A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing recurrent respiratory PAPILLOMATOSIS; GENITAL WARTS; and other neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The type species of KAPPAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. It is reported to occur naturally in cottontail rabbits in North America.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE causing fibropapillomas in their respective ungulate hosts. Species infected include cattle, European elk, deer, and sheep.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS usually associated with GENITAL WARTS; and LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, which cause cutaneous lesions in humans. They are histologically distinguishable by intracytoplasmic INCLUSION BODIES which are species specific.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, causing cutaneous lesions in humans. Infections exist in latent form in the general population and are activated under conditions of IMMUNOSUPPRESSION.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATINE TONSIL.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.

A mutational analysis of the transforming functions of the E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. (1/28)

The E8 protein of BPV-4 contributes to transformation of primary bovine cells (PalFs) by inducing anchorage-independent growth and by down-regulating gap junction intercellular communication, likely due to its binding to 16K ductin. We show here that, in addition, E8 confers on PalF cells the ability to grow in low serum and to escape from contact inhibition (focus formation). E8 also transactivates an exogenous human cyclin A gene promoter, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin A is responsible for the transformed phenotype. Mutant forms of E8 were generated to establish whether the transforming functions of the protein could be segregated. Mutations were introduced both in the hydrophobic domain and in the hydrophilic C-terminal "tail", and chimeras with BPV-1 E5 were constructed. Cells expressing either wild-type E8 or mutant forms were analyzed for their ability to grow in low serum and in suspension and to form foci. Wild-type E8 and its mutants were also analyzed for their ability to transactivate the cyclin A promoter. We show here that the transforming functions of E8 can be segregated and that both the hydrophilic C-terminal tail and the residue at position 17 in the hydrophobic domain are crucial for E8 functions and for the transactivation of the cyclin A promoter. These results support the hypothesis that the different aspects of cellular transformation brought about by E8 might be due to interaction with different cellular targets. They suggest that E8 might function differently from BPV-1 E5 and demonstrate that the separate domains of E5 and E8 are not functionally interchangeable.  (+info)

An enhanced epithelial response of a papillomavirus promoter to transcriptional activators. (2/28)

Mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have a similar long control region (LCR) organization: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites. The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial-specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (Gloss, B., Bernard, H. U., Seedorf, K., and Klock, G. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 3735-3743; Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1999) J. Gen. Virol. 80, 23-27). Studies on E2 transcriptional regulation of the human mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have been hindered by poor access to the natural target cell type and by the observation that some of the human papillomavirus promoters, including human papillomavirus-16, are repressed in immortalized epithelial cells. Here we present results using the bovine papillomavirus-4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system as a model to study the mechanism of E2 transcriptional regulation of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses and the cell type specificity of this regulation. E2 up-regulates transcription from the BPV-4 LCR preferentially in epithelial cells (Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1998) J. Gen. Virol. 79, 501-508). We demonstrate that the epithelial-specific enhancer element of the BPV-4 LCR is not required for the enhanced activity of E2 in epithelial cells and that the BPV-4 promoter is more responsive, not only to E2, but to other transcriptional activators in epithelial cells. This is the first time a level of epithelial specificity has been shown to reside in a papillomavirus promoter region.  (+info)

alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory cell receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4. (3/28)

Recently, alpha6 integrin has been proposed as the epithelial cell receptor for papillomavirus. This study investigated whether alpha6 integrin is the cellular receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4), which is strictly epitheliotropic and infects the mucous epithelium of the upper digestive tract. Primary bovine mucosal keratinocytes from the palate of a foetus (PalK) displayed high levels of alpha6 integrin; matched primary fibroblasts from the same biopsy (PalF) expressed almost no alpha6 integrin. However, BPV-4 bound both PalK and PalF to similar, saturable levels. Native BPV-4 virions infected PalK in vitro, as detected by RT-PCR of E7 RNA. Infection could be blocked by excess virus-like particles (VLPs) and by neutralizing antisera against L1-L2 and L1 VLPs or by denaturation of the virions, supporting the view that infection in vitro mimics the process in vivo. alpha6 integrin-negative human keratinocyte cell lines were derived from patients affected by junctional epidermolysis bullosa presenting genetic lesions in their hemidesmosomes. The level of alpha6 integrin expression was determined in these cell lines by in situ immunofluorescence and FACS. Despite the absence of alpha6 integrin expression by BO-SV cells, they were bound by BPV-4 to similar, saturable levels as normal keratinocytes, KH-SV. Furthermore, BO-SV and KH-SV cells were both infected by BPV-4 to apparently the same extent as PalK cells. These results are consistent with the conclusion that alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory receptor for a bovine mucosotropic papillomavirus.  (+info)

A novel silencer element in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 promoter represses the transcriptional response to papillomavirus E2 protein. (4/28)

The long control regions (LCRs) of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have similar organizations: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites (C. Desaintes and C. Demeret, Semin. Cancer Biol. 7:339--347, 1996). The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial cell specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (B. Gloss, H. U. Bernard, K. Seedorf, and G. Klock, EMBO J. 6:3735--3743, 1987). Using the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system, we have shown previously that a level of epithelial specificity resides in a papillomavirus promoter region. The BPV-4 promoter shows an enhanced response to transcriptional activators in epithelial cells compared with that of fibroblasts (K. W. Vance, M. S. Campo, and I. M. Morgan, J. Biol. Chem. 274:27839--27844, 1999). A chimeric lcr/tk promoter suggests that the upstream BPV-4 promoter region determines the cell-type-selective response of this promoter in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Promoter deletion analysis identified two novel repressor elements that are, at least in part, responsible for mediating the differential response of this promoter to upstream activators in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. One of these elements, promoter repressor element 2 (PRE-2), is conserved in position and sequence in the related mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses, BPV-3 and BPV-6. PRE-2 functions in cis to repress the basal activity of the simian virus 40 promoter and binds a specific protein complex. We identify the exact nucleotides necessary for binding and correlate loss of binding with loss of transcriptional repression. We also incorporate these mutations into the BPV-4 promoter and demonstrate an enhanced response of the mutated promoter to E2 in fibroblasts. The DNA binding protein in the detected complex is shown to have a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The PRE-2 binding protein represents a novel transcriptional repressor and regulator of papillomavirus transcription.  (+info)

Quercetin, E7 and p53 in papillomavirus oncogenic cell transformation. (5/28)

Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) infects the upper alimentary canal of cattle causing benign papillomas which can progress to squamous carcinomas in cattle grazing on bracken fern (BF). We have previously shown that quercetin, a well characterized and potent mutagen found in BF, causes cell cycle arrest of primary bovine cells (PalF), but that a single exposure to quercetin can cause full oncogenic transformation of PalF cells partially transformed by BPV-4. Here we show that cell cycle arrest correlates with an increase in p53 protein levels and transcriptional activity. However, in cells transformed but non-tumorigenic, p53 protein is elevated and transcriptionally activated in response to quercetin or other DNA damaging stimuli, but the cells bypass quercetin-induced G1 arrest likely due to E7 expression. In transformed tumorigenic cells, p53 is elevated in response to quercetin but its transcriptional activity is inhibited due to mutation, and the cells fail to stop in G1 in the presence of quercetin.  (+info)

Cell transformation by the E5/E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. p27(Kip1), Elevated through increased protein synthesis is sequestered by cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes. (6/28)

