst form). Representing the top 10 anything I feel is misleading including long, involved IV treatment that bankrupts people. We do not have the information backing ANY of it. It is all wrong. I think you have done an ...
9.4 Respiratory disease Oxford Textbook of Public Health 9.4 Respiratory disease T. H. Lam and A. J. Hedley Factors in respiratory disease Global respiratory mortality World burden of respiratory diseases Smoking and respiratory deaths in developed countries Deaths from smoking in developing countries Recent international and national actions Occupational factors and respiratory diseases Respiratory health…
Beef was higher pork were lower on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Feb. live cattle was up 1.37 cents at $1.2082 a pound; Mar. feeder cattle rose 2.20 cents at $1.3852 a pound; while Feb. lean hogs was off .18 cent at $.5582 a pound.. ...
Suggestions for Management of Calves at Weaning Time by University News Release | Read more Regional News about Agriculture and Crop Production on AgWeb.
Members of Respiratory Diseases Support Group - Lungs and Respiration. Discuss with people facing similar health challenges as yours. Seek advice from our online experts.
... There are many times of the year when bronchial infections seem to increase. While not a researcher or medical
Health data from more than one million Danish children serves as foundation for University of Copenhagen study reporting considerably higher risks for certain respiratory diseases, among other things, as a result of tonsil removal.
Students will research a respiratory disease and give information about that disease, such as risk factors, treatment, how disease is diagnosed, demographics most affected, etc. Fun homework activity for students studying the respiratory system.
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page on infectious respiratory diseases. Lists common diseases of this type and includes prevention measures and links to additional relevant NC DHHS and CDC information.
Bar Lazy J Guest Ranch: Worth every penny ! - See 114 traveler reviews, 107 candid photos, and great deals for Bar Lazy J Guest Ranch at TripAdvisor.
There is so much to discuss about Heifer Ranch I thought it deserved a second post. In the first post I introduced you to this farm and learning center tha
This uniquely comprehensive work provides a pictorial guide to the whole spectrum of diseases and disorders of the respiratory tract in children.
This two day course is intended to improve knowledge of common respiratory disorders and some understanding of spirometry. Course Code CS6020
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Objective: To determine the efficacy of injectable meloxicam as adjunctive therapy to antimicrobial medication in treatment and control of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in growing pigs.. Methods: A total of 162 ninety-day-old pigs showing early clinical signs of PRDC were weighed (Day 0) and allocated into two treatment groups, Controls (n = 82) and Meloxicam (n = 80), in a randomized block design (approximately 20 pigs per pen, four pens per treatment per replicate). In-feed chlortetracycline (800 g per tonne; 20 mg per kg body weight per day) was administered to both groups for 8 consecutive days (Days 0 to 7). On Day 0, Controls received a single injection of a placebo and the Meloxicam group received a single injection of meloxicam (0.4 mg per kg body weight). Respiratory signs were assessed per individual animal and per treatment group Days 0 to 7. Frequency of additional injectable medications, mortality ...
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
