rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.rab4 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.rab3A GTP-Binding Protein: The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.rab2 GTP-Binding Protein: A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Choroideremia: An X chromosome-linked abnormality characterized by atrophy of the choroid and degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium causing night blindness.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 22.214.171.124 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 126.96.36.199 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Guanine NucleotidesSaccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMicroscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptide Elongation Factor Tu: A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).GTP Phosphohydrolase-Linked Elongation Factors: Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Peptide Elongation Factor G: Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Mevalonic AcidAdenylosuccinate Synthase: A carbon-nitrogen ligase. During purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of adenylosuccinate from GTP; IMP; and aspartate with the formation of orthophosphate and GDP. EC 18.104.22.168.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oncogene Protein p21(ras): Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A: A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Latent TGF-beta Binding Proteins: A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.PhosphoproteinsChromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Dynamin I: A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Peptide Termination Factors: Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 188.8.131.52.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Zahraoui A, Touchot N, Chardin P, Tavitian A (Jul 1989). "The human Rab genes encode a family of GTP-binding proteins related ... "Distinct Rab-binding domains mediate the interaction of Rabaptin-5 with GTP-bound Rab4 and Rab5". The EMBO Journal. 17 (7): ... Ras-related protein Rab-5A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB5A gene. RAB5A localizes to early endosomes where ... Rab3A, and Rab5A". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (25): 11963-7. doi: ...
"A novel rabconnectin-3-binding protein that directly binds a GDP/GTP exchange protein for Rab3A small G protein implicated in ... "The Rab-binding protein Noc2 is associated with insulin-containing secretory granules and is essential for pancreatic beta-cell ... "Isolation and characterization of a GTPase activating protein specific for the Rab3 subfamily of small G proteins". The Journal ... Members of the RAB3 protein family (see RAB3A; MIM 179490) are implicated in regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters and ...
Zahraoui A, Touchot N, Chardin P, Tavitian A (1989). "The human Rab genes encode a family of GTP-binding proteins related to ... Ras-related protein Rab-3B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB3B gene. RAB3B has been shown to interact with ... "Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant of Rab3A/Rab27A ... Sidhu RS, Bhullar RP (2002). "Rab3B in human platelet is membrane bound and interacts with Ca(2+)/calmodulin". Biochem. Biophys ...
Ostermeier C, Brunger AT (1999). "Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A ... "Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant of Rab3A/Rab27A ... Rabphilin-3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPH3A gene. It contains two C2 domains and binds calcium ions at low ... Imazumi K, Sasaki T, Takahashi K, Takai Y (1995). "Identification of a rabphilin-3A-interacting protein as GTP cyclohydrolase I ...
Rab escort protein 1
"Rab escort protein-1 is a multifunctional protein that accompanies newly prenylated rab proteins to their target membranes". ... "Structural determinants of Rab and Rab Escort Protein interaction: Rab family motifs define a conserved binding surface". ... In the dimeric holoenzyme, this subunit binds unprenylated Rab GTPases and then presents them to the catalytic Rab GGTase ... CHM (gene) has been shown to interact with RAB1A, RAB7A and RAB3A. Mutations in this gene are a cause of choroideremia; also ...
The protein forms a ternary complex with the small Ras-related GTPase Rab27A in its GTP-bound form and the motor protein myosin ... "Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant of Rab3A/Rab27A ... Strom M, Hume AN, Tarafder AK, Barkagianni E, Seabra MC (July 2002). "A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links ... Fukuda M (2002). "Synaptotagmin-like protein (Slp) homology domain 1 of Slac2-a/melanophilin is a critical determinant of GTP- ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the small GTPase superfamily, Rab family. The protein is membrane-bound and may be ... and characterization of two GTP-binding proteins with molecular weights of 25,000 and 21,000 in human platelet cytosol. One is ... "Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant of Rab3A/Rab27A ... Cheviet S, Coppola T, Haynes LP, Burgoyne RD, Regazzi R (Jan 2004). "The Rab-binding protein Noc2 is associated with insulin- ...
Rab3ip - Rab-3A-interacting protein - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Rab3ip gene & protein
Promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound Rab proteins into their active GTP-bound form. Mediates the ... release of GDP from RAB8A and RAB8B but not from RAB3A or RAB5. Modulates actin organization and promotes polarized transport ... GTPase binding Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Physical Interaction,/p> ,p>Covers physical interactions between the gene product ... Promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound Rab proteins into their active GTP-bound form. Mediates the ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
0 (RAB22A protein, human); EC 184.108.40.206 (rab GTP-Binding Proteins); EC 220.127.116.11 (rab3A GTP-Binding Protein); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium) ... Our previous study demonstrated that Rab3A, a small GTP-binding protein, is a new interacting partner of Syt I and could bind ... Rab27a protein, mouse); EC 18.104.22.168 (rab GTP-Binding Proteins); EC 22.214.171.124 (rab3A GTP-Binding Protein). ... 0 (alpha-Synuclein); EC 126.96.36.199 (rab3A GTP-Binding Protein); EC 188.8.131.52 (rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins). ...
Superfamily of plant monomeric GTP-binding proteins: 2. Rab proteins are the regulators of vesicles trafficking and plant...
Rab proteins are the regulators of vesicles trafficking and plant responses to stresses, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" ... Rab protein could bind many effectors. Thus, Rab pro-. teins could coordinate vesicular transport temporally ... Distinct Rab Binding Specificity of Rim1, Rim2, Rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a Critical Determinants of Rab3A/Rab27A ... In plants, Rab proteins represent the largest family of monomeric GTP-binding proteins (mG-proteins). As distinct from animal ...
RAB3IP Gene - GeneCards | RAB3I Protein | RAB3I Antibody
Protein Coding), RAB3A Interacting Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound Rab proteins into their active GTP-bound form. Mediates the ... Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH12J069738. Promoter/Enhancer. 2. EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 663. +1.1. 1054. 2.5. ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ... Promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound Rab proteins into their active GTP-bound form. Mediates the ...
