A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
A type of XIPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing alimentary carcinoma in cattle. It is related to Bovine papillomavirus 3.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing recurrent respiratory PAPILLOMATOSIS; GENITAL WARTS; and other neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The type species of KAPPAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. It is reported to occur naturally in cottontail rabbits in North America.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE causing fibropapillomas in their respective ungulate hosts. Species infected include cattle, European elk, deer, and sheep.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS usually associated with GENITAL WARTS; and LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of ADENOVIRUSES. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Methods for detecting or typing the DNA of an ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS in biological tissues and fluids.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, which cause cutaneous lesions in humans. They are histologically distinguishable by intracytoplasmic INCLUSION BODIES which are species specific.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, causing cutaneous lesions in humans. Infections exist in latent form in the general population and are activated under conditions of IMMUNOSUPPRESSION.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATINE TONSIL.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.

A mutational analysis of the transforming functions of the E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. (1/28)

The E8 protein of BPV-4 contributes to transformation of primary bovine cells (PalFs) by inducing anchorage-independent growth and by down-regulating gap junction intercellular communication, likely due to its binding to 16K ductin. We show here that, in addition, E8 confers on PalF cells the ability to grow in low serum and to escape from contact inhibition (focus formation). E8 also transactivates an exogenous human cyclin A gene promoter, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin A is responsible for the transformed phenotype. Mutant forms of E8 were generated to establish whether the transforming functions of the protein could be segregated. Mutations were introduced both in the hydrophobic domain and in the hydrophilic C-terminal "tail", and chimeras with BPV-1 E5 were constructed. Cells expressing either wild-type E8 or mutant forms were analyzed for their ability to grow in low serum and in suspension and to form foci. Wild-type E8 and its mutants were also analyzed for their ability to transactivate the cyclin A promoter. We show here that the transforming functions of E8 can be segregated and that both the hydrophilic C-terminal tail and the residue at position 17 in the hydrophobic domain are crucial for E8 functions and for the transactivation of the cyclin A promoter. These results support the hypothesis that the different aspects of cellular transformation brought about by E8 might be due to interaction with different cellular targets. They suggest that E8 might function differently from BPV-1 E5 and demonstrate that the separate domains of E5 and E8 are not functionally interchangeable.  (+info)

An enhanced epithelial response of a papillomavirus promoter to transcriptional activators. (2/28)

Mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have a similar long control region (LCR) organization: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites. The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial-specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (Gloss, B., Bernard, H. U., Seedorf, K., and Klock, G. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 3735-3743; Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1999) J. Gen. Virol. 80, 23-27). Studies on E2 transcriptional regulation of the human mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have been hindered by poor access to the natural target cell type and by the observation that some of the human papillomavirus promoters, including human papillomavirus-16, are repressed in immortalized epithelial cells. Here we present results using the bovine papillomavirus-4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system as a model to study the mechanism of E2 transcriptional regulation of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses and the cell type specificity of this regulation. E2 up-regulates transcription from the BPV-4 LCR preferentially in epithelial cells (Morgan, I. M., Grindlay, G. J., and Campo, M. S. (1998) J. Gen. Virol. 79, 501-508). We demonstrate that the epithelial-specific enhancer element of the BPV-4 LCR is not required for the enhanced activity of E2 in epithelial cells and that the BPV-4 promoter is more responsive, not only to E2, but to other transcriptional activators in epithelial cells. This is the first time a level of epithelial specificity has been shown to reside in a papillomavirus promoter region.  (+info)

alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory cell receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4. (3/28)

Recently, alpha6 integrin has been proposed as the epithelial cell receptor for papillomavirus. This study investigated whether alpha6 integrin is the cellular receptor for bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4), which is strictly epitheliotropic and infects the mucous epithelium of the upper digestive tract. Primary bovine mucosal keratinocytes from the palate of a foetus (PalK) displayed high levels of alpha6 integrin; matched primary fibroblasts from the same biopsy (PalF) expressed almost no alpha6 integrin. However, BPV-4 bound both PalK and PalF to similar, saturable levels. Native BPV-4 virions infected PalK in vitro, as detected by RT-PCR of E7 RNA. Infection could be blocked by excess virus-like particles (VLPs) and by neutralizing antisera against L1-L2 and L1 VLPs or by denaturation of the virions, supporting the view that infection in vitro mimics the process in vivo. alpha6 integrin-negative human keratinocyte cell lines were derived from patients affected by junctional epidermolysis bullosa presenting genetic lesions in their hemidesmosomes. The level of alpha6 integrin expression was determined in these cell lines by in situ immunofluorescence and FACS. Despite the absence of alpha6 integrin expression by BO-SV cells, they were bound by BPV-4 to similar, saturable levels as normal keratinocytes, KH-SV. Furthermore, BO-SV and KH-SV cells were both infected by BPV-4 to apparently the same extent as PalK cells. These results are consistent with the conclusion that alpha6 integrin is not the obligatory receptor for a bovine mucosotropic papillomavirus.  (+info)

A novel silencer element in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 promoter represses the transcriptional response to papillomavirus E2 protein. (4/28)

The long control regions (LCRs) of mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses have similar organizations: a promoter region, an enhancer region, and a highly conserved distribution of E2 DNA binding sites (C. Desaintes and C. Demeret, Semin. Cancer Biol. 7:339--347, 1996). The enhancer of these viruses is epithelial cell specific, as it fails to activate transcription from heterologous promoters in nonepithelial cell types (B. Gloss, H. U. Bernard, K. Seedorf, and G. Klock, EMBO J. 6:3735--3743, 1987). Using the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR and a bovine primary cell system, we have shown previously that a level of epithelial specificity resides in a papillomavirus promoter region. The BPV-4 promoter shows an enhanced response to transcriptional activators in epithelial cells compared with that of fibroblasts (K. W. Vance, M. S. Campo, and I. M. Morgan, J. Biol. Chem. 274:27839--27844, 1999). A chimeric lcr/tk promoter suggests that the upstream BPV-4 promoter region determines the cell-type-selective response of this promoter in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Promoter deletion analysis identified two novel repressor elements that are, at least in part, responsible for mediating the differential response of this promoter to upstream activators in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. One of these elements, promoter repressor element 2 (PRE-2), is conserved in position and sequence in the related mucosal epitheliotropic papillomaviruses, BPV-3 and BPV-6. PRE-2 functions in cis to repress the basal activity of the simian virus 40 promoter and binds a specific protein complex. We identify the exact nucleotides necessary for binding and correlate loss of binding with loss of transcriptional repression. We also incorporate these mutations into the BPV-4 promoter and demonstrate an enhanced response of the mutated promoter to E2 in fibroblasts. The DNA binding protein in the detected complex is shown to have a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The PRE-2 binding protein represents a novel transcriptional repressor and regulator of papillomavirus transcription.  (+info)

Quercetin, E7 and p53 in papillomavirus oncogenic cell transformation. (5/28)

Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) infects the upper alimentary canal of cattle causing benign papillomas which can progress to squamous carcinomas in cattle grazing on bracken fern (BF). We have previously shown that quercetin, a well characterized and potent mutagen found in BF, causes cell cycle arrest of primary bovine cells (PalF), but that a single exposure to quercetin can cause full oncogenic transformation of PalF cells partially transformed by BPV-4. Here we show that cell cycle arrest correlates with an increase in p53 protein levels and transcriptional activity. However, in cells transformed but non-tumorigenic, p53 protein is elevated and transcriptionally activated in response to quercetin or other DNA damaging stimuli, but the cells bypass quercetin-induced G1 arrest likely due to E7 expression. In transformed tumorigenic cells, p53 is elevated in response to quercetin but its transcriptional activity is inhibited due to mutation, and the cells fail to stop in G1 in the presence of quercetin.  (+info)

Cell transformation by the E5/E8 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 4. p27(Kip1), Elevated through increased protein synthesis is sequestered by cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes. (6/28)

The E5/E8 hydrophobic protein of BPV-4 is, at only 42 residues, the smallest transforming protein identified to date. Transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by E5/E8 correlates with up-regulation of both cyclin A-associated kinase activity and, unusually, p27(Kip1) (p27) but does not rely on changes in cyclin E or cyclin E-CDK2 activity. Here we have examined how p27 is prevented from functioning efficiently as a CDK2 inhibitor, and we investigated the mechanisms used to achieve elevated p27 expression in E5/E8 cells. Our results show that normal subcellular targeting of p27 is not subverted in E5/E8 cells, and p27 retains its ability to inhibit both cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK activities upon release from heat-labile complexes. E5/E8 cells also have elevated levels of cyclins D1 and D3, and high levels of nuclear p27 are tolerated because the inhibitor is sequestered within an elevated pool of cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes, a significant portion of which retain kinase activity. In agreement with this, pRB is constitutively hyperphosphorylated in E5/E8 cells in vivo. The increased steady-state level of p27 is achieved largely through an increased rate of protein synthesis and does not rely on changes in p27 mRNA levels or protein half-life. This is the first report of enhanced p27 synthesis as the main mechanism for increasing protein levels in continuously cycling cells. Our results are consistent with a model in which E5/E8 promotes a coordinated elevation of cyclin D1-CDK4 and p27, as well as cyclin A-associated kinase activity, which act in concert to allow continued proliferation in the absence of mitogens.  (+info)

Down-regulation of MHC class I by bovine papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins. (7/28)

The papillomavirus E5 protein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) of the host cell. Transformed bovine fibroblasts expressing bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E5 are highly vacuolated and have a much enlarged, distorted and fragmented GA. Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) is processed and transported to the cell surface through the GA. Given the cellular localization of E5 in the GA and the morphologically abnormal GA, we investigated the expression of MHC I in cells transformed by E5 from BPV-1 and BPV-4. Two cell lines were used: bovine cells that also express E6, E7 and activated ras, and NIH3T3 cells that express only E5. In addition, PalF cells acutely infected with a recombinant retrovirus expressing E5 were also examined. In contrast to non-transformed normal cells, or transformed cells expressing other papillomavirus proteins, cells expressing E5 do not express MHC I on their surface, but retain it intracellularly, independently of the presence of other viral or cellular oncogenes, or of whether the cells are long-term transformants or acutely infected. We conclude that expression of E5 prevents expression of MHC I to the cell surface and causes its retention within the cell. In addition, lower amounts of total MHC I heavy chain and of heavy chain RNA are detected in E5-transformed cells than in control cells. As surface expression of another glycosylated membrane protein, the transferrin receptor, is not affected, it appears that E5 targets MHC I with at least a degree of specificity. In papillomavirus lesions this effect would have important implications for antigen presentation by, and immunosurveillance of, virally infected cells.  (+info)

Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I in bovine papillomas. (8/28)

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) induces papillomas in cattle; in the great majority of cases, these regress due to the host immune response, but they can persist and progress to malignancy. Even in the absence of malignant transformation, BPV infection persists for a significant period of time before activation of the host immune system, suggesting that the host immune system is unaware of, or disabled by, BPV. E5 is the major oncoprotein of BPV, which, in addition to its transforming properties, downregulates the expression and transport to the cell surface of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). Here, it is shown that co-expression of MHC I and E5 in papillomas caused by BPV-4 infection is mutually exclusive, in agreement with the inhibition of surface MHC I expression by E5 that is observed in vitro. The inhibition of MHC expression in E5-expressing papilloma cells could explain the long period that is required for activation of the immune response and has implications for the progression of papillomas to the malignant stage; absence of peptide presentation by MHC I to cytotoxic T lymphocytes would allow the infected cells to evade the host cellular immune response and allow the lesions to persist.  (+info)

Describe the structure of the alimentary canal of the human body in relation to its function Synopsis: Intro: * nutrition * Alimentary canal * 4 layers
On Diseases of the Abdomen - Compromising Those of the Stomach, and Other Parts of the Alimentary Canal, Oesophagus, Caecum, Intestines and Peritoneum (Paperback) / Author: S. O. 1825-1889 Habershon ; 9781176909847 ; History, Books
tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2. Recombinant protein corresponding to full length Bovine Papillomavirus type-1 transactivator protein E2. (MAB7861) - Products - Abnova
Bovine papillomavirus type 1 oncogene protein E5: 44-amino acid protein; a homo-dimeric, transmembrane protein that transforms cells by activating the platelet-derived growth factor ss receptor in a ligand-independent fashion and induces cellular DNA synthesis
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The Stomach Capacity about 2 pints. The cardiac orifice lies opposite the eleventh dorsal vertebra, (Fig. XIX, 2) and is situated about 4 inches away from the surface. It corresponds in position to...
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Cutaneous epitheliotropic lymphoma was discussed in a recent veterinary webinar at The Webinar Vet. A poll of the attendees revealed 42% who do not see it in any one year and 58% who will see one to three cases a year. So a rare condition but never the ... Read , ...
Definition: An organism that feeds on mud or sand and shows little discrimination in the size or type of particles eaten. The sediment is ingested and any digestible organic material is assimilated as it passes through the alimentary canal ...
Ep i*the li*um, n.; pl. E. {Epitheliums}, L. {Epithelia}. [NL., fr. Gr. epi upon + ? nipple.] (Anat.) The superficial layer of cells lining the alimentary canal and all its appendages, all glands and their ducts, blood vessels and lymphatics,…
Samples of neoplastic and normal urothelium were obtained from cows originating from areas of southern Italy, a region in which chronic enzootic haematuria is endemic and bracken fern infestation is widespread. Specimens were analysed for bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) DNA, BPV-2 E5 expression and telomerase activity. A total of 46 of 60 tumours and 17 of 34 normal bladder mucosa samples harboured BPV-2 DNA. Analysis of a subset of samples showed E5 protein expression and telomerase activity in tumour tissue only. No normal samples positive for BPV DNA showed E5 protein expression or telomerase activity, suggesting the presence of DNA in a latent state. Taken together, these data on naturally occurring bovine bladder tumours corroborate the hypothesis of their virus origin.
The action of anthelmintics on parasites located outside of the alimentary canal / by Brayton Howard Ransom, Chief of the Zoological Division and Maurice C. Hall, assistant zoologist, Zoological Division ...
The replication initiator protein E1 binds to the origin of replication of bovine papillomavirus in several forms. E1 can bind to its recognition sequence as a monomer together with the viral transcription factor E2, or as a trimeric E1 complex. The trimerization of E1 is mediated by the sequence-specific binding of E1 to DNA, and results in an E1 complex that is linked topologically to the DNA because the three molecules of E1 form a ring-like structure that encircles the DNA. These results demonstrate that E1 utilizes unusual mechanisms for sequence-specific binding to DNA and for the generation of a structure that encircles the DNA. We believe that these forms of E1 bound to the origin of replication represent intermediates in a transition in the function of E1, from a sequence-specific origin of replication recognition protein to a form of E1 that is competent for the initiation of viral DNA replication.. ...
expenditures activity is so fast that you neer imaginary. Made easy for a short term period, these loans can secure the business enterprise help rapidly. Additionally, the ansome different environment of the speech act is performed address, loan amount, design and defrayal capacity. This will make you keep best fiscal help and that too in the lowest accomplishable time. In the day twenty-four hours life of group expenses without pledging any sort of indirect.. ReplyDelete ...
This fungus attacks female flies, entering via the alimentary canal and migrating to the abdomen. Here it multiplies rapidly, forming a large pink mass, whilst at the same time compelling the fly to move to the highest local point. This can be a blade of grass, a flowerhead or a leaf. Once in position, the female extends her wings and her rear legs, then she dies in situ. This behavior extends the abdomen as far as possible, and removes the wings as potential blockages. Again, the fungus has maximised the opportunity for spore dispersal ...
evident in Alcyonella and Plumatella towards the fundus of the stomach; they become less distinct as we ascend toward the oesophagus, and totally disappear from this tube and from the rectum. The fundus of the stomach appears to differ from the rest of the alimentary canal in structure and function; the well-defined longitudinal rugae and deep brown colour of the internal layer of the stomach nearly disappear in it, and, during the process of digestion, we may perceive that the peculiar peristaltic action of the walls is more marked in it than in any other part of the gastric cavity, while it is every now and then separated from the rest of this cavity by a momentary hour-glass constriction. In the oesophagus there are only two layers (Pl. III, fig. 7, X′, u). These correspond to the middle and external layers of the stomach, the former being here largely developed (A), while the internal or hepatic layer of the stomach is entirely absent, and there are no longitudinal rugae. The mouth and ...
Cutaneous Epitheliotropic Lymphoma - Transmission or Cause: Cutaneous lymphoma is a type of skin cancer caused by cancerous skin lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Lymphoma can also
In human cancer cells, BAG3 protein is known to sustain cell survival. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated the expression of BAG3 protein in equine sarcoids in vivo as well as in an in vitro model of sarcoid-derived equine fibroblasts. Evidence of a possible involvement of BAG3 in equine sarcoid carcinogenesis was obtained by immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour samples. We found that the most of tumour samples stained positive for BAG3, even though to a different grade, while normal dermal fibroblasts from a healthy horse displayed very weak staining pattern for BAG3 expression. By siRNA technology, we demonstrated the role of BAG3 in counteracting basal as well as chemical-triggered pro-death signals. BAG3 down-modulation in EqSO4b, a sarcoid-derived fully transformed cell line harbouring bovine papilloma virus (BPV)-1 genome, promotes cell death and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. In addition, we found that BAG3 silencing sensitized cells to phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), a promising ...
1) Eat Clean: The food you eat is important for timely and healthy digestion and elimination. If you are eating highly processed, sugary, and genetically modified foods your alimentary canal is going to be sluggish, toxic, slow or inconsistent. Research which foods are good for digestion and constipation and stock up on them.. 2) Drink Water: If you are not drinking adequate water for reabsorption to occur, your stools may become too hard and be difficult and slow to pass. Sodas, juices, and coffee do not count as water.. 3) Chew your food: Peristalsis is a sequential movement that mixes and moves food and waste through your alimentary canal. The action of chewing stimulates peristalsis of the entire alimentary canal. This is why I generally recommend that if you are having digestion and elimination problems to avoid protein shakes since chewing is not required and the movement of the bowels does not get stimulated naturally. 4) Schedule time for elimination: If you do not make time for bowel ...
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Looking for gut edema? Find out information about gut edema. 1. a. the lower part of the alimentary canal; intestine b. the entire alimentary canal 2. the bowels or entrails, esp of an animal 3. a silky fibrous... Explanation of gut edema
Journal of Mammalogy promotes interest in mammals by the publication of original research on their ecology, genetics, conservation, behavior, and physiology.
Pariet - Salicylic acid acts as an antipyretic by its property to decrease fermentation in the alimentary canal, thus shutting out one of the elements which help in destroying the nutritive and functional activity of the liver, and which, secondarily, cause a general disturbance of the system at large.
Stomach :: stum-uk (stomachos): In man and most vertebrates, a membranous sac-like portion of the alimentary canal, in which the earlier stages of digestion
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct and is attached to the abdominal wa
* Sir E. Home, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, vol. i. p. 225. (2312). The rest of the alimentary canal in most quadrupeds, like that of Man, is divisible into the small and the large intestines, ...
HKMC professionals provide Gastroenterology and Hepatology services to diagnosis and treat diseases of alimentary canal and liver. Click here to know more!
In our previous study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly reduced the cell viability of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) leading to cell apoptosis, which were prevented by caffeic acid (CA) through inhibiting NF-|i|κ|/i|B activation and reducing proinflammatory cytokine expression. While the underlying mechanism remains unclear, here, we determined that LPS induced the extensive microstructural damage of bMEC, especially the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Then, the obvious reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and expression changes of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and casepase-3) indicated that apoptosis signaling through the mitochondria should be responsible for the cell viability decrease. Next, the high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were employed to verify that the MAPK and JAK-STAT signaling pathways also were the principal targets of LPS. Following, the
Sarcoids were diagnosed in two captive zebras from different facilities. Zebra 1 (Equus burchellii boehmi) was a 4.5-yr-old, captive-born male that presented with a 9- by 7-cm inguinal mass. Seven months after surgical excision of the inguinal mass, the zebra presented with a similar lesion in the right upper eyelid that has relapsed repeatedly and has not responded to treatment including local cisplatin injections and cryosurgery. Zebra 2 (of undetermined taxon) was housed at a private wild animal farm. The zebra presented with a single, raised, 2.5- by 2.0- by 2.0-cm, ulcerated mass on the nose, and surgical excision was curative. Histologically, the three masses consisted of a dermal, compact, nonencapsulated, poorly demarcated neoplasm composed of well-differentiated spindle cells arranged in streams and whorls and accompanied by moderate epidermal hyperplasia with long rete pegs. On the basis of the morphologic resemblance to the unique equine cutaneous neoplasm, sarcoid was diagnosed. ...