FeLV invades and replicates in various cells, including cells in the cats immune system and blood-forming tissues. To replicate, the nucleic acid (genetic code) of FeLV inserts itself into the nucleic acid of the cells it has invaded. The result can be death of the cell or a mutation or change in its genetic code. Such a change can make the cell potentially cancerous; the cancerous change may not occur for months or years after infection.. Cancers can occur in a variety of tissues, organs and body sites, depending on the type and location of cells that have been infected with FeLV. Such cancers can involve any type of the circulating white blood cells (leukemia) or other cells of the blood-forming tissues. The most common tumor associated with FeLV is that of lymphoid cells known as lymphoma or lymphosarcoma. These tumors may occur at single or multiple sites in the body.. Although the development of cancer is one outcome of FeLV infection, other diseases more commonly develop. In many cats, ...
Warming temperatures could and should stimulate beef buying. However, were a little concerned that now is the time of year where (more) supplies start to offset increased demand," said Allendale Inc. chief strategist Rich Nelson.. Last week, packers in the U.S. Plains paid $132-$136/cwt.. The average beef packer margin on Tuesday was estimated at a negative $47.25 per head, up from a negative $62.35 on Monday and a negative $47 a week ago, as calculated by HedgersEdge.com.. The mornings wholesale choice beef price surged $2.50/cwt from Monday, to $218.95. Select cuts climbed $2.14, to $209.19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture said.. Fallen live cattle futures and weaker cash feeder cattle prices weighed on CME feeder cattle contracts. April closed down 0.275 cent/lb., to 155.275 cents.. Generally weak hog futures. Most CME lean hog contracts slipped on their premiums to the exchanges hog index for April 8 at 66.52 cents, traders said.. They said April futures tracked the hog index as the ...
Receipts: 1833 Last Week: 2325 Year Ago: 2179 Compared to last week; feeder steers, heifers, and Holstein steers all sold mostly steady. There was some firmness noted on calves under 500 lbs and yearlings over 700 lbs, but also spots of weakness evident on middle- weight feeders from 500-700 lbs. Demand was fairly good throughout and noticeably better for the Wean-Vac portion of the sale, which made up a smaller percentage of receipts than normal. Fed cattle traded 4.00-5.00 higher in the Western feedlots on Wednesday from 101.00-102.00, but corn was nearly up the limit. Supplies included 41 percent steers, 33 percent heifers, 14 percent feeder bulls, and only 12 percent Holsteins. Around 33 percent of the cattle weighed over 600 lbs. Feeder Steers: Medium and Large 1 300-400 lbs 130.00-138.00; 400-450 lbs 124.00-132.00; 450-500 lbs 117.00-120.00; 500-600 lbs 110.50-117.00; 600-700 lbs 106.50-113.50, unweaned 105.00-109.50; pkg 720 lbs unweaned 106.50; 750- 800 lb yearlings 108.00-109.00. Medium ...
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is one of the most important infectious viruses of cats. It was first discovered in cats with a form of leukemia, hence its name. FeLV is the cause of a variety of diseases, not just leukemia.
The antimicrobial properties of tulathromycin were investigated for M.haemolytica and P.multocida. Three invitro indices of antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves, were established for six isolates of each organism. Each index was measured in two growth media: Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. It was shown that MICs and MBCs were markedly lower in serum than in MHB. MHB:serum ratios for MIC were 47:1 (M.haemolytica) and 53:1 (P.multocida). For both serum and MHB, adjustment of pH led to greater potency at alkaline compared to acid pH. Tulathromycin MIC was influenced by size of inoculum count, being 4.0- to 7.7-fold greater for high compared to low initial counts. It was concluded that for the purpose of determining dosages for therapeutic use, pharmacodynamic data for tulathromycin should be derived in biological fluids such as serum. It is hypothesized that invitro measurement of MIC in broth, ...
Date: 3/29/2017 Title: Feedlot- and Pen-Level Prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic *Escherichia coli* in Feces of Commercial Feedlot Cattle in Two Major U.S. Cattle Feeding Areas ...

