A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing recurrent respiratory PAPILLOMATOSIS; GENITAL WARTS; and other neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The type species of KAPPAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. It is reported to occur naturally in cottontail rabbits in North America.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE causing fibropapillomas in their respective ungulate hosts. Species infected include cattle, European elk, deer, and sheep.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, which cause cutaneous lesions in humans. They are histologically distinguishable by intracytoplasmic INCLUSION BODIES which are species specific.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, causing cutaneous lesions in humans. Infections exist in latent form in the general population and are activated under conditions of IMMUNOSUPPRESSION.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATINE TONSIL.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.

A mutational analysis of the transforming functions of the E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. (1/28)

The E8 protein of BPV-4 contributes to transformation of primary bovine cells (PalFs) by inducing anchorage-independent growth and by down-regulating gap junction intercellular communication, likely due to its binding to 16K ductin. We show here that, in addition, E8 confers on PalF cells the ability to grow in low serum and to escape from contact inhibition (focus formation). E8 also transactivates an exogenous human cyclin A gene promoter, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin A is responsible for the transformed phenotype. Mutant forms of E8 were generated to establish whether the transforming functions of the protein could be segregated. Mutations were introduced both in the hydrophobic domain and in the hydrophilic C-terminal "tail", and chimeras with BPV-1 E5 were constructed. Cells expressing either wild-type E8 or mutant forms were analyzed for their ability to grow in low serum and in suspension and to form foci. Wild-type E8 and its mutants were also analyzed for their ability to transactivate the cyclin A promoter. We show here that the transforming functions of E8 can be segregated and that both the hydrophilic C-terminal tail and the residue at position 17 in the hydrophobic domain are crucial for E8 functions and for the transactivation of the cyclin A promoter. These results support the hypothesis that the different aspects of cellular transformation brought about by E8 might be due to interaction with different cellular targets. They suggest that E8 might function differently from BPV-1 E5 and demonstrate that the separate domains of E5 and E8 are not functionally interchangeable.  (+info)

An enhanced epithelial response of a papillomavirus promoter to transcriptional activators. (2/28)

Mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have a similar long control region (LCR) organization: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites. The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial-specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (Gloss, B., Bernard, H. U., Seedorf, K., and Klock, G. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 3735-3743; Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1999) J. Gen. Virol. 80, 23-27). Studies on E2 transcriptional regulation of the human mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have been hindered by poor access to the natural target cell type and by the observation that some of the human papillomavirus promoters, including human papillomavirus-16, are repressed in immortalized epithelial cells. Here we present results using the bovine papillomavirus-4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system as a model to study the mechanism of E2 transcriptional regulation of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses and the cell type specificity of this regulation. E2 up-regulates transcription from the BPV-4 LCR preferentially in epithelial cells (Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1998) J. Gen. Virol. 79, 501-508). We demonstrate that the epithelial-specific enhancer element of the BPV-4 LCR is not required for the enhanced activity of E2 in epithelial cells and that the BPV-4 promoter is more responsive, not only to E2, but to other transcriptional activators in epithelial cells. This is the first time a level of epithelial specificity has been shown to reside in a papillomavirus promoter region.  (+info)

alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory cell receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4. (3/28)

Recently, alpha6 integrin has been proposed as the epithelial cell receptor for papillomavirus. This study investigated whether alpha6 integrin is the cellular receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4), which is strictly epitheliotropic and infects the mucous epithelium of the upper digestive tract. Primary bovine mucosal keratinocytes from the palate of a foetus (PalK) displayed high levels of alpha6 integrin; matched primary fibroblasts from the same biopsy (PalF) expressed almost no alpha6 integrin. However, BPV-4 bound both PalK and PalF to similar, saturable levels. Native BPV-4 virions infected PalK in vitro, as detected by RT-PCR of E7 RNA. Infection could be blocked by excess virus-like particles (VLPs) and by neutralizing antisera against L1-L2 and L1 VLPs or by denaturation of the virions, supporting the view that infection in vitro mimics the process in vivo. alpha6 integrin-negative human keratinocyte cell lines were derived from patients affected by junctional epidermolysis bullosa presenting genetic lesions in their hemidesmosomes. The level of alpha6 integrin expression was determined in these cell lines by in situ immunofluorescence and FACS. Despite the absence of alpha6 integrin expression by BO-SV cells, they were bound by BPV-4 to similar, saturable levels as normal keratinocytes, KH-SV. Furthermore, BO-SV and KH-SV cells were both infected by BPV-4 to apparently the same extent as PalK cells. These results are consistent with the conclusion that alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory receptor for a bovine mucosotropic papillomavirus.  (+info)

A novel silencer element in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 promoter represses the transcriptional response to papillomavirus E2 protein. (4/28)

The long control regions (LCRs) of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have similar organizations: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites (C. Desaintes and C. Demeret, Semin. Cancer Biol. 7:339--347, 1996). The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial cell specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (B. Gloss, H. U. Bernard, K. Seedorf, and G. Klock, EMBO J. 6:3735--3743, 1987). Using the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system, we have shown previously that a level of epithelial specificity resides in a papillomavirus promoter region. The BPV-4 promoter shows an enhanced response to transcriptional activators in epithelial cells compared with that of fibroblasts (K. W. Vance, M. S. Campo, and I. M. Morgan, J. Biol. Chem. 274:27839--27844, 1999). A chimeric lcr/tk promoter suggests that the upstream BPV-4 promoter region determines the cell-type-selective response of this promoter in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Promoter deletion analysis identified two novel repressor elements that are, at least in part, responsible for mediating the differential response of this promoter to upstream activators in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. One of these elements, promoter repressor element 2 (PRE-2), is conserved in position and sequence in the related mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses, BPV-3 and BPV-6. PRE-2 functions in cis to repress the basal activity of the simian virus 40 promoter and binds a specific protein complex. We identify the exact nucleotides necessary for binding and correlate loss of binding with loss of transcriptional repression. We also incorporate these mutations into the BPV-4 promoter and demonstrate an enhanced response of the mutated promoter to E2 in fibroblasts. The DNA binding protein in the detected complex is shown to have a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The PRE-2 binding protein represents a novel transcriptional repressor and regulator of papillomavirus transcription.  (+info)

Quercetin, E7 and p53 in papillomavirus oncogenic cell transformation. (5/28)

Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) infects the upper alimentary canal of cattle causing benign papillomas which can progress to squamous carcinomas in cattle grazing on bracken fern (BF). We have previously shown that quercetin, a well characterized and potent mutagen found in BF, causes cell cycle arrest of primary bovine cells (PalF), but that a single exposure to quercetin can cause full oncogenic transformation of PalF cells partially transformed by BPV-4. Here we show that cell cycle arrest correlates with an increase in p53 protein levels and transcriptional activity. However, in cells transformed but non-tumorigenic, p53 protein is elevated and transcriptionally activated in response to quercetin or other DNA damaging stimuli, but the cells bypass quercetin-induced G1 arrest likely due to E7 expression. In transformed tumorigenic cells, p53 is elevated in response to quercetin but its transcriptional activity is inhibited due to mutation, and the cells fail to stop in G1 in the presence of quercetin.  (+info)

Cell transformation by the E5/E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. p27(Kip1), Elevated through increased protein synthesis is sequestered by cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes. (6/28)