To study the interaction of E2 with specific regions of the mitotic chromosome in more detail, we developed a method to spread the mitotic chromosomes in situ that was compatible with indirect immunofluorescence for the E2 protein. This method was adapted from that of Smith et al., who used it to localize tankyrase on human telomeres (27). This technique resulted in well-spread mitotic chromosomes and demonstrated that the wild-type E2-TA was localized on individual chromosomes as speckles, whereas E2-TR was excluded from chromosomes. This technique disrupted the perichromosomally associated proteins Ki67 and topoisomerase II but did not affect the chromosomal association of phosphorylated histone H3 (data not shown). This indicates that the E2 protein is tightly bound to mitotic chromosomes. In fact, in other studies from our laboratory we find that E2-TA forms a very stable complex with mitotic chromosomes that is resistant to high salt (M. McPhillips, K. Ozato, and A. A. McBride, submitted ...
Solution for question: Given the Dental Formula of Human Beings concept: Digestive System - Alimentary Canal. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science)
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The apparatus for the digestion of the food consists of the digestive tube and of certain accessory organs. The Digestive Tube (alimentary canal) is a musculomembranous tube, about 9 metres long, extending from the mouth to the anus, and lined throughout its entire extent by mucous membrane.
Kilpatrick, D.C. Pusztai, A., Grant, G., Graham, C. and Ewen, S.W (1985) Tomato Lectin Resists Digestion in the Mammalian Alimentary Canal and Binds to Intestinal Villi without Deleterious Effects. FEBS Letters, 185, 299-305.
Canker Sores] are from the acidity in the system… If there will be used a good alkaline antiseptic for the gums, such as Glyco-Thymoline, we find that this will aid in keeping the mouth fresh and clean. (Cayce) (Q) How can sores in the mouth and alimentary canal be relieved? (A) This, as we find, would respond better to those with Atomidine [Atomic Iodine™] than in any; this weakened in a solution, see, to be applied locally-and taken internally. (Cayce) [Caution: Be sure to become informed about Atomidine before taking it internally; because of its high iodine content, it may be more detrimental than beneficial for some individuals.] In Dr. William McGareys Commentary in the Circulating File on Atomidine [Atomic Iodine™], he mentions a report by Dr. Harvey Rose delivered at the twelfth annual A.R.E Medical Symposium regarding several hundred instances in which he used Atomidine and Glyco-Thymoline locally to canker sores of the mouth. The response was rapid and complete in well ...
Looking for Oesophageal? Find out information about Oesophageal. esophagus the part of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and the stomach; gullet Explanation of Oesophageal
In Gulp. Adventures on the Alimentary Canal, science writer Mary Roach takes a journey through the gut, from the secret healing powers of saliva to the taxonomy of poop. Along the trip, she serves up odd medical anecdotes, such as the story of William Beaumont, an eccentric surgeon who once ate chicken from another mans stomach.
Anatomy of the digestive system Anatomy of the digestive system is a group of organs that work systematically in order to convert food into basic nutrients and energy to feed the body. The ingested food passes through the alimentary canal, also known as the gastrointestinal tract. This canal is composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, large intestines, and small intestines. Apart from alimentary canal, there are other essential Accessory organs helping the body in food digestion, however, food do not pass through them. Anatomy of the digestive system Anatomy of the digestive system is a group of organs that work systematically in order to convert food into basic nutrients and energy to feed the body. The ingested food passes through the alimentary canal, also known as the gastrointestinal tract. This canal is composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, large intestines, and small intestines. Apart from alimentary canal, there are other essential Accessory organs ...
Soon after entering upon a fast, the tongue coats heavily, and this coat may continue to increase as the fast progresses. This coating will persist during the fast up to a certain point when it begins to spontaneously clean itself up. As long as the body is actively eliminating toxins, the tongue will remain coated, but when this elimination begins to decrease, the tongue will clear up and remain clear. Dr. Hereward Carrington says, A short while before the return of hunger, this cleansing process of the tongue commences and continues until the tongue is perfectly clean, assuming a beautiful pink-red shade-rarely or never seen in the average man or woman; and the terminus of this cleansing process of the tongue is absolutely coincidental with the return of hunger and of health.. Carrington stated that this coated condition of the tongue indicates the condition of the mucous membrane throughout the alimentary canal since this membrane is so closely interrelated and connected. I would add that ...
Did you know the digestive system is split into two main groups? Did you know one of the groups is considered to be outside of the body? Thats right, the alimentary canal or gut, runs from the mouth to the anus and is considered to be outside of the body because its open to the external environment. In this article, we discuss the six steps of digestion, the gastrointestinal tract and finally, accessory digestive organs. Continue Reading. ...
Leaf-like or vermiform Scolecids, rarely parasitic, with a mouth and alimentary canal, and sometimes a body-cavity; integument ciliated. Sexes united or distinct. The members of this order are almost...
A disposable surgical stapling instrument for the joining together of tubular body organs such as the organs of the alimentary canal. The instrument comprises an elongated body having a tubular housin
Can you get high off clonidine hydrochloride - after one month and before the expiration of two months a refund of one-half of these fees will be made. Four years later, owing to toothache, she was taken to a dentist, who, finding her jaws were ankylosed, referred her to a surgeon for treatment (clonidine generic price). Clonidine pills side effects - there are also similar scholarships at Downing College. The perception of red is only disturbed in advanced cases (harga clonidine). In due to local disturbances of cell functions It has been thought for some time that the alimentary canal is a frequent focus was recently admitted to the Vanderbilt Hospital because of fever and pyuria.. Cheerfully give you information, and outline the goods best clonidine hcl tabs side effects suited for the conditions you desire. What a travesty these ancient teachings were, when Ave consider the conditions and advantages of modern colleges (what is clonidine hydrochloride taken for). And this is the doctrine ...
Zegecid Powder is a Powder manufactured by AJANTA PHARMA. It is commonly used for the diagnosis or treatment of acidic stomach, bitter fluid into stomach , abdominal pain. It has some side effects such as Accumulation of gas in the alimentary canal,Allergic rejection to an antigen,Constipation,Abdominal pain. The salts Omeprazole are involved in the preparation of Zegecid Powder.
We should be extremely cautious in concluding that an organ could not have been formed by transitional gradations of some kind. Numerous cases could be given amongst the lower animals of the same organ performing at the same time wholly distinct functions; thus in the larva of the dragonfly... the alimentary canal respires, digests and…
Wolf, M, Garcea RL, Grigorieff N, Harrison SC. 2010. Subunit interactions in bovine papillomavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107(14):6298-6303. Abstract ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a major mastitis-causing pathogen in dairy cows. The latex agglutination-based Staphaurex test allows bovine S. aureus strains to be grouped into Staphaurex latex agglutination test (SLAT)-negative [SLAT(2)] and SLATpositive [SLAT(+)] isolates. Virulence and resistance gene profiles within SLAT(2) isolates are highly similar, but differ largely from those of SLAT(+) isolates. Notably, specific genetic changes in important virulence factors were detected in SLAT(2) isolates. Based on the molecular data, it is assumed that SLAT(+) strains are more virulent than SLAT(2) strains. The objective of this study was to investigate if SLAT(2) and SLAT(+) strains can differentially induce an immune response with regard to their adhesive capacity to epithelial cells in the mammary gland and in turn, could play a role in the course of mastitis. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) were challenged with suspensions of heat inactivated SLAT(+) (n = 3) and SLAT(2) (n = 3) ...
Monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL) is a rare subtype of intestinal T-cell lymphoma that occurs mostly in Asia. CHOP-like therap
OBJECTIVE: During joint loading, chondrocytes in the articular cartilage are subjected to gradients of high compressive hydrostatic pressure (HP). In response to diverse chemical or physical stresses, heat shock genes are induced to express heat shock proteins (Hsps). This study sought to examine the role of Hsps in baroresistance in primary bovine chondrocytes and synovial cells, as well as in primary human fibroblasts.. METHODS: Northern blotting was used to analyze the steady-state levels of hsp70 mRNA in the primary cells exposed to HP or heat stress. Hsp70 protein accumulation was analyzed by Western blotting, and the DNA-binding activity was examined by gel mobility shift assay.. RESULTS: Primary bovine chondrocytes which have been adapted to live under pressurized conditions showed negligible Hsp70 response upon HP loading, whereas primary bovine synovial cells and human fibroblasts accumulated hsp70 mRNA and protein when subjected to HP. The response was initiated without activation of ...
The deathwatch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, is a woodboring beetle. The adult beetle is 7 millimetres (0.28 in) long, while the xylophagous larvae are up to 11 mm (0.43 in) long. To attract mates, these woodborers create a tapping or ticking sound that can be heard in the rafters of old buildings on quiet summer nights. They are therefore associated with quiet, sleepless nights and are named for the vigil (watch) kept beside the dying or dead, and by extension the superstitious have seen the deathwatch beetle as an omen of impending death. The term death watch has been applied to a variety of other ticking insects, including Anobium striatum, some of the so-called booklice of the family Psocidae, and the appropriately named Atropos divinatoria and Clothilla pulsatoria (Greek goddesses Atropos and Clotho were associated with death). The larva is very soft, yet can bore its way through wood, which it is able to digest using a number of enzymes in its alimentary canal, provided that the wood ...
Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus the branch of medicine which calls Gastroenterology. Medicines, prescribed for treatment of these organs, you will find in this category ...
peristalsis. // Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary;2005, p1637 A definition of the medical term peristalsis is presented. It refers to a progressive wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the alimentary canal. It is characteristic of tubes possessing longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle fibers. The... ...
The buccal cavity is lined with a mucous membrane which, like the lining of the entire alimentary canal, behaves as a lipoidal barrier to the passage of drugs ( Schanker, 1962). In general, drugs...