Rab GTPases coordinate endocytosis | Journal of Cell Science
1993). Rabphilin-3A, a putative target protein for smg p25A/rab3A p25 small GTP-binding protein related to synaptotagmin. Mol. ... 1994). Rab escort protein-1 is a multifunctional protein that accompanies newly prenylated rab proteins to their target ... 1998). Distinct Rab-binding domains mediate the interaction of Rabaptin-5 with GTP-bound Rab4 and Rab5. EMBO J 17, 1941-1951. ... 1993). Molecular cloning and subcellular localization of three GTP-binding proteins of the Rab subfamily. J. Cell Sci 106, 1249 ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Signal transduction of Small GTP-binding proteins (KAKENHI-PROJECT-06404021)
Publications] Fuita, Y.: GDP/GTP exchange reaction-stimulating activity of Rabphilin-3A for Rab3A small GTP-binding protein. ... We had isolated its regulatory protein, named Rab GDI,and its target protein, named Rabphilin-3A.In this research project, we ... Publications] Miyazaki,M.: Rabphilin-3A binds to a Mr 115,000 polypeptide in a phosphatidylserine-and Ca^,2+,-dependent manner ... Publications] Ozaki, K.: Rom1p and Rom2p are GDP/GTP exchange proteins (GEPs) for the Rho1p small GTP binding protein in ...
"Determinants of the broad recognition of exocytic Rab GTPases by Mss4" by Zhongyuan Zhu, Anna M. Delprato et al.
Mss4, an evolutionarily conserved Rab accessory factor, facilitates nucleotide release and binds tightly to the nucleotide-free ... One of these residues is located at the N-terminus of the switch I region near the nucleotide binding site whereas the other ... disposition of these residues with respect to the structure of Rab3A correlates with the dimensions of the elongated Rab ... A structure-based mutational analysis of residues that are conserved only in exocytic Rab GTPases reveals three residues that ...
Protein interactions in human genetic diseases | Genome Biology | Full Text
Combining predicted and hand-curated sets, we discuss how mutations affect protein interactions in general. ... We present a novel method that combines protein structure information with protein interaction data to identify residues that ... Structure of Rattus norvegicus Ras-related protein Rab-3A [PDB:1ZBD]. The small G protein Rab3A with bound GTP interacting with ... Strom M, Hume AN, Tarafder AK, Barkagianni E, Seabra MC: A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links Rab27a and ...
Rab-3A-interacting protein elisa and antibody
Recombinant Protein and Rab-3A-interacting protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound Rab proteins into their active GTP-bound form. Mediates the ... Rab-3A-interacting protein Recombinant. Rab-3A-interacting protein Antibody. Also known as Rab-3A-interacting protein (Rab3A- ... Molecular Function: GTPase binding; Rab guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. Biological Process: negative regulation of ...
RABIF recombinant protein-NP 002862
Buy RABIF recombinant protein-NP_002862 (MBS203454) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins. Application: SDS- ... This protein stimulates GTP-GDP exchange in Sec4 and Rab and binds to a subset of genetically related Rab proteins. Recombinant ... This gene encodes a member of the SCE4/YPT1/RAB family of small GTP-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of ... This protein stimulates GTP-GDP exchange in SEC4, and to a lesser extent in YPT1 and RAB3A, and may play a general role in ...
P20336 | RAB3A HUMAN | Cancer
RAB3A, Ras-related protein Rab-3A UniProt P20336 Also Known as RAB3A_HUMAN, RAB3A. Small GTP-binding protein that plays a ... Genes and Proteins , Diseases , Protein Families , 3D Structures , Cell Lines , Compounds , Tools , Browse. ... switches to its active GTP-bound form, cycles to vesicles and recruits effectors such as RIMS1, RIMS2, Rabphilin-3A/RPH3A, ... Isoforms / Transcripts (Protein Coding). Protein Length. Ensembl Gene. Ensembl Transcript. Ensembl Protein. Uniprot Isoform. ...
Promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound Rab proteins into their active GTP-bound form. Mediates the ... Q96QF0 B7WPJ6 Q6PCE4 Q96A24 Q96QE6 Q96QE7 Q96QE8 Q96QE9 Q96QF1 Q9H673 Rab3A-interacting protein ... identical protein binding 1,084 Rab guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor ac... 45 GO Component (6) ... release of GDP from RAB8A and RAB8B but not from RAB3A or RAB5. Modulates actin organization and promotes polarized transport ...
Cellular functions of Rab GTPases at a glance | Journal of Cell Science
Rab effectors. Rab effectors, defined as proteins that interact specifically with the GTP-bound from of a Rab GTPase, come in ... 1999). Structural basis of Rab effector specificity: crystal structure of the small G protein Rab3A complexed with the effector ... 1998). Distinct Rab-binding domains mediate the interaction of rabaptin-5 with GTP-bound rab4 and rab5. EMBO J. 17, 1941-1951. ... when GTP is bound and off when GDP is bound. Conformational differences between the GDP- and GTP-bound forms mainly involve ...
Regulation of Early Endosome Fusion In Vitro | Springer for Research & Development
Within five minutes of internalization into animal cells, lipids, solutes and trans-membrane proteins (including... ... Kinsella, B. T., and Maltese, W. A. (1991). rab GTP-binding protein implicated in vesicular transport are isoprenylated in ... Phosphorylation of two small GTP-binding proteins of the rab family by p34 cdc2. Nature 350, 715-718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... G. (1991). Regulation of the GTPase activity of the ras like protein p25-rab3a: evidence for a rab3a specific GAP. J. Biol. ...
Results for cd01865
GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) interact with GTP-bound Rab and accelerate the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. Guanine nucleotide ... Lipid binding is essential for membrane attachment, a key feature of most Rab proteins. Due to the presence of truncated ... The appropriate GDP/GTP exchange cycle of Rab3A is required for Ca2+-regulated exocytosis to occur, and interaction of the GTP- ... Range on the Protein: Protein ID Protein Position. NP_001265297. NP_001655. NP_067075. NP_114152. NP_001036000. P49703. P51159 ...
