A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain meliavolkinin, melianin C and limonoids.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.
A condition produced by the presence of toxins or other harmful substances in the BLOOD.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.

Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from fish and fishery products. (1/315)

The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effects of fish species, processing, and geographical origin on the epidemiology of the isolates were evaluated. Cluster analysis based on macrorestriction profiles was performed to study the genetic relationships of the isolates. PFGE and RAPD analyses were combined and resulted in the identification of 62 different subtypes among the 92 type E isolates analyzed. High genetic biodiversity among the isolates was observed regardless of their source. Finnish and North American or North Atlantic isolates did not form distinctly discernible clusters, in contrast with the genetically homogeneous group of German isolates. On the other hand, indistinguishable or closely related genetic profiles among epidemiologically unrelated samples were detected. It was concluded that the high genetic variation was probably a result of a lack of strong selection factors that would influence the evolution of type E. The wide genetic biodiversity observed among type E isolates indicates the value of DNA-based typing methods as a tool in contamination studies in the food industry and in investigations of botulism outbreaks.  (+info)

Foodborne botulism associated with home-canned bamboo shoots--Thailand, 1998. (2/315)

On April 13, 1998, the Field Epidemiology Training Program in the Thailand Ministry of Public Health (TMPH) was informed of six persons with sudden onset of cranial nerve palsies suggestive of botulism who were admitted to a provincial hospital in northern Thailand. To determine the cause of the cluster, TMPH initiated an investigation on April 14. This report summarizes the results of the investigation, which indicate that the outbreak was caused by foodborne botulism from home-canned bamboo shoots.  (+info)

In situ detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in wetland sediments with a nested PCR assay. (3/315)

A nested PCR was developed for detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in sediments collected from wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks had or had not occurred. The C1 toxin gene was detected in 16 of 18 sites, demonstrating both the ubiquitous distribution of C. botulinum type C in wetland sediments and the sensitivity of the detection assay.  (+info)

A predictive model that describes the effect of prolonged heating at 70 to 90 degrees C and subsequent incubation at refrigeration temperatures on growth from spores and toxigenesis by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in the presence of lysozyme. (4/315)

Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often up to 42 days. The principal microbiological hazard in foods of this type is growth of and toxin production by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Lysozyme has been shown to increase the measured heat resistance of nonproteolytic C. botulinum spores. However, the heat treatment guidelines for prevention of risk of botulism in these products have not taken into consideration the effect of lysozyme, which can be present in many foods. In order to assess the botulism hazard, the effect of heat treatments at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C combined with refrigerated storage for up to 90 days on growth from 10(6) spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum (types B, E, and F) in an anaerobic meat medium containing 2,400 U of lysozyme per ml (50 microg per ml) was studied. Provided that the storage temperature was no higher than 8 degrees C, the following heat treatments each prevented growth and toxin production during 90 days; 70 degrees C for >/=2,545 min, 75 degrees C for >/=463 min, 80 degrees C for >/=230 min, 85 degrees C for >/=84 min, and 90 degrees C for >/=33.5 min. A factorial experimental design allowed development of a predictive model that described the incubation time required before the first sample showed growth, as a function of heating temperature (70 to 90 degrees C), period of heat treatment (up to 2,545 min), and incubation temperature (5 to 25 degrees C). Predictions from the model provided a valid description of the data used to generate the model and agreed with observations made previously.  (+info)

Clostridium difficile colitis associated with infant botulism: near-fatal case analogous to Hirschsprung's enterocolitis. (5/315)

We present the first five reported cases of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in children with infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum. We compare two fulminant cases of colitis in children with colonic stasis, the first caused by infant botulism and the second caused by Hirschsprung's disease. In both children, colitis was accompanied by hypovolemia, hypotension, profuse ascites, pulmonary effusion, restrictive pulmonary disease, and femoral-caval thrombosis. Laboratory findings included pronounced leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, coagulopathy, and, when examined in the child with infant botulism, detection of C. difficile toxin in ascites. CDAD recurred in both children, even though difficile cytotoxin was undetectable in stool after prolonged initial therapy. Four children who had both infant botulism and milder CDAD also are described. Colonic stasis, whether acquired, as in infant botulism, or congenital, as in Hirschsprung's disease, may contribute to the susceptibility to and the severity of CDAD.  (+info)