The E5/E8 hydrophobic protein of BPV-4 is, at only 42 residues, the smallest transforming protein identified to date. Transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by E5/E8 correlates with up-regulation of both cyclin A-associated kinase activity and, unusually, p27(Kip1) (p27) but does not rely on changes in cyclin E or cyclin E-CDK2 activity. Here we have examined how p27 is prevented from functioning efficiently as a CDK2 inhibitor, and we investigated the mechanisms used to achieve elevated p27 expression in E5/E8 cells. Our results show that normal subcellular targeting of p27 is not subverted in E5/E8 cells, and p27 retains its ability to inhibit both cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK activities upon release from heat-labile complexes. E5/E8 cells also have elevated levels of cyclins D1 and D3, and high levels of nuclear p27 are tolerated because the inhibitor is sequestered within an elevated pool of cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes, a significant portion of which retain kinase activity. In agreement with this, pRB is constitutively hyperphosphorylated in E5/E8 cells in vivo. The increased steady-state level of p27 is achieved largely through an increased rate of protein synthesis and does not rely on changes in p27 mRNA levels or protein half-life. This is the first report of enhanced p27 synthesis as the main mechanism for increasing protein levels in continuously cycling cells. Our results are consistent with a model in which E5/E8 promotes a coordinated elevation of cyclin D1-CDK4 and p27, as well as cyclin A-associated kinase activity, which act in concert to allow continued proliferation in the absence of mitogens.  (+info)

Down-regulation of MHC class I by bovine papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins. (7/28)

The papillomavirus E5 protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) of the host cell. Transformed bovine fibroblasts expressing bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E5 are highly vacuolated and have a much enlarged, distorted and fragmented GA. Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) is processed and transported to the cell surface through the GA. Given the cellular localization of E5 in the GA and the morphologically abnormal GA, we investigated the expression of MHC I in cells transformed by E5 from BPV-1 and BPV-4. Two cell lines were used: bovine cells that also express E6, E7 and activated ras, and NIH3T3 cells that express only E5. In addition, PalF cells acutely infected with a recombinant retrovirus expressing E5 were also examined. In contrast to non-transformed normal cells, or transformed cells expressing other papillomavirus proteins, cells expressing E5 do not express MHC I on their surface, but retain it intracellularly, independently of the presence of other viral or cellular oncogenes, or of whether the cells are long-term transformants or acutely infected. We conclude that expression of E5 prevents expression of MHC I to the cell surface and causes its retention within the cell. In addition, lower amounts of total MHC I heavy chain and of heavy chain RNA are detected in E5-transformed cells than in control cells. As surface expression of another glycosylated membrane protein, the transferrin receptor, is not affected, it appears that E5 targets MHC I with at least a degree of specificity. In papillomavirus lesions this effect would have important implications for antigen presentation by, and immunosurveillance of, virally infected cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I in bovine papillomas. (8/28)

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) induces papillomas in cattle; in the great majority of cases, these regress due to the host immune response, but they can persist and progress to malignancy. Even in the absence of malignant transformation, BPV infection persists for a significant period of time before activation of the host immune system, suggesting that the host immune system is unaware of, or disabled by, BPV. E5 is the major oncoprotein of BPV, which, in addition to its transforming properties, downregulates the expression and transport to the cell surface of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). Here, it is shown that co-expression of MHC I and E5 in papillomas caused by BPV-4 infection is mutually exclusive, in agreement with the inhibition of surface MHC I expression by E5 that is observed in vitro. The inhibition of MHC expression in E5-expressing papilloma cells could explain the long period that is required for activation of the immune response and has implications for the progression of papillomas to the malignant stage; absence of peptide presentation by MHC I to cytotoxic T lymphocytes would allow the infected cells to evade the host cellular immune response and allow the lesions to persist.  (+info)

Bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV-1) is a species of papillomavirus that primarily infects cattle, causing benign warts or papillomas in the skin and mucous membranes. It is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans. BPV-1 is closely related to other papillomaviruses that can cause cancer in animals, but its role in human cancer is unclear.

BPV-1 is a double-stranded DNA virus that replicates in the nucleus of infected cells. It encodes several early and late proteins that are involved in viral replication and the transformation of host cells. BPV-1 has been extensively studied as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms of papillomavirus infection and oncogenesis.

In addition to its role in animal health, BPV-1 has also been used as a tool in biomedical research. For example, it can be used to transform cells in culture, providing a valuable resource for studying the properties of cancer cells and testing potential therapies. However, it is important to note that BPV-1 is not known to cause human disease and should not be used in any therapeutic context involving humans.

Bovine Papillomavirus 4 (BPV-4) is a species of papillomavirus that primarily infects cattle, causing benign warts and papillomas in the skin and mucous membranes. It is not known to infect humans or play a role in human health. BPV-4, like other papillomaviruses, contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome and replicates in the nucleus of infected host cells.

It's worth noting that while BPV-4 is not a human pathogen, related papillomaviruses are known to cause various types of cancer in humans, including cervical, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. Research on BPV-4 and other animal papillomaviruses has contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of human papillomaviruses (HPVs).

Papillomavirus infections are a group of diseases caused by various types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses infect the skin and mucous membranes, and can cause benign growths such as warts or papillomas, as well as malignant growths like cervical cancer.

There are more than 100 different types of HPVs, and they can be classified into low-risk and high-risk types based on their potential to cause cancer. Low-risk HPV types, such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, commonly cause benign genital warts and respiratory papillomas. High-risk HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

HPV infections are typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most sexually active individuals will acquire at least one HPV infection during their lifetime. In many cases, the immune system is able to clear the virus without any symptoms or long-term consequences. However, persistent high-risk HPV infections can lead to the development of cancer over time.

Prevention measures for HPV infections include vaccination against high-risk HPV types, safe sex practices, and regular screening for cervical cancer in women. The HPV vaccine is recommended for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years old, and can also be given to older individuals up to age 45 who have not previously been vaccinated or who have not completed the full series of shots.

Papillomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The name "papillomavirus" comes from the Latin word "papilla," which means nipple or small projection, reflecting the characteristic wart-like growths (papillomas) that these viruses can cause in infected host tissues.

The family Papillomaviridae includes more than 200 distinct papillomavirus types, with each type being defined by its specific DNA sequence. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the most well-studied members of this family, are associated with a range of diseases, from benign warts and lesions to malignant cancers such as cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

Papillomaviruses have a circular, double-stranded DNA genome that is approximately 8 kbp in size. The viral genome encodes several early (E) proteins involved in viral replication and oncogenesis, as well as late (L) proteins that form the viral capsid. The life cycle of papillomaviruses is tightly linked to the differentiation program of their host epithelial cells, with productive infection occurring primarily in the differentiated layers of the epithelium.

In summary, Papillomaviridae is a family of DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and can cause a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Human papillomaviruses are a significant public health concern due to their association with several cancer types.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes, and there are over 200 types of HPV. Some types of HPV can cause warts, while others are associated with an increased risk of certain cancers.

HPV16 is one of the high-risk types of HPV and is strongly associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV16 is responsible for about 50% of all cervical cancers and is the most common high-risk type of HPV found in these cancers.

HPV16 is typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most people who are sexually active will acquire at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. While HPV infections are often harmless and clear up on their own without causing any symptoms or health problems, high-risk types like HPV16 can lead to cancer if left untreated.