Testis-Specific GTPase (TSG): An oligomeric protein | BMC Genomics | Full Text
Rab)-family proteins are key members of the membrane trafficking pathway in cells. In addition, these proteins have been ... However, only a few Rab proteins have been found to have a role in male germ cell development. The most notable functions of ... Here, we describe a new Rab protein that is specifically expressed in male germ cells, having GTPase activity. Testis-specific ... It has an ORF of 1593 base pairs encoding a protein of 530 amino acids. This protein appears in testicular cells approximately ...
Quantitative Analysis of Synaptic Vesicle Rabs Uncovers Distinct Yet Overlapping Roles for Rab3a and Rab27b in Ca2+-Triggered...
... and Rab GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which catalyze Rab GDP/GTP exchange and nucleotide hydrolysis. Following GTP ... 1997) The small GTP-binding protein Rab3A regulates a late step in synaptic vesicle fusion. Nature 387:810-814. ... Like other GTPases, Rabs function as molecular switches, oscillating between GTP-bound (active) and GDP-bound (inactive) ... 1994) The involvement of the small GTP-binding protein Rab5a in neuronal endocytosis. Neuron 13:11-22. ...
Sec2p Mediates Nucleotide Exchange on Sec4p and Is Involved in Polarized Delivery of Post-Golgi Vesicles | JCB
... distinct from the coiled coil Rabaptin family of Rab-binding proteins, since Rabaptin preferentially binds the GTP-activated ... 1993) Rabphilin-3A, a putative target protein for smg p25A/rab3A p25 small GTP-binding protein related to synaptotagmin. Mol ... The three states of Rab nucleotide binding, GDP-bound, GTP-bound, and nucleotide-free, are known to have distinct conformations ... that Rab proteins bind to membranes initially as a Rab-GDP/GDI complex. Upon binding, GDI is released and only after a kinetic ...
The Golgi matrix protein GM130: a specific interacting partner of the small GTPase rab1b | EMBO Reports
... between rab binding regions of different rab effector proteins. (A) Alignment between the rab5 binding domain (R5BD aa 796-862 ... We generated mutants that present the inactive (GDP‐bound) and active (GTP‐bound) form of rab1b and used the GTPase‐deficient ... transformations with various members of the rab family, like rab2, rab3A, rab7ΔCC, rab9ΔCC or Ha‐ras wild type and rhoQ61L, ... Saraste, J., Lahtinen, U. and Goud, B. (1995) Localization of the small GTP‐binding protein rab1p to early compartments of the ...
For many Rab proteins, only mutants that fix the Rab protein into a GDP-bound state are potent inhibitors of a trafficking ... Geppert M, Goda Y, Stevens CF, Südhof TC (1997) The small GTP-binding protein Rab3A regulates a late step in synaptic vesicle ... and GTP-bound Rab11b is unexpected in view of the GTP-dependent regulation of Rab proteins (Segev, 2001; Zerial and McBride, ... The differential potency of GTP-bound versus GDP-bound Rab11b suggests that the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Rab11b have ...
SYTL4 synaptotagmin like 4 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
The encoded protein binds specific small Rab GTPases and is involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. This protein binds ... The SHD of Slp4 specifically and directly binds the GTP-bound form of Rab3A, Rab8, and Rab27A. Title: The Slp homology domain ... of synaptotagmin-like proteins 1-4 and Slac2 functions as a novel Rab27A binding domain. ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. synaptotagmin-like protein 4. Names. exophilin-2. ...
GDI1: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Database
... and the subsequent binding of GTP to them. Promotes the dissociation of GDP-bound Rab proteins from the membrane and inhibits ... Protein binding IPI 11809807, 19570034, 19942850, 25416956, 25910212, 26496610 GO:0017137 Molecular function Rab GTPase binding ... protein XAP-4, rab GDI alpha, rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor, alpha, testis secretory sperm-binding protein Li 208a ... GDP dissociation inhibitors are proteins that regulate the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of members of the rab family, small GTP- ...
"ARID1A.rr2[, \"Accession\"]" "ARID1A.rr2[, \"Description\"]" "WT.2" "WT.1" "WT.3" "SMARCA2" "SMARCA4.4" "SMARCA4.6" "SMARCC1" ...
"Ras-related protein Rab-3A OS=Homo sapiens GN=RAB3A PE=1 SV=1" NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ... "GTP-binding protein Di-Ras3 OS=Homo sapiens GN=DIRAS3 PE=1 SV=1" NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ... "Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GRB2 PE=1 SV=1" 0.0582120582120582 0.00937601034594245 ... " "Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated proteins B and B OS=Homo sapiens GN=SNRPB PE=1 SV=2" 0.0439087323528328 ...
