A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
Increased salivary flow.
Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Manner or style of walking.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Plantar declination of the foot.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The phenomenon of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness being restored. This can apply to appearance, TISSUES, organ functions, or other areas.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
A condition produced by the presence of toxins or other harmful substances in the BLOOD.

Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin type A poisoning: biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals. (1/694)

Blockade of acetylcholine release by botulinum neurotoxin type A at the neuromuscular junction induces the formation of an extensive network of nerve-terminal sprouts. By repeated in vivo imaging of N-(3-triethyl ammonium propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide uptake into identified nerve endings of the mouse sternomastoid muscle after a single intramuscular injection of the toxin, inhibition of stimulated uptake of the dye at the terminals was detected within a few days, together with an increase in staining of the newly formed sprouts. After 28 days, when nerve stimulation again elicited muscle contraction, regulated vesicle recycling occurred only in the sprouts [shown to contain certain soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins (SNAREs) and to abut acetylcholine receptors] and not at the parent terminals. Therefore, only these sprouts could be responsible for nerve-muscle transmission at this time. However, a second, distinct phase of the rehabilitation process followed with a return of vesicle turnover to the original terminals, accompanied by an elimination of the by then superfluous sprouts. This extension and later removal of "functional" sprouts indicate their fundamental importance in the repair of paralyzed endplates, a finding with ramifications for the vital process of nerve regeneration.  (+info)

Comparison of mouse bioassay and immunoprecipitation assay for botulinum toxin antibodies. (2/694)

OBJECTIVE: To compare a recently developed immunoprecipitation assay (IPA) to the mouse protection bioassay (MPB), currently considered the "gold standard", for detecting antibodies against botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and to correlate these assay results with clinical responses to BTX-A injections. METHODS: MPB and IPA assays were performed on serum samples from 83 patients (38 non-responders, 45 responders) who received BTX-A injections. Six non-responders had serum tested on two separate occasions. Some patients also received a "test" injection into either the right eyebrow (n=29) or right frontalis (n=19). RESULTS: All patients antibody positive (Ab+) by MPB were also Ab+ by IPA, whereas an additional 19 patients (17 with reduced or no clinical response) who were MPB Ab- were Ab+, with low titres, by IPA. Two of these 19 patients (non-responders) were initially MPB Ab- but later became MPB Ab+. Similar to previous studies, the sensitivity for the MPB was low; 50% for clinical, 38% for eyebrow, and 30% for frontalis responses whereas the IPA sensitivity was much higher at 84% for clinical (p<0.001), 77% for eyebrow (p=0.111, NS) and 90% for frontalis responses (p<0.02). The IPA specificity was 89% for clinical, 81% for eyebrow, and 89% for frontalis responses, whereas the MPB specificity was 100% for all three response types, which were all non-significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Both assays had high specificity although the sensitivity of the IPA was higher than the MPB. In addition, the IPA seems to display positivity earlier than the MPB, and as such, it may prognosticate future non-responsiveness. Eyebrow and frontalis "test" injections correlated well with clinical and immunological results and are useful in the assessment of BTX non-responders.  (+info)

Characterization of a vertebrate neuromuscular junction that demonstrates selective resistance to botulinum toxin. (3/694)

Botulinum toxin blocks transmitter release by proceeding through a series of four steps: binding to cell surface receptors, penetration of the cell membrane by receptor-mediated endocytosis, penetration of the endosome membrane by pH-induced translocation, and intracellular proteolysis of substrates that govern exocytosis. Each of these steps is essential for toxin action on intact cells. Therefore, alterations in cell structure or cell function that impede any of these steps should confer resistance to toxin. In the present study, screening for susceptibility to four serotypes of botulinum toxin revealed that the cutaneous-pectoris nerve-muscle preparation of Rana pipiens is resistant to type B botulinum toxin. Resistance was demonstrated both by electrophysiologic techniques and by dye-staining techniques. In addition, resistance to serotype B was demonstrated at toxin concentrations that were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those associated with blockade produced by other serotypes. In experiments on broken cell preparations, type B toxin cleaved synaptobrevin from frog brain synaptosomes. However, the toxin did not bind to frog nerve membranes. These findings suggest that resistance is due to an absence of cell surface receptors for botulinum toxin type B. The fact that cutaneous-pectoris preparations were sensitive to other botulinum toxin serotypes (A, C, and D), as well as other neuromuscular blocking agents (alpha-latrotoxin, beta-bungarotoxin), indicates that botulinum toxin type B receptors are distinct.  (+info)

A comparison of injections of botulinum toxin and topical nitroglycerin ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. (4/694)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Lateral internal sphincterotomy, the most common treatment for chronic anal fissure, may cause permanent injury to the anal sphincter, which can lead to fecal incontinence. We compared two nonsurgical treatments that avert the risk of fecal incontinence. We randomly assigned 50 adults with symptomatic chronic posterior anal fissures to receive treatment with either a total of 20 U of botulinum toxin injected into the internal anal sphincter on each side of the anterior midline or 0.2 percent nitroglycerin ointment applied twice daily for six weeks. RESULTS: After two months, the fissures were healed in 24 of the 25 patients (96 percent) in the botulinum-toxin group and in 15 of the 25 (60 percent) in the nitroglycerin group (P=0.005). No patient in either group had fecal incontinence. At some time during treatment, five patients in the nitroglycerin group had transient, moderate-to-severe headaches that were related to treatment. None of the patients in the botulinum-toxin group reported adverse effects. Ten patients who did not have a response to the assigned treatment - 1 in the botulinum-toxin group and 9 in the nitroglycerin group - crossed over to the other treatment; the fissures subsequently healed in all 10 patients. There were no relapses during an average of about 15 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment with either topical nitroglycerin or botulinum toxin is effective as an alternative to surgery for patients with chronic anal fissure, botulinum toxin is the more effective nonsurgical treatment.  (+info)

Persistence of botulinum neurotoxin action in cultured spinal cord cells. (5/694)

Primary dissociated fetal mouse spinal cord cultures were used to study the mechanisms underlying the differences in persistence of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and botulinum neurotoxin/E (BoNT/E) activities. Spinal cord cultures were exposed to BoNT/A (0.4 pM) for 2-3 days, which converted approximately half of the SNAP-25 to an altered form lacking the final nine C-terminal residues. The distribution of toxin-damaged to control SNAP-25 remained relatively unchanged for up to 80 days thereafter. Application of a high concentration of BoNT/E (250 pM) either 25 or 60 days following initial intoxication with BoNT/A converted both normal and BoNT/A-truncated SNAP-25 into a single population lacking the final 26 C-terminal residues. Excess BoNT/E was removed by washout, and recovery of intact SNAP-25 was monitored by Western blot analysis. The BoNT/E-truncated species gradually diminished during the ensuing 18 days, accompanied by the reappearance of both normal and BoNT/A-truncated SNAP-25. Return of BoNT/A-truncated SNAP-25 was observed in spite of the absence of BoNT/A in the culture medium during all but the first 3 days of exposure. These results indicate that proteolytic activity associated with the BoNT/A light chain persists inside cells for > 11 weeks, while recovery from BoNT/E is complete in < 3 weeks. This longer duration of enzymatic activity appears to account for the persistence of serotype A action.  (+info)

Pure botulinum neurotoxin is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine and produces peripheral neuromuscular blockade. (6/694)

Clostridium botulinum serotype A produces a neurotoxin composed of a 100-kDa heavy chain and a 50-kDa light chain linked by a disulfide bond. This neurotoxin is part of a ca. 900-kDa complex, formed by noncovalent association with a single nontoxin, nonhemagglutinin subunit and a family of hemagglutinating proteins. Previous work has suggested, although never conclusively demonstrated, that neurotoxin alone cannot survive passage through the stomach and/or cannot be absorbed from the gut without the involvement of auxiliary proteins in the complex. Therefore, this study compared the relative absorption and toxicity of three preparations of neurotoxin in an in vivo mouse model. Equimolar amounts of serotype A complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and purified neurotoxin were surgically introduced into the stomach or into the small intestine. In some experiments, movement of neurotoxin from the site of administration was restricted by ligation of the pylorus. Comparison of relative toxicities demonstrated that at adequate doses, complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin can be absorbed from the stomach. The potency of neurotoxin in complex was greater than that of pure neurotoxin, but the magnitude of this difference diminished as the dosage of neurotoxin increased. Qualitatively similar results were obtained when complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin were placed directly into the intestine. This work establishes that pure botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is toxic when administered orally. This means that pure neurotoxin does not require hemagglutinins or other auxiliary proteins for absorption from the gastrointestinal system into the general circulation.  (+info)

Activation of store-operated Ca2+ current in Xenopus oocytes requires SNAP-25 but not a diffusible messenger. (7/694)

Depletion of Ca2+ stores in Xenopus oocytes activated entry of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, which was measured as a current I(soc) in subsequently formed cell-attached patches. I(soc) survived excision into inside-out configuration. If cell-attached patches were formed before store depletion, I(soc) was activated outside but not inside the patches. I(soc) was potentiated by microinjection of Clostridium C3 transferase, which inhibits Rho GTPase, whereas I(soc) was inhibited by expression of wild-type or constitutively active Rho. Activation of I(soc) was also inhibited by botulinum neurotoxin A and dominant-negative mutants of SNAP-25 but was unaffected by brefeldin A. These results suggest that oocyte I(soc) is dependent not on aqueous diffusible messengers but on SNAP-25, probably via exocytosis of membrane channels or regulatory molecules.  (+info)

