Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Bovine papillomavirus 4: A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Papillomavirus E7 Proteins: ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Human papillomavirus 11: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing recurrent respiratory PAPILLOMATOSIS; GENITAL WARTS; and other neoplasms.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus: The type species of KAPPAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. It is reported to occur naturally in cottontail rabbits in North America.Deltapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE causing fibropapillomas in their respective ungulate hosts. Species infected include cattle, European elk, deer, and sheep.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Warts: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.Human papillomavirus 6: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS usually associated with GENITAL WARTS; and LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Condylomata Acuminata: Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.DNA Probes, HPV: DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Adenovirus E2 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests: Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Uterine Cervical Dysplasia: Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Penile Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Herpesvirus 1, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gammapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, which cause cutaneous lesions in humans. They are histologically distinguishable by intracytoplasmic INCLUSION BODIES which are species specific.Betapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, causing cutaneous lesions in humans. Infections exist in latent form in the general population and are activated under conditions of IMMUNOSUPPRESSION.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Tonsillar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATINE TONSIL.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.

A mutational analysis of the transforming functions of the E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. (1/28)

The E8 protein of BPV-4 contributes to transformation of primary bovine cells (PalFs) by inducing anchorage-independent growth and by down-regulating gap junction intercellular communication, likely due to its binding to 16K ductin. We show here that, in addition, E8 confers on PalF cells the ability to grow in low serum and to escape from contact inhibition (focus formation). E8 also transactivates an exogenous human cyclin A gene promoter, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin A is responsible for the transformed phenotype. Mutant forms of E8 were generated to establish whether the transforming functions of the protein could be segregated. Mutations were introduced both in the hydrophobic domain and in the hydrophilic C-terminal "tail", and chimeras with BPV-1 E5 were constructed. Cells expressing either wild-type E8 or mutant forms were analyzed for their ability to grow in low serum and in suspension and to form foci. Wild-type E8 and its mutants were also analyzed for their ability to transactivate the cyclin A promoter. We show here that the transforming functions of E8 can be segregated and that both the hydrophilic C-terminal tail and the residue at position 17 in the hydrophobic domain are crucial for E8 functions and for the transactivation of the cyclin A promoter. These results support the hypothesis that the different aspects of cellular transformation brought about by E8 might be due to interaction with different cellular targets. They suggest that E8 might function differently from BPV-1 E5 and demonstrate that the separate domains of E5 and E8 are not functionally interchangeable.  (+info)

An enhanced epithelial response of a papillomavirus promoter to transcriptional activators. (2/28)

Mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have a similar long control region (LCR) organization: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites. The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial-specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (Gloss, B., Bernard, H. U., Seedorf, K., and Klock, G. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 3735-3743; Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1999) J. Gen. Virol. 80, 23-27). Studies on E2 transcriptional regulation of the human mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have been hindered by poor access to the natural target cell type and by the observation that some of the human papillomavirus promoters, including human papillomavirus-16, are repressed in immortalized epithelial cells. Here we present results using the bovine papillomavirus-4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system as a model to study the mechanism of E2 transcriptional regulation of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses and the cell type specificity of this regulation. E2 up-regulates transcription from the BPV-4 LCR preferentially in epithelial cells (Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1998) J. Gen. Virol. 79, 501-508). We demonstrate that the epithelial-specific enhancer element of the BPV-4 LCR is not required for the enhanced activity of E2 in epithelial cells and that the BPV-4 promoter is more responsive, not only to E2, but to other transcriptional activators in epithelial cells. This is the first time a level of epithelial specificity has been shown to reside in a papillomavirus promoter region.  (+info)

alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory cell receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4. (3/28)

Recently, alpha6 integrin has been proposed as the epithelial cell receptor for papillomavirus. This study investigated whether alpha6 integrin is the cellular receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4), which is strictly epitheliotropic and infects the mucous epithelium of the upper digestive tract. Primary bovine mucosal keratinocytes from the palate of a foetus (PalK) displayed high levels of alpha6 integrin; matched primary fibroblasts from the same biopsy (PalF) expressed almost no alpha6 integrin. However, BPV-4 bound both PalK and PalF to similar, saturable levels. Native BPV-4 virions infected PalK in vitro, as detected by RT-PCR of E7 RNA. Infection could be blocked by excess virus-like particles (VLPs) and by neutralizing antisera against L1-L2 and L1 VLPs or by denaturation of the virions, supporting the view that infection in vitro mimics the process in vivo. alpha6 integrin-negative human keratinocyte cell lines were derived from patients affected by junctional epidermolysis bullosa presenting genetic lesions in their hemidesmosomes. The level of alpha6 integrin expression was determined in these cell lines by in situ immunofluorescence and FACS. Despite the absence of alpha6 integrin expression by BO-SV cells, they were bound by BPV-4 to similar, saturable levels as normal keratinocytes, KH-SV. Furthermore, BO-SV and KH-SV cells were both infected by BPV-4 to apparently the same extent as PalK cells. These results are consistent with the conclusion that alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory receptor for a bovine mucosotropic papillomavirus.  (+info)

A novel silencer element in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 promoter represses the transcriptional response to papillomavirus E2 protein. (4/28)

The long control regions (LCRs) of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have similar organizations: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites (C. Desaintes and C. Demeret, Semin. Cancer Biol. 7:339--347, 1996). The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial cell specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (B. Gloss, H. U. Bernard, K. Seedorf, and G. Klock, EMBO J. 6:3735--3743, 1987). Using the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system, we have shown previously that a level of epithelial specificity resides in a papillomavirus promoter region. The BPV-4 promoter shows an enhanced response to transcriptional activators in epithelial cells compared with that of fibroblasts (K. W. Vance, M. S. Campo, and I. M. Morgan, J. Biol. Chem. 274:27839--27844, 1999). A chimeric lcr/tk promoter suggests that the upstream BPV-4 promoter region determines the cell-type-selective response of this promoter in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Promoter deletion analysis identified two novel repressor elements that are, at least in part, responsible for mediating the differential response of this promoter to upstream activators in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. One of these elements, promoter repressor element 2 (PRE-2), is conserved in position and sequence in the related mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses, BPV-3 and BPV-6. PRE-2 functions in cis to repress the basal activity of the simian virus 40 promoter and binds a specific protein complex. We identify the exact nucleotides necessary for binding and correlate loss of binding with loss of transcriptional repression. We also incorporate these mutations into the BPV-4 promoter and demonstrate an enhanced response of the mutated promoter to E2 in fibroblasts. The DNA binding protein in the detected complex is shown to have a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The PRE-2 binding protein represents a novel transcriptional repressor and regulator of papillomavirus transcription.  (+info)

Quercetin, E7 and p53 in papillomavirus oncogenic cell transformation. (5/28)

Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) infects the upper alimentary canal of cattle causing benign papillomas which can progress to squamous carcinomas in cattle grazing on bracken fern (BF). We have previously shown that quercetin, a well characterized and potent mutagen found in BF, causes cell cycle arrest of primary bovine cells (PalF), but that a single exposure to quercetin can cause full oncogenic transformation of PalF cells partially transformed by BPV-4. Here we show that cell cycle arrest correlates with an increase in p53 protein levels and transcriptional activity. However, in cells transformed but non-tumorigenic, p53 protein is elevated and transcriptionally activated in response to quercetin or other DNA damaging stimuli, but the cells bypass quercetin-induced G1 arrest likely due to E7 expression. In transformed tumorigenic cells, p53 is elevated in response to quercetin but its transcriptional activity is inhibited due to mutation, and the cells fail to stop in G1 in the presence of quercetin.  (+info)