ExocytosisActive GTP-bound formRABsHydrolysisGuanyl-nucleotide exchange factorInteractsGEFsVesiclesGolgiNucleotideMolecularIntracellular membraneGenesInteractionRab3RegulatesRegulateLocalizationYeastCytosolicKinaseActinVesicular transportRecombinantEndocyticFunctions of Rab proteinsYPT1Membrane-boundRab3BPutativeDownstreamRab2MammalianVesicle transportGAPsMonomericMutantsRab3CFamilyMoleculesCytoskeletonStimulatesEvolutionarily conservedPhosphorylationPlasma membraneClosely relatedHighly conservedRegulationHomologousELISA KitsAntibodies
- Small GTP-binding protein that plays a central role in regulated exocytosis and secretion. (icr.ac.uk)
- The appropriate GDP/GTP exchange cycle of Rab3A is required for Ca2+-regulated exocytosis to occur, and interaction of the GTP-bound form of Rab3A with effector molecule(s) is widely believed to be essential for this process. (umbc.edu)
- Moreover, whereas Rab3a readily dissociates from SVs during Ca 2+ -triggered exocytosis, and is susceptible to membrane extraction by Rab-GDI, Rab27b persists on SV membranes upon stimulation and is resistant to GDI-coupled Rab retrieval. (jneurosci.org)
- Finally, we demonstrate that selective modulation of the GTP/GDP switch mechanism of Rab27b impairs SV recycling, suggesting that Rab27b, probably in concert with Rab3s, is involved in SV exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
- Exocytosis of SVs is mediated by an array of evolutionarily conserved synapse-specific proteins that orchestrate vesicle attachment to the plasma membrane (docking), activation of the fusion machinery (priming), and finally membrane fusion. (jneurosci.org)
- This protein binds Rab27 and may be involved in inhibiting dense core vesicle exocytosis. (nih.gov)
- Using PC12 cells that express transfected human growth hormone (hGH) as a secreted reporter protein, we have searched for Rab proteins that function in exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
- Among the Rab proteins tested, we found that besides the previously described Rab3 proteins, only members of the Rab11 family (Rab11a, 11b, and 25) impaired Ca 2+ -induced exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
- Consistent with a role in exocytosis, Rab11 and Rab3 proteins were colocalized with other vesicle proteins on secretory vesicles in PC12 cells and on mature synaptic vesicles in brain. (jneurosci.org)
- Rab11b mutants that fix Rab11b in the GTP- or GDP-bound state both effectively inhibited Ca 2+ -induced exocytosis but seemed to act by distinct mechanisms: whereas GDP-bound Rab11b greatly stimulated constitutive secretion of hGH and depleted hGH stores in secretory vesicles, GTP-bound Rab11b only had a moderate effect on constitutive secretion and no effect on vesicular hGH stores. (jneurosci.org)
- These results suggest that, consistent with a GTP-dependent regulation of Rab function, GDP-bound Rab11b indirectly inhibits Ca 2+ -triggered exocytosis by causing the loss of hGH from the PC12 cells, whereas GTP-bound Rab11b directly impairs Ca 2+ -triggered exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
- In contrast to neuroendocrine PC12 cells in which GTP- and GDP-bound Rab11b inhibited Ca 2+ -induced, but not constitutive, exocytosis, in non-neuronal cells GTP- and GDP-bound Rab11b inhibited constitutive exocytosis and caused an accumulation of cellular hGH. (jneurosci.org)
- This has been particularly well studied for yeast exocytosis, in which the Rab protein Sec4p is essential ( Salminen and Novick, 1987 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Mammalian cells execute regulated and constitutive types of exocytosis, but no Rab protein was identified that could serve as a mammalian Sec4p-equivalent in either type of exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
- Rab3 proteins, abundant components of synaptic and secretory vesicles, have been implicated in regulated exocytosis ( Geppert and Südhof, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
- However, the precise roles of Rab11/25 proteins in regulated and constitutive exocytosis remain incompletely understood. (jneurosci.org)
- A screen of Rab proteins identified Rab11b as a potent inhibitor of Ca 2+ -regulated exocytosis in transfected PC12 cells, suggesting a role in regulated secretion in these neuroendocrine cells. (jneurosci.org)
- The GTP-bound form of Ypt32p has been shown to interact with Sec2p, the GEF for the Rab protein Sec4p (Rab8 homolog), which is involved in exocytosis ( 16 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
- Rab effector involved in exocytosis. (rcsb.org)
- A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. (definitions.net)
- Here we use isolated nerve terminals to study the fate of rab3A during synaptic vesicle exocytosis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- We find that rab3A dissociates quantitatively from the vesicle membrane after Ca2+-dependent exocytosis and that this dissociation is partially reversible during recovery after stimulation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- Both the increase in exocytosis and changes in granule distribution appear to require Munc18-1 E466K binding to the closed form of syntaxin 1, suggesting a role for this interaction in bridging Rab- and SNARE-mediated events in exocytosis. (biochemj.org)
- Proteins that regulate vesicle exocytosis cluster at AZs, composing the cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ). (eneuro.org)
- At synapses, neurotransmitter exocytosis is regulated by a complex of release machinery proteins. (eneuro.org)
- Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
Active GTP-bound form2
- Promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting inactive GDP-bound Rab proteins into their active GTP-bound form. (uniprot.org)
- D ) Cytosolic p115 specifically interacted with GST-Rab1 in the active, GTP-bound form (lanes a and b), but not with Rab2 (lanes c and d), Rab3a (lanes e and f), or Sar1 (lanes g and h). (sciencemag.org)
- Among its related pathways are Organelle biogenesis and maintenance and RAB GEFs exchange GTP for GDP on RABs . (genecards.org)
- Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) interact with GDP-bound Rabs to promote the formation of the GTP-bound state. (umbc.edu)
- Rabs are further regulated by guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), which facilitate Rab recycling by masking C-terminal lipid binding and promoting cytosolic localization. (umbc.edu)
- In synapses, Rab3 and Rab5 proteins have been implicated in the exo-endocytic cycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs), but an involvement of additional Rabs cannot be excluded. (jneurosci.org)
- The molecular basis for Munc18 function is still unclear, as are the links with Rabs and SNARE [SNAP (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein) receptor] proteins that are also required. (biochemj.org)
- We further investigated their Rab binding specificity by a yeast two-hybrid assay with a panel of 60 different GTP-locked mouse or human Rabs. (mcponline.org)
- As an example, inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe) bound the greatest number of Rabs ( i.e . 16 distinct Rabs). (mcponline.org)