1980 Law, M. F.; Lowy, D. R.; Dvoretzky, I.; Howley, P. M. (1981). "Mouse cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus contain ... 1995 Tong, X.; Howley, P. M. (1997). "The bovine papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein interacts with paxillin and disrupts the actin ... 1982 Yang, Y. C.; Okayama, H.; Howley, P. M. (1985). "Bovine papillomavirus contains multiple transforming genes". Proceedings ... "In vitro tumorigenic transformation by a defined sub-genomic fragment of bovine papilloma virus DNA". Nature. 287 (5777): 72-74 ...
Several studies have found an association between the presence of Bovine papillomavirus-1 and 2 and associated viral growth ... "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the equine sarcoid". Journal of General Virology. 84 (5): 1055-1062. doi:10.1099/vir. ... "Intralesional bovine papillomavirus DNA loads reflect severity of equine sarcoid disease". Equine Veterinary Journal. 42 (4): ... Equine papillomavirus-2 has also been found within penile SCCs, but has not been determined to cause SCC. Before treatment of ...
The E5 protein of some animal papillomavirus types (mainly bovine papillomavirus type 1) functions as an oncogene primarily by ... Four papillomaviruses are known to infect birds: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1, Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1, ... Jackson ME, Pennie WD, McCaffery RE, Smith KT, Grindlay GJ, Campo MS (1991). "The B subgroup bovine papillomaviruses lack an ... Inter-species transmission has also been documented for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1. In its natural host (cattle), BPV-1 ...
Pseudocowpox Warts caused by bovine papillomavirus Teat-end hyperkeratosis Dermatitis Frostbite Udder sores or necrotic ... ISBN 978-0-13-046256-5. Ruegg, Pamela L. "Diseases of Bovine Teats and Skin - Reproductive System". Merck Veterinary Manual. ... The number of teats varies from 2 (in most primates) to 18 (in pigs). Marsupials usually have 4 to 12 teats, but the Virginia ...
"Roles of the hinge region and the DNA binding domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein in initiation of DNA ... 20 (4): R184-7. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.053. PMID 20178765. S2CID 1490419. Citation error. See inline comment how to fix.[ ... 18 (4): 479-84. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.194. PMC 2987245. PMID 19888303. Mirabal S, Regueiro M, Cadenas AM, Cavalli-Sforza LL, ... 4 (8): 598-612. doi:10.1038/nrg1124. PMID 12897772. S2CID 13508130. Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, ...
Battlefield Planning Visualization Bovine papillomavirus BQ (s) British Antarctic Territory (former ISO 3166 digram; merged ... Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, better known as mad cow disease BSE - (i) Buku Sekolah Elektronik (screw thread), BSF - (i) ... Bovine somatotropin (i) British Summer Time BSW - (i) British Standard Whitworth (screw thread) BSX - (i) Bendigo Stock ... FIPS 10-4 country code; ISO 3166 digram) (i) BitTorrent British Telecom, the former name of the company now known as BT Group ...
With Bill, she and her colleagues investigated in detail the biology of bovine papillomaviruses, especially BPV-1, -2 and -4, ... bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4). In older cattle, he noted that cancers could develop from existing papillomas and ... These results laid the conceptual framework for the production of vaccines against the subtypes of human papillomaviruses that ... and developed recombinant vaccines of BPV-4 proteins that protected cattle from developing papillomas when challenged, and ...
Similar papillomaviruses of ungulates (e.g. deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are ... Campo, MS (2006). "Bovine papillomavirus: old system, new lessons?". In Campo, MS (ed.). Papillomavirus Research: From Natural ... Chambers G, Ellsmore VA, O'Brien PM, Reid SW, Love S, Campo MS, Nasir L (2003). "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the ... Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are a paraphyletic group of DNA viruses of the subfamily Firstpapillomavirinae of ...
Allshire, Robin Campbell (1985). Construction and analysis of vectors based on bovine papilloma virus (PhD thesis). University ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(79)68011-4. ISBN 9780121819682. PMID 232210. Maskos, U.; Southern, E. M. (1992). "Oligonucleotide ...
Construction and analysis of vectors based on bovine papilloma virus (PhD thesis). University of Edinburgh. hdl:1842/11176. ... obtained his PhD in 1985 under the guidance of Chris Bostock and Edwin Southern investigating the use of bovine papillomavirus ... 4 (4): 140043. doi:10.1098/rsob.140043. PMC 4043117. PMID 24789708. Folco, H. D; Pidoux, A. L; Urano, T; Allshire, R. C (2008 ... 137 (7): 1173-4. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.06.010. PMC 4397584. PMID 19563746. Subramanian, L; Toda, N. R. T; Rappsilber, J; ...
... papillomavirus MeSH B04.280.535.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.280.535.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.660 - papillomavirus, ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.660 - papillomavirus, ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.624.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.624.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit ...
"Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cancer , CDC". 2019-08-21. Münger K, Baldwin A, Edwards KM, Hayakawa H, Nguyen CL, Owens M, et ... Buehring GC, Shen HM, Jensen HM, Jin DL, Hudes M, Block G (2 September 2015). "Exposure to Bovine Leukemia Virus Is Associated ... In Western developed countries, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most ... Closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus, is another deltaretrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which recently has met ...
Such benefits include male insects transferring nutrients to females via their ejaculate; in both humans and bovines, the fluid ... This includes transmission risk for sexually transmitted diseases such as human papillomavirus (HPV) or herpes, especially for ... 26 (4): 459-69. doi:10.2164/jandrol.04104. PMID 15955884. "HealthCentral.com - Trusted, Reliable and Up To Date Health ... ISBN 978-0-19-875114-4. Retrieved November 9, 2013. Onians, R. B. (1951). The Origins of European Thought. Cambridge. p. 203. ...
... , Benes L. Trus & Stephen C. Harrison (2002). An atomic model of the papillomavirus capsid. EMBO J., 21, 4754-4762 ... Yue Li, Jimin Wang, Ryuta Kanai & Yorgo Modis (2013). Crystal structure of glycoprotein E2 from bovine viral diarrhea virus. ... 4 years) 1995 Bateman Scholarship- First Class Honors Degree, Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge, U.K. 1995 Kareen Thorne ...
See also: Papillomavirus and Bovine papillomavirus. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (December 2017) ... Warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). There are about 130 known types of human papilloma viruses.[8] HPV infects ... a b Human Papillomavirus Archived 2015-08-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Public Health Agency of Canada ... Warts are caused by infection with a type of human papillomavirus (HPV).[1] Factors that increase the risk include use of ...
If biotin was used as a probe label, non-specific binding sites must first be blocked using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Then, ... Apart from cancers, CISH has also been shown to be useful in detecting human papillomavirus infections. SISH uses a similar ... 15 (4): 519-27. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2005.09.008. PMID 16290155. Garimberti, E; Tosi, S (2010). "Fluorescence in situ ... 86 (4): 398-408. doi:10.1038/labinvest.3700390. PMID 16446704. Summersgill, B. M.; Shipley, J. M. (2010). "Fluorescence in Situ ...
... is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).[4] Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and ... An HPV infection is caused by human papillomavirus, a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family, of which over 170 types are ... "Pink Book (Human Papillomavirus)" (PDF). CDC.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 March 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2017.. ... "Human Papillomavirus". Medscape. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016.. *^ "Photos of larynx Papillomas - Voice ...
One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Having finally lost completely its virulence, the bovine tuberculosis germ grown with their method was the principal ... he focused on creating a vaccine using the bacillus responsible for bovine tuberculosis, very similar to the human one, as it ... The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888. For over a century, the Institut Pasteur has ...
Family 1.G.17 The Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelop Glycoprotein (BLV-Env) Family 1.G.18 The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide in the Spike ... Family 1.A.97 The Human Papillomavirus type 16 E5 Viroporin (HPV-E5) Family 1.A.98 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 P13 protein ( ... Family 1.A.86 The Human Papilloma Virus type 16 (HPV16) L2 Viroporin (L2 Viroporin) Family 1.A.87 The Mechanosensitive Calcium ... Family 4.A.5 The PTS Galactitol (Gat) Family 4.A.6 The PTS Mannose-Fructose-Sorbose (Man) Family 4.A.7 The PTS L-Ascorbate (L- ...
The human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended in the U.S. (as of 2011)[63] and UK (as of 2009).[64] Vaccine recommendations ... Bovine herpesvirus 1 DIVA vaccines are also widely used in practice. Other DIVA vaccines (under development). Scientists have ... "HPV Vaccine , Human Papillomavirus , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2019-06-14.. ... In the case of a few relatively new vaccines such as the human papillomavirus vaccine, the patents may impose an additional ...
Bovine herpesvirus 1 DIVA vaccines are also widely used in practice.[citation needed] Considerable efforts are ongoing to apply ... The human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended in the U.S. (as of 2011)[87] and UK (as of 2009).[88] Vaccine recommendations ... "HPV Vaccine , Human Papillomavirus , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2019-06-14.. ... In the case of a few relatively new vaccines such as the human papillomavirus vaccine, the patents may impose an additional ...
By 1985, Harald zur Hausen had shown that two strains of Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause most cases of cervical cancer. Two ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease"), are caused by prions,[6] hepatitis D is due ... The best studied example is the association between Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: almost all cases of cervical ... p. 4. ISBN 0199574855.. *^ Cann, Alan (2011). Principles of Molecular Virology (5 ed.). London: Academic Press. ISBN 978- ...
a b Human Papillomavirus at eMedicine *^ Egawa K, Kitasato H, Honda Y, Kawai S, Mizushima Y, Ono T (1998). "Human ... They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).[2] A break in the skin is required for infection to occur.[2] Risk factors ... "Human Papillomaviruses Compendium" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 2013-02-05.. ... Plantar warts are benign epithelial tumors generally caused by infection by human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 4, 60, or 63,[5] ...
Papillomavirus vaccine, parvovirus vaccine, alpha galactosidase for Fabry disease, lysosomal acid lipase, aprotinin, interferon ... a Plant-Based Alternative to Bovine-Derived Trypsin (Peer-Reviewed)". BioPharm International. 24 (10): 44-8. Sigma Catalog FAQ ... Norris, Sonya (4 July 2005). "Molecular pharming". Library of Parliament. Parliament of Canada. PRB 05-09E. Retrieved 2008-09- ... 4 (10): 794-805. doi:10.1038/nrg1177. PMID 14526375. S2CID 14762423. "ProdiGene Launches First Large Scale-Up Manufacturing of ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. *Camel spongiform encephalopathy. *Scrapie. *Chronic wasting disease. *Transmissible mink ... Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile cancer, Anal cancer (Human papillomavirus (HPV)) ... Dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) - Flaviviruses ... Retrieved on August 4, 2009.. External links[edit]. *List of ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV). *Genital warts (condyloma). *Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B virus). *Herpes simplex *HSV-1 & HSV-2 ... 194 (4): 420-27. doi:10.1086/505879. PMID 16845624.. *^ a b Mertz, G.J. (1993). "Epidemiology of genital herpes infections". ... 24 (4): 10-15. ISSN 1209-1367. PMID 24258059.. *^ "Herpes virus has infected nearly one in five Canadians over age 35, most ... 4 (10): 1809-19. doi:10.1517/14656566.4.10.1809. PMID 14521490.. *^ Robert L. LaFemina (2009). Antiviral research : strategies ...
Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile cancer, Anal cancer (Human papillomavirus (HPV)) ... Wart (caused by the Human papillomavirus; also similar in appearance to molluscum) ... Molluscum contagiosum virus spread by direct contact or contaminated objects[4]. Risk factors. Weak immune system, atopic ... Ramdass, P; Mullick, S; Farber, HF (December 2015). "Viral Skin Diseases". Primary Care (Review). 42 (4): 517-67. doi:10.1016/j ...
Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile cancer, Anal cancer (Human papillomavirus (HPV)) ... 187 (4): 559-68. doi:10.1086/367985. PMID 12599072.. *^ He, J; Bhat, G; Kankasa, C; Chintu, C; Mitchell, C; Duan, W; Wood, C ( ... 4 (2): 265-273. doi:10.1007/BF01830024.. Translated in Kaposi, M (2008). "Idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin". ... In 1872, Moritz Kaposi described a blood vessel tumor[4] (originally called "idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin ...
人類乳突病毒(Human Papillomavirus,HPV)是一种DNA病毒,属于乳头瘤病毒科乳头瘤病毒属。該類病毒感染人體的表皮與黏膜組織,目前約有170种類型的HPV被判別出來,有些时候HPV入侵人體後會引起疣甚至癌症,但大多数时候則沒有任
Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. The Lancet. 2007;370( ... bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow" disease) in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer; in humans, prionic ... de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H. Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology. 2004;324(1):17-27 ... Human papillomaviruses are an established cause of cancers of cervix, skin, anus, and penis.[182] Within the Herpesviridae, ...
One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... Having finally lost completely its virulence, the bovine tuberculosis germ grown with their method was the principal ... he focused on creating a vaccine using the bacillus responsible for bovine tuberculosis, very similar to the human one, as it ... The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888. ...
A Peptide Encoding a B-cell Epitope from the N-Terminus of the Capsid Protein L2 of Bovine Papillomavirus-4 Prevents Disease ... A Peptide Encoding a B-cell Epitope from the N-Terminus of the Capsid Protein L2 of Bovine Papillomavirus-4 Prevents Disease. ... Calves vaccinated with the three peptides together showed no evidence of papillomavirus infection; those vaccinated with ... The first 200 N-terminus amino acids of the L2 capsid protein of BPV-4 (designated L2a) are an effective prophylactic vaccine ...
Similar papillomaviruses of ungulates (e.g. deer papillomavirus, European elk papillomavirus, ovine papillomavirus 1,2) are ... Campo, MS (2006). "Bovine papillomavirus: old system, new lessons?". In Campo, MS (ed.). Papillomavirus Research: From Natural ... Chambers G, Ellsmore VA, OBrien PM, Reid SW, Love S, Campo MS, Nasir L (2003). "Association of bovine papillomavirus with the ... Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are a paraphyletic group of DNA viruses of the subfamily Firstpapillomavirinae of ...
1980 Law, M. F.; Lowy, D. R.; Dvoretzky, I.; Howley, P. M. (1981). "Mouse cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus contain ... 1995 Tong, X.; Howley, P. M. (1997). "The bovine papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein interacts with paxillin and disrupts the actin ... 1982 Yang, Y. C.; Okayama, H.; Howley, P. M. (1985). "Bovine papillomavirus contains multiple transforming genes". Proceedings ... "In vitro tumorigenic transformation by a defined sub-genomic fragment of bovine papilloma virus DNA". Nature. 287 (5777): 72-74 ...
Unlike other papillomaviruses, the non-coding region upstream of the early ORFs (ncr-1) is short (385 base pairs), but there is ... Like the E5 ORF of human papillomavirus type 6 the E5 ORF of BPV-4 is discontinuous. ... have been identified both on the basis of amino acid comparison with other papillomaviruses and on their transcriptional ... Summary The nucleotide sequence of bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) was determined. The viral genome is 7261 base pairs ...
Bovine papillomavirus type 1 genomes and the E2 transactivator protein are closely associated with mitotic chromatin. J. Virol. ... In bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1), the E2 gene encodes three different polypeptides (22). The largest protein, expressed ... Conditional Mutations in the Mitotic Chromosome Binding Function of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein. Peng-Sheng ... Bovine papillomavirus mutant temperature sensitive for transformation, replication, and transactivation. EMBO J.7:1197-1204. ...
Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB. Jun-Mei Yao, David E. Breiding, ... Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB. Jun-Mei Yao, David E. Breiding, ... Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB. Jun-Mei Yao, David E. Breiding, ... Functional Interaction of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Transactivation Domain with TFIIB Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
An existing bovine papilloma virus-based expression vector, pBV-1MTHA, was modified to allow transformed X63Ag8-653 myeloma ... An existing bovine papilloma virus-based expression vector, pBV-1MTHA, was modified to allow transformed X63Ag8-653 myeloma ... The established cell lines secreting IL2, 3, 4 or 5 at high rate should be useful sources for these interleukins in the ... Establishment of mouse cell lines which constitutively secrete large quantities of interleukin 2, 3, 4 or 5, using modified ...
A papillomatous cyst was induced by implanting bovine foetal palate epithelium, infected in vitro with bovine papillomavirus ... Malignant tranformation of a papilloma induced by bovine papillomavirus type 4 in the nude mouse renal capsule. Journal of ... Malignant tranformation of a papilloma induced by bovine papillomavirus type 4 in the nude mouse renal capsule. / Gaukroger, J ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Malignant tranformation of a papilloma induced by bovine papillomavirus type 4 in ...
The three-dimensional structure of bovine papillomavirus has been determined to 9 A resolution by reconstruction of high ... Novel structural features of bovine papillomavirus capsid revealed by a three-dimensional reconstruction to 9 A resolution Nat ... The three-dimensional structure of bovine papillomavirus has been determined to 9 A resolution by reconstruction of high ... 1997 May;4(5):413-20. doi: 10.1038/nsb0597-413. Authors B L Trus 1 , R B Roden, H L Greenstone, M Vrhel, J T Schiller, F P Booy ...
From Human papillomavirus type 16.. E6. P06931. 3. EBI-8516738,EBI-7281937. From Bovine papillomavirus type 1. ... "Interaction of oncogenic papillomavirus E6 proteins with fibulin-1.". Du M., Fan X., Hong E., Chen J.J.. Biochem. Biophys. Res ... Microbial infection) Interacts with human papillomavirus/HPV type 16, 18 and 31 proteins E6.1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated ... Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES E6 PROTEIN (MICROBIAL INFECTION), INHIBITION OF E6-MEDIATED ...
BPV, bovine papillomavirus; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; AKT, protein kinase B; p, phospho; NF, nuclear factor; Ctrl, ... BPV, bovine papillomavirus; Ctrl, control; Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma 2; Bax, Bcl-2-associated X protein. ... or 10 µM bovine papillomavirus (BPV; both Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology) for different time points. Cells were then ... fetal bovine serum (FBS; Gibco; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) and 100 µg/ml penicillin/streptomycin (Beyotime Institute of ...
Virus-like particles of Bovine Papillomavirus type 4 in prophylactic and therapeutic immunization. Virology. 219:37-44. View ... bovine papillomavirus type 4 [BPV-4], which induced benign oral mucosal lesions), it did not induce their regression, although ... Chapter 8: human papillomavirus and skin cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 31:52-56. View this article via: PubMed Google ... Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines. Douglas R. Lowy and John T. Schiller Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Center for ...
Differential expression of microRNAs in bovine papillomavirus type 1 transformed equine cells. ... The impact of tick-borne pathogen infection in Indian bovines is determined by host type but not the genotype of Theileria ... Characterization of HSP90 isoforms in transformed bovine leukocytes infected with Theileria annulata. ... 2015 Aug 29;4(3):333-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.08.006. eCollection 2015 Dec. ...
Effects of the missing wedge on the image quality in tomograms illustrated on bovine Papilloma virus capsids. Tomograms are ... 4; Bouchet-Marquis et al. 2012), but so far we have been able to load intracellular MTH only with zinc. Zinc, however, has a ... 1 and 4). A plain 2-D image of a vitreous section that has been recorded under low-dose conditions (~1-5 electrons per Å2) may ... 1 and 4). With a maximum tilt of ±60°, the missing wedge reduces resolution along the projection direction and tilt axis by 50 ...
A Peptide Encoding a B-Cell Epitope from the N-Terminus of the Capsid Protein L2 of Bovine Papillomavirus-4 Prevents Disease ... Induction of human papillomavirus type 16-specific immunologic responses in a normal and an human papillomavirus-infected ... Gene gun-mediated intracutaneous vaccination with papillomavirus E7 gene delays cancer development of papillomavirus-induced ... Human papillomavirus type 16 nucleoprotein E7 is a tumor rejection antigen. L P Chen, E K Thomas, S L Hu, I Hellström, K E ...
bovine papillomavirus type 1 (synthetic). Aethiops sabeus (African Green Monkey). No. SIE. HTML , XML. ... human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo sapiens. Yes. UE. HTML , XML. 147. E2 (16 E2-dm). Wang 2003. human papillomavirus (HPV-16) ... human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo sapiens. No. SIE. HTML , XML. 149. L2h. Leder 2001. human papillomavirus (HPV-16). Homo ... Human papillomavirus (HPV). Solanum tuberosum. No. UE. HTML , XML. 268. L1s. Warzecha 2003. Human papillomavirus (HPV). Solanum ...
There is also strong evidence supporting a causal role for bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-2 in the development of bladder cancer ... Of the types described, more than 70 are human papillomaviruses (HPV) and approximately 20 are animal papillomaviruses. The ... Some animal papillomaviruses cause cancer in their natural hosts. Overall evaluation HPV types 16 and 18 are carcinogenic to ... HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES (HPV). HPV types 16 and 18 (Group 1). HPV types 31 and 33 (Group 2A). Some HPV types other than 16, 18, ...
Interacts with bovine papillomavirus type 1 regulatory protein E2 and human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) protein LANA. These ...
The E5 protein of some animal papillomavirus types (mainly bovine papillomavirus type 1) functions as an oncogene primarily by ... Inter-species transmission has also been documented for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1.[9] In its natural host (cattle), ... Jackson ME, Pennie WD, McCaffery RE, Smith KT, Grindlay GJ, Campo MS (1991). "The B subgroup bovine papillomaviruses lack an ... Coggins LW, Ma JQ, Slater AA, Campo MS (1985). "Sequence homologies between bovine papillomavirus genomes mapped by a novel low ...
Bovine papillomavirus type 4 L1 gene transfection in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system: absence of L1 protein expression. ... Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2. González-Losa, Maria del Refugio; ...