SulfaMed (sulfadimethoxine) Injection 40% for Animal Use - Drugs.comSulfaMed (sulfadimethoxine) Injection 40% for Animal Use - Drugs.com

Cattle - For the treatment of bovine respiratory disease complex (shipping fever complex) and bacterial pneumonia associated ... SulfaMed™ Injection 40% is indicated for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease complex (shipping fever complex) and ... To assure successful sulfonamide therapy (1) the drug must be given early in the course of the disease, and it must produce a ... effective for the treatment of shipping fever complex, bacterial pneumonia, calf diphtheria, and foot rot in cattle. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/vet/sulfamed-sulfadimethoxine-injection-40.html

Di-Methox (SulfaMed) Cattle Antibiotic Injection 40% (sulfadimethoxine) | Jeffers PetDi-Methox (SulfaMed) Cattle Antibiotic Injection 40% (sulfadimethoxine) | Jeffers Pet

... shipping fever complex, calf diphtheria, foot rot, and bovine respiratory complex. Sulfadimethoxine is a white, almost ... To ensure successful treatment, the drug must be given early in the course of the disease, produce a high sulfonamide level in ...
more infohttps://www.jefferspet.com/products/di-methox-injection-40-250ml

Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex | Animal Health Research Reviews | Cambridge CoreImmune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex | Animal Health Research Reviews | Cambridge Core

Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex - Volume 8 Issue 2 - Subramaniam Srikumaran, Clayton L. ... Viruses that play prominent roles in causing the bovine respiratory disease complex include bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine ... Bovine respiratory tract disease is a multi-factorial disease complex involving several viruses and bacteria. ... Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex. * Subramaniam Srikumaran (a1), Clayton L. Kelling (a2) and ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews/article/immune-evasion-by-pathogens-of-bovine-respiratory-disease-complex/927F29BB207D24D834BD9207CF904102

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease complexEpidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex

... diagnosis and prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a common pre-weaning and post-weaning beef calf disease ... Epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex. K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection ... Epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex. Hanzlicek, Gregg Alan ... Keywords: Epidemiology; Bovine respiratory disease. Graduation Month: December. Degree: Doctor of Philosophy. Department: ...
more infohttp://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/6685

Bovine respiratory disease - WikipediaBovine respiratory disease - Wikipedia

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and costly disease affecting beef cattle in the world. It is a complex, ... Bovine Respiratory Disease, Clell Bagley and the Utah State University Cooperative Extension. Bovine Respiratory Disease " ... Viral agents include Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ( ... "The bovine respiratory disease complex". The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne. 15 (9): 233-42. PMC ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_respiratory_disease

Animal models for animal health - WURAnimal models for animal health - WUR

Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex. Cattle Llamas Animal model. Immunization for phage antibody libraries. Llamas. ...
more infohttps://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Research-Institutes/Bioveterinary-Research/CRO/Animal-models-3/Animal-models-for-animal-health.htm

Frontiers | En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position...Frontiers | En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position...

... drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then ... drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then ... examples are bovine respiratory disease complex, swine respiratory disease etc. When several causative agents are involved, ... Apley, M. D. (2003). Susceptibility testing for bovine respiratory and enteric disease. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02344/full

Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan - Volume 26, Number 1-January 2020 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal ...Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan - Volume 26, Number 1-January 2020 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal ...

... can potentially cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We isolated a new IDV strain from diseased cattle in Japan; this ... Influenza D virus (IDV; family Orthomyxoviridae) is one of the possible bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) causative ... bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine rhinitis A virus, Mycobacterium ... Dane H, Duffy C, Guelbenzu M, Hause B, Fee S, Forster F, et al. Detection of influenza D virus in bovine respiratory disease ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/1/19-1092

Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan - Volume 26, Number 1-January 2020 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal ...Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan - Volume 26, Number 1-January 2020 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal ...

... can potentially cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We isolated a new IDV strain from diseased cattle in Japan; this ... Influenza D virus (IDV; family Orthomyxoviridae) is one of the possible bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) causative ... bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine rhinitis A virus, Mycobacterium ... Dane H, Duffy C, Guelbenzu M, Hause B, Fee S, Forster F, et al. Detection of influenza D virus in bovine respiratory disease ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/1/19-1092_article

nature.com searchnature.com search

Tissue Tropism in Host Transcriptional Response to Members of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex *Susanta K. Behura ... permissionsfor article Tissue Tropism in Host Transcriptional Response to Members of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex . ... A comprehensive manually-curated compendium of bovine transcription factors *Marcela M. de Souza ... Rights & permissionsfor article A comprehensive manually-curated compendium of bovine transcription factors . Opens in a new ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Luciana%20C.%20A.%20Regitano%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=ca6d6d01-9bff-4ccf-ad1a-580f7e2a6584