The E5/E8 hydrophobic protein of BPV-4 is, at only 42 residues, the smallest transforming protein identified to date. Transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by E5/E8 correlates with up-regulation of both cyclin A-associated kinase activity and, unusually, p27(Kip1) (p27) but does not rely on changes in cyclin E or cyclin E-CDK2 activity. Here we have examined how p27 is prevented from functioning efficiently as a CDK2 inhibitor, and we investigated the mechanisms used to achieve elevated p27 expression in E5/E8 cells. Our results show that normal subcellular targeting of p27 is not subverted in E5/E8 cells, and p27 retains its ability to inhibit both cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK activities upon release from heat-labile complexes. E5/E8 cells also have elevated levels of cyclins D1 and D3, and high levels of nuclear p27 are tolerated because the inhibitor is sequestered within an elevated pool of cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes, a significant portion of which retain kinase activity. In agreement with this, pRB is constitutively hyperphosphorylated in E5/E8 cells in vivo. The increased steady-state level of p27 is achieved largely through an increased rate of protein synthesis and does not rely on changes in p27 mRNA levels or protein half-life. This is the first report of enhanced p27 synthesis as the main mechanism for increasing protein levels in continuously cycling cells. Our results are consistent with a model in which E5/E8 promotes a coordinated elevation of cyclin D1-CDK4 and p27, as well as cyclin A-associated kinase activity, which act in concert to allow continued proliferation in the absence of mitogens.  (+info)

Down-regulation of MHC class I by bovine papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins. (7/28)

The papillomavirus E5 protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) of the host cell. Transformed bovine fibroblasts expressing bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E5 are highly vacuolated and have a much enlarged, distorted and fragmented GA. Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) is processed and transported to the cell surface through the GA. Given the cellular localization of E5 in the GA and the morphologically abnormal GA, we investigated the expression of MHC I in cells transformed by E5 from BPV-1 and BPV-4. Two cell lines were used: bovine cells that also express E6, E7 and activated ras, and NIH3T3 cells that express only E5. In addition, PalF cells acutely infected with a recombinant retrovirus expressing E5 were also examined. In contrast to non-transformed normal cells, or transformed cells expressing other papillomavirus proteins, cells expressing E5 do not express MHC I on their surface, but retain it intracellularly, independently of the presence of other viral or cellular oncogenes, or of whether the cells are long-term transformants or acutely infected. We conclude that expression of E5 prevents expression of MHC I to the cell surface and causes its retention within the cell. In addition, lower amounts of total MHC I heavy chain and of heavy chain RNA are detected in E5-transformed cells than in control cells. As surface expression of another glycosylated membrane protein, the transferrin receptor, is not affected, it appears that E5 targets MHC I with at least a degree of specificity. In papillomavirus lesions this effect would have important implications for antigen presentation by, and immunosurveillance of, virally infected cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I in bovine papillomas. (8/28)

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) induces papillomas in cattle; in the great majority of cases, these regress due to the host immune response, but they can persist and progress to malignancy. Even in the absence of malignant transformation, BPV infection persists for a significant period of time before activation of the host immune system, suggesting that the host immune system is unaware of, or disabled by, BPV. E5 is the major oncoprotein of BPV, which, in addition to its transforming properties, downregulates the expression and transport to the cell surface of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). Here, it is shown that co-expression of MHC I and E5 in papillomas caused by BPV-4 infection is mutually exclusive, in agreement with the inhibition of surface MHC I expression by E5 that is observed in vitro. The inhibition of MHC expression in E5-expressing papilloma cells could explain the long period that is required for activation of the immune response and has implications for the progression of papillomas to the malignant stage; absence of peptide presentation by MHC I to cytotoxic T lymphocytes would allow the infected cells to evade the host cellular immune response and allow the lesions to persist.  (+info)