Cell transformation by the E5/E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. p27(Kip1), Elevated through increased protein synthesis is sequestered by cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes. (6/28)

The E5/E8 hydrophobic protein of BPV-4 is, at only 42 residues, the smallest transforming protein identified to date. Transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by E5/E8 correlates with up-regulation of both cyclin A-associated kinase activity and, unusually, p27(Kip1) (p27) but does not rely on changes in cyclin E or cyclin E-CDK2 activity. Here we have examined how p27 is prevented from functioning efficiently as a CDK2 inhibitor, and we investigated the mechanisms used to achieve elevated p27 expression in E5/E8 cells. Our results show that normal subcellular targeting of p27 is not subverted in E5/E8 cells, and p27 retains its ability to inhibit both cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK activities upon release from heat-labile complexes. E5/E8 cells also have elevated levels of cyclins D1 and D3, and high levels of nuclear p27 are tolerated because the inhibitor is sequestered within an elevated pool of cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes, a significant portion of which retain kinase activity. In agreement with this, pRB is constitutively hyperphosphorylated in E5/E8 cells in vivo. The increased steady-state level of p27 is achieved largely through an increased rate of protein synthesis and does not rely on changes in p27 mRNA levels or protein half-life. This is the first report of enhanced p27 synthesis as the main mechanism for increasing protein levels in continuously cycling cells. Our results are consistent with a model in which E5/E8 promotes a coordinated elevation of cyclin D1-CDK4 and p27, as well as cyclin A-associated kinase activity, which act in concert to allow continued proliferation in the absence of mitogens.  (+info)

Down-regulation of MHC class I by bovine papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins. (7/28)

The papillomavirus E5 protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) of the host cell. Transformed bovine fibroblasts expressing bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E5 are highly vacuolated and have a much enlarged, distorted and fragmented GA. Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) is processed and transported to the cell surface through the GA. Given the cellular localization of E5 in the GA and the morphologically abnormal GA, we investigated the expression of MHC I in cells transformed by E5 from BPV-1 and BPV-4. Two cell lines were used: bovine cells that also express E6, E7 and activated ras, and NIH3T3 cells that express only E5. In addition, PalF cells acutely infected with a recombinant retrovirus expressing E5 were also examined. In contrast to non-transformed normal cells, or transformed cells expressing other papillomavirus proteins, cells expressing E5 do not express MHC I on their surface, but retain it intracellularly, independently of the presence of other viral or cellular oncogenes, or of whether the cells are long-term transformants or acutely infected. We conclude that expression of E5 prevents expression of MHC I to the cell surface and causes its retention within the cell. In addition, lower amounts of total MHC I heavy chain and of heavy chain RNA are detected in E5-transformed cells than in control cells. As surface expression of another glycosylated membrane protein, the transferrin receptor, is not affected, it appears that E5 targets MHC I with at least a degree of specificity. In papillomavirus lesions this effect would have important implications for antigen presentation by, and immunosurveillance of, virally infected cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I in bovine papillomas. (8/28)

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) induces papillomas in cattle; in the great majority of cases, these regress due to the host immune response, but they can persist and progress to malignancy. Even in the absence of malignant transformation, BPV infection persists for a significant period of time before activation of the host immune system, suggesting that the host immune system is unaware of, or disabled by, BPV. E5 is the major oncoprotein of BPV, which, in addition to its transforming properties, downregulates the expression and transport to the cell surface of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). Here, it is shown that co-expression of MHC I and E5 in papillomas caused by BPV-4 infection is mutually exclusive, in agreement with the inhibition of surface MHC I expression by E5 that is observed in vitro. The inhibition of MHC expression in E5-expressing papilloma cells could explain the long period that is required for activation of the immune response and has implications for the progression of papillomas to the malignant stage; absence of peptide presentation by MHC I to cytotoxic T lymphocytes would allow the infected cells to evade the host cellular immune response and allow the lesions to persist.  (+info)