Fortunately, there are vaccines available that protect against HPV16 and other high-risk types of HPV. These vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cancers and precancerous lesions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls starting at age 11 or 12, although the vaccine can be given as early as age 9. Catch-up vaccinations are also recommended for older individuals who have not yet been vaccinated.

Papillomavirus E7 proteins are small, viral regulatory proteins encoded by the E7 gene in papillomaviruses (HPVs). These proteins play a crucial role in the life cycle of HPVs and are associated with the development of various types of cancer, most notably cervical cancer.

The E7 protein functions as a transcriptional activator and can bind to and degrade the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), which is a tumor suppressor. By binding to and inactivating pRb, E7 promotes the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.

E7 proteins are also capable of inducing genetic alterations, such as chromosomal instability and DNA damage, which can contribute to the development of cancer. Additionally, E7 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death) and promote angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), further contributing to tumor growth and progression.

Overall, Papillomavirus E7 proteins are important oncogenic factors that play a central role in the development of HPV-associated cancers.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a group of more than 200 related viruses. HPV is named for the warts (papillomas) some types can cause.

HPV-18 is one of the high-risk types of HPV that are linked to several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, vaginal, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV-18 along with HPV-16 are responsible for about 70% of all cervical cancers.

HPV is passed from one person to another during skin-to-skin contact, usually during sexual activity. Most sexually active people will have an HPV infection at some point in their lives, but most will never know it because the virus often causes no symptoms and goes away on its own. However, when HPV doesn't go away, it can cause serious health problems, including cancer.

There are vaccines available to protect against HPV-18 and other high-risk types of HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get the HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12, but it can be given as early as age 9 and until age 26 for those who have not yet received it. The vaccine is most effective when given before becoming sexually active.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

Human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) is a specific type of human papillomavirus that is known to cause benign, or noncancerous, growths called papillomas or warts on the skin and mucous membranes. HPV-11 is one of several types of HPV that are classified as low-risk because they are rarely associated with cancer.

HPV-11 is primarily transmitted through sexual contact and can infect the genital area, leading to the development of genital warts. In some cases, HPV-11 infection may also cause respiratory papillomatosis, a rare condition in which benign growths develop in the airways, including the throat and lungs.

HPV-11 is preventable through vaccination with the human papillomavirus vaccine, which protects against several low-risk and high-risk types of HPV. It is important to note that while HPV-11 is not associated with cancer, other high-risk types of HPV can cause cervical, anal, and oral cancers, so vaccination is still recommended for individuals who are sexually active or plan to become sexually active.

Uterine cervical neoplasms, also known as cervical cancer or cervical dysplasia, refer to abnormal growths or lesions on the lining of the cervix that have the potential to become cancerous. These growths are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be detected through routine Pap smears.

Cervical neoplasms are classified into different grades based on their level of severity, ranging from mild dysplasia (CIN I) to severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIN III). In some cases, cervical neoplasms may progress to invasive cancer if left untreated.

Risk factors for developing cervical neoplasms include early sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and a weakened immune system. Regular Pap smears and HPV testing are recommended for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) is a type of virus that belongs to the family Papovaviridae and the genus *Alpha papillomavirus*. It primarily infects cottontail rabbits, causing the development of warts or papillomas on their skin. These growths are typically found on the ears, face, and genital areas of the rabbits.

The CRPV virus is transmitted through direct contact with an infected rabbit or through contaminated environments. The virus enters the body through small cuts or abrasions in the skin and infects the epithelial cells, leading to the development of warts.

While CRPV primarily affects cottontail rabbits, it has been used as a model system for studying papillomavirus infections and related diseases in humans. The virus shares many similarities with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including the ability to cause cancer in certain circumstances.

It is important to note that CRPV is not a threat to humans or other animals outside of its natural host range, which includes cottontail rabbits.

Delta papillomaviruses, also known as delta-like papillomaviruses or beta-papillomaviruses, are a subgroup of the Papillomaviridae family of viruses. These viruses are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Delta papillomaviruses have been associated with benign skin growths called warts, as well as with some types of cancer, including cervical cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role that these viruses play in the development of these diseases.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Warts are small, rough growths on the skin or mucous membranes caused by one of several types of human papillomavirus (HPV). They can appear anywhere on the body but most often occur on the hands, fingers, and feet. Warts are benign, non-cancerous growths, but they can be unsightly, uncomfortable, or painful, depending on their location and size.

Warts are caused by HPV infecting the top layer of skin, usually through a small cut or scratch. The virus triggers an overproduction of keratin, a protein in the skin, leading to the formation of a hard, rough growth. Warts can vary in appearance depending on their location and type, but they are generally round or irregularly shaped, with a rough surface that may be flat or slightly raised. They may also contain small black dots, which are actually tiny blood vessels that have clotted.

Warts are contagious and can spread from person to person through direct skin-to-skin contact or by sharing personal items such as towels or razors. They can also be spread by touching a wart and then touching another part of the body. Warts may take several months to develop after exposure to HPV, so it may not always be clear when or how they were contracted.

There are several types of warts, including common warts, plantar warts (which occur on the soles of the feet), flat warts (which are smaller and smoother than other types of warts), and genital warts (which are sexually transmitted). While most warts are harmless and will eventually go away on their own, some may require medical treatment if they are causing discomfort or are unsightly. Treatment options for warts include topical medications, cryotherapy (freezing the wart with liquid nitrogen), and surgical removal.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Alphapapillomavirus is a genus of Papillomaviridae, a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Members of this genus are known to cause various types of benign and malignant tumors in humans, including skin warts, genital warts, and cancers of the cervix, anus, penis, vulva, and oropharynx.

The Alphapapillomavirus genus is further divided into several species, each containing multiple types or strains of the virus. Some of the most well-known and studied types of Alphapapillomavirus include:

* Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18, which are associated with a high risk of cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers
* HPV type 6 and 11, which are commonly found in genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
* HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, which are also associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer and other malignancies.

Preventive measures such as vaccination against high-risk HPV types have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases. Regular screening for cervical cancer and other precancerous lesions is also an important part of prevention and early detection.

Human papillomavirus 6 (HPV-6) is a type of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Papillomaviridae family. HPV-6 is one of the low-risk types of HPV that primarily causes benign, self-limiting epithelial lesions, such as genital warts (condyloma acuminata) and respiratory papillomas.

HPV-6 is sexually transmitted and can infect both males and females. Infection with HPV-6 may not always cause symptoms or noticeable lesions, but when it does, the most common manifestation is genital warts. These warts can appear as small, flesh-colored bumps or growths on the genitals, anus, or surrounding skin. They can be flat or raised, single or multiple, and sometimes cluster together in a cauliflower-like shape.

Although HPV-6 is generally considered low risk, it has been associated with rare cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), a condition characterized by the growth of benign tumors in the respiratory tract. RRP can cause hoarseness, noisy breathing, and difficulty swallowing, and may require surgical intervention to manage.