Botulinum toxin treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: objective response evaluation. (8/694)

Twenty seven patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and sixteen patients with blepharospasm (BS) having mean Jankovic disability rating scale score of 2.56+0.58 SD and 2.81+0.54 SD, respectively, were treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections. The total number of injection sessions were ninety one with relief response in 98.91%. The mean improvement in function scale score was 3.78+0.64 SD and 3.29+1.07 SD respectively, in HFS and BS groups. The clinical benefit induced by botulinum toxin lasted for a mean of 4.46+3.11 SD (range 2 to 13) months in HFS group and 2.66+1.37 SD (range 1 to 6) months, in BS groups. Transient ptosis was seen in 4.39% of total ninety one injection sessions. These findings show that local botulinum toxin treatment provides effective, safe and long lasting relief of spasms.  (+info)

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

Neuromuscular agents are drugs or substances that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These agents can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals across the neuromuscular junction, leading to a variety of effects on muscle tone and activity.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a type of neuromuscular agent that is commonly used in anesthesia and critical care settings to induce paralysis during intubation or mechanical ventilation. NMBAs can be classified into two main categories: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing NMBAs, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle contraction followed by paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs, such as rocuronium and vecuronium, block the activation of these receptors, preventing muscle contraction and leading to paralysis.

Other types of neuromuscular agents include cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and can be used to reverse the effects of NMBAs, and botulinum toxin, which is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and is used in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Muscle spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by an involuntary increase in muscle tone, leading to stiffness and difficulty in moving muscles. It is often seen in people with damage to the brain or spinal cord, such as those with cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injuries.

In muscle spasticity, the muscles may contract excessively, causing rigid limbs, awkward movements, and abnormal postures. The severity of muscle spasticity can vary from mild stiffness to severe contractures that limit mobility and function.

Muscle spasticity is caused by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory signals in the central nervous system, leading to overactivity of the alpha motor neurons that control muscle contraction. This can result in hyperreflexia (overactive reflexes), clonus (rapid, rhythmic muscle contractions), and flexor or extensor spasms.

Effective management of muscle spasticity may involve a combination of physical therapy, medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve function, reduce pain, and prevent complications such as contractures and pressure sores.

Anti-dyskinetic agents are a class of medications that are used to treat or manage dyskinesias, which are involuntary movements or abnormal muscle contractions. These medications work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in movement control.

Dyskinetic symptoms can occur as a side effect of long-term use of levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anti-dyskinetic agents such as amantadine, anticholinergics, and dopamine agonists may be used to manage these symptoms.

Amantadine works by increasing the release of dopamine and blocking its reuptake, which can help reduce dyskinesias. Anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl and benztropine work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to dyskinesias. Dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinirole mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can help reduce dyskinesias by reducing the dose of levodopa required for symptom control.

It is important to note that anti-dyskinetic agents may have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

Blepharospasm is a medical condition characterized by involuntary spasms and contractions of the muscles around the eyelids. These spasms can cause frequent blinkings, eye closure, and even difficulty in keeping the eyes open. In some cases, the spasms may be severe enough to interfere with vision, daily activities, and quality of life.

The exact cause of blepharospasm is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, a part of the brain that controls movement. It can occur as an isolated condition (known as essential blepharospasm) or as a symptom of other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.

Treatment options for blepharospasm may include medication, botulinum toxin injections, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of the spasms, improve symptoms, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Botulinum antitoxin refers to a medication made from the antibodies that are generated in response to the botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that can cause paralysis and other serious medical complications in humans and animals.

The antitoxin works by neutralizing the effects of the toxin in the body, preventing further damage to the nervous system. It is typically used in emergency situations to treat individuals who have been exposed to large amounts of botulinum toxin, such as in a bioterrorism attack or accidental exposure in a laboratory setting.

Botulinum antitoxin is not the same as botulinum toxin type A (Botox), which is a purified form of the toxin that is used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. Botox works by temporarily paralyzing muscles, whereas the antitoxin works by neutralizing the toxin in the body.

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a condition where the neck muscles contract and cause the head to turn to one side. There are different types of torticollis including congenital (present at birth), acquired (develops after birth), and spasmodic (neurological).

Congenital torticollis can be caused by a tight or shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck, which can occur due to positioning in the womb or abnormal blood vessels in the muscle. Acquired torticollis can result from injury, infection, or tumors in the neck. Spasmodic torticollis is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary contractions of the neck muscles and can be caused by a variety of factors including genetics, environmental toxins, or head trauma.

Symptoms of torticollis may include difficulty turning the head, tilting the chin upwards or downwards, pain or discomfort in the neck, and a limited range of motion. Treatment for torticollis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or surgery.

Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition characterized by excessive sweating beyond the normal requirement for thermoregulation. It can affect various parts of the body, but it primarily occurs in the palms, soles, underarms, and face. The sweating can be so profuse that it can interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress or embarrassment. Hyperhidrosis can be primary (idiopathic), meaning there is no underlying medical condition causing it, or secondary, due to a known cause such as anxiety, certain medications, infections, or medical conditions like diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

Sialorrhea is the medical term for excessive drooling or saliva production. It's not necessarily a condition where the person produces too much saliva, but rather, they are unable to control the normal amount of saliva in their mouth due to various reasons such as neurological disorders, developmental disabilities, or structural issues that affect swallowing and oral motor function.

Common causes include cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Down syndrome, stroke, intellectual disability, and certain medications. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition and may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, oral devices, or even surgical procedures in severe cases.

Cosmetic techniques refer to medical or surgical procedures that are performed with the primary goal of improving the appearance or aesthetics of an individual. These techniques can be non-invasive, minimally invasive, or surgical in nature and may involve various treatments such as:

1. Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections: used to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the underlying muscles.
2. Dermal fillers: injected beneath the skin to add volume, smooth out wrinkles, and enhance facial features.
3. Chemical peels: a chemical solution is applied to the skin to remove damaged outer layers, revealing smoother, more even-toned skin.
4. Microdermabrasion: a minimally abrasive procedure that uses fine crystals or diamond tips to exfoliate and remove dead skin cells, resulting in a refreshed appearance.
5. Laser resurfacing: using laser technology to improve the texture, tone, and overall appearance of the skin by removing damaged layers and stimulating collagen production.
6. Micro-needling: a minimally invasive treatment that involves puncturing the skin with fine needles to promote collagen production and skin rejuvenation.
7. Facelift surgery (rhytidectomy): a surgical procedure that tightens loose or sagging skin on the face and neck, restoring a more youthful appearance.
8. Blepharoplasty: cosmetic eyelid surgery that removes excess fat, muscle, and skin from the upper and/or lower eyelids to improve the appearance of tired or aging eyes.
9. Rhinoplasty: nose reshaping surgery that can correct various aesthetic concerns such as a bulbous tip, crooked bridge, or wide nostrils.
10. Breast augmentation: surgical enhancement of the breasts using implants or fat transfer to increase size, improve symmetry, or restore volume lost due to aging, pregnancy, or weight loss.
11. Liposuction: a surgical procedure that removes excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, hips, thighs, and arms, to contour and shape the body.

These cosmetic techniques aim to enhance an individual's appearance, boost self-confidence, and help them feel more comfortable in their own skin.

Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by involuntary, irregular contractions or twitching of the muscles on one side of the face. These spasms typically begin around the eye and may progress to involve the muscles of the lower face, including those around the mouth.

The primary cause of hemifacial spasm is pressure on or irritation of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) as it exits the brainstem, often due to a blood vessel or tumor. This pressure can lead to abnormal electrical signals in the facial nerve, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions.

In some cases, hemifacial spasm may be associated with other conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Bell's palsy. Treatment options for hemifacial spasm include medications to help relax the muscles, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections to paralyze the affected muscles temporarily, and, in rare cases, surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the facial nerve.

Paraparesis, spastic type, is a medical term used to describe a condition characterized by partial weakness or loss of voluntary movement in the lower extremities (legs). The term "paraparesis" comes from Greek words "para" meaning beside or beyond, and "paresis" meaning loosening or relaxation.

In spastic paraparesis, the muscle tone is increased, causing stiffness and resistance to movement, particularly during quick or forceful movements. This increased muscle tone, also known as spasticity, results from an upper motor neuron lesion in the brain or spinal cord that affects the corticospinal tract, which carries signals from the brain to the muscles.

Spastic paraparesis can be caused by various conditions, including spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and stroke, among others. The severity of symptoms may vary widely, ranging from mild weakness to complete paralysis. Treatment options for spastic paraparesis depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Skin aging, also known as cutaneous aging, is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by various visible changes in the skin's appearance and function. It can be divided into two main types: intrinsic (chronological or natural) aging and extrinsic (environmental) aging.

Intrinsic aging is a genetically determined and time-dependent process that results from internal factors such as cellular metabolism, hormonal changes, and genetic predisposition. The primary features of intrinsic aging include gradual thinning of the epidermis and dermis, decreased collagen and elastin production, reduced skin cell turnover, and impaired wound healing. Clinically, these changes present as fine wrinkles, dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased fragility of the skin.