Describe the structure of the alimentary canal of the human body in relation to its function Synopsis: Intro: * nutrition * Alimentary canal * 4 layers
On Diseases of the Abdomen - Compromising Those of the Stomach, and Other Parts of the Alimentary Canal, Oesophagus, Caecum, Intestines and Peritoneum (Paperback) / Author: S. O. 1825-1889 Habershon ; 9781176909847 ; History, Books
tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2. Recombinant protein corresponding to full length Bovine Papillomavirus type-1 transactivator protein E2. (MAB7861) - Products - Abnova
Bovine papillomavirus type 1 oncogene protein E5: 44-amino acid protein; a homo-dimeric, transmembrane protein that transforms cells by activating the platelet-derived growth factor ss receptor in a ligand-independent fashion and induces cellular DNA synthesis
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Cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma was discussed in a recent veterinary webinar at The Webinar Vet. A poll of the attendees revealed 42% who do not see it in any one year and 58% who will see one to three cases a year. So a rare condition but never the ... Read , ...
Definition: An organism that feeds on mud or sand and shows little discrimination in the size or type of particles eaten. The sediment is ingested and any digestible organic material is assimilated as it passes through the alimentary canal ...
Samples of neoplastic and normal urothelium were obtained from cows originating from areas of southern Italy, a region in which chronic enzootic haematuria is endemic and bracken fern infestation is widespread. Specimens were analysed for bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) DNA, BPV-2 E5 expression and telomerase activity. A total of 46 of 60 tumours and 17 of 34 normal bladder mucosa samples harboured BPV-2 DNA. Analysis of a subset of samples showed E5 protein expression and telomerase activity in tumour tissue only. No normal samples positive for BPV DNA showed E5 protein expression or telomerase activity, suggesting the presence of DNA in a latent state. Taken together, these data on naturally occurring bovine bladder tumours corroborate the hypothesis of their virus origin.
The action of anthelmintics on parasites located outside of the alimentary canal / by Brayton Howard Ransom, Chief of the Zoological Division and Maurice C. Hall, assistant zoologist, Zoological Division ...
The replication initiator protein E1 binds to the origin of replication of bovine papillomavirus in several forms. E1 can bind to its recognition sequence as a monomer together with the viral transcription factor E2, or as a trimeric E1 complex. The trimerization of E1 is mediated by the sequence-specific binding of E1 to DNA, and results in an E1 complex that is linked topologically to the DNA because the three molecules of E1 form a ring-like structure that encircles the DNA. These results demonstrate that E1 utilizes unusual mechanisms for sequence-specific binding to DNA and for the generation of a structure that encircles the DNA. We believe that these forms of E1 bound to the origin of replication represent intermediates in a transition in the function of E1, from a sequence-specific origin of replication recognition protein to a form of E1 that is competent for the initiation of viral DNA replication.. ...
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This fungus attacks female flies, entering via the alimentary canal and migrating to the abdomen. Here it multiplies rapidly, forming a large pink mass, whilst at the same time compelling the fly to move to the highest local point. This can be a blade of grass, a flowerhead or a leaf. Once in position, the female extends her wings and her rear legs, then she dies in situ. This behavior extends the abdomen as far as possible, and removes the wings as potential blockages. Again, the fungus has maximised the opportunity for spore dispersal ...
evident in Alcyonella and Plumatella towards the fundus of the stomach; they become less distinct as we ascend toward the oesophagus, and totally disappear from this tube and from the rectum. The fundus of the stomach appears to differ from the rest of the alimentary canal in structure and function; the well-defined longitudinal rugae and deep brown colour of the internal layer of the stomach nearly disappear in it, and, during the process of digestion, we may perceive that the peculiar peristaltic action of the walls is more marked in it than in any other part of the gastric cavity, while it is every now and then separated from the rest of this cavity by a momentary hour-glass constriction. In the oesophagus there are only two layers (Pl. III, fig. 7, X′, u). These correspond to the middle and external layers of the stomach, the former being here largely developed (A), while the internal or hepatic layer of the stomach is entirely absent, and there are no longitudinal rugae. The mouth and ...
In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated the expression of BAG3 protein in equine sarcoids in vivo as well as in an in vitro model of sarcoid-derived equine fibroblasts. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that the most of tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from a healthy horse displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrated the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation in EqSO4b, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome, promotes cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising ...
1) Eat Clean: The food you eat is important for timely and healthy digestion and elimination. If you are eating highly processed, sugary, and genetically modified foods your alimentary canal is going to be sluggish, toxic, slow or inconsistent. Research which foods are good for digestion and constipation and stock up on them.. 2) Drink Water: If you are not drinking adequate water for reabsorption to occur, your stools may become too hard and be difficult and slow to pass. Sodas, juices, and coffee do not count as water.. 3) Chew your food: Peristalsis is a sequential movement that mixes and moves food and waste through your alimentary canal. The action of chewing stimulates peristalsis of the entire alimentary canal. This is why I generally recommend that if you are having digestion and elimination problems to avoid protein shakes since chewing is not required and the movement of the bowels does not get stimulated naturally. 4) Schedule time for elimination: If you do not make time for bowel ...
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Looking for gut edema? Find out information about gut edema. 1. a. the lower part of the alimentary canal; intestine b. the entire alimentary canal 2. the bowels or entrails, esp of an animal 3. a silky fibrous... Explanation of gut edema
* Sir E. Home, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, vol. i. p. 225. (2312). The rest of the alimentary canal in most quadrupeds, like that of Man, is divisible into the small and the large intestines, ...
Stomach :: stum-uk (stomachos): In man and most vertebrates, a membranous sac-like portion of the alimentary canal, in which the earlier stages of digestion
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct and is attached to the abdominal wa
Solution for question: Given the Dental Formula of Human Beings concept: Digestive System - Alimentary Canal. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science)
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The apparatus for the digestion of the food consists of the digestive tube and of certain accessory organs. The Digestive Tube (alimentary canal) is a musculomembranous tube, about 9 metres long, extending from the mouth to the anus, and lined throughout its entire extent by mucous membrane.
Kilpatrick, D.C. Pusztai, A., Grant, G., Graham, C. and Ewen, S.W (1985) Tomato Lectin Resists Digestion in the Mammalian Alimentary Canal and Binds to Intestinal Villi without Deleterious Effects. FEBS Letters, 185, 299-305.
In Gulp. Adventures on the Alimentary Canal, science writer Mary Roach takes a journey through the gut, from the secret healing powers of saliva to the taxonomy of poop. Along the trip, she serves up odd medical anecdotes, such as the story of William Beaumont, an eccentric surgeon who once ate chicken from another mans stomach.
Looking for Oesophageal? Find out information about Oesophageal. esophagus the part of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and the stomach; gullet Explanation of Oesophageal
Canker Sores] are from the acidity in the system… If there will be used a good alkaline antiseptic for the gums, such as Glyco-Thymoline, we find that this will aid in keeping the mouth fresh and clean." (Cayce) "(Q) How can sores in the mouth and alimentary canal be relieved? (A) This, as we find, would respond better to those with Atomidine [Atomic Iodine™] than in any; this weakened in a solution, see, to be applied locally-and taken internally." (Cayce) [Caution: Be sure to become informed about Atomidine before taking it internally; because of its high iodine content, it may be more detrimental than beneficial for some individuals.] In Dr. William McGareys "Commentary" in the Circulating File on Atomidine [Atomic Iodine™], he mentions a report by Dr. Harvey Rose delivered at the twelfth annual A.R.E Medical Symposium regarding "several hundred instances in which he used Atomidine and Glyco-Thymoline locally to canker sores of the mouth. The response was rapid and complete in well ...