Preventive measures against HPV-6 include vaccination with approved HPV vaccines (Gardasil and Gardasil 9) that protect against HPV-6, as well as other low-risk and high-risk types of HPV. Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms, can also reduce the risk of transmission but do not provide complete protection since HPV can infect areas not covered by condoms.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

DNA replication is the biological process by which DNA makes an identical copy of itself during cell division. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows genetic information to be passed down from one generation of cells to the next. During DNA replication, each strand of the double helix serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in the creation of two identical DNA molecules. The enzymes responsible for DNA replication include helicase, which unwinds the double helix, and polymerase, which adds nucleotides to the growing strands.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a term used to describe the abnormal growth and development of cells on the surface of the cervix. These changes are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is a common sexually transmitted infection. CIN is not cancer, but it can develop into cancer if left untreated.

The term "intraepithelial" refers to the fact that the abnormal cells are found in the epithelium, or the lining of the cervix. The term "neoplasia" means abnormal growth or development of cells. CIN is further classified into three grades based on the severity of the cell changes:

* CIN 1: Mild dysplasia (abnormal cell growth) affecting the lower third of the epithelium.
* CIN 2: Moderate dysplasia affecting the lower two-thirds of the epithelium.
* CIN 3: Severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, which means that the abnormal cells are found in the full thickness of the epithelium and have a high risk of progressing to invasive cancer if not treated.

It's important to note that CIN can regress on its own without treatment, especially in younger women. However, some cases may progress to invasive cervical cancer if left untreated. Regular Pap testing is recommended to detect and monitor any abnormal cell changes in the cervix. If CIN is detected, further diagnostic procedures such as a colposcopy or biopsy may be performed to determine the extent of the abnormality and guide treatment decisions.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

'Condylomata Acuminata' is the medical term for genital warts, which are growths or bumps that appear on the genital area. They are caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Genital warts can vary in appearance, and they may be small, flat, and difficult to see or large, cauliflower-like, and easily visible.

The warts can appear on the vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, or scrotum. They are usually painless but can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse. In some cases, genital warts can lead to serious health problems, such as cervical cancer in women.

It is important to note that not all people with HPV will develop genital warts, and many people with HPV are asymptomatic and unaware they have the virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years to prevent HPV infection and related diseases, including genital warts.

Human papillomavirus 31 (HPV31) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes. HPV31 is one of the high-risk types of HPV, meaning it has a higher association with the development of certain cancers, particularly cervical cancer.

HPV31, like other HPV types, can cause various clinical manifestations, such as anogenital warts and precancerous lesions in the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina, and penis. Infection with HPV31 may lead to abnormal Pap test results and potentially increase the risk of developing cervical cancer if left untreated.

Prevention strategies include HPV vaccination, which protects against several high-risk types of HPV, including HPV31. Regular screening for cervical cancer through Pap tests and, when necessary, HPV testing is also crucial in early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions caused by HPV infections.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

The platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGF-β) receptor is a type of cell surface receptor that binds to specific proteins called platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs). PDGFs are important signaling molecules involved in various biological processes, including cell growth, division, and survival.

The PDGF-β receptor is a transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain that binds to PDGFs and an intracellular domain that activates downstream signaling pathways when activated by PDGF binding. The PDGF-BB isoform specifically binds to the PDGF-β receptor, leading to its activation and initiation of signaling cascades that promote cell proliferation, migration, and survival.

Mutations in the PDGF-β receptor gene have been associated with certain types of cancer and vascular diseases, highlighting its importance in regulating cell growth and division. Inhibitors of the PDGF-β receptor have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers and other diseases.

A vaginal smear, also known as a Pap test or Pap smear, is a medical procedure in which a sample of cells is collected from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina) and examined under a microscope. The purpose of this test is to detect abnormal cells, including precancerous changes, that may indicate the presence of cervical cancer or other conditions such as infections or inflammation.

During the procedure, a speculum is inserted into the vagina to allow the healthcare provider to visualize the cervix. A spatula or brush is then used to gently scrape cells from the surface of the cervix. The sample is spread onto a microscope slide and sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Regular Pap smears are recommended for women as part of their routine healthcare, as they can help detect abnormalities at an early stage when they are more easily treated. The frequency of Pap smears may vary depending on age, medical history, and other factors. It is important to follow the recommendations of a healthcare provider regarding the timing and frequency of Pap smears.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A replication origin is a specific location in a DNA molecule where the process of DNA replication is initiated. It serves as the starting point for the synthesis of new strands of DNA during cell division. The origin of replication contains regulatory elements and sequences that are recognized by proteins, which then recruit and assemble the necessary enzymes to start the replication process. In eukaryotic cells, replication origins are often found in clusters, with multiple origins scattered throughout each chromosome.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Keratinocytes are the predominant type of cells found in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. These cells are responsible for producing keratin, a tough protein that provides structural support and protection to the skin. Keratinocytes undergo constant turnover, with new cells produced in the basal layer of the epidermis and older cells moving upward and eventually becoming flattened and filled with keratin as they reach the surface of the skin, where they are then shed. They also play a role in the immune response and can release cytokines and other signaling molecules to help protect the body from infection and injury.

DNA probes for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) are specific DNA sequences that are used in diagnostic tests to detect and identify the presence of HPV DNA in a sample. HPV is a viral infection that can cause various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.

DNA probes for HPV work by binding to complementary sequences of HPV DNA in the sample. This binding can be detected and measured using various methods, such as hybridization, amplification, or labeling techniques. The use of DNA probes for HPV can help identify the specific type of HPV that is present in a sample, which can inform clinical management and treatment decisions.

It's important to note that not all HPV infections lead to cancer, and most HPV infections resolve on their own without causing any harm. However, certain high-risk types of HPV are more strongly associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, so identifying the presence and type of HPV infection can be useful for monitoring and managing patients who may be at higher risk.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Uterine cervical diseases refer to conditions that affect the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. These diseases can range from minor abnormalities to more serious conditions, such as:

1. Cervical dysplasia: This is a precancerous condition characterized by the presence of abnormal cells on the cervix. It is usually caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be detected through a Pap test.
2. Cervical cancer: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the cervical tissue. The most common type of cervical cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the cells lining the surface of the cervix.
3. Cervicitis: This is an inflammation of the cervix, which can be caused by infections, irritants, or allergies. Symptoms may include vaginal discharge, pain, and bleeding.
4. Cervical polyps: These are benign growths that develop on the cervix. They are usually small and asymptomatic but can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.
5. Cervical incompetence: This is a condition where the cervix begins to open prematurely during pregnancy, leading to a risk of miscarriage or preterm labor.

It's important to note that regular screening and early detection can help prevent or manage many cervical diseases, including cervical cancer.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. The E2 proteins of adenoviruses are involved in the replication of the viral genome. Specifically, E2 consists of three proteins: E2a, E2b, and E2c.

E2a is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that binds to the origin of replication on the viral genome and recruits other viral and cellular proteins necessary for replication. E2b is a DNA polymerase processivity factor that interacts with the viral DNA polymerase and increases its processivity, allowing for efficient synthesis of new viral DNA. E2c is a helicase that unwinds the double-stranded DNA at the replication fork, enabling the synthesis of new strands.

Together, these proteins play a critical role in the replication of adenoviruses and are important targets for the development of antiviral therapies.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "buffaloes." The term generally refers to large, hoofed mammals that are native to Africa and Asia. In English language slang, the term "buffalo" is sometimes used to describe a lie or exaggeration, but this usage is not related to the medical field. If you have more context about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors are a group of tyrosine kinase receptors found on the surface of various cells, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and glial cells. These receptors bind to PDGFs, which are growth factors released by platelets during wound healing and blood vessel formation. Activation of PDGF receptors triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote cell proliferation, migration, and survival, contributing to the regulation of tissue repair, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Abnormalities in PDGF signaling have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, and atherosclerosis.