Extrinsic aging, on the other hand, is caused by external factors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, pollution, smoking, alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. Exposure to these environmental elements leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage, which accelerate the aging process. The main features of extrinsic aging are coarse wrinkles, pigmentary changes (e.g., age spots, melasma), irregular texture, skin laxity, and increased risk of developing skin cancers.

It is important to note that intrinsic and extrinsic aging processes often interact and contribute to the overall appearance of aged skin. A comprehensive approach to skincare should address both types of aging to maintain healthy and youthful-looking skin.

Central muscle relaxants are a class of pharmaceutical agents that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce skeletal muscle tone and spasticity. These medications do not directly act on the muscles themselves but rather work by altering the messages sent between the brain and the muscles, thereby reducing excessive muscle contraction and promoting relaxation.

Central muscle relaxants are often prescribed for the management of various neuromuscular disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, and stroke-induced spasticity. They may also be used to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions like strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries.

Examples of central muscle relaxants include baclofen, tizanidine, cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol, and diazepam. It is important to note that these medications can have side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, and impaired cognitive function, so they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hypohidrosis is a medical condition characterized by reduced or absent sweating. It's the opposite of hyperhidrosis, which is excessive sweating. Sweating is an essential function that helps regulate body temperature through the evaporation of sweat on the skin surface. When this process is impaired due to hypohidrosis, it can lead to difficulties in maintaining a normal body temperature, especially during physical exertion or in hot environments.

Hypohidrosis may be localized, affecting only certain areas of the body, or generalized, affecting the entire body. The causes of hypohidrosis are varied and include genetic factors, nerve damage, skin disorders, dehydration, burns, or the use of certain medications. Depending on its underlying cause, hypohidrosis can be managed through appropriate treatments, such as addressing nerve damage, managing skin conditions, or adjusting medication usage.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Cryoanesthesia is a medical term that refers to the use of extreme cold or freezing temperatures to induce local anesthesia, which is the numbing of a specific area of the body. This technique can be used to reduce pain and discomfort during certain medical procedures, such as cryosurgery (the use of extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissue).

During cryoanesthesia, a cryoprobe (a tool that can conduct and transmit low temperatures) is applied to the skin in the area to be treated. The probe is cooled to a very low temperature, typically between -20°C and -50°C, which causes the surrounding tissue to freeze. This freezing process damages the nerve endings in the area, temporarily blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

While cryoanesthesia can be effective for reducing pain during certain procedures, it is not without risks. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can cause tissue damage and frostbite, so it is important that the procedure is performed by a trained medical professional who can carefully monitor the temperature and duration of the treatment. Additionally, cryoanesthesia may not be appropriate for all patients or procedures, so it is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits with a healthcare provider before undergoing the treatment.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Hemiplegia is a medical term that refers to paralysis affecting one side of the body. It is typically caused by damage to the motor center of the brain, such as from a stroke, head injury, or brain tumor. The symptoms can vary in severity but often include muscle weakness, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance on the affected side. In severe cases, the individual may be unable to move or feel anything on that side of the body. Hemiplegia can also affect speech, vision, and other functions controlled by the damaged area of the brain. Rehabilitation therapy is often recommended to help individuals with hemiplegia regain as much function as possible.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

Neurotoxins are substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve cells (neurons) and the nervous system. They can cause damage by destroying neurons, disrupting communication between neurons, or interfering with the normal functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins can be produced naturally by certain organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals, or they can be synthetic compounds created in a laboratory. Examples of neurotoxins include botulinum toxin (found in botulism), tetrodotoxin (found in pufferfish), and heavy metals like lead and mercury. Neurotoxic effects can range from mild symptoms such as headaches, muscle weakness, and tremors, to more severe symptoms such as paralysis, seizures, and cognitive impairment. Long-term exposure to neurotoxins can lead to chronic neurological conditions and other health problems.

Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a protein toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), specifically those that belong to serotype O157:H7 and some other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).

Stx2 is named after Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered the related Shiga toxin in 1898. It is a powerful cytotoxin that can cause damage to cells lining the intestines and other organs. The toxin inhibits protein synthesis in the cells by removing an adenine residue from the 28S rRNA of the 60S ribosomal subunit, leading to cell death.

Exposure to Stx2 can occur through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with infected animals or their feces. In severe cases, it can lead to hemorrhagic colitis, which is characterized by bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious complication that can cause kidney failure, anemia, and neurological problems.

It's important to note that Stx2 has two major subtypes, Stx2a and Stx2b, which differ in their biological activities and clinical significance. Stx2a is considered more potent than Stx2b and is associated with a higher risk of developing HUS.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Sweat glands are specialized tubular structures in the skin that produce and secrete sweat, also known as perspiration. They are part of the body's thermoregulatory system, helping to maintain optimal body temperature by releasing water and heat through evaporation. There are two main types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine.

1. Eccrine sweat glands: These are distributed throughout the body, with a higher concentration on areas like the palms, soles, and forehead. They are responsible for producing a watery, odorless sweat that primarily helps to cool down the body through evaporation.

2. Apocrine sweat glands: These are mainly found in the axillary (armpit) region and around the anogenital area. They become active during puberty and produce a thick, milky fluid that does not have a strong odor on its own but can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

Sweat glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning they function involuntarily in response to various stimuli such as emotions, physical activity, or changes in environmental temperature.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Tetanus toxin, also known as tetanospasmin, is a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This toxin binds to nerve endings and is transported to the nervous system's inhibitory neurons, where it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, particularly glycine and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). As a result, it causes uncontrolled muscle contractions or spasms, which are the hallmark symptoms of tetanus disease.

The toxin has two main components: an N-terminal portion called the light chain, which is the enzymatically active part that inhibits neurotransmitter release, and a C-terminal portion called the heavy chain, which facilitates the toxin's entry into neurons. The heavy chain also contains a binding domain that allows the toxin to recognize specific receptors on nerve cells.

Tetanus toxin is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated human lethal dose of just 2.5-3 nanograms per kilogram of body weight when introduced into the bloodstream. Fortunately, tetanus can be prevented through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid, which is part of the standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) immunization series for children and adolescents and the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster for adults.

A fissure in ano, also known as anal fissure, is a linear tear or split in the lining of the anus, usually occurring in the posterior midline. It can cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements. Anal fissures are often caused by constipation, passing hard stools, or prolonged diarrhea. They can also be associated with underlying conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or anal cancer. Treatment typically involves increasing fiber intake, using stool softeners, and topical treatments to promote healing and relieve pain. In some cases, surgery may be required for severe or chronic fissures that do not respond to conservative treatment.

Meige Syndrome, also known as Brueghel's syndrome or Hemifacial spasm-blepharospasm syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the simultaneous contraction of muscles in the face, neck, and sometimes other parts of the body. It is a form of dystonia, which is a movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures.

Meige Syndrome is typically divided into two types:

1. Ocular Meige Syndrome: This type primarily affects the muscles around the eyes, causing involuntary spasms, blinks, and eyelid closure.
2. Cranio-cervical Dystonia or Brueghel's syndrome: This type involves both the cranial (head) and cervical (neck) regions, leading to abnormal head postures, neck pain, and involuntary movements of the facial muscles.

The exact cause of Meige Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to abnormal functioning in the basal ganglia, a part of the brain responsible for controlling movement. In some cases, it may be associated with structural lesions or vascular abnormalities in the brain.

Treatment options for Meige Syndrome include medications such as botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, which help to relax the overactive muscles and reduce spasms. In severe cases, surgical interventions may be considered.

'Clostridium botulinum type A' is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type A. This toxin is one of the most deadly substances known, with a lethal dose estimated to be as low as 1 nanogram per kilogram of body weight. The bacterium and its toxin are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious paralytic illness in humans and animals.

The neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type A works by blocking the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is essential for muscle contraction. This results in flaccid paralysis, which can affect the muscles used for breathing and lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly.

Botulinum toxin type A has also found therapeutic use in the treatment of various medical conditions, including strabismus, blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and chronic migraine. It is marketed under the brand names Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin, among others. However, it is important to note that these therapeutic uses involve carefully controlled doses administered by trained medical professionals, and should not be attempted outside of a clinical setting.

Parasympatholytics are a type of medication that blocks the action of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's rest and digest response, which includes slowing the heart rate, increasing intestinal and glandular activity, and promoting urination and defecation.

Parasympatholytics work by selectively binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and digestive system. By blocking these receptors, parasympatholytics can cause a range of effects, such as an increased heart rate, decreased glandular secretions, and reduced intestinal motility.

Some common examples of parasympatholytics include atropine, scopolamine, and ipratropium. These medications are often used to treat conditions such as bradycardia (slow heart rate), excessive salivation, and gastrointestinal cramping or diarrhea. However, because they can have significant side effects, parasympatholytics are typically used only when necessary and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

'Clostridium botulinum type E' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces the neurotoxin botulinum toxin type E. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type E causes a form of botulism, a rare but serious illness characterized by muscle paralysis that can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Botulism caused by C. botulinum type E is often associated with the consumption of contaminated fish or marine products in aquatic environments of cold temperature, such as the Baltic and North Seas, and the Great Lakes in North America. The spores of this bacterium are resistant to heat and can survive in improperly processed or preserved food, leading to intoxication when ingested.