- In worms, four Rabs (RAB-5, UNC-108/Rab2, RAB-14, and RAB-7) function in a stepwise manner to promote phagosome maturation and cell corpse degradation. (rupress.org)
- The stronger binding of Rabin8 to Rab11a[Q70L], compared with the wild-type Rab11a, probably resulted from more stable binding of GTP to Rab11a[Q70L], which is deficient in GTP hydrolysis. (pnas.org)
- In these structures the elements responsible for guanine nucleotide and Mg 2+ binding, as well as GTP hydrolysis, are located in five loops that connect the α helices and β strands. (biomedcentral.com)
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor1
- Interacts with the GDP-bound forms of RAB3A, RAB3D, RAB8A and RAB8B (PubMed:12221131). (genecards.org)
- Interacts with Rabphilin-3A/RPH3A and Rab effector Noc2/RPH3AL (By similarity). (icr.ac.uk)
- Here we report for the first time that the rab1b protein interacts specificially with GM130 in a GTP‐dependent manner and therefore needs the hypervariable regions of the N‐ and C‐termini. (embopress.org)
- Using the yeast two‐hybrid approach we surprisingly identified GM130 as a protein that interacts directly and in a GTP‐dependent manner with rab1b. (embopress.org)
- Rab11, in its GTP-bound form, interacts with Rabin8 and kinetically stimulates the guanine nucleotide-exchange activity of Rabin8 toward Rab8. (pnas.org)
- Here, we report that the GTP-bound form of Rab11, which regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane ( 11 - 14 ), directly interacts with Rabin8 and stimulates the guanine nucleotide-exchange activity of Rabin8 toward Rab8. (pnas.org)
- Rabin8 Directly Interacts with the GTP-Bound Form of Rab11. (pnas.org)
- We have identified and cloned the cDNA for a 912-aa protein, rab11BP, that interacts with the GTP-containing active form of rab11, a GTP-binding protein that plays a critical role in receptor recycling. (pnas.org)
- Using a blotting assay, we have identified a rab11-binding protein, rab11BP, that interacts with the GTP form of rab11 only if the latter contains an intact effector domain. (pnas.org)
- The GTP-bound form interacts with effector molecules, whereas the GDP-bound form interacts with Rab escort protein (REP) and GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI). (biomedcentral.com)
- The ERM family (Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin), which directly interacts with actin filaments through its C-terminal region and with a transmembrane protein, CD44, through its N-terminal region, is located at these areas. (nii.ac.jp)
- GOP-1 interacts with GDP-bound and nucleotide-free UNC-108/Rab2, disrupts GDI-UNC-108 complexes, and promotes activation and membrane recruitment of UNC-108/Rab2 in vitro. (rupress.org)
- We present here the crystal structure of folliculin carboxy-terminal domain and demonstrate that it is distantly related to differentially expressed in normal cells and neoplasia (DENN) domain proteins, a family of Rab guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (embl.de)
- Using biochemical analysis, we show that folliculin has GEF activity, indicating that folliculin is probably a distantly related member of this class of Rab GEFs. (embl.de)
- Here, we find that Rab4, Rab11, and Rab14 and the candidate Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors (GEFs) FAM116A and AVL9 are required for cell migration. (embl.de)
- 1995 ). Transcytosis-associated protein (TAP)/p115 is a general fusion factor required for binding of vesicles to acceptor membranes. (biologists.org)
- Sec12pdependent membrane binding of the small GTP-binding protein Sar1 p promotes formation of transport vesicles from the ER. (springer.com)
- Rab3 is a small GTP-binding protein exclusively localized to synaptic vesicles. (springer.com)
- A GTPbinding protein required for secretion rapidly associates with secretory vesicles and the plasma membrane in yeast. (springer.com)
- However, the mechanistic details that lead from Sec4p-Gdi1p in the cytoplasm to active Sec4p- GTP on secretory vesicles are still obscure, as is the role that Sec4p activation plays in the pathway that ultimately leads to membrane fusion ( Novick and Brennwald, 1993 ). (rupress.org)
- Rab1 recruited p115 to coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles during budding from the endoplasmic reticulum, where it interacted with a select set of COPII vesicle-associated SNAREs (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) to form a cis-SNARE complex that promotes targeting to the Golgi apparatus. (sciencemag.org)
- found that the lymphocyte-specific large guanosine triphosphatase of the Rab family CRACR2A-a associated with vesicles near the Golgi in unstimulated mouse and human CD4 + T cells. (sciencemag.org)
- In rat brain a small GTP-binding protein, rab3A, is exclusively associated with synaptic vesicles, the secretory organelles of nerve terminals8,9. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- We investigated whether cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic release machineries can be differentiated on the basis of the nature and amount of proteins they express, by performing a quantitative analysis of the degree of co-localization of synaptotagmin (SYT) 1 and 2, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) A and B, and Rab3a and c in VGLUT1+, VGLUT2+, and VGAT+ terminals and synaptic vesicles (SVs) in rat cerebral cortex. (frontiersin.org)
- To further define the complement of proteins participating in transmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals, we performed a quantitative analysis of the localization of synaptotagmin (SYT) 1 and 2, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) A and B, and Rab3a and c in VGLUT1+, VGLUT2+, and VGAT+ terminals and synaptic vesicles (SVs) of the cerebral cortex of adult rats. (frontiersin.org)
- These proteins aggregate at presynaptic active zones (AZs) to form the cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ), which controls the recruitment, docking, and priming of synaptic vesicles and enhances calcium channel accumulation ( Gundelfinger and Fejtova, 2012 ). (eneuro.org)
- The Rab family of small GTP-binding proteins has long been implicated in the docking and fusion of transport vesicles with their target membranes. (embl.de)
- It is not fully understood how a limited number of motor proteins carries the wide variety of synaptic cargos, such as neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, integral membrane proteins, signaling complexes, mRNAs, synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs), Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicles (PTVs), mitochondria or other organelles (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
- Vesicle fusion following receptor-mediated endocytosis requires a protein active in Golgi transport. (springer.com)
- Rab proteins are present in all compartments of endomembrane system such as Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum, the nucleus, the plasma membrane, mitochondria and centrioles. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pathogenic LRRK2 R1441G/C and Y1699C mutants that promote GTP binding are more readily recruited to the Golgi and activated by Rab29 than wild-type LRRK2. (stanford.edu)