Bovine papillomavirus is considered to be the main cause of these tumors. Sarcoids may be transmitted by direct contact from ... It is also possible that insects may spread papillomaviruses. There are several distinct papillomaviruses. Among companion ... Congenital papillomas of foals are rare and are probably a developmental defect rather than a result of papilloma virus ... Warts are caused by papillomaviruses. The virus is transmitted by direct contact or by contact with infected items such as ...
... of type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing conformational epitopes on the major capsid protein of human papillomavirus ... Neutralization of bovine papillomavirus by antibodies to L1 and L2 capsid proteins ... Virus-like particles of bovine papillomavirus type 4 in prophylactic and therapeutic immunization ... Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. Walboomers, JM; Jacobs, MV; Manos, MM; Bosch, ...
Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV ... 2010 Mar;110(4):339-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.01.006. Epub 2010 Jan 20. ... 2009 Feb;4(2):179-85. doi: 10.1002/biot.200800131. No abstract available. ...
To investigate the efficiency of encapsidation of plasmid by papillomavirus virus-like particles (PV VLPs), and the infectivity ... Efficiency of delivery of DNA to cells by bovine papillomavirus type-1 L1/L2 pseudovirions. ... To investigate the efficiency of encapsidation of plasmid by papillomavirus virus-like particles (PV VLPs), and the infectivity ... and infected with bovine PV (BPV-1) L1/L2 recombinant vaccinia virus to produce BPV1 pseudovirions. Approximately 1 in 1.5×104 ...
Design and characterization of a novel vector system based on the stable replicator of bovine papillomavirus type 1. - Tartu : ... Virus-cell interactions in the replication cycle of bovine papillomavirus type 1. - Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2003. - 88 ... ISBN 9985-9469-4-4 (CD 2). UDK 81. 148. Kuuse, Asti.. Väga värviline. - Tartu : A. Kuuse, 2003. - 72 lk. : ill.. ISBN 9949-10- ... ISBN 9985-4-0357-6. UDK 004. 124. Kask, Inna-Mare.. Kes, mis lehises peeglis. - Tallinn : I.-M. Kask, 2003. - 69 lk. : ill. ...
Vectors that contain the replicons from bovine papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus replicate extrachromosomally at "low copy ... bovine mammary epithelial cells (ATCC CRL 10274; bovine mammary epithelial cells); monkey kidney CV1 line transformed by SV40 ( ... An Avr II site is found in the second intron of bovine α-lactalbumin and a Dra I site is found in the third intron of the gene. ... To create the test vector the genomic clone of the bovine α-lactalbumin was used. α-Lactalbumin is a milk protein that is ...
Bovine papillomavirus type 4 L1 gene transfection in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system: absence of L1 protein expression. ... Papillomavirus Bovino 1/isolamento & purifica o. T cnicas de Transfer ncia de Genes. Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/gen tica. ... The development of a bovine papillomavirus (BPV) vaccine is an outstanding challenge. BPV protein L1 gene transfection in the ... Pribina and Nitran resulted in retaining up to 9.39% of enzyme activity upon heating to 75 C, which is more than 4 times higher ...
5. Bovine Papillomaviruses - Taxonomy and Genetic Features. By Michele Lunardi, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Rodrigo Alejandro ... 4. Genetic Engineering of Baculoviruses. By Santiago Haase, Leticia Ferrelli, Matías Luis Pidre and Víctor Romanowski ...
Neutralization of bovine papillomavirus by antibodies to L1 and L2 capsid proteins. J Virol 1994;68:7570-4. ... Immunoprevention of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Malignancies. Joshua W. Wang, Chein-fu Hung, Warner K. Huh, Cornelia L. ... Immunoprevention of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Malignancies. Joshua W. Wang, Chein-fu Hung, Warner K. Huh, Cornelia L. ... Immunoprevention of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Malignancies. Joshua W. Wang, Chein-fu Hung, Warner K. Huh, Cornelia L. ...
Novel structural features of bovine papillomavirus capsid revealed by a three-dimensional reconstruction to 9 Å resolution. Nat ... 1), 40 to 55 nm (polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses) (Fig. 2), and 70 to 90 nm (reoviruses, rotaviruses, and adenoviruses) ( ... In vitro gene transfer using human papillomavirus-like particles. Nucleic Acids Res.26:1317-1323. ... Production of recombinant virus-like particles from human papillomavirus types 6 and 11, and study of serological reactivities ...
  • The first 200 N-terminus amino acids of the L2 capsid protein of BPV-4 (designated L2a) are an effective prophylactic vaccine against BPV-4 infection. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes virtually all cases of cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. (jci.org)
  • The impact of tick-borne pathogen infection in Indian bovines is determined by host type but not the genotype of Theileria annulata. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical aspects of HPV infection are outlined in the main article human papillomavirus . (wikidoc.org)
  • [3] Most papillomavirus types are adapted to infection of particular body surfaces. (wikidoc.org)
  • [4] HPV types 6 and 11 are adapted to infection of the genitals, where they can cause irregular warts known as condyloma accuminata . (wikidoc.org)
  • However, the authors note that the chimpanzee-specific papillomavirus sequence could have been the result of surface contamination of the zookeeper's skin, as opposed to productive infection. (wikidoc.org)
  • Persistent infection by one of 15 high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types is a necessary but not sufficient cause of 5% of all human cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cervical cancer, the second most common malignancy in women worldwide, is almost invariably associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human papillomavirus is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infection in the world and can also cause cancer. (caister.com)
  • Anderson JA, Irish JC, McLachlin CM, Ngan BY (1994) H-ras oncogene mutation and human papillomavirus infection in oral carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • Most papillomaviruses appear to be species-specific or at least restricted to infection of closely related animals within the same genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HPV16 infection was shown to decrease in the presence of the lysosomotrophic neutralizing agent ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this manuscript we propose that the observed decrease in infection of PV in the presence of NH 4 Cl was due to a loss of movement of reporter-virions to caveosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present data that suggest HPV16 infection is in part mediated by cysteine proteases, and that NH 4 Cl blocks the intracellular trafficking of infectious viral particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The invention can be used to inhibit papillomavirus infection or infection by another virus that utilizes the same binding receptors during the infection process. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and contacting a tissue of an individual with the composition under conditions effective to substantially block papillomavirus binding receptors on the surface or vicinity of cells in the tissue, wherein said contacting is effective to inhibit virus infection of the individual. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the virus infection inhibited by said contacting is a papillomavirus infection. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the individual is a human and the inhibited papillomavirus infection is by a human papillomavirus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The method according to claim 3, wherein the inhibited human papillomavirus infection is one which is caused by a genital-specific genotype of human papillomavirus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Cervical dysplasia is a premalignant lesion associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection which, over time, can turn cancerous. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fewer topics in obstetrics and virology will generate stronger opinions backed only by anecdotal data than the issue of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection during pregnancy. (springer.com)
  • Prevalence of papillomavirus infection in col- poscopically directed cervical biopsy specimens in 1972 and 1982. (springer.com)
  • An existing bovine papilloma virus-based expression vector, pBV-1MTHA, was modified to allow transformed X63Ag8-653 myeloma cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and C127 mammary tumor cells to stably carry multiple copies of the vector, to express the inserted cDNA encoding a single interleukin constitutively, and to secrete the interleukin in high quantities. (nih.gov)
  • Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). (nih.gov)
  • The bovine papilloma virus E2 protein is the master regulator of papillomavirus replication and transcription. (abcam.cn)
  • Marked variations in susceptibility of individual calves to bovine papilloma virus were observed, as well as differences in the histologic development of warts produced by virus administered intradermally and by scarification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bovine Papilloma Virus Plasmids Replicate Randomly in Mouse Fibroblasts throughout S Phase of the Cell Cycle," Cell 50:59-68 (1987). (patentgenius.com)
  • Messenger RNAs present in C127 mouse cells transformed by bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV-1) were studied by the S1 nuclease protection technique, Northern blotting, and electron microscopic heteroduplex analysis. (cshl.edu)
  • Danos O, Engel LW, Chen EY, Yaniv M, Howley PM. Comparative analysis of the human type la and bovine type 1 papilloma-virus genomes. (springer.com)
  • The papillomavirus E2 protein is required for viral transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and genome segregation. (asm.org)
  • The X-ray crystal structure of the transactivation domain of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E2 protein was recently determined and was found to consist of an cashew-shaped domain made up of two regions ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Interacts with bovine papillomavirus type 1 regulatory protein E2 and human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) protein LANA. (rcsb.org)
  • We analysed the epitopes on the major capsid protein (L1) of Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 31 using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated against HPV-31 virus-like particles (VLPs). (deepdyve.com)
  • To investigate the efficiency of encapsidation of plasmid by papillomavirus virus-like particles (PV VLPs), and the infectivity of the resultant PV pseudovirions, Cos-1 cells were transfected with an 8-kb plasmid incorporating a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene (pGSV), and infected with bovine PV (BPV-1) L1/L2 recombinant vaccinia virus to produce BPV1 pseudovirions. (springer.com)
  • The hemidesmosomal protein bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 and the integrin beta 4 subunit bind to ERBIN. (fondation-r-touraine.org)
  • Immunization with L2 protein in animal models has been shown to provide cross-protection against distant papillomavirus types, suggesting that the L2 protein contains cross-neutralizing epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The AU1 sequence represents the amino acid sequence DTYRYI derived from the major capsid protein of bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1). (qedbio.com)
  • We have reported that the papillomavirus E2 protein binds the nuclear factor AMF1 (also called G-protein pathway suppressor 2 or GPS2) and that their interaction is necessary for transcriptional activation by E2. (asm.org)
  • Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) plays critical roles in development, cancer progression, and virus-host pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • The PePV genome (7304 basepairs) differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chang OK, Lee BO, Humbert G, Saulnier F. Nutritional advantage of protein fraction in equine milk as compared to bovine milk. (cavalor.com)