Preventive measures include proper handling, storage, and cooking of susceptible foods, as well as prompt medical attention if symptoms of botulism appear, such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. Botulinum toxin type E antitoxin is available for the treatment of botulism caused by this strain, but early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is a protein toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), specifically those that belong to serotype O157:H7 and some other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).

Shiga toxins are named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who discovered the first strain of E. coli that produces this toxin in 1897. These toxins inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and cause damage to the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, which can lead to various clinical manifestations such as hemorrhagic colitis (bloody diarrhea) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a severe complication that can result in kidney failure.

Shiga toxin 1 is composed of two subunits, A and B. The B subunit binds to specific glycolipid receptors on the surface of target cells, facilitating the uptake of the toxin into the cell. Once inside the cell, the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis by removing an adenine residue from a specific region of the 28S rRNA molecule in the ribosome, thereby preventing peptide bond formation and leading to cell death.

Shiga toxin 1 is highly toxic and can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Antibiotics are generally not recommended for the treatment of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections because they may increase the risk of developing HUS by inducing bacterial lysis and releasing more toxins into the circulation. Supportive care, hydration, and close monitoring are essential for managing these infections.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, leading to repetitive or twisting movements. These movements can be painful and may affect one part of the body (focal dystonia) or multiple parts (generalized dystonia). The exact cause of dystonia varies, with some cases being inherited and others resulting from damage to the brain. Treatment options include medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery.

Esophageal achalasia is a rare disorder of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. In this condition, the muscles at the lower end of the esophagus fail to relax properly during swallowing, making it difficult for food and liquids to pass into the stomach. This results in symptoms such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), regurgitation of food, chest pain, and weight loss. The cause of esophageal achalasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to damage to the nerves that control the muscles of the esophagus. Treatment options include medications to relax the lower esophageal sphincter, botulinum toxin injections, and surgical procedures such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Dystonic disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that result in involuntary, repetitive, and often twisting movements and abnormal postures. These movements can affect any part of the body, including the face, neck, limbs, and trunk. Dystonic disorders can be primary, meaning they are caused by genetic mutations or idiopathic causes, or secondary, resulting from brain injury, infection, or other underlying medical conditions.

The most common form of dystonia is cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis), which affects the muscles of the neck and results in abnormal head positioning. Other forms of dystonia include blepharospasm (involuntary eyelid spasms), oromandibular dystonia (affecting the muscles of the jaw, face, and tongue), and generalized dystonia (affecting multiple parts of the body).

Dystonic disorders can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing pain, discomfort, and social isolation. Treatment options include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery in severe cases.

T-2 toxin is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin, which is a secondary metabolite produced by certain Fusarium species of fungi. It is a low molecular weight sesquiterpene epoxide that is chemically stable and has a high toxicity profile. T-2 toxin can contaminate crops in the field or during storage, and it is often found in grains such as corn, wheat, barley, and oats.

T-2 toxin has a variety of adverse health effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, immune suppression, skin irritation, and neurotoxicity. It is also known to have teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animals, and it is considered a potential human carcinogen by some agencies.

Exposure to T-2 toxin can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. Ingestion is the most common route of exposure, particularly in areas where contaminated grains are used as a food source. Inhalation exposure can occur during agricultural activities such as harvesting and processing contaminated crops. Skin contact with T-2 toxin can cause irritation and inflammation.

Prevention of T-2 toxin exposure involves good agricultural practices, including crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, and proper storage conditions. Monitoring of T-2 toxin levels in food and feed is also important to ensure that exposure limits are not exceeded.

Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) is a measure of health outcomes that combines both the quality and quantity of life lived in a single metric. It is often used in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions to estimate their value for money. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the number of years of life gained by a weighting factor that reflects the quality of life experienced during those years, typically on a scale from 0 (representing death) to 1 (representing perfect health). For example, if a healthcare intervention extends a person's life by an additional five years but they experience only 80% of full health during that time, the QALY gain would be 4 (5 x 0.8). This measure allows for comparisons to be made between different interventions and their impact on both length and quality of life.

Shiga toxins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain strains of bacteria, including some types of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Shigella dysenteriae. These toxins get their name from Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered them in the late 19th century.

Shiga toxins are classified into two main types: Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2). Both types of toxins are similar in structure and function, but they differ in their potency and genetic makeup. Shiga toxins inhibit protein synthesis in cells by removing an adenine residue from a specific region of the 28S rRNA molecule in the ribosome, which ultimately leads to cell death.

These toxins can cause severe damage to the lining of the intestines and are associated with hemorrhagic colitis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. In some cases, Shiga toxins can also enter the bloodstream and cause systemic complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is characterized by kidney failure, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.

Exposure to Shiga toxins typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected individuals or animals. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as thorough handwashing, cooking meats thoroughly, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water.

Gustatory sweating, also known as Frey's syndrome, is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive sweating on the face, neck, and scalp while eating, especially spicy or strong-flavored foods. This unusual form of sweating occurs due to an abnormal cross-innervation between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that supply the salivary glands and sweat glands in the skin of the face and neck.

Normally, when we eat, our body activates the parasympathetic nervous system to stimulate saliva production for digestion. In some individuals, this activation can cause an aberrant response where sympathetic nerve fibers are also activated, leading to sweating in the affected areas. This condition is often a result of damage or injury to the nerves in the face, such as after surgery (particularly facial nerve or parotid gland surgeries), trauma, or infection.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a protein found in the presynaptic membrane of neurons, which plays a crucial role in the process of synaptic transmission. It is a component of the SNARE complex, a group of proteins that facilitate vesicle docking and fusion with the presynaptic membrane during neurotransmitter release. SNAP-25 binds to other SNARE proteins, syntaxin and VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein), forming a tight complex that brings the vesicle membrane into close apposition with the presynaptic membrane, allowing for the fusion of the two membranes and the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized synapse or chemical communication point, where the motor neuron's nerve terminal (presynaptic element) meets the muscle fiber's motor end plate (postsynaptic element). This junction plays a crucial role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation.

At the NMJ, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic nerve terminal into the synaptic cleft, following an action potential. Acetylcholine then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the generation of an end-plate potential. If sufficient end-plate potentials are generated and summate, they will trigger an action potential in the muscle fiber, ultimately causing muscle contraction.

Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction can result in various neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, where autoantibodies attack acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a urological condition characterized by the involuntary contraction of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder, leading to symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia (the need to wake up at night to urinate), with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong desire to void). It is important to note that OAB is not necessarily related to bladder volume or age-related changes, and it can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. The exact cause of OAB is not fully understood, but it may be associated with neurological disorders, certain medications, infections, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options for OAB include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medications, and, in some cases, surgical interventions.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Equinus deformity is a condition in which the ankle remains in a permanently plantarflexed position, meaning that the toes are pointing downward. This limitation in motion can occur in one or both feet and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. Acquired equinus deformity can result from conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, trauma, or prolonged immobilization. The limited range of motion in the ankle can cause difficulty walking, pain, and abnormalities in gait. Treatment options for equinus deformity may include physical therapy, bracing, orthotic devices, or surgery.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

'Clostridium botulinum type B' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin type B. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is responsible for causing botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and even be fatal. The bacterium is commonly found in soil and water and can produce spores that are resistant to heat, which allows them to survive in adverse conditions. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is also used in medical treatments for various neurological disorders, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, and chronic migraine, under the brand name Myobloc or NeuroBloc.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Rejuvenation, in the context of medicine and aesthetics, refers to the process or procedures aimed at restoring a youthful appearance or vitality. This can be achieved through various treatments such as hormone replacement therapy, cosmetic surgery, skin treatments, and lifestyle changes. However, it is important to note that while these procedures can help improve one's appearance or vitality, they do not halt the aging process entirely.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

'Clostridium botulinum type F' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces a powerful neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type F. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type F causes a rare form of botulism, known as foodborne or wound botulism, which can lead to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure if left untreated. This bacterium and its toxin are classified as tier 1 select agents due to their high potential for misuse as bioterrorism agents.

Toxemia is an outdated and vague term that was used to describe the presence of toxic substances or toxins in the blood. It was often used in relation to certain medical conditions, most notably in pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and eclampsia. In modern medicine, the term "toxemia" is rarely used due to its lack of specificity and the more precise terminology that has replaced it. It's crucial to note that this term should not be used in a medical context or setting.