- That Rab is mainly involved in the biosynthetic transport of proteins from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. (string-db.org)
- The guanosine triphosphatase Rab1 regulates the transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus through interaction with effector molecules, but the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. (sciencemag.org)
- To define the role of Rab1 in ER-to-Golgi transport, we set out to identify Rab1 effector molecules that specifically bind Rab1 in the GTP-bound form. (sciencemag.org)
- N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), sly1, β-COP, sec13, and other proteins involved in ER or Golgi function ( 9 , 10 ) did not interact with GST-Rab1-GTP, nor did the early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1) that binds Rab5-GTP ( 11-13 ) ( Fig. 1 B) ( 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
- A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. (definitions.net)
- In yeast, mutations in the sec4 or ypt1 genes encoding small GTP-binding proteins inhibit constitutive membrane flow at the plasma membrane or Golgi complex, respectively4-6. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- INPP5E and Cog4) with a specific Rab isoform was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assay and/or colocalization analysis in mammalian cell cultures, and the novel Rab2B-binding domain of Golgi-associated Rab2B interactor (GARI) and GARI-like proteins was identified by deletion and homology search analyses. (mcponline.org)
- The location of p12 I was unchanged following treatments with both cycloheximide (blocking de novo protein synthesis) and brefeldin A (disrupting ER-to-Golgi protein transport), indicating that the protein is retained in the ER and cis -Golgi. (asm.org)
- Santos B, Snyder M. Sbe2p and sbe22p, two homologous Golgi proteins involved in yeast cell wall formation. (labome.org)
- A Phosphoproteomic Screen Identifies a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rab3A Protein as a Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-5-regulated MAP Kinase Target in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Secretion and Myogenesis. (bireme.br)
- We discovered a novel MKP-5-regulated MAPK substrate called guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab3A (GRAB) that was hyperphosphorylated on a phospho-MAPK motif in skeletal muscle of MKP-5-deficient mice. (bireme.br)
- One of these residues is located at the N-terminus of the switch I region near the nucleotide binding site whereas the other two flank an exposed hydrophobic triad previously implicated in effector recognition. (umassmed.edu)
- RABIF, also known as guanine nucleotide exchange factor MSS4, is a guanine-nucleotide-releasing protein that may participate in vesicular transport. (mybiosource.com)
- Guanine-nucleotide-releasing protein that acts on members of the SEC4/YPT1/RAB subfamily. (mybiosource.com)
- They can be detected in an inactive or an active conformation depending on the nucleotide‐bound status, and are considered as switches, which cycle between an active, membrane‐associated and an inactive cytosolic status ( Olkkonen and Stenmark, 1997 ). (embopress.org)
- the Rab11a[S25N] mutant mimics the nucleotide-free or GDP-bound form of Rab11a. (pnas.org)
- p115 corresponds to the band denoted by the large asterisk in (A). ( C ) Cytosolic p115 specifically interacted with GTP-restricted Rab1-Q67L (lane a), but not GDP-restricted Rab1-S25N (lane b) or nucleotide-free Rab1-N124I (lane c). (sciencemag.org)
- p115 interacted with GST-Rab1-Q67L, a GTP-restricted mutant, but failed to interact with GST-Rab1-S25N, a GDP-restricted mutant, or GST-Rab1-N124I, a mutant that cannot stably bind guanine nucleotide ( 1 , 15 , 16 ) ( Fig. 1 C). Thus, activated Rab1 recognized p115. (sciencemag.org)
- As the Drosophila homologue of mammalian DENN/MADD and Caenorhabditis elegans AEX-3, Rab3-GEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab3 that stimulates GDP to GTP exchange. (eneuro.org)
- Conversion from the GDP- to the GTP-bound form is caused by nucleotide exchange, catalyzed by a GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF). (biomedcentral.com)
- Individual transport steps are regulated by Ras-like guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, termed Ypt in yeast or Rab in mammals. (embl.de)
- The YPT1 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a guanine nucleotide-binding protein which is essential for cell viability. (embl.de)
- Amino acid sequences typical for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and characteristic for ypt proteins are perfectly conserved in the mouse ypt1 protein. (embl.de)
- Like other G proteins, Rab cycles between two nucleotide-bound states, a GDP-bound state and a GTP-bound state, and the GTP-bound active form of Rab promotes membrane trafficking through interaction with specific effector molecules ( 1 - 3 ). (mcponline.org)
- Localisation of low molecular weight GTP binding proteins to exocytic and endocytic compartments. (springer.com)
- LOW-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins are strong candidates for regulators of membrane traffic1-3. (uni-bielefeld.de)
- Our studies reveal that Rab3 and Rab3-GEF act within the same molecular mechanism and support a model wherein Rab3-GEF serves as a Rab3 effector to control active zone protein composition. (eneuro.org)
- In this way we explored the potential of BD-related protein expression changes between central and peripheral area 17 of 2- and 4-month-old BD (2BD, 4BD) kittens as a valid parameter towards the identification of brain maturation-related molecular processes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We therefore decided to apply a functional proteomics approach to find molecular correlates for the centro-peripheral developmental gradient in area 17 in order to identify important proteins underlying cortical-region specific maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Publications] Nishimura, N.: 'Molecular cloning and characterization of two rab GDI species from rat brain-Brain-specific and ubiquitous types. (nii.ac.jp)
- Dr. William E. Balch is interested in the biochemical and molecular basis for vesicular trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface, particularly in the structures, functions, and mechanisms of control exerted by small GTP-binding proteins. (scripps.edu)
- Thus, identification of the specific Rab effector molecules is one of the most important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of Rab-mediated membrane trafficking. (mcponline.org)
- Over recent years, pigment granules, or melanosomes, within pigment cells have provided an excellent model for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which motor proteins associate with and move intracellular organelles. (portlandpress.com)
- In order to transport synaptic cargo, such as synaptic vesicle precursors, mitochondria, neurotransmitter receptors and signaling proteins to their site of action, neurons make use of molecular motor proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- The most widely used mechanism for intracellular trafficking involves molecular motor proteins that carry cargo directionally along a cytoskeletal track - myosins along actin and kinesins and dyneins along microtubules. (biomedcentral.com)