Describe the structure of the alimentary canal of the human body in relation to its function Synopsis: Intro: * nutrition * Alimentary canal * 4 layers
On Diseases of the Abdomen - Compromising Those of the Stomach, and Other Parts of the Alimentary Canal, Oesophagus, Caecum, Intestines and Peritoneum (Paperback) / Author: S. O. 1825-1889 Habershon ; 9781176909847 ; History, Books
tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2. Recombinant protein corresponding to full length Bovine Papillomavirus type-1 transactivator protein E2. (MAB7861) - Products - Abnova
Bovine papillomavirus type 1 oncogene protein E5: 44-amino acid protein; a homo-dimeric, transmembrane protein that transforms cells by activating the platelet-derived growth factor ss receptor in a ligand-independent fashion and induces cellular DNA synthesis
Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
The Stomach Capacity about 2 pints. The cardiac orifice lies opposite the eleventh dorsal vertebra, (Fig. XIX, 2) and is situated about 4 inches away from the surface. It corresponds in position to...
Copyright Get Revising 2021 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma was discussed in a recent veterinary webinar at The Webinar Vet. A poll of the attendees revealed 42% who do not see it in any one year and 58% who will see one to three cases a year. So a rare condition but never the ... Read , ...
Definition: An organism that feeds on mud or sand and shows little discrimination in the size or type of particles eaten. The sediment is ingested and any digestible organic material is assimilated as it passes through the alimentary canal ...
Ep i*the li*um, n.; pl. E. {Epitheliums}, L. {Epithelia}. [NL., fr. Gr. epi upon + ? nipple.] (Anat.) The superficial layer of cells lining the alimentary canal and all its appendages, all glands and their ducts, blood vessels and lymphatics,…
Samples of neoplastic and normal urothelium were obtained from cows originating from areas of southern Italy, a region in which chronic enzootic haematuria is endemic and bracken fern infestation is widespread. Specimens were analysed for bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) DNA, BPV-2 E5 expression and telomerase activity. A total of 46 of 60 tumours and 17 of 34 normal bladder mucosa samples harboured BPV-2 DNA. Analysis of a subset of samples showed E5 protein expression and telomerase activity in tumour tissue only. No normal samples positive for BPV DNA showed E5 protein expression or telomerase activity, suggesting the presence of DNA in a latent state. Taken together, these data on naturally occurring bovine bladder tumours corroborate the hypothesis of their virus origin.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Raman spectroscopy of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells: a comparison of single cell and cell cluster analysis. AU - McManus, L. AU - Boyd, A. AU - Burke, GA. AU - Meenan, BJ. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - There are many techniques that allow in vitro interactions among cells and their environment to be monitored, including molecular, biochemical and immunochemicaltechniques. Traditional techniques for the analysis of cells often require fixation or lysis from substrates; however, use of such destructive methods is not feasible where the expanded cell cultures are required to be used for clinical implantation. Several studies have previously highlighted the potential of Raman spectroscopy to provide useful information on key biochemical markers within cells. As such, we highlight thecapability of Raman spectroscopy with different laser spot sizes for use as a non-invasive, rapid, and specific method to perform in situ analysis of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells ...
The action of anthelmintics on parasites located outside of the alimentary canal / by Brayton Howard Ransom, Chief of the Zoological Division and Maurice C. Hall, assistant zoologist, Zoological Division ...
The replication initiator protein E1 binds to the origin of replication of bovine papillomavirus in several forms. E1 can bind to its recognition sequence as a monomer together with the viral transcription factor E2, or as a trimeric E1 complex. The trimerization of E1 is mediated by the sequence-specific binding of E1 to DNA, and results in an E1 complex that is linked topologically to the DNA because the three molecules of E1 form a ring-like structure that encircles the DNA. These results demonstrate that E1 utilizes unusual mechanisms for sequence-specific binding to DNA and for the generation of a structure that encircles the DNA. We believe that these forms of E1 bound to the origin of replication represent intermediates in a transition in the function of E1, from a sequence-specific origin of replication recognition protein to a form of E1 that is competent for the initiation of viral DNA replication.. ...
expenditures activity is so fast that you neer imaginary. Made easy for a short term period, these loans can secure the business enterprise help rapidly. Additionally, the ansome different environment of the speech act is performed address, loan amount, design and defrayal capacity. This will make you keep best fiscal help and that too in the lowest accomplishable time. In the day twenty-four hours life of group expenses without pledging any sort of indirect.. ReplyDelete ...
This fungus attacks female flies, entering via the alimentary canal and migrating to the abdomen. Here it multiplies rapidly, forming a large pink mass, whilst at the same time compelling the fly to move to the highest local point. This can be a blade of grass, a flowerhead or a leaf. Once in position, the female extends her wings and her rear legs, then she dies in situ. This behavior extends the abdomen as far as possible, and removes the wings as potential blockages. Again, the fungus has maximised the opportunity for spore dispersal ...
evident in Alcyonella and Plumatella towards the fundus of the stomach; they become less distinct as we ascend toward the oesophagus, and totally disappear from this tube and from the rectum. The fundus of the stomach appears to differ from the rest of the alimentary canal in structure and function; the well-defined longitudinal rugae and deep brown colour of the internal layer of the stomach nearly disappear in it, and, during the process of digestion, we may perceive that the peculiar peristaltic action of the walls is more marked in it than in any other part of the gastric cavity, while it is every now and then separated from the rest of this cavity by a momentary hour-glass constriction. In the oesophagus there are only two layers (Pl. III, fig. 7, X′, u). These correspond to the middle and external layers of the stomach, the former being here largely developed (A), while the internal or hepatic layer of the stomach is entirely absent, and there are no longitudinal rugae. The mouth and ...
One method of classifying routes of administration is ENTERAL and PARENTERAL. Enteral means to do with the GI tract and includes oral, buccal, and rectal. Parenteral means not through the alimentary canal and commonly refers to injections such as IV, IM, and SC; but could also include topical and inhalation. We can also distinguish IV from the rest, as with all others at least one membrane must be crossed, thus an absorption process is involved in the administration and the pharmacokinetic model. ...
Cutaneous Epitheliotropic Lymphoma - Transmission or Cause: Cutaneous lymphoma is a type of skin cancer caused by cancerous skin lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Lymphoma can also
In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated the expression of BAG3 protein in equine sarcoids in vivo as well as in an in vitro model of sarcoid-derived equine fibroblasts. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that the most of tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from a healthy horse displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrated the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation in EqSO4b, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome, promotes cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising ...
1) Eat Clean: The food you eat is important for timely and healthy digestion and elimination. If you are eating highly processed, sugary, and genetically modified foods your alimentary canal is going to be sluggish, toxic, slow or inconsistent. Research which foods are good for digestion and constipation and stock up on them.. 2) Drink Water: If you are not drinking adequate water for reabsorption to occur, your stools may become too hard and be difficult and slow to pass. Sodas, juices, and coffee do not count as water.. 3) Chew your food: Peristalsis is a sequential movement that mixes and moves food and waste through your alimentary canal. The action of chewing stimulates peristalsis of the entire alimentary canal. This is why I generally recommend that if you are having digestion and elimination problems to avoid protein shakes since chewing is not required and the movement of the bowels does not get stimulated naturally. 4) Schedule time for elimination: If you do not make time for bowel ...
In addition to nourishing the embryo, extra-embryonic tissues (EETs) contribute to early em-bryonic patterning, primitive hematopoiesis, and fetal health. These tissues are of major importance for human medicine, as well as for efforts to improve livestock efficiency, but they remain incompletely understood. In bovines, EETs are accessible easily, in large amounts, and prior to implantation. We took advantage of this system to describe, in vitro and in vivo, the cell types present in bovine EETs at Day 18 of development. Specifically, we characterized the gene expression patterns and phenotypes of bovine extra-embryonic ectoderm (or trophoblast; bTC), endoderm (bXEC), and mesoderm (bXMC) cells in culture and compared them to their respective in vivo micro-dissected cells. After a week of culture, certain characteristics (e.g., gene expression) of the in vitro cells were altered with respect to the in vivo cells, but we were able to identify cores of cell-type-specific (and substrate-independent) genes