Quantification of Clostridium botulinum toxin gene expression by competitive reverse transcription-PCR. (6/315)

Clostridium botulinum produces a characteristic botulinum neurotoxin which can cause an often fatal neuroparalytic condition known as botulism. Although food-borne botulism is rare, critical screening by food companies is necessary to ensure that food products are safe. At present, the food industry assesses the risks of botulinum neurotoxin production by challenge testing to check any new food products and to check the efficacy of new storage regimes. Challenge testing involves artificial introduction of defined strains of microorganisms into food, and microbial growth and possible toxin production are then monitored. Botulinum toxin is normally analyzed by using the mouse bioassay. However, the mouse bioassay is expensive, slow, and politically sensitive because of animal rights issues. In this paper we describe adaptation of a new assay, competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), to monitor botulinum neurotoxin production. This method accurately measures the level of toxin-encoding mRNA in C. botulinum cells. Measurement of mRNA should provide a good indication of gene expression as mRNA is turned over rapidly in bacterial cells. In addition, the method is rapid, specific, and sensitive. The competitive RT-PCR method was developed to examine C. botulinum E VH toxin gene expression and was used to investigate the level of toxin production by C. botulinum E VH when the organism was grown in two different types of broth. The results which we obtained with the competitive RT-PCR method demonstrated that this method is more rapid and more sensitive than the mouse bioassay.  (+info)

Type C botulism in dairy cattle from feed contaminated with a dead cat. (7/315)

Four hundred twenty-seven of 441 adult Holstein dairy cattle from a 1,200-cow dairy died over a 1-week period during early spring 1998. Affected animals were from 4 late lactation pens, one of which included the bull string. Signs included weakness, recumbency, watery diarrhea, and death. Eighty animals from the 4 pens were dead approximately 8 hours after the first ill cows were noted. Affected cows would collapse on stimulation and extend all 4 limbs with moderate rigidity. Several lacked lingual tonus and had abdominal breathing patterns. The animals had been fed a load of total mixed ration that included a rotten bale of oat hay containing a dead cat. No common toxicants were identified, and pathologic examination revealed no consistent lesions. Testing of tissue from the cat carcass found in the feed sample using mouse protection bioassay identified the presence of type C botulinum toxin. Samples of feed, tissue from affected animals, cat tissue from feed, milk, and serum were also tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for type C botulinum. Two samples of rumen contents were tested and found to be positive for botulism by ELISA, and 1 of 3 liver samples had a weak positive finding. No botulinum toxin was found in milk or sera using the ELISA.  (+info)

Control of bacterial spores. (8/315)

Bacterial spores are much more resistant than their vegetative counterparts. The most dangerous spore-former is Clostridium botulinum which produces a potent neurotoxin that can prove fatal. The most common food poisoning from a spore-former is caused by C. perfringens. Other food poisoning spore-formers include Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. There are a number of non-pathogenic spore-formers including butyric and thermophilic anaerobes that cause significant economic losses to food producers. Some unusual spoilage complaints have been reported, for example, B. sporothermodurans in UHT milk, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and orange juice and Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in hot vending machines. Control of spore-formers requires an understanding of both the resistance and outgrowth characteristics of the spores.  (+info)

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

'Clostridium botulinum type E' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces the neurotoxin botulinum toxin type E. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type E causes a form of botulism, a rare but serious illness characterized by muscle paralysis that can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Botulism caused by C. botulinum type E is often associated with the consumption of contaminated fish or marine products in aquatic environments of cold temperature, such as the Baltic and North Seas, and the Great Lakes in North America. The spores of this bacterium are resistant to heat and can survive in improperly processed or preserved food, leading to intoxication when ingested.

Preventive measures include proper handling, storage, and cooking of susceptible foods, as well as prompt medical attention if symptoms of botulism appear, such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. Botulinum toxin type E antitoxin is available for the treatment of botulism caused by this strain, but early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Preserved food, in a medical context, refers to food that has been treated or processed in order to inhibit spoilage and prolong its shelf life. This is typically achieved through methods such as canning, pickling, smoking, drying, or freezing. These processes work by reducing the moisture content, increasing acidity, or introducing chemicals that prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness.