Soon after entering upon a fast, the tongue coats heavily, and this coat may continue to increase as the fast progresses. This coating will persist during the fast up to a certain point when it begins to spontaneously clean itself up. As long as the body is actively eliminating toxins, the tongue will remain coated, but when this elimination begins to decrease, the tongue will clear up and remain clear. Dr. Hereward Carrington says, "A short while before the return of hunger, this cleansing process of the tongue commences and continues until the tongue is perfectly clean, assuming a beautiful pink-red shade-rarely or never seen in the average man or woman; and the terminus of this cleansing process of the tongue is absolutely coincidental with the return of hunger and of health.". Carrington stated that this coated condition of the tongue indicates the condition of the mucous membrane throughout the alimentary canal since this membrane is so closely interrelated and connected. I would add that ...
Did you know the digestive system is split into two main groups? Did you know one of the groups is considered to be outside of the body? Thats right, the alimentary canal or gut, runs from the mouth to the anus and is considered to be outside of the body because its open to the external environment. In this article, we discuss the six steps of digestion, the gastrointestinal tract and finally, accessory digestive organs. Continue Reading. ...
Leaf-like or vermiform Scolecids, rarely parasitic, with a mouth and alimentary canal, and sometimes a body-cavity; integument ciliated. Sexes united or distinct. The members of this order are almost...
A disposable surgical stapling instrument for the joining together of tubular body organs such as the organs of the alimentary canal. The instrument comprises an elongated body having a tubular housin
Can you get high off clonidine hydrochloride - after one month and before the expiration of two months a refund of one-half of these fees will be made. Four years later, owing to toothache, she was taken to a dentist, who, finding her jaws were ankylosed, referred her to a surgeon for treatment (clonidine generic price). Clonidine pills side effects - there are also similar scholarships at Downing College. The perception of red is only disturbed in advanced cases (harga clonidine). In due to local disturbances of cell functions It has been thought for some time that the alimentary canal is a frequent focus was recently admitted to the Vanderbilt Hospital because of fever and pyuria.. Cheerfully give you information, and outline the goods best "clonidine hcl tabs side effects" suited for the conditions you desire. What a travesty these ancient teachings were, when Ave consider the conditions and advantages of modern colleges (what is clonidine hydrochloride taken for). And this is the doctrine ...
Wolf, M, Garcea RL, Grigorieff N, Harrison SC. 2010. Subunit interactions in bovine papillomavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107(14):6298-6303. Abstract ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a major mastitis-causing pathogen in dairy cows. The latex agglutination-based Staphaurex test allows bovine S. aureus strains to be grouped into Staphaurex latex agglutination test (SLAT)-negative [SLAT(2)] and SLATpositive [SLAT(+)] isolates. Virulence and resistance gene profiles within SLAT(2) isolates are highly similar, but differ largely from those of SLAT(+) isolates. Notably, specific genetic changes in important virulence factors were detected in SLAT(2) isolates. Based on the molecular data, it is assumed that SLAT(+) strains are more virulent than SLAT(2) strains. The objective of this study was to investigate if SLAT(2) and SLAT(+) strains can differentially induce an immune response with regard to their adhesive capacity to epithelial cells in the mammary gland and in turn, could play a role in the course of mastitis. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) were challenged with suspensions of heat inactivated SLAT(+) (n = 3) and SLAT(2) (n = 3) ...
OBJECTIVE: During joint loading, chondrocytes in the articular cartilage are subjected to gradients of high compressive hydrostatic pressure (HP). In response to diverse chemical or physical stresses, heat shock genes are induced to express heat shock proteins (Hsps). This study sought to examine the role of Hsps in baroresistance in primary bovine chondrocytes and synovial cells, as well as in primary human fibroblasts.. METHODS: Northern blotting was used to analyze the steady-state levels of hsp70 mRNA in the primary cells exposed to HP or heat stress. Hsp70 protein accumulation was analyzed by Western blotting, and the DNA-binding activity was examined by gel mobility shift assay.. RESULTS: Primary bovine chondrocytes which have been adapted to live under pressurized conditions showed negligible Hsp70 response upon HP loading, whereas primary bovine synovial cells and human fibroblasts accumulated hsp70 mRNA and protein when subjected to HP. The response was initiated without activation of ...
The deathwatch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, is a woodboring beetle. The adult beetle is 7 millimetres (0.28 in) long, while the xylophagous larvae are up to 11 mm (0.43 in) long. To attract mates, these woodborers create a tapping or ticking sound that can be heard in the rafters of old buildings on quiet summer nights. They are therefore associated with quiet, sleepless nights and are named for the vigil (watch) kept beside the dying or dead, and by extension the superstitious have seen the deathwatch beetle as an omen of impending death. The term "death watch" has been applied to a variety of other ticking insects, including Anobium striatum, some of the so-called booklice of the family Psocidae, and the appropriately named Atropos divinatoria and Clothilla pulsatoria (Greek goddesses Atropos and Clotho were associated with death). The larva is very soft, yet can bore its way through wood, which it is able to digest using a number of enzymes in its alimentary canal, provided that the wood ...
Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus the branch of medicine which calls Gastroenterology. Medicines, prescribed for treatment of these organs, you will find in this category ...
peristalsis. // Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary;2005, p1637 A definition of the medical term "peristalsis" is presented. It refers to a progressive wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the alimentary canal. It is characteristic of tubes possessing longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle fibers. The... ...
The buccal cavity is lined with a mucous membrane which, like the lining of the entire alimentary canal, behaves as a lipoidal barrier to the passage of drugs ( Schanker, 1962). In general, drugs...
IRE1 mediates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in part by regulating XBP1 mRNA splicing in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In cultured metazoan cells, IRE1 also exhibits XBP1-independent biochemical activities. IRE1 and XBP1 are developmentally essential genes in Drosophila and mammals, but the source of the physiological ER stress and the relative contributions of XBP1 activation versus other IRE1 functions to development remain unknown. Here, employed Drosophila to address this question. Specifically, we find that specific regions of the developing alimentary canal, fat body and the male reproductive organ are the sources of physiological stress that requires ire1 and xbp1 for resolution. In particular, the developmental lethality associated with xbp1 nulls was rescued by transgenic expression of xbp1 in the alimentary canal. IRE1s domains involved in detecting unfolded proteins, cleaving RNAs and activating XBP1 splicing were all essential for development. The earlier onset ...
Mouth (mouth) " n. Pl. Mouths 1. A. The body opening through which an animal takes in food. B. The cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the oropharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue, gums, and teeth. C. This cavity regarded as the source of sounds and speech. D. The opening to any cavity or canal in an organ ". ...Read more ...
Bonk: The Curious Coupling of Science and Sex by Mary Roach My rating: 3 of 5 stars --- Gulp: Adventures on the Alimentary Canal by Mary Roach My rating: 4 of 5 stars A little Mary Roach goes a long way. I say this both approvingly and reluctantly. Approvingly because shes obviously an…
compare with Fig. 26). Within it hangs this large umbilical vesicle, the lumen of which no longer connects with the alimentary canal. The separation is now complete. Around the stern of the vesicle the extra-embryonic coelom communicates freely with the body cavity, as shown in Fig. 30. This figure is from a reconstruction, and shows the general extent of the body cavity within the embryo. It encircles the heart, and then extends to the lungs and over them and to the stomach, over the intestines, and out into the cord. iA cast of the whole cavity is also given, showing the slit on the dorsal side for the mesentery of the intestine, and the grooves on either side of this for the Wolffian bodies. There are also grooves in the cast for the veins, and the place where the Cuvierian duct enters the heart is marked V The sagittal section of the peritoneal cavity is given in Fig. 32. The striated lin.e indicates where the cavity crosses the median line Fm. 32.--Outline of Coelom of the body, while the ...
Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, also called digestive system, and associated diseases and disorders. The focus of this specialty are the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal.
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There are two common types of skin lymphoma in dogs: epitheliotropic and non-epitheliotropic.. Epitheliotropic lymphoma is a cancer of immune system cells (lymphocytes). In this case, the cancer is born of lymphocytes residing in the skin (or other superficial sites such as the lips and oral cavity) thus it is generally localized. This disease is similar to mycosis fungoides in people. Most dogs will present with one of the following clinical presentations: a diffuse redness of the skin, plaque-like lesions, scaling, ulcerations or nodules in the skin, oral ulcerations, or involvement at the lip margins. The lesions can be distributed diffusely over the body or be localized to an area of the body. A suspicion of this type of cancer is based upon aspiration but is definitively based on biopsy.. By definition, this is a T cell lymphoma of the skin characterized by the presence of malignant cells surrounding hair follicles and sweat glands on the biopsy and is confined to the epidermis. The ...
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Randau TM, Schildberg FA, Alini M, Wimmer MD, Haddouti el-M, Gravius S, Ito K, Stoddart MJ; The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.; PLoS One, 2013 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia ...
Bacteria are living organisms. They come in different shapes and sizes but are only ever one cell. Bacteria reproduce asexually by dividing into two, to produce two bacteria genetically identical to the original. In the right conditions (usually warm, moist conditions), bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes, which means if you start with one bacterium, in one hour you could have 8. Bacteria live all over our skin and right through our alimentary canal. Most bacteria are harmless to us and some can even help us digest food. These harmless bacteria can also help prevent harmful ones from having the opportunity to attack us.. See a video of how bacteria multiply below.. ...
7. They are the first animals to illustrate the development of organ system. 8. A true body cavity or coelome is absent, and the space between the body organs is filled with loose parenchyma. 9.Muscular system is well developed. It is mesenchymal in origin. The system consists of circular, longitudinal and oblique muscles beneath the epidermis. 10. The alimentary canal is either absent or highly branched. Anus is absent. 11. Circulatory and respiratory systems are absent. 12. Excretory system consists of flame bulbs or flame cells or protonephridia connected to the excretory ducts. 13. Asexual multiplication and alternation of generations are seen in some examples. 14. Nervous system and sense organs are poorly developed. 15. Usually hermaphrodite animals. 16. Fertilization is internal and development may be direct or indirect. 17. May be free living (Turbellaria), ectoparasitic or endoparasitic. A few may be commensals. 18. Next topic is phylum Platyhelminthes classification. ...
The intestine (also known colloquially as the gut) is a tube-like organ that starts at the base of the stomach and forms the longest part of the alimentary canal. Its function is to help with the processing of food. Humans have a large and small intestinal tract. The small intestine (which is actually by far the longer of the two) is made up of the duodenum and ileum. The large intestine is made up of the colon, caecum, appendix and rectum (or bowel). ...
The system of organs that are involved in the process of digestion. The digestive system of mammals is divided into the gastrointestinal tract (see alimentary canal) and accessory structures, such as teeth, tongue, liver, pancreas, and gall bladder. ...
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab2417 適用: WB,ELISA,IHC-P…HPV抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Koch, C; Ramsauer, A S; Drögemüller, M; Ackermann, M; Gerber, V; Tobler, K (2018). Genomic comparison of bovine papillomavirus 1 isolates from bovine, equine and asinine lesional tissue samples. Virus Research, 244:6-12.. Kiefer, C; Tobler, K; Ramsauer, A C; Biegel, U; Kuehn, N; Ruetten, M (2017). Feline sarcoid in a 1-year-old domestic short-haired cat caused by bovine papillomavirus type 14 in Switzerland. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 159(9):487-491.. Lange, C E; Tobler, K; Lehner, A; Grest, P; Welle, M M; Schwarzwald, C C; Favrot, C (2013). EcPV2 DNA in equine papillomas and in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinomas supports papillomavirus etiology. Veterinary Pathology, 50(4):686-692.. Lange, C E; Vetsch, E; Ackermann, M; Favrot, C; Tobler, K (2013). Four novel papillomavirus sequences support a broad diversity among equine papillomaviruses. Journal of General Virology, 94(Pt 6):1365-1372.. Lange, C E; Tobler, K; Lehner, A; Vetsch, E; Favrot, C (2012). A case of a canine ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
1. The Pharynx - The section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with theesophagus.. 2. The Esophagus - The muscular, membranous tube for the passage of food from the pharynx to the stomach. 3. The Stomach - a saclike principal organ of digestion. 4. The Intestines -The portion of the Alimentary Canal from the stomach to the anus, consisting of the small and large intestine.. We often take our digestive system for granted. Again, go to the drug or grocery store and look at the shelves. Look at the laxatives and at digestion aids. Notice how filled the shelves are with antacids, the pink stuff, stuff for coating stomachs, stuff for diarrhea and stuff for gas.. Our digestive system is serious business. Heart disease is the No. 1 killer in this country. The bypass operation is the leading operation. You get your heart bypassed because the vessels are clogged up with M.E.S.S. Call it cholesterol or plaque or whatever name ...
phdthesis{f6a3a27c-fb97-4176-87b2-9de2607f2e28, abstract = {Papillomaviruses are a diverse, epitheliotropic group of viruses. Some genotypes are the main cause of anogenital cancer in humans; others can induce skin lesions. In order to investigate the occurrence of subclinical skin infections with human papillomavirus (HPV), a pair of degenerate primers (FAP59/64) was designed. Moist cotton-tipped swabs were used as a gentle method of sample collection. Different skin sites were tried for sampling, and healthy and immunosuppressed adults and children of different age groups, new-borns included, were enrolled. Skin samples were also collected from healthy individuals from five countries in three different continents. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, and the positive samples were HPV type-determined by cloning and DNA sequencing. HPV DNA was found with high prevalence in both immunosuppressed (94%) and healthy (82%) individuals. The prevalence of HPV DNA was highest in ...
Described are devices, methods, and systems useful in the treatment of fistulae, and in certain embodiments those having openings extending into the alimentary canal, such as anorectal fistulae. Illustratively, an anorectal fistula can be treated by placing a volumetric construct within the primary opening of the fistula. In certain embodiments, the volumetric construct can include a rolled remodelable material processed to form a substantially unitary body. Advantageous such remodelable materials can include collagenous extracellular matrix materials, such as small intestine submucosa.
The human digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and associated accessory glands. The main parts to identify in the figure below include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and anus along with the digestive glands - liver and pancreas. Also include the gall bladder. Make note of the interconnections between these structures the functions of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine ...
We are more aware now than ever before that the foods we eat nourish our body while some may bring harm. We know that the energy we need we get from our foods, the healthy life we live we benefit from healthy foods. In whatever manner foods are categorized, be it by the calories they contain or the places they come from, they are processed in the body in the same manner. All foods go through a process called digestion starting in the mouth into the alimentary canal with the aid of chemical compounds specialized for their absorption called enzymes.. Digestion occurs because of the presence of enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. Foods are broken down into smaller substances, simpler compounds for use by the body. This process is coordinated with many other processes in the body altogether known as metabolism, and the enzymes of the digestive system serve as agents that connect digestion to the rest of metabolic reactions.. Mouth: Amylase and Lingual Lipase. Digestion begins in the oral cavity, ...