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Virology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Looking for gut edema? Find out information about gut edema. 1. a. the lower part of the alimentary canal; intestine b. the entire alimentary canal 2. the bowels or entrails, esp of an animal 3. a silky fibrous... Explanation of gut edema
Journal of Mammalogy promotes interest in mammals by the publication of original research on their ecology, genetics, conservation, behavior, and physiology.
Pariet - Salicylic acid acts as an antipyretic by its property to decrease fermentation in the alimentary canal, thus shutting out one of the elements which help in destroying the nutritive and functional activity of the liver, and which, secondarily, cause a general disturbance of the system at large.
* Sir E. Home, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, vol. i. p. 225. (2312). The rest of the alimentary canal in most quadrupeds, like that of Man, is divisible into the small and the large intestines, ...
Stomach :: stum-uk (stomachos): In man and most vertebrates, a membranous sac-like portion of the alimentary canal, in which the earlier stages of digestion
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct and is attached to the abdominal wa
HKMC professionals provide Gastroenterology and Hepatology services to diagnosis and treat diseases of alimentary canal and liver. Click here to know more!
In this video the instructor answers a question derived from a past BJC General Science exam and briefly speaks about peristalsis, alimentary canal, gall bladder, liver, and pancreas. The total duration of this video is 5 mins and 34 sec. ...
In our previous study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly reduced the cell viability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) leading to cell apoptosis, which were prevented by caffeic acid (CA) through inhibiting NF-|i|κ|/i|B activation and reducing proinflammatory cytokine expression. While the underlying mechanism remains unclear, here, we determined that LPS induced the extensive microstructural damage of bMEC, especially the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Then, the obvious reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and expression changes of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and casepase-3) indicated that apoptosis signaling through the mitochondria should be responsible for the cell viability decrease. Next, the high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were employed to verify that the MAPK and JAK-STAT signaling pathways also were the principal targets of LPS. Following, the
Sarcoids were diagnosed in two captive zebras from different facilities. Zebra 1 (Equus burchellii boehmi) was a 4.5-yr-old, captive-born male that presented with a 9- by 7-cm inguinal mass. Seven months after surgical excision of the inguinal mass, the zebra presented with a similar lesion in the right upper eyelid that has relapsed repeatedly and has not responded to treatment including local cisplatin injections and cryosurgery. Zebra 2 (of undetermined taxon) was housed at a private wild animal farm. The zebra presented with a single, raised, 2.5- by 2.0- by 2.0-cm, ulcerated mass on the nose, and surgical excision was curative. Histologically, the three masses consisted of a dermal, compact, nonencapsulated, poorly demarcated neoplasm composed of well-differentiated spindle cells arranged in streams and whorls and accompanied by moderate epidermal hyperplasia with long rete pegs. On the basis of the morphologic resemblance to the unique equine cutaneous neoplasm, sarcoid was diagnosed. ...
To study the interaction of E2 with specific regions of the mitotic chromosome in more detail, we developed a method to spread the mitotic chromosomes in situ that was compatible with indirect immunofluorescence for the E2 protein. This method was adapted from that of Smith et al., who used it to localize tankyrase on human telomeres (27). This technique resulted in well-spread mitotic chromosomes and demonstrated that the wild-type E2-TA was localized on individual chromosomes as speckles, whereas E2-TR was excluded from chromosomes. This technique disrupted the perichromosomally associated proteins Ki67 and topoisomerase II but did not affect the chromosomal association of phosphorylated histone H3 (data not shown). This indicates that the E2 protein is tightly bound to mitotic chromosomes. In fact, in other studies from our laboratory we find that E2-TA forms a very stable complex with mitotic chromosomes that is resistant to high salt (M. McPhillips, K. Ozato, and A. A. McBride, submitted ...
Solution for question: Given the Dental Formula of Human Beings concept: Digestive System - Alimentary Canal. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science)
Clinical signs: In dogs, this disease can present in four main ways: (1) generalized red inflamed and scaly skin-the skin maybe so flaky that the flakes appear to be shed in sheets; (2) loss of pigment and ulceration/crusting of the nose, lips and around the eyes-owners may notice a black nose slowly lose pigment to become completely depigmented; (3) single or multiple skin nodules; (4) thickening and ulceration of oral tissues. Cats may have red nodules or single areas of red raised skin especially around the head and neck. Many animals will have enlarged lymph nodes and some will be systemically ill ...
A rich historical source of word knowledge about the origins and meanings of English words, word lists, vocabulary words, and a practical guide to science, technology, and indexes of other academic topics with practical applications of English words from a wide-range of educational areas.
The apparatus for the digestion of the food consists of the digestive tube and of certain accessory organs. The Digestive Tube (alimentary canal) is a musculomembranous tube, about 9 metres long, extending from the mouth to the anus, and lined throughout its entire extent by mucous membrane.
Kilpatrick, D.C. Pusztai, A., Grant, G., Graham, C. and Ewen, S.W (1985) Tomato Lectin Resists Digestion in the Mammalian Alimentary Canal and Binds to Intestinal Villi without Deleterious Effects. FEBS Letters, 185, 299-305.
In Gulp. Adventures on the Alimentary Canal, science writer Mary Roach takes a journey through the gut, from the secret healing powers of saliva to the taxonomy of poop. Along the trip, she serves up odd medical anecdotes, such as the story of William Beaumont, an eccentric surgeon who once ate chicken from another mans stomach.
Looking for Oesophageal? Find out information about Oesophageal. esophagus the part of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and the stomach; gullet Explanation of Oesophageal
Canker Sores] are from the acidity in the system… If there will be used a good alkaline antiseptic for the gums, such as Glyco-Thymoline, we find that this will aid in keeping the mouth fresh and clean. (Cayce) (Q) How can sores in the mouth and alimentary canal be relieved? (A) This, as we find, would respond better to those with Atomidine [Atomic Iodine™] than in any; this weakened in a solution, see, to be applied locally-and taken internally. (Cayce) [Caution: Be sure to become informed about Atomidine before taking it internally; because of its high iodine content, it may be more detrimental than beneficial for some individuals.] In Dr. William McGareys Commentary in the Circulating File on Atomidine [Atomic Iodine™], he mentions a report by Dr. Harvey Rose delivered at the twelfth annual A.R.E Medical Symposium regarding several hundred instances in which he used Atomidine and Glyco-Thymoline locally to canker sores of the mouth. The response was rapid and complete in well ...
Anatomy of the digestive system Anatomy of the digestive system is a group of organs that work systematically in order to convert food into basic nutrients and energy to feed the body. The ingested food passes through the alimentary canal, also known as the gastrointestinal tract. This canal is composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, large intestines, and small intestines. Apart from alimentary canal, there are other essential Accessory organs helping the body in food digestion, however, food do not pass through them. Anatomy of the digestive system Anatomy of the digestive system is a group of organs that work systematically in order to convert food into basic nutrients and energy to feed the body. The ingested food passes through the alimentary canal, also known as the gastrointestinal tract. This canal is composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, large intestines, and small intestines. Apart from alimentary canal, there are other essential Accessory organs ...
Soon after entering upon a fast, the tongue coats heavily, and this coat may continue to increase as the fast progresses. This coating will persist during the fast up to a certain point when it begins to spontaneously clean itself up. As long as the body is actively eliminating toxins, the tongue will remain coated, but when this elimination begins to decrease, the tongue will clear up and remain clear. Dr. Hereward Carrington says, A short while before the return of hunger, this cleansing process of the tongue commences and continues until the tongue is perfectly clean, assuming a beautiful pink-red shade-rarely or never seen in the average man or woman; and the terminus of this cleansing process of the tongue is absolutely coincidental with the return of hunger and of health.. Carrington stated that this coated condition of the tongue indicates the condition of the mucous membrane throughout the alimentary canal since this membrane is so closely interrelated and connected. I would add that ...