While preserved foods can be a valuable source of nutrition, especially in situations where fresh food is not available, it's important to note that some preservation methods can also introduce harmful substances, such as sodium nitrite in cured meats or acrylamide in fried or baked starchy foods. Therefore, preserved foods should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

'Clostridium botulinum type A' is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type A. This toxin is one of the most deadly substances known, with a lethal dose estimated to be as low as 1 nanogram per kilogram of body weight. The bacterium and its toxin are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious paralytic illness in humans and animals.

The neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type A works by blocking the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is essential for muscle contraction. This results in flaccid paralysis, which can affect the muscles used for breathing and lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly.

Botulinum toxin type A has also found therapeutic use in the treatment of various medical conditions, including strabismus, blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and chronic migraine. It is marketed under the brand names Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin, among others. However, it is important to note that these therapeutic uses involve carefully controlled doses administered by trained medical professionals, and should not be attempted outside of a clinical setting.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

"Melia" is not a medical term itself, but it is a term used in dermatology to refer to a type of benign growth on the skin. Melia, also known as "nevus sebaceous," is a congenital abnormality that appears as a yellowish or flesh-colored bump or plaque on the scalp, face, or neck. It results from an overgrowth of sebaceous glands and other skin structures in the affected area.

Melias are usually harmless and do not require treatment unless they become irritated, inflamed, or develop into a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma. In such cases, surgical removal may be necessary. It is important to monitor any changes in the size, shape, or color of a melia and consult with a healthcare professional if there are any concerns.

A wound infection is defined as the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a part of the body tissue, which has been damaged by a cut, blow, or other trauma, leading to inflammation, purulent discharge, and sometimes systemic toxicity. The symptoms may include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and fever. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics and proper wound care. It's important to note that not all wounds will become infected, but those that are contaminated with bacteria, dirt, or other foreign substances, or those in which the skin's natural barrier has been significantly compromised, are at a higher risk for infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Packaging" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe the process and materials used to package food products to protect them from contamination, damage, and to provide information about the product. Medical definitions are typically related to diseases, conditions, treatments, or anatomical terms. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Toxemia is an outdated and vague term that was used to describe the presence of toxic substances or toxins in the blood. It was often used in relation to certain medical conditions, most notably in pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and eclampsia. In modern medicine, the term "toxemia" is rarely used due to its lack of specificity and the more precise terminology that has replaced it. It's crucial to note that this term should not be used in a medical context or setting.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Clostridium botulinum type D is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type D. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The bacteria and their toxins are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and death if left untreated.