... 1. (n) an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion. 2. (v) bear to eat; "He cannot stomach raw fish". 3. (n) the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis. 4. (v) put up with something or somebody unpleasant; "I cannot bear his constant criticism" "The new secretary had to endure a lot of unprofessional remarks" "he learned to tolerate the heat" "She stuck out two years in a miserable marriage". 5. (n) an inclination or liking for things involving conflict or difficulty or unpleasantness; "he had no stomach for a fight". 6. (n) an appetite for food; "exercise gave him a good stomach for dinner". WordNet 2.1 Copyright Princeton University. All rights reserved.. ...
Several studies have found an association between the presence of Bovine papillomavirus-1 and 2 and associated viral growth ... "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the equine sarcoid". Journal of General Virology. 84 (5): 1055-1062. doi:10.1099/vir. ... "Intralesional bovine papillomavirus DNA loads reflect severity of equine sarcoid disease". Equine Veterinary Journal. 42 (4): ... Equine papillomavirus-2 has also been found within penile SCCs, but has not been determined to cause SCC. Before treatment of ...
Schiller, J. T.; Vass, W. C.; Vousden, K. H.; Lowy, D. R. (1986). "E5 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus type 1 ... Lechner, M. S.; Mack, D. H.; Finicle, A. B.; Crook, T.; Vousden, K. H.; Laimins, L. A. (1992). "Human papillomavirus E6 ... Vousden's early work focused on the molecular biology of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical ... she led the Human Papillomavirus Group at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, UK. In 1995, she joined the ...
The E5 protein of some animal papillomavirus types (mainly bovine papillomavirus type 1) functions as an oncogene primarily by ... Four papillomaviruses are known to infect birds: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1, Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1, ... Jackson ME, Pennie WD, McCaffery RE, Smith KT, Grindlay GJ, Campo MS (1991). "The B subgroup bovine papillomaviruses lack an ... Coggins LW, Ma JQ, Slater AA, Campo MS (1985). "Sequence homologies between bovine papillomavirus genomes mapped by a novel low ...
Vande Pol SB, Brown MC, Turner CE (Jan 1998). "Association of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 oncoprotein with the focal ... 4 (1): 146-52. doi:10.4161/cam.4.1.10973. PMC 2852571 . PMID 20139696. Check date values in: ,date= (help) Wood CK, Turner CE, ... 47 (4): 520-7. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.06.006. PMC 3427732 . PMID 19540241. Mackinnon AC, Tretiakova M, Henderson L, Mehta RG ... Côté JF, Turner CE, Tremblay ML (Jul 1999). "Intact LIM 3 and LIM 4 domains of paxillin are required for the association to a ...
Similar papillomaviruses of ungulates (e.g. deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are ... "Bovine papillomavirus: old system, new lessons?". In Campo, MS. Papillomavirus Research: From Natural History to Vaccine and ... Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a group of DNA viruses of the family Papillomaviridae that are common in cattle. Infection ... Chambers G, Ellsmore VA, O'Brien PM, Reid SW, Love S, Campo MS, Nasir L (2003). "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the ...
2001), "Roles of the hinge region and the DNA binding domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein in initiation of ... 20 (4): R184-7. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.053. PMID 20178765. Kivisild, T.; et al. (2003), "The Genetic Heritage of the ... 4 (8): 598-612, doi:10.1038/nrg1124, PMID 12897772 Metspalu, Mait; et al. (2004), "Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in south ... 4): 611-615, doi:10.1002/ajpa.22167, PMID 23115110 Renfrew, Colin; Boyle, Katie, eds. (2000a). An Indian Ancestry: a Key for ...
You J, Croyle JL, Nishimura A, Ozato K, Howley PM (Apr 2004). "Interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with Brd4 ... Abbate EA, Voitenleitner C, Botchan MR (Dec 2006). "Structure of the papillomavirus DNA-tethering complex E2:Brd4 and a peptide ... Baxter MK, McPhillips MG, Ozato K, McBride AA (Apr 2005). "The mitotic chromosome binding activity of the papillomavirus E2 ... "Amino acid substitutions that specifically impair the transcriptional activity of papillomavirus E2 affect binding to the long ...
Fibropapillomas are present in other animal groups, but are caused by different viruses, for example the bovine papillomavirus ... 2012). "A Histopathological, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study of Cutaneous Bovine Papillomatosis" (PDF). Kafkas Univ Vet ... 103 (4): 27-30. doi:10.2307/3432408. PMC 1519284 . PMID 7556020. Lutz, P. L.; Cray, C.; Sposato, P. L. (2001). Studies of the ...
... where he obtained his PhD in 1985 under the guidance of Chris Bostock and Ed Southern investigating the use of Bovine Papilloma Virus ... 4: 140043. 2014. PMID 24789708. "Heterochromatin and RNAi are required to establish CENP-A chromatin at centromeres". Science. ...
See also: Papillomavirus and Bovine papillomavirus. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (December 2017) ... Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). There are about 130 known types of human papilloma viruses.[8] HPV infects ... a b Human Papillomavirus Archived 2015-08-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Public Health Agency of Canada ... Warts are caused by infection with a type of human papillomavirus (HPV).[1] Factors that increase the risk include use of ...
The best studied example is the association between Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: almost all cases of cervical ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease"), are caused by prions, hepatitis D is due to ... Harald zur Hausen had shown that two strains of Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause most cases of cervical cancer. Two vaccines ... p. 4. ISBN 0199574855. Cann, Alan (2011). Principles of Molecular Virology (5 ed.). London: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0123849397 ...
... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.650 --- papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.660 --- papillomavirus ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.650 --- papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.660 --- papillomavirus ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.280.535.600.650 --- papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.280.535.600.660 --- papillomavirus, cottontail ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.624.600.650 --- papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.624.600.660 --- papillomavirus, cottontail ...
The human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended in the U.S. (as of 2011) and UK (as of 2009). Vaccine recommendations for the ... Bovine herpesvirus 1 DIVA vaccines are also widely used in practice. Scientists have put and still, are putting much effort in ... In the case of a few relatively new vaccines such as the human papillomavirus vaccine, the patents may impose an additional ... Chang Y, Brewer NT, Rinas AC, Schmitt K, Smith JS (July 2009). "Evaluating the impact of human papillomavirus vaccines". ...
Such benefits include male insects transferring nutrients to females via their ejaculate; in both humans and bovines the fluid ... This includes transmission risk for sexually transmitted diseases such as human papillomavirus (HPV) or herpes, especially for ... 26 (4): 459-69. doi:10.2164/jandrol.04104. PMID 15955884. "HealthCentral.com - Trusted, Reliable and Up To Date Health ... ISBN 0-520-08096-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Epiphanius, Panarion, 26, 4. I.e., the Simonians; Epiphanius, ...
Bat mastadenovirus A Bat mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus C Canine ... de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H. Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology. 2004;324(1):17-27 ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ... Border disease virus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Classical swine fever virus Family: ...
... is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).[4] Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and ... An HPV infection is caused by human papillomavirus, a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family, of which over 170 types are ... "Pink Book (Human Papillomavirus)" (PDF). CDC.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 March 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.. ... "Human Papillomavirus". Medscape. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016.. *^ "Photos of larynx Papillomas - Voice ...
"Human papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancer: the role of the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor". Oncology ... crystal structure of the acid-stable proteinase inhibitor from human mucous secretions analysed in its complex with bovine ... it has been shown that there is an inverse correlation between the levels of SLPI and high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ... "The role of the antileukoprotease SLPI in smoking-induced human papillomavirus-independent head and neck squamous cell ...