Equidae is the biological family that includes horses, donkeys, zebras, and their extinct relatives. These mammals are known for their hooves, long faces, and distinctive teeth adapted for grazing on grasses. They are also characterized by a unique form of locomotion in which they move both legs on one side of the body together, a gait known as "diagonal couple-hoofed" or "pacing."

The family Equidae belongs to the order Perissodactyla, which includes other odd-toed ungulates such as rhinos and tapirs. The fossil record of Equidae dates back to the early Eocene epoch, around 56 million years ago, with a diverse array of species that inhabited various habitats across the world.

Some notable members of the family Equidae include:

* Equus: This is the genus that includes modern horses, donkeys, and zebras. It has a wide geographic distribution and includes several extinct species such as the now-extinct American wild horse (Equus ferus) and the quagga (Equus quagga), a subspecies of the plains zebra that went extinct in the late 19th century.
* Hyracotherium: Also known as Eohippus, this is one of the earliest and smallest members of Equidae. It lived during the early Eocene epoch and had four toes on its front feet and three toes on its hind feet.
* Mesohippus: This was a slightly larger and more advanced member of Equidae that lived during the middle Eocene epoch. It had four toes on its front feet and three toes on its hind feet, but its middle toe was larger and stronger than in Hyracotherium.
* Merychippus: This was a diverse and successful member of Equidae that lived during the late Miocene epoch. It had a more modern-looking skeleton and teeth adapted for grazing on grasses.
* Pliohippus: This was a transitional form between early members of Equidae and modern horses. It lived during the Pliocene epoch and had a single toe on each foot, like modern horses. Its teeth were also more specialized for grinding grasses.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

A Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test is a molecular diagnostic assay used to detect the presence or absence of DNA from high-risk types of HPV in cervical or anal samples. High-risk HPV types are those most strongly associated with an increased risk for developing cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.

HPV DNA tests typically use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other nucleic acid amplification techniques to detect and quantify the viral DNA in clinical samples. These tests can help identify women at higher risk for cervical precancer or cancer, particularly when combined with cytology results from a Pap test.

HPV DNA testing is recommended as a primary screening method for cervical cancer in certain populations or as a follow-up test to abnormal Pap test results. It's important to note that HPV DNA tests do not diagnose cervical precancer or cancer but rather identify the presence of high-risk HPV types, which may increase the risk of developing these conditions over time.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Uterine cervical dysplasia is a condition characterized by abnormal cell growth on the lining of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is also known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Cervical dysplasia can be caused by certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted infection. The abnormal cells may develop into cancerous cells over time, although not all cases of cervical dysplasia will progress to cancer.

Cervical dysplasia is typically detected through a Pap test or HPV test, which are screening tests used to detect precancerous changes in the cervix. Depending on the severity and extent of the abnormal cells, treatment options may include close monitoring, surgical removal of the affected tissue, or more extensive surgery.

It is important for women to receive regular Pap tests and HPV tests as recommended by their healthcare provider to detect and treat cervical dysplasia early, before it has a chance to progress to cancer.

Penile neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the penis. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of penile cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which begins in the flat cells that line the surface of the penis. Other types of penile cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Benign penile neoplasms include conditions such as papillomas, condylomas, and peyronie's disease. These growths are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort, pain, or other symptoms that may require medical treatment.

It is important to note that any unusual changes in the penis, such as lumps, bumps, or sores, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

The Papanicolaou (Pap) test, also known as the Pap smear, is a screening procedure for detecting precancerous and cancerous cells in the cervix. It involves collecting cells from the cervix and examining them under a microscope to look for any abnormalities. The test is typically recommended for women aged 21-65 as part of routine pelvic exams, with the frequency depending on age and risk factors.

The Pap test was developed by Georgios Papanikolaou in the early 20th century and has since become a widely used and important tool in preventing cervical cancer. The test is usually performed in a healthcare provider's office and takes only a few minutes to complete. It is a relatively simple, safe, and painless procedure that can help detect cervical abnormalities at an early stage, when they are most treatable.

Vulvar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vulvar region, which is the exterior female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the vaginal vestibule. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign vulvar neoplasms may include conditions such as vulvar cysts, fibromas, lipomas, or condylomas (genital warts). They are typically slow-growing and less likely to spread or invade surrounding tissues.

Malignant vulvar neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade nearby tissues and potentially metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. The most common types of malignant vulvar neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma, vulvar melanoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Early detection and treatment of vulvar neoplasms are essential for improving prognosis and reducing the risk of complications or recurrence. Regular gynecological examinations, self-examinations, and prompt attention to any unusual symptoms or changes in the vulvar area can help ensure timely diagnosis and management.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is widely used in medical and biological research. Here's the definition:

Bovine Serum Albumin is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. It is often used as a stabilizer, an emulsifier, or a protein source in various laboratory and industrial applications, including biochemical experiments, cell culture media, and diagnostic kits. BSA has a high solubility in water and can bind to many different types of molecules, making it useful for preventing unwanted interactions between components in a solution. It also has a consistent composition and is relatively inexpensive compared to human serum albumin, which are factors that contribute to its widespread use.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a species-specific virus that belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and genus Varicellovirus. This virus is the causative agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), which is a significant respiratory disease in cattle. The infection can also lead to reproductive issues, including abortions, stillbirths, and inflammation of the genital tract (infectious pustular vulvovaginitis) in cows and infertility in bulls.

The virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected animals, their respiratory secretions, or contaminated objects. Once an animal is infected, BoHV-1 establishes a lifelong latency in the nervous system, from where it can periodically reactivate and shed the virus, even without showing any clinical signs. This makes eradication of the virus challenging in cattle populations.

Vaccines are available to control IBR, but they may not prevent infection or shedding entirely. Therefore, ongoing management practices, such as biosecurity measures and surveillance programs, are essential to minimize the impact of this disease on cattle health and productivity.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disorder characterized by the formation of granulomas (small clumps of inflammatory cells) in various organs, most commonly the lungs and lymphatic system. These granulomas can impair the function of the affected organ(s), leading to a variety of symptoms. The exact cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but it's thought to be an overactive immune response to an unknown antigen, possibly triggered by an infection, chemical exposure, or another environmental factor.

The diagnosis of sarcoidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as chest X-rays and CT scans), and laboratory tests (including blood tests and biopsies). While there is no cure for sarcoidosis, treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Corticosteroids are often used to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, while other medications may be prescribed to treat specific organ involvement or symptoms. In some cases, sarcoidosis may resolve on its own without any treatment.

Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. They can do this by promoting cell growth and division (cellular proliferation), preventing cell death (apoptosis), or enabling cells to invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Oncogenes can be formed when normal genes, called proto-oncogenes, are mutated or altered in some way. This can happen as a result of exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or through inherited genetic mutations. When activated, oncogenes can contribute to the development of cancer by causing cells to divide and grow in an uncontrolled manner.

Oropharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the oropharynx, which is the middle part of the pharynx (throat) that includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant global health concern, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type of malignant neoplasm in this region. The primary risk factors for oropharyngeal cancers include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Anus neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the anus, which is the opening at the end of the digestive tract where solid waste leaves the body. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of anus neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and melanoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of anus cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases. It begins in the squamous cells that line the anal canal and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.

Adenocarcinoma is a less common type of anus cancer that arises from glandular cells in the anus. This type of cancer is often associated with long-standing inflammatory conditions, such as anal fistulas or ulcerative colitis.

Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer that can also occur in the anus. It develops from pigment-producing cells called melanocytes and tends to be aggressive with a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body.

Other less common types of anus neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. Treatment options for anus neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Colposcopy is a medical procedure in which a colposcope, which is a type of microscope, is used to examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for signs of disease or abnormalities. The colposcope allows the healthcare provider to see these areas in greater detail than is possible with the naked eye. During the procedure, the provider may take a small sample of tissue (biopsy) for further examination under a microscope.

Colposcopy is often used to investigate abnormal Pap test results or to follow up on women who have been diagnosed with certain types of cervical dysplasia (abnormal cell growth). It can also be used to diagnose and monitor other conditions, such as genital warts, inflammation, or cancer.

It is important to note that colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure and not a treatment. If abnormalities are found during the exam, additional procedures may be necessary to remove or treat them.

Regulatory sequences in nucleic acid refer to specific DNA or RNA segments that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes without encoding proteins. They are crucial for the proper functioning of cells as they regulate various cellular processes such as transcription, translation, mRNA stability, and localization. Regulatory sequences can be found in both coding and non-coding regions of DNA or RNA.

Some common types of regulatory sequences in nucleic acid include:

1. Promoters: DNA sequences typically located upstream of the gene that provide a binding site for RNA polymerase and transcription factors to initiate transcription.
2. Enhancers: DNA sequences, often located at a distance from the gene, that enhance transcription by binding to specific transcription factors and increasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase.
3. Silencers: DNA sequences that repress transcription by binding to specific proteins that inhibit the recruitment of RNA polymerase or promote chromatin compaction.
4. Intron splice sites: Specific nucleotide sequences within introns (non-coding regions) that mark the boundaries between exons (coding regions) and are essential for correct splicing of pre-mRNA.
5. 5' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 5' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements affecting translation efficiency, stability, and localization.
6. 3' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 3' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements influencing translation termination, stability, and localization.
7. miRNA target sites: Specific sequences in mRNAs that bind to microRNAs (miRNAs) leading to translational repression or degradation of the target mRNA.

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genetic skin disorder characterized by the development of scaly macules and papules that can progress to malignant lesions. It is caused by mutations in the EVER1 or EVER2 genes, which lead to an increased susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The condition typically presents in childhood or early adulthood and affects both sexes equally.

The skin abnormalities associated with EV are often described as "wart-like" and can appear anywhere on the body, but they most commonly affect sun-exposed areas such as the hands, arms, and face. The lesions may be flat or slightly raised, and they can vary in color from white to brown or gray. In some cases, the lesions may become thickened and crusted, and they can be pruritic (itchy) or painful.

People with EV are at an increased risk of developing skin cancer, particularly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The SCCs associated with EV tend to occur at a younger age than those that develop in the general population, and they often arise within existing EV lesions. Regular skin examinations and sun protection measures are recommended for individuals with EV to help prevent the development of skin cancer.

Treatment options for EV include topical therapies such as retinoids, immunomodulators, and chemotherapeutic agents, as well as systemic therapies such as antiviral medications and interferon. Surgical excision may be necessary for the treatment of malignant lesions.

Regulator genes are a type of gene that regulates the activity of other genes in an organism. They do not code for a specific protein product but instead control the expression of other genes by producing regulatory proteins such as transcription factors, repressors, or enhancers. These regulatory proteins bind to specific DNA sequences near the target genes and either promote or inhibit their transcription into mRNA. This allows regulator genes to play a crucial role in coordinating complex biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism, and response to environmental stimuli.

There are several types of regulator genes, including:

1. Constitutive regulators: These genes are always active and produce regulatory proteins that control the expression of other genes in a consistent manner.
2. Inducible regulators: These genes respond to specific signals or environmental stimuli by producing regulatory proteins that modulate the expression of target genes.
3. Negative regulators: These genes produce repressor proteins that bind to DNA and inhibit the transcription of target genes, thereby reducing their expression.
4. Positive regulators: These genes produce activator proteins that bind to DNA and promote the transcription of target genes, thereby increasing their expression.
5. Master regulators: These genes control the expression of multiple downstream target genes involved in specific biological processes or developmental pathways.

Regulator genes are essential for maintaining proper gene expression patterns and ensuring normal cellular function. Mutations in regulator genes can lead to various diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and metabolic dysfunctions.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Gamma-papillomaviruses, also known as Gammapapillomavirus (γPV), are a genus of papillomaviruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of birds and some non-human mammals. They have not been definitively associated with any human diseases.

Gamma-papillomaviruses are characterized by their double-stranded DNA genome, which encodes several proteins involved in the virus's replication and regulation. The two main types of proteins encoded by these viruses are early proteins, which are expressed before viral DNA replication, and late proteins, which are expressed after viral DNA replication.

These viruses can cause benign growths called papillomas or warts in their hosts. However, some gamma-papillomaviruses have been associated with the development of cancerous lesions in animals, particularly in birds. It's important to note that while gamma-papillomaviruses have not been definitively linked to human cancers, other types of papillomaviruses are known to cause various types of human cancers, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.

Betapapillomavirus is a type of human papillomavirus (HPV) that primarily infects the skin, particularly the flat, dry areas known as the cutaneous epithelium. This genus of HPV is not typically associated with cancers or genital warts, unlike other high-risk HPV types. However, some betapapillomavirus types have been linked to benign skin growths called epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) lesions, which can develop into squamous cell carcinomas in immunocompromised individuals.

It is important to note that there are more than 200 known types of HPV, and they are classified into different genera based on their genetic similarities. Betapapillomaviruses belong to the genus Beta-Papillomavirus, which includes at least 49 distinct types. Some common examples of betapapillomaviruses include HPV types 5, 8, 17, 20, 23, and 41.

Research into the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of various HPV types is ongoing, as understanding the role of these viruses in human health and disease can help inform prevention strategies and treatment approaches.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

COS cells are a type of cell line that are commonly used in molecular biology and genetic research. The name "COS" is an acronym for "CV-1 in Origin," as these cells were originally derived from the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-1. COS cells have been modified through genetic engineering to express high levels of a protein called SV40 large T antigen, which allows them to efficiently take up and replicate exogenous DNA.

There are several different types of COS cells that are commonly used in research, including COS-1, COS-3, and COS-7 cells. These cells are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, as well as for studies of gene expression, protein localization, and signal transduction.

It is important to note that while COS cells have been a valuable tool in scientific research, they are not without their limitations. For example, because they are derived from monkey kidney cells, there may be differences in the way that human genes are expressed or regulated in these cells compared to human cells. Additionally, because COS cells express SV40 large T antigen, they may have altered cell cycle regulation and other phenotypic changes that could affect experimental results. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the choice of cell line when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

Vaginal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vagina. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of vaginal neoplasms are:

1. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN): This is a condition where the cells on the inner lining of the vagina become abnormal but have not invaded deeper tissues. VAIN can be low-grade or high-grade, depending on the severity of the cell changes.
2. Vaginal cancer: This is a malignant tumor that arises from the cells in the vagina. The two main types of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type, accounting for about 85% of all cases.