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by the human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein are currently being tested in clinical trials as prophylactic vaccines against genital warts and cervical cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Integrated analysis of recombinant BPV-1 L1 protein for the production of a bovine papillomavirus VLP vaccine. (violinet.org)
  • Like other papillomaviruses, BPVs are small non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral capsid around 50-60 nm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arrangement of L2 within the papillomavirus capsid. (nih.gov)
  • Papillomaviruses are small non-enveloped DNA viruses and their icosahedral capsid is constituted of L1 and L2 proteins, which encapsidate a closed circular, double-stranded DNA of about 8 kbp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NH 4 Cl neutralizes acidic endo-lysosome compartments, thus suggesting that pH was responsible for PV capsid conformational changes leading endosome escape. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like other papillomaviruses, BPVs are small non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral capsid around 50-60 nm in diameter.The capsid is formed of the L1 and L2 structural proteins, with the L1 C-terminus exposed. (violinet.org)
  • The papillomavirus E2 proteins bind to Brd4, and some utilize this interaction in tethering the viral genomes to mitotic chromosomes ( 1 , 3 , 57 , 59 ). (asm.org)
  • Papillomavirus genomes have been cloned from 20 mammalian host species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus far, only two avian papillomavirus genomes were cloned, one from a chaffinch and the second from a parrot papilloma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The replication of papillomavirus genomes in yeast is not limited to HPV16. (unl.edu)
  • The episomal replication of papillomavirus genomes in yeast provides a genetically manipulatable system in which to investigate cellular factors required for episomal replication and may provide a novel means for generating infectious papillomavirus. (unl.edu)
  • There is currently no effective medicine or supplement for clearance of high risk- human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The etiology of cervical cancer has been identified and confirmed associated with high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) ( 2 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Campo, M. S. / Malignant tranformation of a papilloma induced by bovine papillomavirus type 4 in the nude mouse renal capsule . (elsevier.com)
  • There is still controversy in the scientific field about whether certain types of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are non-enveloped DNA viruses that can infect the skin and mucous membranes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The specificity of the types differs: BPV-1 infects paragenital areas, including penis, teats and udders BPV-2 infects skin, alimentary canal and urinary bladder Xipapillomavirus or epitheliotropic BPVs (formerly known as subgroup B), including types 3, 4 and 6, have a smaller genome of around 7.3 kb and are unique among papillomaviruses in lacking the E6 oncoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papillomaviruses are small, non-enveloped, viruses that contain a double-stranded, circular 8 kb DNA genome. (inchem.org)
  • The papillomavirus genome can be divided into three regions. (inchem.org)
  • To illustrate the applicability of the method, we have chosen two viral datasets, namely papillomaviruses and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolates, largely dissimilar in genome, evolutionary distance and biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the quantitative real-time PCR assay, limits of detection and quantification were about 2 and 8 haploid genome copies, respectively, the latter of which is 2.5-4-fold lower than other reported wheat endogenous reference genes. (jove.com)
  • The E1 open reading frame of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV) has been shown previously to encode trans-acting functions, M and R, that are involved in extrachromosomal replication of the viral genome. (elsevier.com)
  • An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) were determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date no complete avian papillomavirus genome had been sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human papillomavirus integration into the genome leads to inactivation of the p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) pathways by the action of primary papillomaviral oncoproteins E6 and E7. (askjpc.org)
  • Papillomaviruses normally replicate in stratified squamous epithelial tissues of their mammalian hosts, in which the viral genome is found as a nuclear plasmid. (unl.edu)
  • In this study, we describe experiments investigating the capacity of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) genome to replicate in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). (unl.edu)
  • Individual papillomavirus types tend to be highly adapted to replication in a single animal species. (wikidoc.org)
  • Crystal structures of two intermediates in the assembly of the papillomavirus replication initiation complex. (cathdb.info)
  • Random-Choice Replication of Extrachromosomal Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV) Molecules in Heterogeneous, Clonally Derived BPV-Infected Cell Lines," J. Virol. (patentgenius.com)
  • The major focus of my laboratory is in understanding the molecular machines that make up the DNA replication forks of the small human DNA viruses, polyoma- and papillomaviruses. (buffalo.edu)
  • Papillomavirus research has been revolutionised in recent years with the advent of new technologies such as organotypic raft cultures, virus-like particles and transgenic mice. (caister.com)
  • Serological studies of papillomavirus virus like particles (VLPs) demonstrate that antibodies cross-reactive with multiple HPV VLP types recognize type-common epitopes and generally are not neutralizing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the papillomavirus virus-like particles or capsomeres comprise an L1 polypeptide and optionally an L2 polypeptide, which L1 and L2 polypeptides are from a non-human papillomavirus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 19. The method according to claim 1, wherein the composition does not contain an adjuvant that would contribute to induction of an immune response against the papillomavirus virus-like particles or capsomeres. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 20. A composition comprising a contraceptive agent, a plurality of papillomavirus virus-like particles or capsomeres, and a pharmaceutically suitable delivery vehicle. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 24. The composition according to claim 20, wherein the papillomavirus virus-like particles comprise an L1 polypeptide and optionally an L2 polypeptide. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 28. A composition comprising a plurality of papillomavirus virus-like particles or capsomeres and a delivery vehicle, wherein the composition does not contain a separate adjuvant that would contribute to induction of an immune response against the papillomavirus virus-like particles or capsomeres. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2013): Virus-like particles protect efficiently from experimentally bovine papillomavirus type 1-induced pseudo-sarcoids. (vu-wien.ac.at)
  • The transactivation domain contains many residues that are invariant among all papillomavirus E2 sequences examined. (asm.org)
  • The transactivation domain contains many residues that are invariant among all papillomavirus E2 sequences examined thus far. (asm.org)
  • [7] Although a wide variety of papillomavirus sequences were identified in the study, the authors found little evidence for inter-species transmission. (wikidoc.org)
  • Four novel papillomavirus sequences support a broad diversity among equine papillomaviruses. (uzh.ch)
  • Identification of two novel equine papillomavirus sequences suggests three genera in one cluster. (uzh.ch)
  • Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs ) papillomavirus (FPV) reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Not only do the papillomavirus loop sequences display potentially virus-neutralizing B cell epitopes, but the manner in which they are presented to the host immune system makes them highly immunogenic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of a bovine papillomavirus (BPV) vaccine is an outstanding challenge. (bireme.br)
  • Indeed, this promise is being realized with the introduction of preventive vaccines against Hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, and complements both cervical cytology screening efforts and chemoprevention via drug treatments for Helicobacter pylori , Hepatitis C, and HIV ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sentinel study populations have been established by vaccine companies as phase 4 postlicensure evaluations to forewarn public health authorities and practitioners if such boosters will be needed. (aappublications.org)
  • In this timely book leading scientists review current aspects of papillomavirus research providing a fascinating insight into papillomavirus molecular biology, interactions with the host, immunology and vaccine development. (caister.com)
  • Essential reading for scientists and researchers working on papillomavirus and a recommended text for anyone involved with antiviral drug and vaccine development. (caister.com)
  • A multimeric L2 vaccine for prevention of animal papillomavirus infections. (violinet.org)
  • In bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1), the E2 gene encodes three different polypeptides ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • O sequenciamento de nucleotídeos e as análises filogenéticas realizadas nos fragmentos E5L2 resultaram na identificação de BPV1, 2 e 13 em 14 (70%), 2 (10%) e em 4 (20%) amostras de sarcoides, respectivamente. (scielo.br)
  • The phylogenetic analyses of E5L2 resulted in the identification of BPV1, 2, and 13 in 14 (70%), 2 (10%), and 4 (20%) sarcoids, respectively. (scielo.br)
  • Two horses demonstrated multiple lesions: the sarcoids of one of these contained only BPV1 DNA and those of the other contained three types of bovine Deltapapillomavirus (BPV1, 2, and 13). (scielo.br)
  • The present invention relates to polypeptides that immunologically mimic papillomavirus latent proteins and to antibodies and monoclonal antibodies that immunoreact with papillomavirus latent proteins. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Several different viruses target the individual BET proteins for a variety of purposes but often to regulate viral and cellular transcription ( 4 , 7 , 31 , 37 , 41 , 45 , 57 , 60 ). (asm.org)
  • To investigate the molecular determinants of the HPV16 L1 conformational epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 16A, we utilized a domain-swapping approach to generate a series of L1 proteins composed of a canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) L1 backbone containing different regions of HPV16 L1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequence alignment of 52 papillomavirus L1 proteins from different host species demonstrates that there is considerable homology with the exception of 5 hypervariable regions, each ranging from 10 to 30 amino acids in length and located within a surface-exposed loop. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of papillomaviruses, gene clusters match well our knowledge on viral biology and life cycle, illustrating the potential of our approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), also known as Canine Papillomavirus type 1 (CPV1), induces papillomas at the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and at the haired skin of dogs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Canine inverted papillomas associated with DNA of four different papillomaviruses. (uzh.ch)