- This domain occurred 119 times on human genes ( 207 proteins). (umbc.edu)
- Here we use microarray gene profiling and electron microscopic stereology to reveal lower expression of synaptic-function-related genes (CALM2, SYN1, RAB3A, RAB4B and TUBB4) in the dlPFC of subjects with MDD and a corresponding lower number of synapses. (psych.ac.cn)
- Tax is a 40-kDa nuclear-localizing protein that increases viral transcription from the HTLV-1 LTR as well as a number of cellular genes involved in host cell proliferation ( 17 , 30 , 34 ). (asm.org)
- In order to localize Rab3-binding site on C2A and reveal the relevant regulatory mechanism, in the present study we investigated the interaction between recombinant Rab3A and various C2A mutants. (bireme.br)
- It was speculated that the interaction between Rab3A and C2A is not simply based on electrostatic force, and Rab3A regulates C2A-mediated vesicle-presynaptic membrane fusion mainly through affecting the C2A binding to phospholipids in the presynaptic membrane. (bireme.br)
- We present a novel method that combines protein structure information with protein interaction data to identify residues that form part of an interaction interface. (biomedcentral.com)
- More than 20,000 human protein interactions have been deposited in protein interaction databases [ 2 ] and many more can be inferred from other model organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we focus on those diseases that are caused by mutations in protein interaction interfaces. (biomedcentral.com)
- We describe a method that combines protein structure with experimental protein interaction data in order to computationally identify residues that form part of a binding interface. (biomedcentral.com)
- Subsequently, we collected numerous topical reports of changes in protein interaction that result in disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- In order to identify residues in a protein that are involved in a protein interaction, we devised a method that combines structural and experimental information. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using the i Pfam [ 16 ] database of known interacting domains, we first select domain regions on all target proteins that have a homologous structure including interaction partners in the PDB [ 17 ] (see Materials and methods). (biomedcentral.com)
- this interaction promotes RAB3A dissociation from the vesicle membrane. (icr.ac.uk)
- At the N-terminal region, it has a coiled-coil motif that confers self-interaction properties to the protein and allows it to appear as an oligomer in the testis. (biomedcentral.com)
- The full‐length human GM130 cDNA was cloned and its interaction with rab1b was characterized in detail by yeast two‐hybrid and in vitro binding assays. (embopress.org)
- We investigated the interaction between Rab11 and Rabin8 using recombinant fusion proteins. (pnas.org)
- Specific and direct interaction of p115 with Rab1-GTP. (sciencemag.org)
- Munc18-1 can bind to SNAREs through at least three modes of interaction, including binding to the closed conformation of syntaxin 1. (biochemj.org)
- Using a gain-of-function mutant of Munc18-1 (E466K), which is based on a mutation in the related yeast protein Sly1p, we have identified a direct interaction of Munc18-1 with Rab3A, which is increased by the mutation. (biochemj.org)
- The interaction of eight of the novel Rab-binding proteins identified ( e.g . (mcponline.org)
- What does rab3 gtp-binding proteins mean? (definitions.net)
- Are we missing a good definition for rab3 gtp-binding proteins ? (definitions.net)
- What rhymes with rab3 gtp-binding proteins ? (definitions.net)
- Here we identify Rab3-GEF as a second protein that acts in conjunction with Rab3 to control AZ protein composition. (eneuro.org)
- A transgenically expressed GTP-locked variant of Rab3 accumulates at the NMJ at wild-type levels and fully rescues the rab3 mutant but is unable to rescue the rab3-GEF mutant. (eneuro.org)
- Our results suggest that although Rab3-GEF acts upstream of Rab3 to control Rab3 localization and likely GTP-binding, it also acts downstream to regulate CAZ development, potentially as a Rab3 effector at the synapse. (eneuro.org)
- We show here that Rab3-GEF is required for controlling the protein composition of release sites in the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (eneuro.org)
- Our results indicate that loss of Rab3-GEF results in the development of NMJs that are structurally and functionally indistinguishable from NMJs that lack the protein Rab3. (eneuro.org)
- We had isolated its regulatory protein, named Rab GDI,and its target protein, named Rabphilin-3A.In this research project, we isolated other regulatory proteins for Rab3A,Rab3 GEP and Rab3 GAP. (nii.ac.jp)
- The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to regulate skeletal muscle function. (bireme.br)
- Rabin8 has been shown to interact with the BBSome, a protein complex implicated in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, and regulate cilia formation ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- As a control, Rabin8 did not bind to Rab5a, which is known to regulate early endosomal trafficking ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
- Moreover, using coimmunoprecipitation assays, we identify the direct binding of p12 I with both calreticulin and calnexin, resident ER proteins which regulate calcium storage. (asm.org)
- In several cases, a mammalian Rab can functionally replace its yeast counterpart, demonstrating conservation of functions of the proteins within the eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The ras-related ypt protein is an ubiquitous eukaryotic protein: isolation and sequence analysis of mouse cDNA clones highly homologous to the yeast YPT1 gene. (embl.de)
- The cDNAs were derived from a gene, designated ypt1, which codes for a protein of 205 amino acids with 71% homology to the yeast YPT1 gene product. (embl.de)
- A monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing the 23.5-kd yeast YPT1 protein cross-reacted with a protein of identical size on protein blots of mouse, rat, pig, bovine and human cell lines. (embl.de)
- A yeast gene encoding a protein homologous to the human c-has/bas proto-oncogene product. (embl.de)
- Dong H, Roeder G. Organization of the yeast Zip1 protein within the central region of the synaptonemal complex. (labome.org)
- We purified from bovine brain a MEK kinase which activated MEK in a GTPgammaS-Ki-Ras-dependent manner in a cell-free system and identified it as B-Raf complexed with 14-3-3 proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
- Since the discovery of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) as a protein that is likely central to the aetiology of Parkinson's disease, a considerable amount of work has gone into uncovering its basic cellular function. (biomedcentral.com)
- Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is an enigmatic protein that has been at the centre of an increasing amount of research since its discovery in 2004. (biomedcentral.com)