Botulinum toxin type D is particularly associated with cases of animal botulism, such as those observed in cattle and birds. It has also been studied for its potential therapeutic uses, including its ability to block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which can be useful in treating various medical conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive secretion. However, the use of botulinum toxin type D in humans is not widely approved or practiced due to its lower potency and shorter duration of action compared to other types of botulinum toxins.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Learn about the characteristics of the 242 cases of botulism reported to CDC in 2018. Now featuring interactive maps. ... Other cases of botulism. One case of laboratory-confirmed botulism caused by toxin type F reported from Texas was thought to be ... Infant botulism cases. Health departments reported 162 cases infant botulism, all of which were laboratory-confirmed (Table 1 ... Foodborne botulism cases. Health departments reported 18 cases of foodborne botulism, 17 laboratory-confirmed and one probable. ...
Botulism is caused by a bacteria. It can be serious. Find out about symptoms, causes, how to prevent it. ... There are several kinds of botulism. Foodborne botulism comes from eating foods contaminated with the toxin. Wound botulism ... Botulism (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Botulism (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in ... National Botulism Surveillance (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * National Botulism Surveillance Summary, 2018 ( ...
"About Botulism , Botulism , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 1 June 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2023. "Botulism". www.who.int. Retrieved 18 May ... Botulism is generally treated with botulism antitoxin and supportive care. Supportive care for botulism includes monitoring of ... Of these, roughly 65% are infant botulism, 20% are wound botulism, and 15% are foodborne. Infant botulism is predominantly ... Botulism Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine CDC Botulism FAQ FDA Clostridium botulinum Bad Bug Book USGS Avian Botulism ...
Botulism is caused by a bacteria. It can be serious. Find out about symptoms, causes, how to prevent it. ... There are several kinds of botulism. Foodborne botulism comes from eating foods contaminated with the toxin. Wound botulism ... Botulism (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Botulism (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in ... National Botulism Surveillance (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * National Botulism Surveillance Summary, 2018 ( ...
Botulism is an acute neurologic disorder that causes potentially life-threatening neuroparalysis due to a neurotoxin produced ... Human botulism immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 2. 354 (5):462-71. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Differentiating botulism from other diseases is essential for early initiation of therapy. Botulism should be considered in ... Infant Botulism. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulism in the United States, 1899-1996. Handbook for ...
Botulism is an acute neurologic disorder that causes potentially life-threatening neuroparalysis due to a neurotoxin produced ... Human botulism immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 2. 354 (5):462-71. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Infant Botulism. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulism in the United States, 1899-1996. Handbook for ... Foodborne Botulism. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulism in the United States, 1899-1996. Handbook for ...
Preventing Infant Botulism Infant botulism occurs mostly in babies younger than 6 months. It develops when C botulinum spores ... Another form of botulism, so-called wound botulism, can develop when tissues in a childs wound becomes contaminated with C ... Botulism is caused by poisons (toxins) produced by spore-forming bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne botulism ... Signs and Symptoms of Botulism. In patients for whom botulism is a food-borne infection, it may progress rapidly. It often ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa, Health Emergencies Programme (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa, 2018-01-22)‎ ...
These guidelines include recommendations for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating botulism in conventional, contingency, and ... These guidelines include recommendations for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating botulism in conventional, contingency, and ... Botulism is a life-threatening disease that can lead to respiratory failure. ... Botulism is a life-threatening disease that can lead to respiratory failure. ...
Information on terrorism and public health. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Welcome to the support group of parents of children with Infant Botulism ...
Five people have been diagnosed with botulism after they apparently ate nacho cheese sauce at a California gas station. ... Nacho cheese sold at a California gas station is being blamed for a nasty outbreak of botulism, a rare illness that can cause ... According to the Sacramento Bee, five people in the California Delta area have been diagnosed with botulism so far. The common ... The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the symptoms of botulism include double vision, slurred speech and ...
... botulism - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags #prepyourhealth, botulism, emergency food supply, emergency preparedness, emergency water supply, food preservation, home ... In April 2015, an Ohio doctor made an urgent call to CDC concerning a possible life-threatening botulism outbreak that posed a ... Within hours, CDC, the Ohio Department of Health, and a local hospital had determined that botulism antitoxin was needed to ...
Botulism is a food poisoning caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria, Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum and its spores are ... Who Gets Botulism?. Foodborne botulism is due to ingestion of a toxin formed in food. One of the most common culprits in ... What is Botulism?. Botulism is a food poisoning caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria, Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum ... Infant botulism differs from foodborne botulism in that the toxin itself is not ingested. Instead, C. botulinum spores ...