Tags  | VCE Publications | Virginia TechTags | VCE Publications | Virginia Tech

Recognition and Treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex. * Recognition and Treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease ... Improperly managed, animal carcasses have the potential to spread disease and contaminate surface and groundwater supplies. ... assist Virginias farmers in understanding their mortality disposal options during natural disasters and non-infectious disease ...
more infohttp://pubs.ext.vt.edu/tags.resource.html?tag=pubs_ext_vt_edu:beef-cattle

SearchSearch

The association between transportation and the occurrence of the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) has long been ... Invited review: Relationship between cattle transport, immunity and respiratory disease * B. Earley, K. Buckham Sporer, S. ... Evidence also supports the role of upper and lower airway dysfunction in the development of upper respiratory tract infection ... Journal: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease / Volume 6 / Issue 5 / October 2015 ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/search?filters%5Bkeywords%5D=physiology

Herrler G[au] - PubMed - NCBIHerrler G[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from caprine lungs by viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex. ... Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection. ... Mutations during the Adaptation of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus to the Respiratory Epithelium of Pigs Enhance Sialic Acid Binding ... Comparative analysis of the sialic acid binding activity and the tropism for the respiratory epithelium of four different ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Herrler+G%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Vaccinations for the Beef Cattle Herd - Alabama Cooperative Extension SystemVaccinations for the Beef Cattle Herd - Alabama Cooperative Extension System

Vaccination programs for beef cattle herds protect the animals from diseases caused by infectious organisms such as viruses, ... acute respiratory disease, especially in young cattle.. BVD (Bovine Virus Diarrhea). A disease caused by bovine viral diarrhea ... The disease is sometimes called red nose and often initiates the shipping fever complex. Many IBR vaccines include additional ... IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis). A disease caused by a herpes virus, resulting in respiratory signs, reproductive ...
more infohttps://www.aces.edu/blog/topics/livestock/vaccinations-for-the-beef-cattle-herd/

Foot Rot Treatment Timing? - CattleToday.comFoot Rot Treatment Timing? - CattleToday.com

Bacterial Pneumonia and Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (Shipping Fever Complex) (Pasteurella spp.), Colibacillosis ( ... Foot rot is just one of the diseases Sustain can treat. I like them because my girls are hand-feeders and I can easily treat ... Boluses are indicated for the treatment of the following diseases when caused by one or more of the following pathogenic ...
more infohttp://cattletoday.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=1423099

ScopeMed.org - Deposit for Medical ArticlesScopeMed.org - Deposit for Medical Articles

Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A Critical Review. Neelima Patel; Raj Kumar Patel; Jitendra Singh Rajoriya; Manoj Kumar ... Pattern of macrovascular disease phenotypes amongst newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients in a rural institute in Uttar ... A Statistical Analysis of Trends in Mortality from Major Infectious Diseases of Global burden, 1990-2015. M. N. Megeri; H. H. ... Effectiveness of self-instructional module on knowledge of self-care management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among ...
more infohttp://www.scopemed.org/?term=Manoj%20Kumar&sarea=author&b1=Search+ScopeMed

DNR - Bovine TuberculosisDNR - Bovine Tuberculosis

... is a serious disease caused when bacteria attack the respiratory system. There are three types of TB - human, avian, and bovine ... Bovine TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) which is part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.. ... Bovine TB is a chronic disease and it can take years to develop. M. Bovis grows very slowly and only replicates every 12-20 ... Although bovine TB was once relatively common in cattle in the U.S., it has historically been a very rare disease in wild deer ...
more infohttp://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10319-99064--,00.html

CattleMaster GOLD FP 5 (Canada) for Animal Use - Drugs.comCattleMaster GOLD FP 5 (Canada) for Animal Use - Drugs.com

BRSV infection may be indistinguishable from other viral infections associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex. ... and respiratory disease caused by IBR, BVD (Types 1 and 2), parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus ( ... DISEASE DESCRIPTION: IBR and BVD are commonly associated with reproductive and respiratory disease while BRSV and PI-3 are ... BRSV is the etiologic agent of a specific viral respiratory disease of cattle of all ages, including nursing calves. Infection ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/vet/cattlemaster-gold-fp-5-can.html

Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the...Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the...