Risk factors for vaginal neoplasms include human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, smoking, older age, history of cervical cancer or precancerous changes, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Tonsillar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tonsils, which are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the back of the throat (oropharynx). These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous), and their symptoms may include difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

Tonsillar neoplasms are relatively rare, but they can occur at any age. The most common type of malignant tonsillar neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for about 90% of all cases. Other types of malignant tonsillar neoplasms include lymphomas and sarcomas.

The diagnosis of tonsillar neoplasms typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and sometimes a biopsy to confirm the type of tumor. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

CHO cells, or Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, are a type of immortalized cell line that are commonly used in scientific research and biotechnology. They were originally derived from the ovaries of a female Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) in the 1950s.

CHO cells have several characteristics that make them useful for laboratory experiments. They can grow and divide indefinitely under appropriate conditions, which allows researchers to culture large quantities of them for study. Additionally, CHO cells are capable of expressing high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of therapeutic drugs, vaccines, and other biologics.

In particular, CHO cells have become a workhorse in the field of biotherapeutics, with many approved monoclonal antibody-based therapies being produced using these cells. The ability to genetically modify CHO cells through various methods has further expanded their utility in research and industrial applications.

It is important to note that while CHO cells are widely used in scientific research, they may not always accurately represent human cell behavior or respond to drugs and other compounds in the same way as human cells do. Therefore, results obtained using CHO cells should be validated in more relevant systems when possible.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

DNA helicases are a group of enzymes that are responsible for separating the two strands of DNA during processes such as replication and transcription. They do this by unwinding the double helix structure of DNA, using energy from ATP to break the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. This allows other proteins to access the individual strands of DNA and carry out functions such as copying the genetic code or transcribing it into RNA.

During replication, DNA helicases help to create a replication fork, where the two strands of DNA are separated and new complementary strands are synthesized. In transcription, DNA helicases help to unwind the DNA double helix at the promoter region, allowing the RNA polymerase enzyme to bind and begin transcribing the DNA into RNA.

DNA helicases play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the genetic code and are essential for the normal functioning of cells. Defects in DNA helicases have been linked to various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that infects cattle and causes enzootic bovine leukosis, a neoplastic disease characterized by the proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes. The virus primarily targets the animal's immune system, leading to a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukopenia) and an increased susceptibility to other infections.

The virus is transmitted horizontally through close contact with infected animals or vertically from mother to offspring via infected milk or colostrum. The majority of BLV-infected cattle remain asymptomatic carriers, but a small percentage develop clinical signs such as lymphoma, weight loss, and decreased milk production.