  • This suggests that different papillomavirus genotypes may represent different serotypes and that neutralizing antibody responses to different papillomaviruses are type-specific. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids) were generated against three mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which neutralized three different papillomaviruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Template:Taxobox group i entry Template:Taxobox familia entry Template:Taxobox end placement Template:Taxobox section subdivision Template:Taxobox image Template:Taxobox end Papillomaviruses were first identified in the early 20th century, when it was shown that skin warts , or papillomas , could be transmitted between individuals by a filterable infectious agent. (wikidoc.org)
  • Bovine papilloma antigen detected by fluorescent antibody was correlated with the appearance of infectious virus and with epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratinization in the developing bovine cutaneous papilloma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes. (uzh.ch)
  • The infectious pathway of the non-enveloped Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) includes binding to the cell surface, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and penetration into an endosome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, infectious and neoplastic disease, characterized by the presence of multiple papillomas that can regress spontaneously or to persist and progress to malignancies when in association with environmental cofactors. (openaccesspub.org)
  • The neutralizing MAbs (N-MAbs) were generated against infectious human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11), cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV), and bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1), and all recognized surface conformational epitopes that were lost upon denaturation of the virions. (elsevier.com)
  • The tissue samples were tested for immunoexpression of p53 and p16 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bovine herpesvirus and papillomavirus. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Bovine herpesvirus and papillomavirus were not detected by PCR. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • Glycoprotein D of bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) confers an extended host range to BoHV-1 but does not contribute to invasion of the brain. (uzh.ch)
  • Detection of antibodies against epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated canine Papillomavirus 3 in sera of dogs from Europe and Africa by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (uzh.ch)
  • The results indicate that within a mouse strain, papillomavirus-neutralizing antibodies share cross-reactive idiotopes that group the N-MAbs into several subsets. (elsevier.com)
  • Several overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) have been identified both on the basis of amino acid comparison with other papillomaviruses and on their transcriptional pattern. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The papillomavirus E2 transcriptional activation functions are also mediated through Brd4 ( 35 , 41 , 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are a paraphyletic group of DNA viruses of the subfamily Firstpapillomavirinae of Papillomaviridae that are common in cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • BPVs have been used as a model for studying papillomavirus molecular biology and for dissecting the mechanisms by which this group of viruses cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison between the polypeptides of BPV-4 and other papillomaviruses showed that BPV-4 is evolutionarily closer to the epitheliotropic human and rabbit viruses than to BPV-1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Papillomavirus are small DNA viruses that cause persistent epithelial lesions called papillomas ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • It is now recognized that papillomaviruses are a diverse group of non- enveloped DNA viruses that infect animals ranging from birds to manatees . (wikidoc.org)
  • Early virus classification depended heavily on morphology as shown by EM ( 2 , 4 , 60 ), and many of the intestinal viruses were discovered by EM examination of feces after negative staining ( 32 , 46 , 54 , 96 ). (asm.org)
  • Any of a group of DNA viruses of the family Papillomavirus that can cause warts and certain types of cancer in mammals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Papillomaviruses are oncogenic DNA tumour viruses that infect humans and animals. (caister.com)
  • The human papillomaviruses (HPV) came into the play as members of a family of animal tumor viruses and because of their known association with genital infections. (caister.com)
  • BPV provides an excellent model for studying papillomavirus molecular biology, and also allows the dissection of the processes by which this group of viruses cause cancer. (violinet.org)
  • Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of epitheliotropic double-stranded DNA viruses, of which more than 75 have been identified in 20 species. (askjpc.org)
  • They are highly host-specific, cannot be propagated in tissue culture and, with the exception of some ungulate papillomaviruses, infect only epithelial cells. (inchem.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) was determined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Interestingly, one zookeeper was found to be transiently positive for a chimpanzee-specific papillomavirus sequence. (wikidoc.org)
  • Entire genomic sequence of novel canine papillomavirus type 13. (uzh.ch)
  • Sequence and classification of FdPV2, a papillomavirus isolated from feline Bowenoid in situ carcinomas. (uzh.ch)
  • This report describes the first complete nucleotide sequence of an avian papillomavirus from a cutaneous lesion of an African grey parrot: PePV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A cap site which presumably is utilized by the type 2A, type 3, type 4 and type 5 mRNAs was mapped at nucleotide 89 in the BPV-1 sequence. (cshl.edu)
  • A PCR on Pap smear tissue using a rhesus papillomavirus D sequence was positive. (askjpc.org)
  • Although papillomaviruses were initially discovered because of their ability to cause warts, sampling of apparently normal skin and mucosal surfaces has revealed that many papillomavirus types tend not to cause overt symptoms. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can cause protuberant warts (see images ) in its native host, the North American rabbit genus Sylvilagus . (wikidoc.org)
  • What are 4 components of surgical treatment for penile papilloma (warts)? (brainscape.com)
  • human papillomavirus any of numerous species that cause warts, particularly plantar and venereal warts , on the skin and mucous membranes in humans, transmitted by either direct or indirect contact. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) is classified as a non-enveloped, double stranded DNA virus that generally infects the epithelial layer of cells including cutaneous and mucosal surfaces and associated with benign warts, carcinoma in situ and ultimately malignant lesions ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cutaneous Papillomaviruses and Non-melanoma Skin Cancer: Causal Agents or Innocent Bystanders? (frontiersin.org)
  • Two novel bovine papillomavirus type 7 (BPV-7) variants have been identified in teat cutaneous papillomas affecting dairy cows in northern Italy. (usda.gov)
  • The research identified papillomavirus oncogenes and the molecular mechanisms of their damaging effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work is considered fundamental for the understanding of the pathogenesis of papillomaviruses at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • A papillomatous cyst was induced by implanting bovine foetal palate epithelium, infected in vitro with bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4), beneath the renal capsule of a nude mouse. (elsevier.com)
  • A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions. (smokershistory.com)
  • The rhesus papillomavirus type D (RhPV-d) is the most common isolate associated with genital infections in macaques, and was associated with 60% of genital lesions diagnosed in rhesus macaques,(7) which include vaginal papillomas, varying stages of intraepithelial dysplasia, and invasive cervical carcinoma. (askjpc.org)
  • In situ hybridization detection of human papillomavirus DNAs and messenger RNAs in genital condylomas and a cervical carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Howley and his co-workers created gene maps of many species of papillomaviruses and analyzed their transcription patterns and systems of transcription regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bovine origin of both the renal and splenic cancers was confirmed by the presence of bovine major histocompatibility complex class I antigens in the cancer cells and by sequencing the Harvey-ras 1 gene, which was shown to be of bovine origin. (elsevier.com)
  • Archives of Disease in Childhood, The Journal of the British Paediatric Association, Annotations, "Gene therapy for cystic fibrosis," vol. 68(4), Apr. (patentgenius.com)
  • The human papillomavirus type 16 E6 gene alone is sufficient to induce carcinomas in transgenic animals. (smokershistory.com)
  • EcPV2 DNA in equine papillomas and in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinomas supports papillomavirus etiology. (uzh.ch)
  • and BPV-6 causes frond epithelial papillomas of the bovine udder and teats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inter-species transmission has also been documented for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1. (wikidoc.org)
  • The close relationship between PePV and FPV, and between their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes hosts, supports the hypothesis that papillomaviruses have co-evolved and speciated together with their host species throughout evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Papillomaviruses are a large group of pathogens that cause epithelial proliferations in a wide spectrum of vertebrate species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Papillomavirus infections are thought to be the probable reason for the higher incidence of cancer of the cervix in women with many sexual partners. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genomic comparison of bovine papillomavirus 1 isolates from bovine, equine and asinine lesional tissue samples. (uzh.ch)
  • Estudio de interacción proteína-proteína in vitro mediante técnicas biofísicas y display en fagos. (leloir.org.ar)
  • Estudios in vitro en cultivos primarios y líneas celulares. (leloir.org.ar)
  • Relationships between 80 human papillomavirus genotypes and different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: association and causality. (smokershistory.com)
  • Schneider A, Hotz M, Gissmann L. Increased prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the lower genital tract of pregnant women. (springer.com)
  • Compositions containing papillomavirus VLPs or capsomeres are used, alone or in combination with other agents, as microbicides that substantially block papillomavirus binding receptors on the surface or vicinity of cells in a tissue to be treated with the composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a worldwide oncogenic virus, present in at least 60% of Brazilian cattle herd 1 , 2 . (openaccesspub.org)
  • Although prevention of liver cancers linked to HBV via vaccination has already been demonstrated ( 4-6 ), it is too early to see the impact of HPV vaccination on cancer incidence although HPV disease rates are clearly dropping ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2016): VLP vaccination can prevent papillomavirus-induced disease in the horse. (vu-wien.ac.at)
  • Analysis of individual human papillomavirus types in cervical neoplasia: A possible role for type 18 in rapid progression. (springer.com)
  • BPV-4 causes squamous cell carcinomas of the alimentary tract, and BPV-1/2 causes carcinomas and haemangioendotheliomas of the urinary bladder, in both cases in animals that have fed on bracken (Pteridium aquilinum). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017): Bovine Digital Dermatitis-associated white line lesions, sole ulcers and toe ulcers ("non-healing" bovine hoof disorders) in dairy cows - a simple treatment procedure with favourable outcome. (vu-wien.ac.at)
  • Prior to separation, amino acids were derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole using as a mobile phase 50 mM phosphate (pH 2.5), water, and acetonitrile in the ratio of 1:1:8. (saladgaffe.ml)