... are respiratory pathogens of cattle that cause disease singly but are often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex ... Bovine vaccines currently contain BPI3V to provide protection against the virus, but there is no current information regarding ... differences between viruses from these genotypes and the BPI3Va viruses that are included in currently marketed bovine vaccines ... are respiratory pathogens of cattle that cause disease singly but are often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex ...
more infohttps://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-015-0431-8

Frontiers | Implementing Precision Antimicrobial Therapy for the Treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease: Current Limitations...Frontiers | Implementing Precision Antimicrobial Therapy for the Treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease: Current Limitations...

... presenting signs of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). A total of 195 YB (Charolais, Limousin and Rouge-des-Prés breeds) from 6 ... presenting signs of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). A total of 195 YB (Charolais, Limousin and Rouge-des-Prés breeds) from 6 ... The use of infrared thermography as an early indicator of bovine respiratory disease complex in calves. Res Vet Sci (2007) 83: ... Keywords: antimicrobial use, decreased regimen, early treatment, fluoroquinolone, cattle, bovine respiratory disease complex, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2017.00143/full

Serological test and chest computed tomography findings in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease | European...Serological test and chest computed tomography findings in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease | European...

It could be argued that patients are suffering from MAC lung disease when they: 1) exhibit a positive respiratory culture for ... Serum samples were diluted 40-fold with PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin. Diluted serum samples were added, followed by ... Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in immunocompetent patients: radiography-CT correlation. Br J Radiol 2002;75:340-344. ... Serological test and chest computed tomography findings in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. S. Kitada, Y ...
more infohttps://erj.ersjournals.com/content/29/6/1217?ijkey=68e8a0fd3004cedb8708db70a80bd0bbf647043f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Strategic Use of Antibiotics in Stocker Cattle  | VCE Publications | Virginia TechStrategic Use of Antibiotics in Stocker Cattle | VCE Publications | Virginia Tech

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), or shipping fever, remains the most important health issue facing stocker-cattle ... Table 1. Drugs approved for use in metaphylaxis for bovine respiratory disease complex. ... Table 3. Most commonly used antibiotics for treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex. ... Table 3 contains a listing of the antibiotics most commonly used to treat respiratory disease. ...
more infohttps://pubs.ext.vt.edu/400/400-307/400-307.html

Nervous Coccidiosis diagnosed in a bull - Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic LaboratoryNervous Coccidiosis diagnosed in a bull - Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory

Factors involved in a Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) diagnosis. June 28, 2019. ... Filed Under: Case Study Tagged With: bovine, bull, histopathology, pathology, TVMDL, TVMDL-College Station ...
more infohttp://tvmdl.tamu.edu/2018/10/08/nervous-coccidiosis-diagnosed-in-a-bull/

college stationcollege station

Factors involved in a Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) diagnosis. June 28, 2019. by Mallory Pfeifer ... Factors involved in a Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) diagnosis By Guy Sheppard, DVM The Texas A&M Veterinary Medical ... Factors involved in a Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) diagnosis June 28, 2019 ... frequently works on Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) cases. Multiple factors lead to … [Read more...] ...
more infohttp://tvmdl.tamu.edu/tag/college-station/

Bayer Launches Immunostimulant Zelnate® for Animal Health Following Authorization in the US | FiercePharmaBayer Launches Immunostimulant Zelnate® for Animal Health Following Authorization in the US | FiercePharma