The human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended in the U.S. (as of 2011)[63] and UK (as of 2009).[64] Vaccine recommendations ... Bovine herpesvirus 1 DIVA vaccines are also widely used in practice. Other DIVA vaccines (under development). Scientists have ... "HPV Vaccine , Human Papillomavirus , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2019-06-14.. ... In the case of a few relatively new vaccines such as the human papillomavirus vaccine, the patents may impose an additional ...
If biotin was used as a probe label, non-specific binding sites must first be blocked using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Then, ... Apart from cancers, CISH has also been shown to be useful in detecting human papillomavirus infections. SISH uses a similar ... 15 (4): 519-27. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2005.09.008. PMID 16290155. Garimberti, E; Tosi, S (2010). "Fluorescence in situ ... 86 (4): 398-408. doi:10.1038/labinvest.3700390. PMID 16446704. Summersgill, B. M.; Shipley, J. M. (2010). "Fluorescence in Situ ...
One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Having finally lost completely its virulence, the bovine tuberculosis germ grown with their method was the principal ... he focused on creating a vaccine using the bacillus responsible for bovine tuberculosis, very similar to the human one, as it ... The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888. For over a century, the Institut Pasteur has ...
a b Human Papillomavirus at eMedicine *^ Egawa K, Kitasato H, Honda Y, Kawai S, Mizushima Y, Ono T (1998). "Human ... They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).[2] A break in the skin is required for infection to occur.[2] Risk factors ... "Human Papillomaviruses Compendium" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 2013-02-05.. ... Plantar warts are benign epithelial tumors generally caused by infection by human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 60, or 63,[5] ...
Family 1.G.17 The Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelop Glycoprotein (BLV-Env) Family 1.G.18 The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide in the Spike ... Family 1.A.97 The Human Papillomavirus type 16 E5 Viroporin (HPV-E5) Family 1.A.98 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 P13 protein ( ... Family 1.A.86 The Human Papilloma Virus type 16 (HPV16) L2 Viroporin (L2 Viroporin) Family 1.A.87 The Mechanosensitive Calcium ... 1] [2] [3] [4] Transporter Classification Database List at qmul.ac.uk Saier MH, Tran CV, Barabote RD (January 2006). "TCDB: the ...
The polyoma and papillomaviruses appear to have evolved from single-stranded DNA viruses and ultimately from plasmids. The ... includes the species bovine stool associated circular virus and chimpanzee stool associated circular virus. The closest ... PLoS One 4(7):e6397 Wilson WH, Van Etten JL, Allen MJ (2009). "The Phycodnaviridae: the story of how tiny giants rule the world ... 1 (4): e00558-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00558-13. PMC 3738887 . PMID 23929471. Cheung, A. K.; Ng, T. F.-f.; Lager, K. M.; Alt, D ...
Papillomavirus vaccine, parvovirus vaccine, alpha galactosidase for Fabry disease, lysosomal acid lipase, aprotinin, interferon ... a Plant-Based Alternative to Bovine-Derived Trypsin (Peer-Reviewed)". BioPharm International. 24 (10): 44-8. Sigma Catalog FAQ ... 4 (10): 794-805. doi:10.1038/nrg1177. PMID 14526375. SIgma Info Sheet "ProdiGene Launches First Large Scale-Up Manufacturing of ... Norris, Sonya (4 July 2005). "Molecular farming". Library of Parliament. Parliament of Canada. PRB 05-09E. Retrieved 2008-09-11 ...
Human papillomaviruses are an established cause of cancers of cervix, skin, anus, and penis. Within the Herpesviridae, Kaposi's ... In 1957, equine arterivirus and the cause of Bovine virus diarrhoea (a pestivirus) were discovered. In 1963, the hepatitis B ... They can cause infections such as scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow" disease) in cattle, and chronic ... Viruses accepted to cause human cancers include some genotypes of human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, ...
One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Having finally lost completely its virulence, the bovine tuberculosis germ grown with their method was the principal ... he focused on creating a vaccine using the bacillus responsible for bovine tuberculosis, very similar to the human one, as it ... The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888. ...
Similar papillomaviruses of ungulates (e.g. deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are ... "Bovine papillomavirus: old system, new lessons?". In Campo, MS. Papillomavirus Research: From Natural History to Vaccine and ... Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a group of DNA viruses of the family Papillomaviridae that are common in cattle. Infection ... Chambers G, Ellsmore VA, OBrien PM, Reid SW, Love S, Campo MS, Nasir L (2003). "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the ...
Unlike other papillomaviruses, the non-coding region upstream of the early ORFs (ncr-1) is short (385 base pairs), but there is ... Like the E5 ORF of human papillomavirus type 6 the E5 ORF of BPV-4 is discontinuous. ... have been identified both on the basis of amino acid comparison with other papillomaviruses and on their transcriptional ... Summary The nucleotide sequence of bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) was determined. The viral genome is 7261 base pairs ...
Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB. Jun-Mei Yao, David E. Breiding, ... Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB. Jun-Mei Yao, David E. Breiding, ... Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB. Jun-Mei Yao, David E. Breiding, ... Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
A papillomatous cyst was induced by implanting bovine foetal palate epithelium, infected in vitro with bovine papillomavirus ... Malignant tranformation of a papilloma induced by bovine papillomavirus type 4 in the nude mouse renal capsule. Journal of ... Malignant tranformation of a papilloma induced by bovine papillomavirus type 4 in the nude mouse renal capsule. / Gaukroger, J ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Malignant tranformation of a papilloma induced by bovine papillomavirus type 4 in ...
The three-dimensional structure of bovine papillomavirus has been determined to 9 A resolution by reconstruction of high ... Novel structural features of bovine papillomavirus capsid revealed by a three-dimensional reconstruction to 9 A resolution Nat ... The three-dimensional structure of bovine papillomavirus has been determined to 9 A resolution by reconstruction of high ... 1997 May;4(5):413-20. doi: 10.1038/nsb0597-413. Authors B L Trus 1 , R B Roden, H L Greenstone, M Vrhel, J T Schiller, F P Booy ...
Bovine papillomavirus E1 protein binds specifically DNA polymerase alpha but not replication protein A.. C Bonne-Andrea, S ... Bovine papillomavirus E1 protein binds specifically DNA polymerase alpha but not replication protein A. ... Bovine papillomavirus E1 protein binds specifically DNA polymerase alpha but not replication protein A. ... Bovine papillomavirus E1 protein binds specifically DNA polymerase alpha but not replication protein A. ...
From Human papillomavirus type 16.. E6. P06931. 3. EBI-8516738,EBI-7281937. From Bovine papillomavirus type 1. ... "Interaction of oncogenic papillomavirus E6 proteins with fibulin-1.". Du M., Fan X., Hong E., Chen J.J.. Biochem. Biophys. Res ... Microbial infection) Interacts with human papillomavirus/HPV type 16, 18 and 31 proteins E6.1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated ... Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES E6 PROTEIN (MICROBIAL INFECTION), INHIBITION OF E6-MEDIATED ...
BPV, bovine papillomavirus; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; AKT, protein kinase B; p, phospho; NF, nuclear factor; Ctrl, ... BPV, bovine papillomavirus; Ctrl, control; Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma 2; Bax, Bcl-2-associated X protein. ... or 10 µM bovine papillomavirus (BPV; both Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology) for different time points. Cells were then ... fetal bovine serum (FBS; Gibco; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) and 100 µg/ml penicillin/streptomycin (Beyotime Institute of ...
Differential expression of microRNAs in bovine papillomavirus type 1 transformed equine cells. ... The impact of tick-borne pathogen infection in Indian bovines is determined by host type but not the genotype of Theileria ... Characterization of HSP90 isoforms in transformed bovine leukocytes infected with Theileria annulata. ... 2015 Aug 29;4(3):333-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.08.006. eCollection 2015 Dec. ...
Effects of the missing wedge on the image quality in tomograms illustrated on bovine Papilloma virus capsids. Tomograms are ... 4; Bouchet-Marquis et al. 2012), but so far we have been able to load intracellular MTH only with zinc. Zinc, however, has a ... 1 and 4). A plain 2-D image of a vitreous section that has been recorded under low-dose conditions (~1-5 electrons per Å2) may ... 1 and 4). With a maximum tilt of ±60°, the missing wedge reduces resolution along the projection direction and tilt axis by 50 ...