Did you know the digestive system is split into two main groups? Did you know one of the groups is considered to be outside of the body? Thats right, the alimentary canal or gut, runs from the mouth to the anus and is considered to be outside of the body because its open to the external environment. In this article, we discuss the six steps of digestion, the gastrointestinal tract and finally, accessory digestive organs. Continue Reading. ...
Leaf-like or vermiform Scolecids, rarely parasitic, with a mouth and alimentary canal, and sometimes a body-cavity; integument ciliated. Sexes united or distinct. The members of this order are almost...
A disposable surgical stapling instrument for the joining together of tubular body organs such as the organs of the alimentary canal. The instrument comprises an elongated body having a tubular housin
Can you get high off clonidine hydrochloride - after one month and before the expiration of two months a refund of one-half of these fees will be made. Four years later, owing to toothache, she was taken to a dentist, who, finding her jaws were ankylosed, referred her to a surgeon for treatment (clonidine generic price). Clonidine pills side effects - there are also similar scholarships at Downing College. The perception of red is only disturbed in advanced cases (harga clonidine). In due to local disturbances of cell functions It has been thought for some time that the alimentary canal is a frequent focus was recently admitted to the Vanderbilt Hospital because of fever and pyuria.. Cheerfully give you information, and outline the goods best clonidine hcl tabs side effects suited for the conditions you desire. What a travesty these ancient teachings were, when Ave consider the conditions and advantages of modern colleges (what is clonidine hydrochloride taken for). And this is the doctrine ...
Zegecid Powder is a Powder manufactured by AJANTA PHARMA. It is commonly used for the diagnosis or treatment of acidic stomach, bitter fluid into stomach , abdominal pain. It has some side effects such as Accumulation of gas in the alimentary canal,Allergic rejection to an antigen,Constipation,Abdominal pain. The salts Omeprazole are involved in the preparation of Zegecid Powder.
We should be extremely cautious in concluding that an organ could not have been formed by transitional gradations of some kind. Numerous cases could be given amongst the lower animals of the same organ performing at the same time wholly distinct functions; thus in the larva of the dragonfly... the alimentary canal respires, digests and…
Absorption The process by which nutrients get from the digestive tract into the transportation system that carries them to cells throughout the body Food is broken down in the digestive tract or ALIMENTARY CANAL.
Wolf, M, Garcea RL, Grigorieff N, Harrison SC. 2010. Subunit interactions in bovine papillomavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107(14):6298-6303. Abstract ...
Replication of bovine papillomavirus type-1 origin-containing DNA in crude extracts and with purified proteins. MULLER, Friedemann; Seo, Yeon-Sooresearcher; HURWITZ, Jerard, JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, v.269, no.25, pp.17086 - 17094, 1994- ...
Similar papillomaviruses of ungulates (e.g. deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are ... Campo, MS (2006). "Bovine papillomavirus: old system, new lessons?". In Campo, MS (ed.). Papillomavirus Research: From Natural ... Chambers G, Ellsmore VA, O'Brien PM, Reid SW, Love S, Campo MS, Nasir L (2003). "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the ... Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are a paraphyletic group of DNA viruses of the subfamily Firstpapillomavirinae of ...
1980 Law, M. F.; Lowy, D. R.; Dvoretzky, I.; Howley, P. M. (1981). "Mouse cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus contain ... 1995 Tong, X.; Howley, P. M. (1997). "The bovine papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein interacts with paxillin and disrupts the actin ... 1982 Yang, Y. C.; Okayama, H.; Howley, P. M. (1985). "Bovine papillomavirus contains multiple transforming genes". Proceedings ... "In vitro tumorigenic transformation by a defined sub-genomic fragment of bovine papilloma virus DNA". Nature. 287 (5777): 72-74 ...
Several studies have found an association between the presence of Bovine papillomavirus-1 and 2 and associated viral growth ... "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the equine sarcoid". Journal of General Virology. 84 (5): 1055-1062. doi:10.1099/vir. ... "Intralesional bovine papillomavirus DNA loads reflect severity of equine sarcoid disease". Equine Veterinary Journal. 42 (4): ... Equine papillomavirus-2 has also been found within penile SCCs, but has not been determined to cause SCC. Before treatment of ...
Schiller, J. T.; Vass, W. C.; Vousden, K. H.; Lowy, D. R. (1986). "E5 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus type 1 ... Lechner, M. S.; Mack, D. H.; Finicle, A. B.; Crook, T.; Vousden, K. H.; Laimins, L. A. (1992). "Human papillomavirus E6 ... Vousden's early work focused on the molecular biology of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical ... she led the Human Papillomavirus Group at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, UK. In 1995, she joined the ...
The E5 protein of some animal papillomavirus types (mainly bovine papillomavirus type 1) functions as an oncogene primarily by ... Four papillomaviruses are known to infect birds: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1, Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1, ... Jackson ME, Pennie WD, McCaffery RE, Smith KT, Grindlay GJ, Campo MS (1991). "The B subgroup bovine papillomaviruses lack an ... Inter-species transmission has also been documented for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1. In its natural host (cattle), BPV-1 ...
Vande Pol SB, Brown MC, Turner CE (January 1998). "Association of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 oncoprotein with the focal ... 47 (4): 520-7. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.06.006. PMC 3427732. PMID 19540241. Mackinnon AC, Tretiakova M, Henderson L, Mehta RG, ... 4 (1): 146-52. doi:10.4161/cam.4.1.10973. PMC 2852571. PMID 20139696. Wood CK, Turner CE, Jackson P, Critchley DR (February ... Côté JF, Turner CE, Tremblay ML (July 1999). "Intact LIM 3 and LIM 4 domains of paxillin are required for the association to a ...
Pseudocowpox Warts caused by bovine papillomavirus Teat-end hyperkeratosis Dermatitis Frostbite Udder sores or necrotic ... ISBN 978-0-13-046256-5. Ruegg, Pamela L. "Diseases of Bovine Teats and Skin - Reproductive System". Merck Veterinary Manual. ... The number of teats varies from 2 (in elephants and anthropoids) to 18 (in pigs). Marsupials usually have 4 to 12 teats, but ...
Battlefield Planning Visualization Bovine papillomavirus BQ (s) British Antarctic Territory (former ISO 3166 digram; merged ... Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, better known as mad cow disease BSE - (i) Buku Sekolah Elektronik (screw thread), BSF - (i) ... Bovine somatotropin (i) British Summer Time BSW - (i) British Standard Whitworth (screw thread) BSW - Blind Spot Warning, see ... FIPS 10-4 country code; ISO 3166 digram) (i) BitTorrent British Telecom, the former name of the company now known as BT Group ...
With Bill, she and her colleagues investigated in detail the biology of bovine papillomaviruses, especially BPV-1, -2 and -4, ... bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4). In older cattle, he noted that cancers could develop from existing papillomas and ... These results laid the conceptual framework for the production of vaccines against the subtypes of human papillomaviruses that ... and developed recombinant vaccines of BPV-4 proteins that protected cattle from developing papillomas when challenged, and ...
Allshire, Robin Campbell (1985). Construction and analysis of vectors based on bovine papilloma virus (PhD thesis). University ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(79)68011-4. ISBN 9780121819682. PMID 232210. Maskos, U.; Southern, E. M. (1992). "Oligonucleotide ...
You J, Croyle JL, Nishimura A, Ozato K, Howley PM (Apr 2004). "Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 ... Abbate EA, Voitenleitner C, Botchan MR (Dec 2006). "Structure of the papillomavirus DNA-tethering complex E2:Brd4 and a peptide ... Baxter MK, McPhillips MG, Ozato K, McBride AA (Apr 2005). "The mitotic chromosome binding activity of the papillomavirus E2 ... "Amino acid substitutions that specifically impair the transcriptional activity of papillomavirus E2 affect binding to the long ...
Construction and analysis of vectors based on bovine papilloma virus (PhD thesis). University of Edinburgh. hdl:1842/11176. ... obtained his PhD in 1985 under the guidance of Chris Bostock and Edwin Southern investigating the use of bovine papillomavirus ... 4 (4): 140043. doi:10.1098/rsob.140043. PMC 4043117. PMID 24789708. Folco, H. D; Pidoux, A. L; Urano, T; Allshire, R. C (2008 ... 137 (7): 1173-4. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.06.010. PMC 4397584. PMID 19563746. Subramanian, L; Toda, N. R. T; Rappsilber, J; ...
"Bovine leukemia virus linked to breast cancer but not coinfection with human papillomavirus: Case-control study of women in ... Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus which causes enzootic bovine leukosis in cattle. It is closely related to the human ... "Bovine leukemia virus". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 11901. "Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV)". APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection ... Bovine leukaemia virus RNA packaging signal "ICTV Taxonomy history: Bovine leukemia virus". International Committee on Taxonomy ...
Heng B.; Glenn W.K.; Ye Y.; Tran D.; Delprado W.; Lutze-Mann L.; Whitaker N.J.; Lawson J.S. (2009). "Human papilloma virus is ... Together with Gertrude Buehring of the University of California at Berkeley, Lawson has contributed to research into Bovine ... This research had shown that human papilloma virus and mouse mammary tumor viruses are present in up to half of all breast ... Heng, B.; Glenn, W.K.; Ye, Y; Tran, D.; Lawson, J.S. (2009). "Human papilloma virus is associated with breast cancer". British ...