... motif-based immunostimulant shown to effectively reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) associated mortality and lung... ... Is Mycoplasma bovis a missing component of the bovine respiratory disease complex in Australia? Aust. Vet. J. 92(6), 185-191 An ... motif-based immunostimulant shown to effectively reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) associated mortality and lung lesions ... Administered to cattle at risk of respiratory disease, Zelnate was shown to effectively mitigate BRD by reducing mortality by ...
more infohttps://www.fiercepharma.com/animal-health/bayer-launches-immunostimulant-zelnate%C2%AE-for-animal-health-following-authorization-us
  • To ensure successful treatment, the drug must be given early in the course of the disease, produce a high sulfonamide level in the body shortly after administration, and retain that high level throughout the course of the treatment. (jefferspet.com)
  • The objective of my research was to generate novel information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a common pre-weaning and post-weaning beef calf disease. (k-state.edu)
  • family Orthomyxoviridae ) is one of the possible bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) causative agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Factors involved in a Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) diagnosis By Guy Sheppard, DVM The Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) frequently works on Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) cases. (tamu.edu)
  • M. haemolytica is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease.Wepresent the first two complete closed genome sequences of this species, determined using an automated assembly pipeline requiring no manual finishing. (unl.edu)
  • One of the most costly scourges to the beef business, bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), is currently under the microscope. (workingranchtv.com)
  • Disease shedding is no stranger to the feedlot, which is where another research project on the BRDC hunt is taking place. (workingranchtv.com)
  • When an economic analysis was conducted based on the differences in harvested value of BRDC affected steers, their treatment costs, and death losses," explains Dr. Holly Neibergs, "it was estimated that the feedlot industry was losing over $1 billion annually from this disease. (workingranchtv.com)
  • The industry wants to move towards alternatives to antibiotics in preventing and treating BRDc and nitric oxide may be the answer - it's the body's first defense," explains Dr. Miller, scientist at the Immunity and Infection Research Centre and Assistant Professor at the UBC Faculty of Medicine, Respiratory Division. (vchri.ca)
  • Using DNA typing, his studies show that the most common and destructive bacteria involved in the BRD complex (BRDC) - Mannheimia haemolytica - are mostly not spread from calf to calf during BRD outbreaks occurring at feedlots. (beefmagazine.com)
  • In contrast, animals that received a sham DNA vaccine (n = 12) had no detectable neutralizing antibodies against IDV, and viral RNA was readily detectable in respiratory tract tissues after intranasal challenge [3 x 10(5) TCIDwith IDV D/OK (n = 6) or D/660 (n = 6). (cdc.gov)
  • There are multiple layers of the immune system protecting the respiratory tract, and once we compromise any one of them, we have the potential for a problem," explained Daniel Scruggs, DVM, DACVP, Pfizer Animal Health veterinarian. (beefmagazine.com)
  • We also collected serum samples from 8 cows on January 10 (acute phase of the disease) and February 4 (recovery phase) and examined them for antibodies against D/Yama2019 by using the HA inhibition (HI) test ( Appendix Table 1). (cdc.gov)
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica are the most common causative agents of porcine respiratory disease which causes significant losses to the pig industry. (edu.au)
  • The diagnosis of the disease is complex since there are multiple possible causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: Gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist? (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis and management of MAC lung disease is therefore becoming a matter of increasing concern among respiratory physicians. (ersjournals.com)
  • The present authors previously reported the usefulness of a serological test for diagnosis of MAC lung disease with a glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antigen that was used for enzyme immunoassay 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the test for diagnosing MAC lung disease were 92.5 and 95.1%, respectively, for immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Combining this serodiagnostic test with the criteria advocated by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) for nontuberculous mycobacterial respiratory disease in 1997 7 facilitated easier and more rapid definitive diagnosis of MAC lung disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • To confirm the diagnosis, a veterinary surgeon will take samples of tissue from blood, lung, liver and spleen and send these to a laboratory to determine the organism that has caused the disease. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Veritas DVM offers a comprehensive course on Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex for Veterinary Professionals that focuses on diagnosis, treatment and management of BRD Complex. (socialbookmarkssite.com)