Several studies have found an association between the presence of Bovine papillomavirus-1 and 2 and associated viral growth ... "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the equine sarcoid". Journal of General Virology. 84 (5): 1055-1062. doi:10.1099/vir. ... "Intralesional bovine papillomavirus DNA loads reflect severity of equine sarcoid disease". Equine Veterinary Journal. 42 (4): ... Equine papillomavirus-2 has also been found within penile SCCs, but has not been determined to cause SCC. Before treatment of ...
There is also strong evidence supporting a causal role for bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-2 in the development of bladder cancer ... Of the types described, more than 70 are human papillomaviruses (HPV) and approximately 20 are animal papillomaviruses. The ... Some animal papillomaviruses cause cancer in their natural hosts. Overall evaluation HPV types 16 and 18 are carcinogenic to ... HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES (HPV). HPV types 16 and 18 (Group 1). HPV types 31 and 33 (Group 2A). Some HPV types other than 16, 18, ...
bovine papillomavirus type 1 (synthetic). Aethiops sabeus (African Green Monkey). No. SIE. HTML , XML. ... human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo sapiens. Yes. UE. HTML , XML. 147. E2 (16 E2-dm). Wang 2003. human papillomavirus (HPV-16) ... human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo sapiens. No. SIE. HTML , XML. 149. L2h. Leder 2001. human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo ... Human papillomavirus (HPV). Solanum tuberosum. No. UE. HTML , XML. 268. L1s. Warzecha 2003. Human papillomavirus (HPV). Solanum ...
The E5 protein of some animal papillomavirus types (mainly bovine papillomavirus type 1) functions as an oncogene primarily by ... Inter-species transmission has also been documented for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1.[9] In its natural host (cattle), ... Jackson ME, Pennie WD, McCaffery RE, Smith KT, Grindlay GJ, Campo MS (1991). "The B subgroup bovine papillomaviruses lack an ... Coggins LW, Ma JQ, Slater AA, Campo MS (1985). "Sequence homologies between bovine papillomavirus genomes mapped by a novel low ...
Interacts with bovine papillomavirus type 1 regulatory protein E2 and human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) protein LANA. These ...
Schiller, J. T.; Vass, W. C.; Vousden, K. H.; Lowy, D. R. (1986). "E5 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus type 1 ... Lechner, M. S.; Mack, D. H.; Finicle, A. B.; Crook, T.; Vousden, K. H.; Laimins, L. A. (1992). "Human papillomavirus E6 ... Vousdens early work focused on the molecular biology of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical ... she led the Human Papillomavirus Group at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, UK. In 1995, she joined the ...
... of type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing conformational epitopes on the major capsid protein of human papillomavirus ... Neutralization of bovine papillomavirus by antibodies to L1 and L2 capsid proteins ... Virus-like particles of bovine papillomavirus type 4 in prophylactic and therapeutic immunization ... Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. Walboomers, JM; Jacobs, MV; Manos, MM; Bosch, ...
Bovine papillomavirus type 4 L1 gene transfection in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system: absence of L1 protein expression. ... Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2. González-Losa, Maria del Refugio; ...
The E5 protein of some animal papillomavirus types (mainly bovine papillomavirus type 1) functions as an oncogene primarily by ... Four papillomaviruses are known to infect birds: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1, Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1, ... Jackson ME, Pennie WD, McCaffery RE, Smith KT, Grindlay GJ, Campo MS (1991). "The B subgroup bovine papillomaviruses lack an ... Coggins LW, Ma JQ, Slater AA, Campo MS (1985). "Sequence homologies between bovine papillomavirus genomes mapped by a novel low ...
The bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) L2 C-terminal deletion 1/460-HA construct was modified from the HA-tagged BPV-1 L2 ... Sequence close to the N-terminus of L2 protein is displayed on the surface of bovine papillomavirus type 1 virions. Virology ... Structures of bovine and human papillomaviruses. Analysis by cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction ... Novel structural features of bovine papillomavirus capsid revealed by a three-dimensional reconstruction to 9 Å resolution. Nat ...
Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV ... 2010 Mar;110(4):339-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.01.006. Epub 2010 Jan 20. ... 2009 Feb;4(2):179-85. doi: 10.1002/biot.200800131. No abstract available. ...
Design and characterization of a novel vector system based on the stable replicator of bovine papillomavirus type 1. - Tartu : ... Virus-cell interactions in the replication cycle of bovine papillomavirus type 1. - Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2003. - 88 ... ISBN 9985-9469-4-4 (CD 2). UDK 81. 148. Kuuse, Asti.. Väga värviline. - Tartu : A. Kuuse, 2003. - 72 lk. : ill.. ISBN 9949-10- ... ISBN 9985-4-0357-6. UDK 004. 124. Kask, Inna-Mare.. Kes, mis lehises peeglis. - Tallinn : I.-M. Kask, 2003. - 69 lk. : ill. ...
bovine papillomavirus type 1 (synthetic). Aethiops sabeus (African Green Monkey). No. SIE. HTML , XML. ... human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). Homo sapiens. Yes. SIE. HTML , XML. 145. hu-mE7. Zhao 2002. Human papillomavirus (HPV). ... human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo sapiens. Yes. UE. HTML , XML. 204. E2 (16 E2-dm). Wang 2003. human papillomavirus (HPV-16) ... human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo sapiens. No. SIE. HTML , XML. 94. L1h. Leder 2001. human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo ...
To investigate the efficiency of encapsidation of plasmid by papillomavirus virus-like particles (PV VLPs), and the infectivity ... Efficiency of delivery of DNA to cells by bovine papillomavirus type-1 L1/L2 pseudovirions. ... To investigate the efficiency of encapsidation of plasmid by papillomavirus virus-like particles (PV VLPs), and the infectivity ... and infected with bovine PV (BPV-1) L1/L2 recombinant vaccinia virus to produce BPV1 pseudovirions. Approximately 1 in 1.5×104 ...
Vectors that contain the replicons from bovine papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus replicate extrachromosomally at "low copy ... bovine mammary epithelial cells (ATCC CRL 10274; bovine mammary epithelial cells); monkey kidney CV1 line transformed by SV40 ( ... An Avr II site is found in the second intron of bovine α-lactalbumin and a Dra I site is found in the third intron of the gene. ... To create the test vector the genomic clone of the bovine α-lactalbumin was used. α-Lactalbumin is a milk protein that is ...
  • O sequenciamento de nucleotídeos e as análises filogenéticas realizadas nos fragmentos E5L2 resultaram na identificação de BPV1, 2 e 13 em 14 (70%), 2 (10%) e em 4 (20%) amostras de sarcoides, respectivamente. (scielo.br)
  • The phylogenetic analyses of E5L2 resulted in the identification of BPV1, 2, and 13 in 14 (70%), 2 (10%), and 4 (20%) sarcoids, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • Two horses demonstrated multiple lesions: the sarcoids of one of these contained only BPV1 DNA and those of the other contained three types of bovine Deltapapillomavirus (BPV1, 2, and 13). (scielo.br)
  • Some subviral particles also cause disease: the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which include Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease"), are caused by prions, hepatitis D is due to a satellite virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of p53 function was selectively achieved by transduction of human papillomavirus 16 E6 (which degrades p53) into two drug-sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines with intact p53, causing high-level drug resistance to L-PAM, carboplatin, and etoposide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sentinel study populations have been established by vaccine companies as phase 4 postlicensure evaluations to forewarn public health authorities and practitioners if such boosters will be needed. (aappublications.org)
  • In this timely book leading scientists review current aspects of papillomavirus research providing a fascinating insight into papillomavirus molecular biology, interactions with the host, immunology and vaccine development. (caister.com)
  • Essential reading for scientists and researchers working on papillomavirus and a recommended text for anyone involved with antiviral drug and vaccine development. (caister.com)
  • Compositions containing papillomavirus VLPs or capsomeres are used, alone or in combination with other agents, as microbicides that substantially block papillomavirus binding receptors on the surface or vicinity of cells in a tissue to be treated with the composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The bovine origin of both the renal and splenic cancers was confirmed by the presence of bovine major histocompatibility complex class I antigens in the cancer cells and by sequencing the Harvey-ras 1 gene, which was shown to be of bovine origin. (elsevier.com)
  • BPV-1 and BPV-2 can also induce sarcomas and fibrosarcomas in other mammals, including equids (equine sarcoid) and, experimentally, rabbits, hamsters and mice ( Wiki: Bovine papillomavirus ). (violinet.org)