Fibropapillomas are present in other animal groups, but are caused by different viruses, for example the bovine papillomavirus ... 2012). "A Histopathological, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study of Cutaneous Bovine Papillomatosis". Kafkas Univ Vet Fak ... 103 (4): 27-30. doi:10.2307/3432408. JSTOR 3432408. PMC 1519284. PMID 7556020. Lutz, P. L.; Cray, C.; Sposato, P. L. (2001). ...
"Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cancer , CDC". 2019-08-21. Münger K, Baldwin A, Edwards KM, Hayakawa H, Nguyen CL, Owens M, et ... Buehring GC, Shen HM, Jensen HM, Jin DL, Hudes M, Block G (2 September 2015). "Exposure to Bovine Leukemia Virus Is Associated ... Buehring GC, Sans HM (December 2019). "Breast Cancer Gone Viral? Review of Possible Role of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Breast ... In Western developed countries, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most ...
... papillomavirus MeSH B04.280.535.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.280.535.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.660 - papillomavirus, ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.660 - papillomavirus, ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.624.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.624.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit ...
Bovine serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact. Van Doorslaer, K; Chen, Z; Bernard, HU; Chan, PKS; DeSalle, ... Papillomavirus, Virus genera). ... Bovine serve as natural hosts. There are five species in this ... Xipapillomavirus 1 Xipapillomavirus 2 Xipapillomavirus 3 Xipapillomavirus 4 Xipapillomavirus 5 Viruses in Xipapillomavirus are ...
... , Benes L. Trus & Stephen C. Harrison (2002). An atomic model of the papillomavirus capsid. EMBO J., 21, 4754-4762 ... Yue Li, Jimin Wang, Ryuta Kanai & Yorgo Modis (2013). Crystal structure of glycoprotein E2 from bovine viral diarrhea virus. ... 4 years) 1995 Bateman Scholarship- First Class Honors Degree, Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge, U.K. 1995 Kareen Thorne ...
"Human papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancer: the role of the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor". Oncology ... crystal structure of the acid-stable proteinase inhibitor from human mucous secretions analysed in its complex with bovine ... it has been shown that there is an inverse correlation between the levels of SLPI and high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ... "The role of the antileukoprotease SLPI in smoking-induced human papillomavirus-independent head and neck squamous cell ...
If biotin was used as a probe label, non-specific binding sites must first be blocked using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Then, ... Apart from cancers, CISH has also been shown to be useful in detecting human papillomavirus infections. SISH uses a similar ... 15 (4): 519-27. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2005.09.008. PMID 16290155. Garimberti, E; Tosi, S (2010). "Fluorescence in situ ... 86 (4): 398-408. doi:10.1038/labinvest.3700390. PMID 16446704. Summersgill, B. M.; Shipley, J. M. (2010). "Fluorescence in Situ ...
The human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended in the U.S. (as of 2011) and UK (as of 2009). Vaccine recommendations for the ... Bovine herpesvirus 1 DIVA vaccines are also widely used in practice.[citation needed] Considerable efforts are ongoing to apply ... "HPV Vaccine , Human Papillomavirus , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2019-06-14. Williamson, E. D.; Eley, S. M.; ... In the case of a few relatively new vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus vaccine, the patents may impose an additional ...
One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Having finally lost completely its virulence, the bovine tuberculosis germ grown with their method was the principal ... he focused on creating a vaccine using the bacillus responsible for bovine tuberculosis, very similar to the human one, as it ... Retrieved 4 June 2021. Woo, Yiming (20 November 2020). "Institut Pasteur to keep working on three COVID-19 vaccines". Reuters. ...
Family 1.G.17 The Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelop Glycoprotein (BLV-Env) Family 1.G.18 The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide in the Spike ... Family 1.A.97 The Human Papillomavirus type 16 E5 Viroporin (HPV-E5) Family 1.A.98 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 P13 protein ( ... Family 1.A.86 The Human Papilloma Virus type 16 (HPV16) L2 Viroporin (L2 Viroporin) Family 1.A.87 The Mechanosensitive Calcium ... Family 4.A.5 The PTS Galactitol (Gat) Family 4.A.6 The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family 4.A.7 The PTS L-Ascorbate (L- ...
... the use of less abundant bovine ribs may indicate a specific preference for bovine ribs. Potential lissoirs have also been ... The modern human papillomavirus variant 16A may descend from Neanderthal introgression. A Neanderthal at Cueva del Sidrón, ... "Transmission between archaic and modern human ancestors during the evolution of the oncogenic human papillomavirus 16". ... 71 (1): 4-7. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.12.014. PMID 18280671. Sullivan, A. P.; de Manuel, M.; Marques-Bonet, T.; Perry, G. H. ( ...
Papillomavirus vaccine, parvovirus vaccine, alpha galactosidase for Fabry disease, lysosomal acid lipase, aprotinin, interferon ... a Plant-Based Alternative to Bovine-Derived Trypsin (Peer-Reviewed)". BioPharm International. 24 (10): 44-8. Sigma Catalog FAQ ... Norris, Sonya (4 July 2005). "Molecular pharming". Library of Parliament. Parliament of Canada. PRB 05-09E. Archived from the ... 4 (10): 794-805. doi:10.1038/nrg1177. PMID 14526375. S2CID 14762423. "ProdiGene Launches First Large Scale-Up Manufacturing of ...
Lebwohl MG; Rosen; Stockfleth (November 2010). "The role of human papillomavirus in common skin conditions: current viewpoints ... B virus infection Boston exanthem disease Bovine papular stomatitis Bowenoid papulosis Buffalopox Butcher's wart Chikungunya ... 28 (4): 795-805. doi:10.1016/j.det.2010.08.007. PMID 20883921. Petrescu I, Condrea C, Alexandru A, et al. (2010). "Diagnosis ... 14 (4): 549-69. doi:10.1007/s10495-009-0324-z. PMID 19221876. S2CID 13058619. Burns, Tony; et al. (2006) Rook's Textbook of ...
For instance, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine elicits a stronger immune response than infection by the virus itself. One ... as well as hypotheses that vaccinations can transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. These ... "Understanding Non-Completion of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Series: Parent-Reported Reasons for Why Adolescents Might Not ... 4 (1): 30-44. Offit, Paul A. (2008). Autism's False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search for a Cure. Columbia ...
A novel silencer element in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 promoter represses the transcriptional response to papillomavirus ... An enhanced epithelial response of a papillomavirus promoter to transcriptional activators. Vance, K. W., Campo, M. S. & Morgan ... Vance, K. W. & Goding, C. R., Aug 2004, In: Pigment Cell Research. 17, 4, p. 318-25 8 p.. Research output: Contribution to ... Vance, K. W., Woodcock, D. J., Reid, J. E., Bretschneider, T., Ott, S. & Koentges, G., 4 Sep 2015, In: Genome biology and ...
For example, bovine papilloma virus vectors produce a morphological change in transfected mouse CI127 cells. (4) ... BioProcess Int. 4(5) 2006: S24-S31.. Kayser K, et al. Cell Line Engineering Methods for Improving Productivity. BioProcess Int. ... BioProcess Int. 4(5) 2006: S42-S47.. Shi J, Yang J. Transient Gene Silencing in NS/0 Suspension Cell Culture By siRNA. ... BioProcess Int. 4(1) 2006: 22-32.. Ludwig DL. Mammalian Expression Cassette Engineering for High-Level Protein Production. ...
Adeno-associated virus Rep78 binds to E2-responsive element 1 of bovine papillomavirus type 1. - ... Adeno-associated virus Rep78 binds to E2-responsive element 1 of bovine papillomavirus type 1. - ... Adeno-associated virus Rep78 binds to E2-responsive element 1 of bovine papillomavirus type 1. ... parvovirus that has been implicated in the inhibition of replication and oncogenic transformation of bovine papillomavirus type ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
... are associated with bovine papillomavirus. Its speculated that the virus may be spread by biting flies or fomites. Sarcoids ... The lower layer of hair is firmly matted in small scabs that leave a raw surface when removed (Photos 4 and 5). The hair roots ...
... human papillomavirus 16; lane 18, human papillomavirus 18; lane 19, Epstein-Barr virus; lane 20, human endogenous retrovirus K ... and bovine GAPDH for bovine, ovine, and feline cell lines (857 bp)Lane 1, molecular weight marker (HyperLadder IV; Bioline, ... Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue Gertrude Case Buehring. , Hua Min Shen, Hanne M. Jensen, K. Yeon Choi1, Dejun ... Test results showing lack of cross-reactivity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-specific primers with representatives of all ...
Bovine papillomavirus 4 - Preferred Concept UI. M0488737. Scope note. A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma ... infection: coordinate IM with PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Allowable Qualifiers:. CH chemistry. CL classification. DE drug ... It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.. Annotation:. ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 Entry term(s). BVP 4 BVP-4 Bovine ... It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3. Preferred term. ... Bovine Papillomavirus Type 4. Tree number(s):. B04.280.210.655. ...
Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (organism). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (organism). ...
Feline sarcoid in a 1-year-old domestic short-haired cat caused by bovine papillomavirus type 14 in Switzerland.] Schweizer ... Felines Sarcoid bei einer 1-jährigen europäischen Hauskatze ausgelöst durch bovines Papillomavirus Typ 14 in der Schweiz. [ ... in therapy of bovine mastitis.] Runs 1999 - 2002. Project Leader(s): Klocke, Peter, Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau ... 4-5. Barth, Kerstin; Horvat, Elisabeth; Kern, Andreas; Maurer, Veronika; Muntwyler, Jeannette; Simantke, Christel; Stöger, ...
Tursiops truncatus papillomavirus type 2 (TtPV2). This novel virus represents the first isolated North American cetacean PV and ... A novel papillomavirus (PV) was isolated from a genital condyloma of a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin inhabiting the coastal ... oncogenic proteins believed to be responsible for malignant transformation in the high-risk mucosotropic human papillomaviruses ... Bovine papillomavirus E2 trans -activating gene product binds to specific sites in papillomavirus DNA. Nature 325:70-73 [ ...
Bovine papillomavirus type 4. Expression Region. 1-98. Target Protein Sequence MKGQNVTLQD IAIELEDTIS PINLHCEEEI ETEEVDTPNP ...
Pathological studies on Bovine papilloma virus-fern interaction in hamsters. Leishangthem GD, Somvanshi R, Lauren DR. ...
Bovine papillomavirus (1). * Caenorhabditis elegans (1). * Canine heartworm (1). * Canine parvovirus (1). ... Get 4 for 3 with code 4FOR3-E5TN2. Click here for terms and conditions. ...
Equine sarcoids are common therapy-resistant skin tumours induced by bovine papillomavirus type 1 or 2 (BPV1, BPV2) infection. ... Type-specific L1 virus-like particle-mediated protection of horses from experimental bovine papillomavirus 1-induced pseudo- ... Harnacker J1, Hainisch EK2, Shafti-Keramat S3, Kirnbauer R4, Brandt S5 ... 43​Department of Dermatology, Division of Immunology, Laboratory of Viral Oncology, Allergy and Infectious Disease, Medical ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Zhai Y, Zhong Z, Zariffard M, Spear GT, Qiao L. Bovine papillomavirus-like particles presenting conserved epitopes from ...
Despite the association of this tumor with the presence of bovine papillomavirus (BPV), the molecular mechanism of this lesion ... Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Inclusão em Parafina , Pele/patologia , ... We study a patient with the human papilloma virus (HPV)-2-driven "tree-man" phenotype and two relatives with unusually severe ... Different strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV) have been found in CMM and NMSC biopsies and implicated in the ...
Bovine Papilloma Virus E2 (3). * BPIFB1 (5). * BRD8/p120 (3). * CCR2 (24). ...
... human papillomavirus 16; lane 18, human papillomavirus 18; lane 19, Epstein-Barr virus; lane 20, human endogenous retrovirus K ... and bovine GAPDH for bovine, ovine, and feline cell lines (857 bp)Lane 1, molecular weight marker (HyperLadder IV; Bioline, ... Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue Gertrude Case Buehring. , Hua Min Shen, Hanne M. Jensen, K. Yeon Choi1, Dejun ... Test results showing lack of cross-reactivity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-specific primers with representatives of all ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) currently represents an important risk factor for cancer development and infertility in humans. ... Inoculation of young horses with bovine papillomavirus type 1 virions leads to early infection of PBMCs prior to pseudo-sarcoid ... PBMCs are additional sites of productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2. J Gen Virol. 2011, 92: 1787-1794. 10.1099/ ... Human papillomavirus proteins are found in peripheral blood and semen Cd20+ and Cd56+ cells during Hpv-16 semen infection. * ...
Ilves I, Kadaja M, Ustav M. Two separate replication modes of the bovine papillomavirus bpv1 origin of replication that have ... Chen G, Stenlund A. Characterization of the DNA-binding domain of the bovine papillomavirus replication initiator e1. J Virol. ... Novel papillomavirus isolated from the oral mucosa of a polar bear does not cluster with other papillomaviruses of carnivores. ... Association of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 e6 proteins with p53. Science. 1990;248:76-9.. Huibregtse JM, Scheffner M, ...
Localization of bovine papillomavirus in equine sarcoids and inflammatory skin conditions of horses using laser microdissection ... Prevalence and prognostic impact of Equus caballus Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection in equine squamous cell carcinomas in ... Prevalence of Equus caballus Papillomavirus Type-2 infection and seropositivity in asymptomatic Western Canadian horses. ... Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 251(4): 409-411. https://www.doi.org/10.2460/javma.251.4.409 ...
Sequences of this virus can be found in fetal bovine serum. However, it is currently unclear, how this virus was able to infect ... human papilloma virus type 18, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, parainfluenza virus type 5, squirrel monkey retrovirus, and ... The NGS analysis showed that the human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 contains bovine polyoma virus sequences. ... fetal bovine serum; FBS) [3], or (5) from laboratory staff (e.g. adenovirus) due to poor aseptic practice or failure of ...
Useful for visualization of sarcoma virus-induced foci and for an in vitro quantitative assay for bovine papilloma virus. Host ... for transfection with plasmids containing bovine papilloma virus DNA. C127I cells are suitable hosts for transformation with bo ...
... mediated by BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX in urothelial cells of the urinary bladder of cattle harbouring bovine papillomavirus ... 2017;5(4):e00331. doi:10.1002/prp2.331. 88. Chen X, Xu S, Zhao C, Liu B. Role of TLR4/NADPH oxidase 4 pathway in promoting cell ... 2009;5(4):534-536. doi:10.4161/auto.5.4.8062. 103. Liang C, Lee JS, Inn KS, et al. Beclin1-binding UVRAG targets the class C ... 2009;9(4):385-391. doi:10.2174/187153009789839174. 66. Di Domenico F, Tramutola A, Perluigi M. Cathepsin D as a therapeutic ...
Preferred expression control sequences are promoters derived from immunoglobulin genes, SV40, Adenovirus, Bovine Papilloma ... TABLE 4 Namea (LFA-3/Fc-fusion) nb IC50 (μg/ml)c Relative Bindingd Wild-type 3 3.31 ± 0.56 1.0 T250Q/M428L 3 0.148 ± 0.010 22 a ... Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) (HyClonee, Logan, Utah), 0.1 mM MEM non-essential amino acids (Invitrogen™, Carlsbad, Calif.) and 2 mM ... T250E; SEQ ID NO: 4 L314E; SEQ ID NO: 23 M428E; SEQ ID NO: 42 Phenylalanine (F) T250F; SEQ ID NO: 5 L314F; SEQ ID NO: 24 M428F ...
  • Equine sarcoids are common therapy-resistant skin tumours induced by bovine papillomavirus type 1 or 2 (BPV1, BPV2) infection. (ccc.ac.at)
  • Cervical cancer is the most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus [ 1 ] but HPV infection also raises important concerns for men. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prevalence and prognostic impact of Equus caballus Papillomavirus Type 2 Infection in equine squamous cell carcinomas in Western Canadian horses. (usask.ca)
  • Prevalence of Equus caballus Papillomavirus Type-2 infection and seropositivity in asymptomatic Western Canadian horses. (usask.ca)
  • According to the available data, 99.7% of all cervical carcinomas occur due to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, which World Health Organization identified as high risk carcinogenic agents. (hindawi.com)
  • Human alpha- defensins block papillomavirus infection. (arccjournals.com)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of cervical epithelium is linked to the generation of cervical cancer. (aai.org)
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) 3 type 16 infection of the cervical mucosa is linked to the generation of cervical cancer in women ( 1 ). (aai.org)
  • In addition, immunocompromised patients exhibit more persistent infection and an increase in their number of lesion recurrences ( 4 , 5 ). (aai.org)
  • Nuclear factor I and epithelial cell-specific transcription of human papillomavirus type 16. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Structure and transcription of human papillomavirus sequences in cervical carcinoma cells. (wikidata.org)
  • The analysis of publicly available RNA-Seq data sets of further 640 human cell lines applying the Taxonomer tool showed previously unknown virus infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus, feline sarcoma virus, human papilloma virus type 18, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, parainfluenza virus type 5, squirrel monkey retrovirus, and xenotropic murine leukemia virus. (dsmz.de)
  • Fibropapilloma of the penis is common and is caused by the bovine papilloma virus. (lsu.edu)
  • Papilomatosis o verruga bovina Papilomatose Bovina Bovine papillomatosis parazitii nimic normal Lingual tonsil papilloma pap test rileva papilloma virus, vaccine for laryngeal papilloma hpv impfung preis osterreich. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • Como Curar Tratar Eliminar verrugas em Bovinos, Eqüinos human papillomavirus vaccine update Detoxifiere cu tinctura de propolis anthelmintic drugs slide, inverted nasal papilloma ct del virus papiloma humano tratamiento. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • Papilomatosis en vacas vlog 37 papiloma humano cancer de pene Papilloma virus vescicale uomo papilloma on my eyelid, parazitii cadita detoxifiere picioare. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • The example tilt series is of a preparation of bovine papilloma virus (BPV), taken by Mary Morphew on an F20 with a US4000 CCD camera at a defocus of -3.5 microns. (colorado.edu)
  • Transactivation of a bovine papilloma virus transcriptional regulatory element by the E2 gene product. (wikidata.org)