  • The present authors have previously reported the usefulness of a serodiagnostic test to detect serum glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antibody in diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease in immunocompetent patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate correlations between the levels of antibody against GPL core and chest computed tomography (CCT) findings in patients with MAC lung disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • The present results document that the levels of immunoglobulin A antibody against glycopeptidolipid core correlate with the chest computed tomography findings of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • The present authors examined the usefulness of the GPL serodiagnostic test in immunocompetent patients with lung disease and found that MAC lung disease could be clearly differentiated from colonisation with MAC and from lung diseases caused by either M. tuberculosis or M. kansasii . (ersjournals.com)
  • and 3) no predisposing lung disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • The three groups of animals treated with gamithromycin before challenge had significantly lower lung M. haemolytica counts and fewer clinical signs of respiratory disease than did the saline-treated group. (asm.org)
  • Bovine IL-8 promoter-luciferase activation correlates with white blood cell and neutrophil infiltration into the lung. (jove.com)
  • A marker was selected as a proxy for each gene within the bovine genome. (animalgenome.org)
  • Scientists in China have successfully inserted a tuberculosis-resistance gene into the bovine genome, without any off-target genetic effects. (bovinevetonline.com)
  • The minimal set of viral proteins required for encapsidation, transcription, and replication of the viral genome are the three subunits of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (PB1, PB2, and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic trees for the 7 nucleotide genomic segments of D/bovine/Yamagata/1/2019 (arrow), an influenza D virus of a new phylogenetic lineage, Japan. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, nearly 900 of over 230,000 deer tested in Michigan have been positive for bovine tuberculosis. (michigan.gov)
  • There are several types of tuberculosis, but bovine tuberculosis (bTB) can infect the widest variety of animals and is what wildlife managers have been trying to eradicate from white-tailed deer in Michigan. (michigan.gov)
  • Adams AE, Olea-Popelka FJ, Roman-Muniz IN (2013) Using temperature-sensing reticular boluses to aid in the detection of production diseases in dairy cows. (springer.com)
  • Entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Highly virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains have increasingly overwhelmed Asia and Europe in recent years. (bvsalud.org)
  • This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Influenza D virus (IDV) can potentially cause respiratory diseases in livestock. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunostimulants offer game-changing potential in the livestock industry, as they enable an animal to help itself, potentially reducing the incidence of disease and the need for antibiotics. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The need for livestock protection increases as overseas disease threats continue to emerge. (drovers.com)
  • Zoonotic diseases could pose a risk to animals, producers, public health and livestock markets. (bovinevetonline.com)
  • Mutations during the Adaptation of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus to the Respiratory Epithelium of Pigs Enhance Sialic Acid Binding Activity and Virulence in Mice. (nih.gov)
  • There are three types of TB - human, avian, and bovine. (michigan.gov)
  • There has also been a lot of discussion about Swine and avian flu - virus diseases that have become epidemics, but for which descriptions may come in later issues of this file. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • On the basis of this knowledge a secondary aim is to assess the likelihood of these avian E. coli being linked to human disease. (edu.au)
  • Dr Justine Gibson is a veterinary microbiologist with ten years' experience researching zoonotic and animal bacterial diseases, focusing on population genetics, molecular epidemiology, microbial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. (edu.au)
  • Vaccines cannot prevent exposure to infectious organisms, but they do increase an animal's ability to fight off an infection or lessen the severity of the disease if it occurs. (aces.edu)
  • Severity of disease is influenced by a number of factors including dose, age of animal, type of husbandry. (vetstream.com)
  • The administration of gamithromycin 1, 5, and 10 days prior to M. haemolytica A1 challenge resulted in a reduction in bacterial isolation from the lungs and a reduction in the severity of clinical disease. (asm.org)
  • Observations from research studies and clinical experience have indicated that the presence of mycoplasmas increases the severity of respiratory disease. (up.ac.za)
  • This study determined the optimum storage vessel and the effects of resveratrol for the storage of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes. (readbyqxmd.com)