June 1987). "Injection of type A botulinum toxin into extraocular muscles for correction of strabismus". Can. J. Ophthalmol. 22 ... Botulinum toxin is the most acutely lethal toxin that is known. It is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. It acts ... is considered to be the first ever use of botulinum toxin for therapeutic purposes. Today, the injection of botulinum toxin ... Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus is a medical technique used sometimes in the management of strabismus, in which botulinum ...
... type-A is also sold as Lantox and Prosigne on the global market. Neuronox, a botulinum toxin type-A product, ... Botulinum toxin type-A is used to treat cervical dystonia, but it can become ineffective after a time. Botulinum toxin type B ... Botulinum toxins are AB toxins and closely related to Anthrax toxin, Diphtheria toxin, and in particular tetanus toxin. The two ... The seven main types of botulinum toxin are named types A to G (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G). New types are occasionally found ...
"Botulinum toxin type A therapy for blepharospasm". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (11): CD004900. doi:10.1002/ ... Botulinum toxin injections have been used to induce localized, partial paralysis. Among most sufferers, botulinum toxin ... For some, botulinum toxin diminishes in its effectiveness after many years of use. An observed side effect in a minority of ... Although there is no cure, botulinum toxin injections may help temporarily. A surgical procedure known as myectomy may also be ...
The only botulinum toxin type B accessible in the United States is Myobloc. Treatment using botulinum toxin type B is ... Some patients experience or develop immunoresistance to botulinum toxin type A and must use botulinum toxin type B. ... Botulinum toxin type A is most often used; it prevents the release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic axon of the motor end ... The most common treatment for spasmodic torticollis is the use of botulinum toxin type A. Initial symptoms of spasmodic ...
Spastic CP is the most common type of overall cerebral palsy, representing about 80% of cases. Botulinum toxin is effective in ... Nolan KW, Cole LL, Liptak GS (April 2006). "Use of botulinum toxin type A in children with cerebral palsy". Physical Therapy. ... Blumetti FC, Belloti JC, Tamaoki MJ, Pinto JA (October 2019). "Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of lower limb spasticity ... however, the main benefit derived from botulinum toxin A comes from its ability to reduce muscle tone and spasticity and thus ...
Findings suggest the possibility that Botulinum toxin type B may be of potential benefit in the treatment of pain attributed to ... Lang AM (March 2004). "Botulinum toxin type B in piriformis syndrome". American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. ... Several variations occur, one of which is the rarely found Beaton's type-b where the sciatic nerve divides between and below ...
"Botulinum toxin type B in piriformis syndrome". Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 83 (3): 198-202. doi:10.1097/01.PHM.0000113404.35647.D8 ... Jabbari, Bahman (2022), "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Piriformis Syndrome", Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Pain Disorders, Cham: ... Steroid or botulinum toxin injections may be used in those who do not improve. Surgery is not typically recommended. The ... Alone, botulinum toxin was more effective than the placebo, but less effective than local anesthetics and corticosteroids ...
"Botulinum toxin type A therapy for hemifacial spasm". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (11): CD004899. doi: ... Tan E-K; Fook-Chong S; Lum S-Y; Lim E (16 January 2004). "Botulinum toxin improves quality of life in hemifacial spasm: ... In the majority of cases, and especially in the elderly and the unfit, botulinum toxin injection is the treatment of first ... Very mild cases or those who are reluctant to have surgery or botulinum toxin injections can be offered medical treatment, ...
Teixeira, Jeffrey (2021). "Botulinum Toxin Type-A for Lip Augmentation: "Lip Flip"". Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. Levitt, ... Botulinum neurotoxin type A,is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that temporarily reduces ... Lip flip is a cosmetic procedure that modifies the shape of the lips using botulinum neurotoxin type A and occasionally adding ...
Binder WJ, Brin MF, Blitzer A, Schoenrock LD, Pogoda JM (December 2000). "Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) for treatment of ... Binder, William J.; Brin, Mitchell F.; Blitzer, Andrew; Pogoda, Janice M. (2002-05-01). "Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) for ... Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y (April 2012). "Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension ... Ramachandran R, Yaksh TL (September 2014). "Therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in migraine: mechanisms of action". British ...
Botulinum toxin type B in piriformis syndrome. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Mar;83(3):198-202. doi: 10.1097/01.phm. ... pain response outcomes following CT-guided injection and incremental value of botulinum toxin injection. Diagn Interv Radiol. ... Poor visibility of entrapping tissue types: MR visualizes soft tissue according to water content. Tissue types with low water ... Khedr EM, Fawi G, Allah Abbas MA, El-Fetoh NA, Zaki AF, Gamea A. Prevalence of Common Types of Compression Neuropathies in Qena ...
At that time, the preparation was the only botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) without complexing foreign proteins and thus reduced ... Merz Aesthetics GmbH develops and sells products in the field of aesthetic medicine, e.g. a botulinum toxin, dermal fillers or ... In 2005, Merz brought a new generation of botulinum toxins into the market. ...
Injections of botulinum toxin into the bladder is another option. Urinary catheters or surgery are generally not recommended. A ... Medications, typically of the anti-muscarinic type, are only recommended if other measures are not effective. They are no more ... Botulinum Toxin A injections into the bladder wall can suppress involuntary bladder contractions by blocking nerve signals and ... ISBN 978-3-642-03579-1. Sacco E, Paolillo M, Totaro A, Pinto F, Volpe A, Gardi M, Bassi PF (2008). "Botulinum toxin in the ...
Botulinum neurotoxin-like (BoNT-like) toxins were detected in the genome of Chryseobacterium piperi str. CTM and they present a ... Chryseobacterium form typical yellow-orange color colonies due to flexirubin-type pigment. The genus contains more than 100 ... One of the predicted C. piperi BoNT-like toxins induced necrotic cell death in human kidney cells, but was not found to cleave ... Mansfield MJ, Doxey AC (June 2018). "Genomic insights into the evolution and ecology of botulinum neurotoxins". Pathogens and ...
Botulinum toxin ("Botox") type A may reduce spasticity a few months at a time and has frequently been considered a beneficial ... Botulinum toxin type A injections have also shown advantages for upper extremities. There is still some doubt about its use to ... Farag SM, Mohammed MO, El-Sobky TA, ElKadery NA, ElZohiery AK (March 2020). "Botulinum Toxin A Injection in Treatment of Upper ... This type of surgery is usually performed on the legs, but can be performed on the arms as well. Surgeries also may be ...
"Treatment of vocal fold granuloma using botulinum toxin type A". The Laryngoscope. 105 (6): 585-588. doi:10.1288/00005537- ... Botulinum toxin and Zinc sulfate Botulinum toxin (BOTOX) and Zinc sulfate treatments are mainly applied to cases of refractory ... Fink, Daniel S.; Achkar, Jihad; Franco, Ramon A.; Song, Phillip C. (2013-09-20). "Interarytenoid botulinum toxin injection for ... Orloff, Lisa A.; Goldman, Stephen N. (September 1999). "Vocal Fold Granuloma: Successful Treatment with Botulinum Toxin". ...
"Botulinum Toxin Type A Product Approval Information- Licensing Action 4/12/02". fda.gov. US Food and Drug Administration. ...
Botulinum toxin A is used to treat involuntary muscle contraction and spasms. Botulinum toxin type-A is only temporary and ... Feb 2004). "Use of botulinum toxin-A for musculoskeletal pain in patients with whiplash associated disorders [ISRCTN68653575 ... Below are definitions of different types of head restraints. Head restraint - refers to a device designed to limit the rearward ... As a result, different types of head restraints have been developed by various manufactures to protect their occupants from ...
Lee M, Monson MA, Liu MT, Reed D, Guyuron B (April 2013). "Positive botulinum toxin type a response is a prognosticator for ... single-surgeon experience using botulinum toxin and surgical decompression". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 128 (1): 123- ...
Most recently intradermal injections of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) have been tried with some success. Even though botulinum ... Successful Treatment of Notalgia Paresthetica With Botulinum Toxin Type A". Archives of Dermatology. Archderm.ama-assn.org. 143 ... Paravertebral nerve block and botulinum toxin injections may also be helpful. Some patients treated with low concentration ... and it has been theorised that botulinum type A effects lasting change in pain signaling. Unfortunately, repeated injections ...
Use of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) improved leonine facies of patients. BTX-A inhibits release of acetylcholine acting at ... 2010). "Treatment of pachydermoperiostosis pachydermia with botulinum toxin type A.". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63 (6): 1036-1041 ... This method is a type of cosmetic surgery procedure used to give a more youthful appearance. It involves the removal of excess ... For the follow-up of PDP disease activity, bone formation markers such as TAP, BAP, BGP, carbodyterminal propeptide of type I ...
Samotus, Olivia; Lee, Jack; Jog, Mandar (2018-03-20). "Personalized botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia based ... The surgery is for those who do not respond to physical therapy or botulinum toxin injection or have a very fibrotic ... Other treatments include: Rest and analgesics for acute cases Diazepam or other muscle relaxants Botulinum toxin Encouraging ... Safarpour, Yasaman; Jabbari, Bahman (2018-02-24). "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Movement Disorders". Current Treatment Options ...
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is often used to improve some symptoms of spasmodic dysphonia through weakening or paralyzing the vocal ... A fourth type called whispering dysphonia has also been proposed. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia is the most common type. ... van Esch BF, Wegner I, Stegeman I, Grolman W (2017). "Effect of Botulinum Toxin and Surgery among Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients ... Watts, C. C. W.; Whurr, R.; Nye, C. (2004). "Botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia". The Cochrane ...
A 2020 overview of systematic reviews found that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) showed a significant pain and sleep bruxism ... Persaud R, Garas G, Silva S, Stamatoglou C, Chatrath P, Patel K (February 2013). "An evidence-based review of botulinum toxin ( ... Botulinum toxin causes muscle paralysis/atrophy by inhibition of acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. BoNT ... Abfraction is another type of tooth wear that is postulated to occur with bruxism, although some still argue whether this type ...
Samotus O, Kumar N, Rizek P, Jog M (January 2018). "Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections as Monotherapy for Upper Limb Essential ... Zakin E, Simpson D (November 2017). "Botulinum Toxin in Management of Limb Tremor". Toxins. 9 (11): 365. doi:10.3390/ ... "Long-term tremor therapy for Parkinson and essential tremor with sensor-guided botulinum toxin type A injections". PLOS ONE. 12 ... Clostridium botulinum toxin (Botox) injections and ultrasound are also sometimes used for cases refractory to medications. In ...