- As distinct from animal cells comprising 40 subfamilies of Rab proteins, which are the key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport, numerous Rab proteins in Arabidopsis and other plant species could be grouped in only eight subfamilies on the basis of their functional properties. (deepdyve.com)
- This gene encodes a member of the SCE4/YPT1/RAB family of small GTP-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of intracellular vesicular transport. (mybiosource.com)
- This protein stimulates GTP-GDP exchange in SEC4, and to a lesser extent in YPT1 and RAB3A, and may play a general role in vesicular transport. (mybiosource.com)
- Small GTP-binding proteins of the rab family have characteristic subcellular distributions, and specific rab proteins have been implicated in the control of vesicular transport steps between different subcellular compartments (see ref. 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Bioinformatic analysis of the data shows a decreased expression of proteins involved in genetic information processing, and an increase in proteins involved in metabolism, vesicular transport and signal transduction in gentamicin treated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
- Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
- Small volumes of RABIF recombinant protein vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
- Recombinant human RABIF protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E Coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques. (mybiosource.com)
- Incubation of rat liver cytosol with GST-Rab1-GTP [recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Rab1 fusion protein immobilized on glutathione-Sepharose beads and loaded with guanosine 5′- O -(3′-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS)] preferentially retained a select set of putative effector proteins when compared to controls ( Fig. 1 A, asterisks) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Purified, recombinant p115 (1.0 μM) directly bound GST-Rab1-GTP (lane e), but not GST-Rab1-GDP (lane d) (both at 1.0 μM). (sciencemag.org)
- Here, combining high-resolution mass spectrometry and chemical labeling (iTRAQ) together with quantitative immunoblotting and fluorescence microscopy, we have determined the exocytotic (Rab3a, Rab3b, Rab3c, and Rab27b) and endocytic (Rab4b, Rab5a/b, Rab10, Rab11b, and Rab14) Rab machinery of SVs. (jneurosci.org)
Functions of Rab proteins2
- In doing so, they contribute to confer membrane identity ( Pfeffer, 2013 ) and to ensuring that membrane-bound cargoes are transported to their correct destinations within the cell. (biologists.org)
- Members of the Rab protein family, including RAB27B, are prenylated, membrane-bound proteins involved in vesicular fusion and trafficking (Chen et al. (antibodies-online.com)
- What does rab2 gtp-binding protein mean? (definitions.net)
- Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word rab2 gtp-binding protein . (definitions.net)
- Are we missing a good definition for rab2 gtp-binding protein ? (definitions.net)
- What rhymes with rab2 gtp-binding protein ? (definitions.net)
- Loss of gop-1 affects phagosome maturation through the RAB-5-positive stage, causing defects in phagosome acidification and phagolysosome formation, phenotypes identical to and unaffected by loss of unc-108, the C. elegans Rab2 . (rupress.org)
- Ras-related proteins in brain (Rab)-family proteins are key members of the membrane trafficking pathway in cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Among the Rab family of proteins, only a few are reported to be expressed in the testis. (biomedcentral.com)
- To some extent, this probably reflects the redundancy that exists between Rab family members ( Pereira-Leal and Seabra, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
- This gene encodes a member of the synaptotagmin like protein family. (nih.gov)
- Members of this family are characterized by an N-terminal Rab27 binding domain and C-terminal tandem C2 domains. (nih.gov)
- A recent analysis of the sequenced human genome and expressed sequence tags indicates that humans have at least 60 different Rab family members (Figure 2 ) [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Rab3A is a member of the Rab family which is particularly implicated in neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal. (nii.ac.jp)
- Silencing of the exocytotic RAB (show HRB ELISA Kits ) family members RAB27A (show RAB27A ELISA Kits ) or RAB27B halted miR23b and miR921 secretion and reduced cellular invasion. (antibodies-online.com)
- In general, these proteins do not show sequence similarity to each other and, in fact, may have diverse functional roles ranging from stabilizing the active form of the rab ( 9 , 13 , 14 ) to mediating interactions with the cytoskeleton ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Rather, loss of Rab18 is associated with widespread disruption of the neuronal cytoskeleton, including abnormal accumulations of neurofilament and microtubule proteins in synaptic terminals, and gross disorganisation of the cytoskeleton in peripheral nerves. (biologists.org)
- Rab10 phosphorylation strengthens its intrinsic ability to block ciliogenesis by enhancing binding to RILPL1. (stanford.edu)
- We show that mutations that prevent LRRK2 from interacting with either Rab29 or GTP strikingly inhibit phosphorylation of a cluster of highly studied biomarker phosphorylation sites (Ser910, Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973). (stanford.edu)
- Rab11, in particular, has been shown to play a key role in plasma membrane receptor recycling, because expression of a form of this protein that cannot be activated by GTP binding inhibited transport of endocytosed transferrin receptors from sorting endosomes to a pericentriolar recycling compartment, from where receptors normally are returned to the cell surface ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
- Analysis of two closely related proteins, Rab3a and Rab27b, revealed colocalization in synaptic nerve terminals, where they reside on distinct but overlapping SV pools. (jneurosci.org)
- Rab11a, Rab11b, and Rab25 are closely related, evolutionary conserved Rab proteins that are differentially expressed. (jneurosci.org)
- With few exceptions synaptic proteins identified in C. elegans are highly conserved offering an opportunity to study universally important proteins in a relatively simple system. (wormbook.org)
- Recent studies have provided important new data that indicate a role of the highly conserved ORF I-encoded protein p12 I in HTLV-1 infection. (asm.org)
- Thus, although the La protein is dispensable for growth in these yeasts, both the structure of the protein and its function in pre-tRNA maturation have been highly conserved throughout evolution. (labome.org)
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- Data indicate that a significant correlation between rab (show HRB ELISA Kits ) GTP-binding protein ( RAB27B ) and p53 tumor suppressor protein (p53 (show TP53 ELISA Kits )) expression was observed. (antibodies-online.com)