  • Characterization of the bovine papilloma virus plasmid maintenance sequences. (wikidata.org)
  • Sequences of this virus can be found in fetal bovine serum. (dsmz.de)
  • Both subclones were grown as monolayers on -irradiated (5000 rads) Swiss Mouse 3T3 fibroblast feeder layers in INCB018424 biological activity F-medium (3:1 F12 and Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium) with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). (irjs.info)
  • Transcriptional control of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogene expression: composition of the HPV type 18 upstream regulatory region. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Adeno-associated virus type-2 (AAV-2) is a helper-dependent parvovirus that has been implicated in the inhibition of replication and oncogenic transformation of bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1) and other transforming DNA viruses. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Novel binding sites for regulatory factors in the human papillomavirus type 18 enhancer and promoter identified by in vivo footprinting. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The enhancer of human papillomavirus type 16: binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factors oct-1, NFA, TEF-2, NF1, and AP-1 participate in epithelial cell-specific transcription. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Type-specific L1 virus-like particle-mediated protection of horses from experimental bovine papillomavirus 1-induced pseudo-sarcoid formation is long-lasting. (ccc.ac.at)
  • The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV), Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1), with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6), was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat ( M. schreibersii ). (cdc.gov)
  • The causative agent is bovine papillomavirus - especially type 1, more rarely type 2. (laboklin.com)
  • DNA sequence and genome organization of genital human papillomavirus type 6b. (wikidata.org)
  • The primary structure and genetic organization of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 genome. (wikidata.org)
  • Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA sequence. (wikidata.org)
  • The NGS analysis showed that the human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 contains bovine polyoma virus sequences. (dsmz.de)
  • A common function for polyoma virus large-T and papillomavirus E1 proteins? (wikidata.org)
  • Analysis of genomic sequences of 95 papillomavirus types: uniting typing, phylogeny, and taxonomy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Next, we used the publicly available metagenomics analysis software Taxonomer to screen the data sets for all known viral nucleotide and protein sequences [4]. (dsmz.de)
  • 4, 5 Complex cDNA probes can cross-hybridize to related sequences, and low-intensity hybridization indicators are challenging to interpret. (irjs.info)
  • A striking feature of the genome of TtPV2, as well as that of PsPV1, is the lack of an E7 open reading frame, which typically encodes one of the oncogenic proteins believed to be responsible for malignant transformation in the high-risk mucosotropic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To illustrate the applicability of the method, we have chosen two viral datasets, namely papillomaviruses and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolates, largely dissimilar in genome, evolutionary distance and biology. (upv.es)
  • Suspensie orale pentru bovine, ovine, caprine gi porcine. (sicfeszt.ro)
  • Saif I, Bouziyane A, Mzibri ME, Kerroumi ME, Benhessou M, Ennaji MM. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Like DNAs in Tumors from Moroccan Breast Cancer Patients. (foodforbreastcancer.com)
  • The causative agent is canine papillomavirus. (laboklin.com)
  • They are concentrated in the nucleus, where they participate in pre-mRNA splicing [ 4 ], yet nearly all SR proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of the protein encoded by the E6 transforming gene of bovine papillomavirus. (wikidata.org)
  • 4. The isolated nucleic acid of claim 1, wherein the S. pneumoniae surface protein elicits an immune response. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • HPV (human papillomavirus): A virus that is the cause of most cases of cervical cancer and also has been found in breast cancer tissue. (foodforbreastcancer.com)
  • In the case of papillomaviruses, gene clusters match well our knowledge on viral biology and life cycle, illustrating the potential of our approach. (upv.es)
  • Sarcoid skin tumors are the most common form of cancer in horses, but little is known about why the papillomavirus behind them strikes some horses and not others. (phys.org)
  • Antczak says it's been thought for years that bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the most likely culprit behind sarcoid tumors. (phys.org)
  • Tumors caused by human papillomaviruses account for more than 5 percent of cancer cases worldwide. (phys.org)
  • Elizabeth A. Staiger et al, Host genetic influence on papillomavirus-induced tumors in the horse, International Journal of Cancer (2016). (phys.org)
  • Papilomatosis bovina ppt Papilomatose Bovina Bovine papillomatosis metastatic cancer eyes symptoms Hpv virus causes throat cancer papillomatosis bovina, cancer pancreas necrosis papillom brust entfernen oder nicht. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • Soluções Nutricionais Futura - Parte ouăle viermilor mor - Papilomatose ou Figueira centre dezintoxicare alcoolica Cancer feminin au gabon lesion papillomavirus homme, renal cancer mri tratamiento para lombrices oxiuros. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • The study, published in the International Journal of Cancer , mirrors findings in humans, as some people have a genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus, which can cause cervical and other cancers. (phys.org)
  • Bovine papillomavirus E2 trans -activating gene product binds to specific sites in papillomavirus DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Once considered a sexually transmitted virus principally affecting females, human papillomavirus (HPV) currently represents an important factor responsible for both couple infertility and cancer development, as demonstrated by recent experimental and epidemiological data [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isolation and identification of bovine papillomavirus in experimental group of cattle. (usp.br)
  • Six antimicrobial peptide genes of the cathelicidin family map to bovine chromosome 22q24 by ûuorescence in situ hybridization. (arccjournals.com)
  • Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1) are most closely related. (cdc.gov)
  • Although papillomaviruses occur in many animal species and in humans, they are strictly host-specific, so they do not pose a risk to humans or other animals. (laboklin.com)
  • Tipo de XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS que causa un carcinoma digestivo en el ganado bovino. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus . (cdc.gov)
  • In summary, not only did lesional AD skin facilitate HSV-1 penetration but IL-4/IL-13 responses alone allowed virus invasion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hpv mouth treatment uterine cancer hysterectomy, warts on the tongue pictures throat papiloma virus en bovino from hpv symptoms. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • Viermi spitalul de arsi cancer rectocolon, papillomavirus transmission indirecte hpv virus and sore throat. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • Oliveira E, Ferreira M, Rahal P, Castelo Branco M, Rabenhorst S. High Frequency of Epstein-Barr Virus and Absence of Papillomavirus in Breast Cancer Patients from Brazilian Northeast. (foodforbreastcancer.com)
  • Among several hundred types of papillomaviruses, 7 are specific for cows. (psichapter.net)
  • The growths caused by the papillomavirus exist in 2 types: a bunch of small rods attached to a thin stem, semicircular formations, the surface of which looks like a head of cauliflower. (psichapter.net)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) currently represents an important risk factor for cancer development and infertility in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Papillomavirus homme transmission hpv novio contagio, bacterii gram pozitive simptome tricou parazitii betiv. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • The possible association of human papillomavirus (HPV) and bladder cancer has been controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer colorectal nih el papiloma en la boca se contagia, r human papillomavirus cancer de prostata inca. (tulipanpanzio.ro)
  • To dissect the parameters that contribute to HSV-1 invasion, we induced an AD-like phenotype by adding the Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 to healthy human skin samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Strikingly, we detected infected cells in the epidermis, implying that the IL-4/IL-13-driven inflammation is sufficient to induce modifications allowing HSV-1 to penetrate the skin surface. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin (hbd)-3 and hbd-4 activate mast cells and increase skin vascular permeability. (arccjournals.com)
  • Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association , 251(4): 409-411. (usask.ca)
  • Canadian Veterinary Journal , 56(4): 359-360. (usask.ca)
  • Journal of Cell Biology, 130 (4). (cshl.edu)
  • 4 A dynamic balance of mitochondrial population and function is essential for heart cell survival. (dovepress.com)
  • Cell, 83 (4). (cshl.edu)
  • 4 While ACE2's role was predicted in January 5 and subsequently demonstrated in March, 6 this revelation in November reveals the importance of HS as an essential factor in the virus's attachment and entry to infect the cell. (metagenicsinstitute.com)