In 1994, the group launched Dysport (type A botulinum toxin for the treatment of muscle spasms) after acquiring the British ... the company established a partnership with Galderma for botulinum toxin type A products in aesthetic medicine. In addition, ... In 2004, the company inaugurated a new botulinum toxin production unit in Wrexham (UK). In 2007, ... Botulinum toxin) is a prescription medicine used for pathologies characterized by involuntary and uncomfortable muscle ...
Ito H, Ito H, Nakano S, Kusaka H (2007). "Low-dose subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A for facial synkinesis and ... Botox (botulinum toxin) is a new and versatile tool for the treatment of synkinesis. Initially used for reducing hyperkinesis ... de Maio M, Bento RF (2007). "Botulinum toxin in facial palsy: an effective treatment for contralateral hyperkinesis". Plast ... with injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland". Eye. 16 (6): 705-09. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6700230. PMID 12439663. ...
... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Clin Dermatol. 4. ...
Treating a case of unsatisfactory alignment often involves prisms, botulinum toxin injections, or more surgery. The likelihood ... The type of surgery for a given patient depends on the type of strabismus they are experiencing. Exodeviations are when the ... it can instead end up making existing symptoms worse or create a new type of double vision. The type of double vision can be ... Treatment of the double vision depends on both the type of double vision and the ability of two eyes to work together, also ...
October 1999). "Safety and efficacy of NeuroBloc (botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 ... There is a Type A and a Type B toxin approved for treatment of dystonia; often, those that develop resistance to Type A may be ... Baclofen can also be taken in tablet form Botulinum toxin injections into affected muscles have proved quite successful in ... There are multiple types of dystonia, and many diseases and conditions may cause dystonia. Dystonia is classified by: Clinical ...
Use this page to view details for the Local Coverage Determination for Botulinum Toxin Type A & Type B. ... A57474 - Billing and Coding: Botulinum Toxin Type A & Type B A58907 - Response to Comments: Botulinum Toxin Type A & Type B ( ... Botulinum toxin type A and botulinum toxin type B create a chemical blockade by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine from ... Approved indications for botulinum toxin type A and toxin type B differ. WPS GHA has determined that the separate accepted ...
Botulinum toxin injection - larynx Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to ... seizure medicines Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) agents Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injections may also help reduce ... Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same toxin that causes a life- ... Botulinum Toxin (Botox) (VisualDX) Botox/Learn More ... Botox ... VisualDX ... Aging gracefully is not desirable to some people ...
Clostridium botulinum produces all 7 toxin types (2-4). Toxin type E may also be produced by C. butyricum (5), and type F by C ... Botulinum toxin type F was identified by mouse bioassay (2) at the Utah Public Health Laboratories in serum samples drawn on ... Seven serologically distinct botulinum toxins, designated A through G, are known; virtually all human cases are caused by types ... Antitoxins to botulinum toxin types A, B, and E were administered within 24 hours. Nevertheless, paralysis progressed after ...
Botulinum toxin type A is a chemical that relaxes muscles; it is produced by a type of bacteria. It is commonly used to smooth ... The studies tested four types of botulinum toxin that were licensed for use and some other types that were not yet licensed. ... To assess the effects of all commercially available botulinum toxin type A products for the treatment of any type of facial ... The studies compared one type of botulinum toxin against another type, against a placebo (an injection that did not contain any ...
Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. Objectives: To compare the ... and tolerability of botulinum toxin type A (BtA) versus placebo in people with cervical dystonia. Search methods: To identify ...
Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX). *View full drug information. This agent binds to the receptor sites on motor nerve terminals ... Neuromuscular Blocker Agents, Botulinum Toxins. Class Summary. These agents produce symptomatic improvement in muscle strength ... Botulinum toxin injections also can improve dystonic muscles.. Agents used to relieve rigidity and spasticity may prove ... Botulinum toxin injection to improve functional independence and to alleviate parenting stress in a child with advanced ...
Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage* * Ectropion / drug therapy* * Ectropion / etiology * Facial Muscles / drug ... The role of botulinum toxin in correcting frontalis-induced eyelid pseudo-retraction post ptosis surgery Indian J Ophthalmol. ... Despite repeated instructions, when the patient continued brow overuse subconsciously, an injection of botulinum toxin was ...
Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is widely used in the management of muscle spasticity in children. However, at present the dose of ... Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage* * Botulinum Toxins, Type A / adverse effects* ... Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is widely used in the management of muscle spasticity in children. However, at present the dose of ... Safety profile and efficacy of botulinum toxin A (Dysport) in children with muscle spasticity Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001 Apr;43 ...
Botulinum Toxin Injections-Cosmetic. (Botulinum Toxin Type A; Botulinum Toxin Type B; Botox Injections). Pronounced: baut-U-lie ... which are formulations of botulinum toxin type A. Myobloc is another brand, but it is a formulation of botulinum toxin type B. ... Botulinum toxin (botox) is made from a type of bacteria. Another name for it is bacterial neurotoxin. An injection of botox ... Cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of post-stroke spasticity. J Rehabil Med. 2005;37(4):252-257. ...
Ultrasound-guided nerve block with botulinum toxin Type A for intractable neuropathic pain. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8:4-8. ... Botulinum toxin type A injection in the treatment of lichen simplex: An open pilot study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:617-619. ... Botulinum toxin type-a for the treatment of inverse psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venerol. 2008;22:431-436. ... Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) blocks the release of acetylcholine and many other neurotransmitters from the presynaptic ...
Botox is the most potent biological toxin known to exist. Fortunately, science has harnessed its potential to treat a number of ... Different types of Botulinum toxin. There are eight different botulinum toxin species that occur in nature. There are only two ... What is botulinum toxin?. Botulinum toxin is a substance produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulism is caused by ... What does Botulinum toxin treatment for Parkinsons look like?. The effects of Botulinum toxin take hold about 3-10 days after ...
Its the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism. Doctors use it in small doses to ... Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles (American Academy of Ophthalmology) * Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for ... Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Overview (American Academy of Dermatology) * Counterfeit Version of Botox Found in the United States ( ... Benefits of Botulinum Toxin: Its Not Just for Wrinkles (National Institutes of Health) Also in Spanish ...
The global botulinum toxin market is projected to grow from $7.49 billion in 2023 to $10.62 billion by 2030, at a CAGR of 5.1% ... By Type (Botulinum Toxin Type A and Botulinum Toxin Type B), By End-user (Specialty & Dermatology Clinics, Hospitals & Clinics ... Botulinum Toxin Market Size, Share & COVID-19 Impact Analysis, By Application (Therapeutic {Chronic Migraine, Spasticity, ...
Effect of botulinum toxin type A, motor imagery and motor observation on motor function of hemiparetic upper limb after stroke. ... Effect of botulinum toxin type A, motor imagery and motor observation on motor function of hemiparetic upper limb after stroke ... Effect of botulinum toxin type A, motor imagery and motor observation on motor function of hemiparetic upper limb after stroke ... Effect of botulinum toxin type A, motor imagery and motor observation on motor function of hemiparetic upper limb after stroke ...
Botulinum toxin type A) manufactured by Allergan India Pvt. ltd, It is used to treat different spasms and neurological issues. ... Cosmetic use of Botox Allergan (Botulinum Toxin Type A) in the Elderly. Botulinum toxin type A injection is one of the most ... Botulinum toxin type A is an active ingredient in Botox Injection that uses a toxin to stop a muscle from moving for a limited ... Can botulinum toxin be used to apply to the face?. Botulinum toxin injections are routinely used to chemically denervate ...
Gufic Biosciences launches Botulinum toxin Type A injection under brand name Zarbot in India. The injection has been launched ... New Delhi: Gufic Biosciences Ltd on Friday said it has launched indigenously produced Botulinum toxin Type A injection under ... Gufic Biosciences launches Botulinum toxin Type A injection under brand name Zarbot in India ...
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  • Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (nih.gov)
  • Clostridium botulinum produces all 7 toxin types ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that causes a flaccid muscle paralysis. (jcadonline.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is a substance produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • It is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its alternative name is Clostridium botulinum type - B neurotoxin complex and it is manufactured from purified type - B neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. (dermalfillersupplier.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is released as a progenitor complex, in association with a non-toxic-non-hemagglutinin protein (NTNH) and other associated proteins. (nature.com)
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most toxic substance known to mankind and no therapeutic intervention is currently available for post-exposure treatment. (nature.com)
  • This is one of several toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. (medscape.com)
  • Unwanted effects are probably more common with botulinum toxin than with placebo injections. (cochrane.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injections also can improve dystonic muscles. (medscape.com)
  • It was hypothesized that localized pruritus in LSC, if mediated by acetylcholine sensitive C-fibers, could be blocked by intradermal botulinum toxin type A injections. (jcadonline.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (botox) injections - can they help your symptoms of Parkinson's disease? (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injections, targeting the particular muscles that are moving excessively, can be effective in all these scenarios. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injections into the salivary glands can decrease production of saliva and thereby decrease drooling. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injections into the bladder can relax the bladder thereby allowing for more normal urination. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botox injections (botulinum toxin type A) are used for chronic migraines, spastic disorders, cervical dystonia, and detrusor hyperactivity. (buygenericpills.com)
  • Botox Allergan vial Injections (botulinum toxin type A) are one of the most popular cosmetic procedures worldwide. (buygenericpills.com)
  • How Botox Allergan Injections (Botulinum toxin type A) Work? (buygenericpills.com)
  • Some consider botulinum injections to be a treatment option for children with small- to moderate-angle infantile esotropia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's unbelievable to us that people continue to use botulinum A injections when the warning of toxin spread, leading to human botulism is listed right on the prescription label. (never-tox.com)