A botulism outbreak in quarter horses in Vermilion Parish has left 12 of 15 infected horses dead. ... With botulism cases reported in other states like New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas, the FDA has put out a recall for Top of the ... Botulism is a disease caused by toxic bacteria attacking the nervous system which can cause death. In horses, this can cause ... Botulism outbreak in Vermilion Parish, FDA recalls alfalfa cubes by: Jasmine Dean ...
Botulism, a potentially fatal form of food poisoning, can cause the following symptoms: general weakness, dizziness, double- ... Washington Salmon with a Botulism Risk. By News Desk on December 22, 2015. ...
I was reading through the manual, it has many Botulism warnings when canning, do I have to worry about this? I mean doesnt 15 ... Botulism in Jars??? StankyBitch. 1,229. 4 02/13/02 09:14 AM. by baraka. Grain Soak Time, Endospores or hydration? ( 1 2 all ). ... Re: Botulism warnings [Re: XiC] #563937 - 02/26/02 03:37 PM (21 years, 9 months ago) Edit Reply Quote Quick Reply. ... Re: Botulism warnings [Re: XiC] #563974 - 02/26/02 04:35 PM (21 years, 9 months ago) Edit Reply Quote Quick Reply. ...
Etymologia: botulism. Volume 11, Number 10-October 2005. Article Views: 227. Data is collected weekly and does not include ... Etymologia: botulism. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1606. doi:10.3201/eid1110.et1110.. ... www.epi.hss.state.ak.us/pubs/botulism/bot_03.htm ... Etymologia: botulism On This Page [boch′ə-liz-əm] Cite This ... 2005). Etymologia: botulism. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1606. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1110.et1110.. ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa, Health Emergencies Programme (‎World Health Organization. Regional Office for Africa, 2018-01-22)‎ ...
You are here: Home / How To Prevent Botulism. * Storing Your Canned Goods Safely: How To Avoid Botulism. February 25, 2015 48 ... Botulism is amazingly uncommon state of our modern world. Omission for operations of food canning and proper cooking to some ...
A Toronto woman has been hospitalized in France with a severe case of botulism after eating improperly preserved sardines at a ... Toronto woman hospitalized with botulism. Toronto resident Jubilee Pridham is in hospital with botulism, a rare disease, after ... Botulism is a rare disease caused by a toxin found in a specific type of bacteria. It is most often found in improperly canned ... A Toronto woman has been hospitalized in France with a severe case of botulism after eating improperly preserved sardines at a ...
This bacterium can cause botulism, a potentially fatal form of food poisoning. ... Herbal Teas Recalled Due To Botulism Risk. On May 1, 2017, U.S. Deer Antler Ex. & Imp. of Los Angeles, California, issued a ... www.consumerlab.com/recalls/14070/herbal-teas-recalled-due-to-botulism-risk/ ... This bacterium can cause botulism, a potentially fatal form of food poisoning. ...
Does anyone know the risk of botulism as far as homebrew goes? Considering the fact that homebrewing essentially creates an ... No......you put it IN an environment where botulism couldnt grow. If beer cant host botulism, then what you put in the beer ... The spores themselves are not what causes botulism. The toxin that causes botulism is a byproduct of their reproduction which ... Oh, Botulism specifically... did you know that this is an anaerobic pathogen? Its toxin is one of the few that is broken down ...
Because botulism anti-toxin is held in stockpiles around the country by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in ... Foodborne botulism poisoning is extremely rare, with a typical incidence of about 20 cases per year in the United States. ... The CDC is the only source for botulism anti-toxin, says Fix. However, there are a number of steps involved in obtaining it. ... Evidently the incorporation of an old baked potato in the pruno recipe allowed botulism to develop, says Megan Fix, MD, of the ...
Our results indicate that the likelihood of DRC-1339-poisoned blackbirds causing botulism outbreaks would be minimal in North ... The resulting mortality of blackbirds at wetland roosts could increase the potential of avian botulism occurring in affected ... Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avian botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?. ... "Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avian botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?," Wildlife Society ...
Learn about botulism types, botulism causes, botulism symptoms. ... Botulism is a rare poisoning caused by toxins produced by ... Botulism Diagnosis. The doctors may diagnose botulism by asking the patient if he or she has signs that relate to botulism. He ... Botulism Treatments. Foodborne botulism can be cured with medications to induce bowel clearance. While wound botulism can be ... Infant botulism Babies are more likely to be affected by botulism. The source can be honey, which often comes in bottles or is ...
... but also reduce the growth of botulism bacteria-forcing regulators to strike a balance between consumers risking cancer, or a ... Republishing "Bacon & Botulism". × Terms You may republish this material online or in print under our Creative Commons licence ... Bacon & Botulism. License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). Content URL ... Bacon & Botulism. Michael Greger M.D. FACLM · February 27, 2012 · Volume 7 ...
Infant botulism was first recognized in 1976. Since 1980, infant botulism has been the most commonly reported form of botulism ... Wound Botulism. * Incidence *An average of 110 cases of botulism is reported annually in the US. Over the past few years the ... Food-Borne Botulism. * Incidence *An average of 110 cases of botulism is reported annually in the US. About twenty-five percent ... Infant Botulism. * Incidence *An average of 110 cases of botulism is reported annually in the US. Approximately seventy percent ...
Infant botulism. Brown LW. Brown LW. Adv Pediatr. 1981;28:141-57. Adv Pediatr. 1981. PMID: 7041556 Review. No abstract ... Infant botulism: anticipating the second decade. Arnon SS. Arnon SS. J Infect Dis. 1986 Aug;154(2):201-6. doi: 10.1093/infdis/ ... Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland. Hammer TH, Jespersen S, Kanstrup J, Ballegaard VC, Kjerulf A, Gelvan A. Hammer TH, et ... Infant botulism]. Flecha M, Hernández NI, Rodríguez JR, Gorbea HF, Christenson B, Bermúdez RH, Ramírez-Ronda CH. Flecha M, et ...

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