BLV is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and both viruses belong to the Retroviridae family, genus Deltaretrovirus. However, it's important to note that BLV does not cause leukemia or any other neoplastic diseases in humans.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Similar papillomaviruses of ungulates (e.g. deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are ... Campo, MS (2006). "Bovine papillomavirus: old system, new lessons?". In Campo, MS (ed.). Papillomavirus Research: From Natural ... Chambers G, Ellsmore VA, OBrien PM, Reid SW, Love S, Campo MS, Nasir L (2003). "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the ... Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are a paraphyletic group of DNA viruses of the subfamily Firstpapillomavirinae of ...
... research on bovine papillomavirus (BPV) has contributed to the understanding of papillomavirus-induced pathology in humans and ... For many years, research on bovine papillomavirus (BPV) has contributed to the understanding of papillomavirus-induced ... Bovine papillomavirus: opening new trends for comparative pathology Arch Virol. 2014 Feb;159(2):191-8. doi: 10.1007/s00705-013- ... as in the cases of connexin 43 down-regulation with loss of intercellular gap junctions and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) down- ...
An investigation of bovine papillomaviruses from ocular squamous cell carcinomas in cattle. Karakurt E, Coskun N, Aydın U, ... Correction to: Molecular detection of Papillomavirus and immunohistochemical investigation of p53 gene expressions in bovine ... Among authors: kuru m. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2019;78(4):827-832. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0032. Epub 2019 Mar 19. Folia Morphol ( ...
3 McPhillips M, Ozato K, McBride A. Interaction of Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Protein with Brd4 Stabilizes Its Association with ... It is the remnant of bovine chromatin: nucleosomal debris containing DNA fragments of various sizes, complexed with histones ... Purity among commercially available polymerase enzymes is variable, and some enzymes are stabilized with bovine serum albumin ( ... Figure 1: Analytical size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) marketed for processing nucleic acids; ...
The N-terminal end of c-Jun containing these substitutions was fused to the DNA-binding region of the bovine papilloma virus E2 ... The N-terminal end of c-Jun containing these substitutions was fused to the DNA-binding region of the bovine papilloma virus E2 ... The N-terminal end of c-Jun containing these substitutions was fused to the DNA-binding region of the bovine papilloma virus E2 ... "DETERMINATION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA-VIRUS IN NON-ANOGENITAL SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMAS BY POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION." ,i>JOURNAL OF ...
... human papillomavirus 16; lane 18, human papillomavirus 18; lane 19, Epstein-Barr virus; lane 20, human endogenous retrovirus K ... and bovine GAPDH for bovine, ovine, and feline cell lines (857 bp)Lane 1, molecular weight marker (HyperLadder IV; Bioline, ... Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue Gertrude Case Buehring. , Hua Min Shen, Hanne M. Jensen, K. Yeon Choi1, Dejun ... Test results showing lack of cross-reactivity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-specific primers with representatives of all ...
01.12.2010 Feline papillomavirus-DNA in bovine skin. *20.11.2010 Role of bovine herpesvirus IV in infertility. *09.11.2010 ... 26.04.2013 Gene for Bovine spinal muscular atrophy is not AFG3L2. *17.04.2013 Review on bovine uterine torsion. *16.04.2013 ... 07.08.2003 New therapy to stop tumour metastasis found? BOVINE*03.10.2018 The myostatin gene and its relevance to livestock ... 25.02.2010 Bovine herpesvirus type 5 in the semen of a healthy bull*29.01.2010 Transcutaneous ultrasonographic diagnosis of mid ...
... that encapsidate a reporter plasmid DNA have been used as surrogates for native human papillomavirus (HPV), whose continuous ... Novel structural features of bovine papillomavirus capsid revealed by a three-dimensional reconstruction to 9 A resolution. Nat ... Proteins present in bovine papillomavirus particles. J Virol. 1987;61:3596-601. ... and it was suggested that the DNAs of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and HPV have a chromatin-like structure composed of ...
Bovine serological response to a recombinant BPV-1 major capsid protein vaccine. Intervirol. 31:345-354. ... Human papillomavirus DNA in CO2 laser-generated plume of smoke and its consequences to the surgeon. Obstet Gynecol. 75:114-118. ... Snow leopards (Uncia uncia) develop papillomavirus (PV) lesions in the mouth and on the skin.6,9 Skin lesions develop on the ... Systemic immunization with papillomavirus L1 protein completely prevents the development of viral mucosal infection. Proc Natl ...
many viruses including bovine papillomavirus. The latter is reported in D.C. Sokal et al, "Inactivation of papillomavirus by ... INACTIVATION OF PAPILLOMAVIRUS Field of the Invention. This invention relates generally to the inactivation of papillomavirus ... papillomavirus in and adjacent to the uterine cervical canal by application of a viral. inactivation agent such as an iodine- ... papillomavirus infection (where only the virus is detected and there are no. clinically evident changes) of the anal canal ...
Vectors that contain the replicons from bovine papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus replicate extrachromosomally at "low copy ... In the cell culture method, the hybridoma is cultured in an animal cell culture medium such as 10% fetal bovine serum- ... As a method for this selection, the resultant cell suspension is appropriately diluted with fetal bovine serum-containing RPMI- ... or one of these media supplemented with fetal bovine serum, etc. may be used. Usually, the cultivation is carried out in the ...
We aimed to generate chimeric bovine papillomavirus (BPV) VLPs displaying a repetitive array of polyanionic docking sites on ... We aimed to generate chimeric bovine papillomavirus (BPV) VLPs displaying a repetitive array of polyanionic docking sites on ... We aimed to generate chimeric bovine papillomavirus (BPV) VLPs displaying a repetitive array of polyanionic docking sites on ... We aimed to generate chimeric bovine papillomavirus (BPV) VLPs displaying a repetitive array of polyanionic docking sites on ...
The human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein (HPV16 E5) down-regulates surface expression of HLA-I molecules. The molecular ... Marchetti B, Ashrafi GH, Tsirimonaki E, OBrien PM, Campo MS: The bovine papillomavirus oncoprotein E5 retains MHC class I ... Bravo I, Alonso A, Auvinen E: Human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein. Papillomavirus Report. 2004, 15: 1-6. 10.1179/ ... Down-regulation of MHC class I by bovine papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins. Oncogene. 2002, 21: 248-259. 10.1038/sj.onc.1205008. ...
Title: Design, synthesis, and evaluation of peptides derived from L1 protein against bovine papillomavirus-1/2 identified along ... DECEMBER 11, 2023 , GMT+4(DUBAI). Theme: Advanced Innovation in the Concept of Veterinary Science Medicine Research and ...
Bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2 were found in all representative samples. A phylogenetic tree showed that Mexican sequences ... The aim of this study was to evaluate a candidate peptide for antibody production against bovine papillomavirus (BPV). Material ... Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Peptides Derived from L1 Protein Against Bovine Papillomavirus-1/2 Identified Along ... The prevalence of bovine papillomatosis per farm was calculated by wart visualisation. The warts were genotyped by PCR and ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
Bovine papillomavirus 1 B4.280.535.200.100 B4.280.210.655.200.100 B4.909.204.210.655.200.100 B4.613.204.655.200.100 B4.909. ... Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.100 Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral B4.909.777.310.700.150.120 Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine ... Bovine papillomavirus 4 B4.280.535.950.150 B4.280.210.655.950.150 B4.909.204.210.655.950.150 B4.613.204.655.950.150 B4.909. ... Human papillomavirus 31 B4.280.535.50.631 B4.280.210.655.50.616.500 B4.613.204.655.50.616.500 Human papillomavirus 6 B4.280. ...
For example, Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) only causes cancer in cattle that eat bracken. Risk factors such as smoking, genetic ... Animal and human papillomaviruses have a lot in common and the cottontail rabbit was the first animal model for cancer caused ... The papillomavirus in horses is very similar to the human virus, which means that similar vaccines were developed - the ... Eventually John Kneider came up with a way to grow human papilloma virus (HPV) in nude mice. These mice have a defective immune ...
Politica de tratare a viermilor Papilloma virus quante dosi human papillomavirus infection electrosurgery, deteccion de oxiuros ... tratament Tratamentul depresiei la câine câinele se papillomavirus em caes confrunta cu depresia papillomavirus em caes ce se ... Papillomavirus em caes Conheça as principais características do Buldogue Francês e muito mais. Invisalign papiloma na boca de ... Side effects of papillomavirus vaccine - Papiloma virus caes tratamento. Papiloma na boca de cachorro. Otita medie maxilo- ...
Suitable vectors may include, for example, those derived from simian virus SV40, retroviruses, bovine papilloma virus, vaccinia ... Description: The most disgusting imaginable method of obtaining a 745 base pair sequence of DNA from Bovine pituitary glands ... In Covid-19, the furin site (PRRA), has 12 nucleotides (3 x 4). In Covid-19, the RR doublet of the furin site is encoded by CGG ... Furthermore they did not merely apply for a patent on 2016 February 4 with US9587003B2: as reported in the Daily Mail. They ...
... bovine papilloma viruses, murine papilloma viruses, cotton-rabbit papilloma viruses and macaque or rhesus papilloma virus ... the papilloma virus capsid proteins are non-human papilloma virus capsid proteins, such as bovine papilloma virus (BPV) capsid ... the papilloma virus capsid proteins are non-human papilloma virus capsid proteins, such as bovine papilloma virus capsid ... comprising photosensitive molecules conjugated to papilloma virus L1 proteins (e.g., bovine papilloma virus L1 proteins). In ...
Genomic comparison of bovine papillomavirus 1 isolates from bovine, equine and asinine lesional tissue samples. Virus research ... Identification of a missense mutation in the bovine ATP2A1 gene in congenital pseudomyotonia of Chianina cattle: an animal ... Animal genetics, 49(4), pp. 284-290. Blackwell 10.1111/age.12660 Schmidli, Manuel; Fuhrer, Bettina; Kurt, Nadine; Senn, David; ... PLoS genetics, 11(4), e1005169. Public Library of Science 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005169 ...
Studies suggest that the bovine papilloma virus (which is related) can retain infectivity for months and possibly years, and ... Lesions caused by human papilloma virus often do not require treatment, but need to be assessed to rule out more serious ... They are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), of which there are over 150 genotypically different types; the most common ... Verrucas are plantar warts, located on the sole of the foot[4],[5]. . Someone with a plantar wart should use waterproof ...
Research has been done in many parts of the world to investigate the presence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and its ... Bovine leukemia virus linked to breast cancer but not coinfection with human papillomavirus: Case‐control study of women in ... Can bovine leukemia virus be related to human breast cancer? A review of the evidence. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and ... "Tracking of bovine leukemia virus in blood and breast paraffin tissue samples". The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology ...
the set cells were cleaned double using PBS (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA; Sigma Aldrich) ... Next, the cells had been cleaned with 2% FBS in PBS and set in 4% paraformaldehyde for 20 min on snow at night. After washing ... for XR9576 5 min, and set in in 4% paraformaldehyde (Sigma Aldrich) for 10 min. ...
Subunit interactions in bovine papillomavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010; 107(14):6298-6303. [PubMed: 20308582]. ... Incoming human papillomavirus type 16 genome resides in a vesicular compartment throughout mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... Cleavage of the papillomavirus minor capsid protein, L2, at a furin consensus site is necessary for infection. Proc. Natl. Acad ... Control of human papillomavirus gene expression by alternative splicing. Virus Res. 2017 Mar 2;231:83-95. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen (Ag) positive for the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) was found in 59 (55.7%) ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen (Ag) positive for the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) was found in 59 (55.7%) ... Searching bovine papillomavirus presence in lesions seen on teats of cows * Özmen G. Kale M. ... Laminitis is a disease that affects the dermis and epidermis of the bovine hoof, generating changes in the hoof capsule. This ...

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