  • As state above, negative side effects to Botulinum toxin injections are often underreported. (never-tox.com)
  • We truly hope that these facts cause people take a pause, and question if botulinum injections are actually safe? (never-tox.com)
  • Due to treatment refraction, 6 uniformly spaced botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections were placed per side, using electromyography for audible intramuscular syringe placement confirmation, while visual confirmation was made via ultrasound. (unmc.edu)
  • Botulinum toxin (BOTOX) for the treatment of "spastic dysphonia" as part of a trial of toxin injections for the treatment of other cranial dystonias. (medscape.com)
  • Despite repeated instructions, when the patient continued brow overuse subconsciously, an injection of botulinum toxin was given just above both brows. (nih.gov)
  • We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of localized recalcitrant chronic pruritus in lichen simplex, inverse psoriasis, post-burn itching, lichen planus (hypertrophic), and postherpetic neuralgia. (jcadonline.com)
  • Today, the injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles that surround the eyes is one of the available options in the management of strabismus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For patients who have had healthy vision heretofore until a small, horizontal deviation set in suddenly, the injection of botulinum toxin may allow them to maintain the binocular vision skills that had been acquired earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injecting botulinum toxin type A (a Botox-like treatment) reduces wrinkles between the eyebrows, and is relatively safe to use. (cochrane.org)
  • We wanted to find out how well botulinum toxin could treat wrinkles on the face, and if it causes any unwanted effects. (cochrane.org)
  • We searched for studies that tested the effects of botulinum toxin to treat wrinkles on the face. (cochrane.org)
  • Our confidence in the evidence is moderate to high that botulinum toxin reduces wrinkles between the eyebrows better than a placebo. (cochrane.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A (BontA) is the most frequent treatment for facial wrinkles, but its effectiveness and safety have not previously been assessed in a Cochrane Review. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effects of all commercially available botulinum toxin type A products for the treatment of any type of facial wrinkles. (cochrane.org)
  • You most likely know that Botulinum toxin (more commonly referred to as Botox®, among other brand names) is used for cosmetic purposes to decrease wrinkles. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Men and women between the ages of 40 and 60 who have facial wrinkles induced by recurrent, habitual muscular contractions over time are considered aged patients for BTX Type A Injection. (buygenericpills.com)
  • Treatment of facial lines and wrinkles with botulinum toxin type A has become the most frequently performed cosmetic procedure in the United States today, according to the American Societ. (5minuteconsult.com)
  • 1 Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) is one of the most popular and less invasive aesthetic procedures available for the improvement of wrinkles. (jcadonline.com)
  • Examples include Botox, Dysport, and Reloxin, which are formulations of botulinum toxin type A. Myobloc is another brand, but it is a formulation of botulinum toxin type B. These products are used for cosmetic and medical reasons. (epnet.com)
  • Prescription suitability was determined based on the approved indications in the drug data sheet of the three BT type A available in the hospital: Botox, Dysport and Xeomin. (bmj.com)
  • Botulinum toxin A is available in the United States as BOTOX® (Allergan) and in Europe as Dysport (Speywood), while botulinum toxin B is known as Myobloc in the United States and Neurobloc in Europe. (medscape.com)
  • It's the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism . (nih.gov)
  • Botulism type F causes ≈1% of botulism cases in the United States ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A recent review described all 13 cases of botulism type F from the USA between 1981 and 2002 ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These features represent a more precipitous initial course than is typical for type A or type B botulism but a more rapid recovery. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe a case of botulism type F in an adult who recovered despite the continued presence of toxin in the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulism is caused by the harmful effects of this toxin. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • We are disappointed and shocked to learn that dozens of sea gulls found suffering or deceased in Huntington Beach this October tested positive for type A botulism. (never-tox.com)
  • If you are injecting yourself with botulinum A and think that you are safe from contracting Iatrogenic Botulism Disease, then you are ignoring the warning label, and choosing to be misled. (never-tox.com)
  • There is evidence to consider that Iatrogenic Botulism Disease happens at some level to every person that injects their body with botulinum A. The side effects of the disease may be subtle for some, which causes underreporting to doctors and the FDA. (never-tox.com)
  • What is the exact AMOUNT OF TOXIN it takes to cause human botulism? (never-tox.com)
  • A single case of foodborne botulism constitutes a public health emergency, necessitating an urgent response to identify the source and prevent further consumption of the toxin-containing food. (cdc.gov)
  • We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins are classified into 7 types, A-G. Toxin types A, B, and E cause most human botulism, and type F represents only 1% of reported cases ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The source of intoxication with type F botulism among adults is often uncertain but might result from either intestinal colonization with clostridial spores and subsequent intraintestinal toxin production or from ingestion of preformed toxin in contaminated food ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Illness from type F botulism is distinguished by a fulminant onset and short duration ( 1 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We report atypical type F botulism associated with demyelination of cranial nerves. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulinum antitoxin was not administered at that time because asymmetric neurologic deficits and lack of exposure to injection-drug use or home-preserved foods made botulism unlikely. (cdc.gov)
  • The efficacy of botulinum toxin type A treatment and surgery for acute acquired comitant esotropia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy is used as a valuable agent for therapeutic and cosmetic treatments in the clinical setting. (buygenericpills.com)
  • The therapeutic use of botulinum toxin-reported adverse effects puts great pressure on cosmetic practice. (buygenericpills.com)
  • The injection of the toxin to treat strabismus, reported upon in 1981, is considered to be the first ever use of botulinum toxin for therapeutic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When injected intramuscularly at therapeutic doses, botulinum toxin type A produces a partial chemical denervation of the muscle resulting in localized muscle paralysis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Scott AB Clostridial toxins as therapeutic agents. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Background Neurology is one of the medical specialities in which botulinum toxin (BT) provides greater therapeutic benefits due to its ability to produce muscle paralysis, which can be used to treat certain neurological diseases involving muscle hyperactivity. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, differences in species sensitivities to different botulinum neurotoxin serotypes precludes extrapolation of animal-dose activity relationships to human dose estimates. (never-tox.com)
  • The effect of administering different botulinum neurotoxin products at the same time or within several months of each other is unknown. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) blocks the release of acetylcholine and many other neurotransmitters from the presynaptic vesicle by deactivating soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. (jcadonline.com)
  • When Botulinum toxin is injected into a muscle, it gets taken up by the nerve endings that interface with the muscle, and interferes with the release of acetylcholine, thereby stopping communication between the nerve and the muscle. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A blocks neuromuscular conduction by binding to receptor sites on motor nerve terminals, entering the nerve terminals, and inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Xeomin (botulinum neurotoxin type A) is recommended, within its marketing authorisation, as an option for treating chronic sialorrhoea caused by neurological conditions in adults. (lancashireandsouthcumbriammg.nhs.uk)
  • Botox 50 Units Injection Vial Contains botulinum toxin type A used to block acetylcholine release in the treatment of chronic sialorrhea, muscle spast. (buygenericpills.com)
  • Botulinum toxin affects the neuromuscular junction by binding presynaptically and blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, thereby preventing muscle contraction in the innervated area. (medscape.com)
  • The toxin does not affect the synthesis or storage of acetylcholine or the conduction of electrical signals along the nerve fiber. (medscape.com)
  • The idea that they play an important role is also based on data that suggest drastically-enhanced oral toxicity of the progenitor toxin compared to the purified BoNT 10 . (nature.com)
  • Scott AB, Suzuki D. Systemic toxicity of botulinum toxin by intramuscular injection in the monkey. (medscape.com)
  • To increase participants understanding of the mechanism of action of Botulinum Toxin Type A and its clinical uses to rejuvenate the face. (confex.com)
  • 3 Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A-Mechanism of Actions Botulinum toxin is manufactured with the anaerobic gram-positive bacteriaClostridium botulinumand released being a 150-kDa. (tam-receptor.com)
  • Mechanism of action of botulinum toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is the most acutely lethal toxin that is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • This toxin spreads past the injection site, and damages all body systems, which makes perfect sense because, botulinum is the most 'acutely lethal substance' on the planet! (never-tox.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is used in various other medical settings such as dystonia that is not related to Parkinson's disease, migraine, and limb spasticity or stiffness after stroke. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • To compare the long-term efficiency of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) injection and surgery on acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE). (bvsalud.org)
  • Intradermal botolinum toxin A (BTXA) is an advanced technique that emerged in response to the increased demand for noninvasive facial lifting and skin rejuvenation. (jcadonline.com)
  • Botulinum toxin exists in nature as a clostridial neurotoxin that is extracted from fermented culture media, precipitated, purified, and crystallized with ammonium sulfate. (medscape.com)
  • More studies are needed to assess the longer-term benefits and harms of repeated treatment with botulinum toxin. (cochrane.org)
  • The studies compared one type of botulinum toxin against another type, against a placebo (an injection that did not contain any botulinum toxin), or against an alternative treatment. (cochrane.org)
  • Cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of post-stroke spasticity. (epnet.com)
  • Botulinum toxin has also been used experimentally in the treatment of many other dermatological conditions with positive results, including persistent facial flushing, gustatory sweating, anal fissures, familial benign pemphigus, dyshidrotic eczema, and surgical wound closures. (jcadonline.com)
  • In addition, there are causes of urinary problems in PD that are not amenable to Botulinum toxin treatment, so you will need to discuss your particular situation with a urologist. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Background: In rehabilitation settings, motor imagery, motor observation and mirror therapy serve as techniques for the recovery of paretic upper limb in patients with movement disorders after stroke, whereas botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) offers the best treatment for focal spasticity. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is also used in management and treatment for medical and cosmetic purposes. (buygenericpills.com)
  • Despite the fact that the manufacturer's label exclusively suggests botulinum toxin for the treatment of glabellar lines in people under the age of 65, the toxin is widely used for other cosmetic treatments and in patients over the age of 65. (buygenericpills.com)
  • Another study reported similar long-term success rates for infantile esotropia treated before 24 months of age by either strabismus surgery or botulinum toxin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outlook for someone with turkey neck is dependent on which type of treatment or treatments that person uses. (healthline.com)
  • Neck exercises appear to be the least effective type of treatment, while surgeries and medical procedures are most effective, and cosmetic creams fall somewhere in the middle. (healthline.com)
  • Naumann MLowe NJ Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis: randomised, parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Bushara KOPark DMJones JCSchutta HS Botulinum toxin: a possible new treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Naumann MHofmann UBergmann IHamm HToyka KVReiners K Focal hyperhidrosis: effective treatment with intracutaneous botulinium toxin. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Naver HAquilonius SM The treatment of focal hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Naver HSwartling CAquilonius SM Treatment of focal hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A: brief overview of methodology and 2 year's experience. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Treatment of focal hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A: long-term follow-up in 61 patients. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The development of new techniques such as botulinum toxin application may be a more conservative treatment option than surgical intervention (myectomy and Le Fort I osteotomy) in the treatment of gummy smile. (bvsalud.org)
  • We found several heterogeneous studies (different types or doses of BontA, number of cycles, and different facial regions) hindering meta-analyses. (cochrane.org)
  • Atlanta, GA, USA) provided heptavalent (anti-ABCDEFG) equine F(ab′)2 antitoxin, but because of progressive clinical improvement, it was surmised that no toxin remained in circulation, and the antitoxin was not administered. (cdc.gov)
  • it is produced by a type of bacteria. (cochrane.org)
  • Botulinum toxin (botox) is made from a type of bacteria. (epnet.com)
  • Injecting botulinum toxin type A probably increases the risk of eyelid drooping. (cochrane.org)
  • We will conclude this post with Injecting any amount of botulinum into your body, medically- or to temporarily smooth away a few beautifully earned (and totally normal) facial lines, is hands down the most foolish thing a person can do. (never-tox.com)
  • Tremor - Although Botulinum toxin is not commonly used for this purpose, there are case reports in the literature showing its effective use for the control of tremor. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Wondertox is a botulinum toxin, most commonly known as Botox. (dermafiller.shop)
  • A and B types are the most commonly used. (medscape.com)
  • Aminoglycosides and Other Agents Interfering with Neuromuscular Transmission: Co-administration of BOTOX and aminoglycosides or other agents interfering with neuromuscular transmission (e.g., curare-like compounds) should only be performed with caution as the effect of the toxin may be potentiated. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Excessive neuromuscular weakness may be exacerbated by administration of another botulinum toxin prior to the resolution of the effects of a previously administered botulinum toxin. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Objectives: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of botulinum toxin type A (BtA) versus placebo in people with cervical dystonia. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Ondo WG, Gollomp S, Galvez-Jimenez N. A pilot study of botulinum toxin A for headache in cervical dystonia. (epnet.com)
  • Any person can have this type of cervical dystonia. (rxmed.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A, which is the active component of Allergan Botox 100 Units Injection, is used to treat different spasms and neurological issues. (buygenericpills.com)
  • Due to specific details of this assay such as the vehicle, dilution scheme and laboratory protocols for the various mouse LD50 assays, Units of biological activity of BOTOX ® cannot be compared to nor converted into Units of any other botulinum toxin or any toxin assessed with any other specific assay method. (never-tox.com)
  • The similarity of the general architecture between the PTC-E(M) and the previously determined PTC-A(M) strongly suggests that the progenitor M complexes of all botulinum serotypes may have similar molecular arrangement, although the neurotoxins apparently can take very different conformation when they are released from the M complex. (nature.com)
  • The toxin temporarily weakens targeted muscles. (epnet.com)
  • The good news is that decades ago, scientists learned how to isolate the toxin and harness its power for medical use, and it can be safely injected into particular muscles in order to decrease unwanted movements of those muscles. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A injection is one of the most popular cosmetic procedures used to reduce the appearance of facial lines caused by habitual contraction of facial muscles. (buygenericpills.com)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus is a medical technique used sometimes in the management of strabismus, in which botulinum toxin is injected into selected extraocular muscles in order to reduce the misalignment of the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For treating strabismus, the toxin is used in much diluted form, and the injection is targeted to reach specific muscles that move the eye, thereby temporarily weakening the selected muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • After local or general anaesthesia has been applied, the botulinum toxin is injected directly into the selected eye muscles using a specially designed needle electrode that is connected to an electromyography (EMG) apparatus as well as to a syringe containing the botulinum toxin solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active ingredient of Azzalure is Botulinum Toxin Type A, which causes muscles to relax. (aesthetics-supplies.com)
  • Efficacy was quantified as the percentage change in seizure frequency, and safety was assessed by the frequency and types of adverse events. (keywen.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A is an active ingredient in Botox Injection that uses a toxin to stop a muscle from moving for a limited period of time. (buygenericpills.com)
  • The main element words used were botulinum toxin A neurogenic children and bladder. (tam-receptor.com)
  • Around 90 of sufferers respond well to the type of healing structure [3 4 Nevertheless a share of sufferers which should not really end up being underestimated are refractory to the plan Fargesin or develop intolerance towards the anticholinergic medications and thus need lower urinary system reconstructions such as for example bladder augmentation to be able Fargesin to attain continent urinary reservoirs with sufficient capability and low pressure. (tam-receptor.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. (nih.gov)
  • When food contaminated with BoNTs is ingested the toxin passes through the gastrointestinal tract, transcytosed from gut lumen into general blood circulation, binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuronal cells and then is internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis into nerve cells. (nature.com)
  • The binding domain of the type A molecule appears to be the heavy chain, which is selective for cholinergic nerve terminals. (medscape.com)
  • BOTOX® is internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process in which the plasma membrane of the nerve cell invaginates around the toxin-receptor complex, forming a toxin-containing vesicle inside the nerve terminal. (medscape.com)
  • After internalization, the light chain of the toxin molecule, which has been demonstrated to contain the transmission-blocking domain, is released into the cytoplasm of the nerve terminal. (medscape.com)
  • Platysma synkinesis in facial palsy and botulinum toxin type A. (unipv.it)
  • Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin A appears to be a safe and effective therapy for the improvement of localized recalcitrant itching in LSC, inverse psoriasis, burns, hypertrophic lichen planus, lichen planus, and symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia. (jcadonline.com)
  • There are indications that botulinum toxin therapy is as successful as strabismus surgery for patients with binocular vision and that it is less successful than surgery for those who have no binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study performed in the 1980s found outcomes of surgery to be "more predictable and longer lasting" than those of botulinum toxin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a small-scale study, adults whose reading difficulties due to convergence insufficiency had been unsuccessfully addressed by convergence exercises, base-in prism glasses or strabismus surgery showed improved reading after botulinum toxin therapy, maintaining improved reading remaining also after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy has been reported to be similarly successful as strabismus surgery for patients with binocular vision and less successful than surgery for those who have no binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study found that botulinum toxin therapy had similar long-term success rates for treating infantile esotropia with botulinum toxin A before the age of 12 months as would have been expected from strabismus surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wollina UKararofilov TXonrad H High-dose botulinum toxin type A therapy for axillary hyperhidrosis markedly prolongs the relapse-free interval. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Purpose To analyse the prescription profile of BT type A in neurological diseases and prescription suitability based on the data sheet, comparing the frequency of administration between the different approved indications. (bmj.com)
  • Nowadays on the market exists a large variety of pharmaceutical products, botulinum products, and dermal fillers. (dermalfillersupplier.com)
  • Reliable fillers is proud to be a trusted supplier of 100% authentic, fully sealed Botulinum Toxin products that come with a customer satisfaction guarantee. (premier-aesthetics.com)
  • The estimated human median lethal (LD 50 ) of type A toxin is 1.3-2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly, 10-13 ng/kg when inhaled, or 1000 ng/kg orally. (never-tox.com)
  • At four weeks after injection, all types of botulinum toxin reduced glabellar lines more than a placebo. (cochrane.org)
  • A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study trial of botulinum toxin type A for severe axillary hyperhidrosis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Botulinum Toxin Type A for Refractory Abdominal Dystonia" by William J. Naber II, Jodi M. Wilhelm et al. (unmc.edu)
  • Two studies compared two different types of botulinum toxin and found no difference between the types for how well they reduced glabellar lines. (cochrane.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is an additional option in the cosmetic improvement of the smile and gives better results when combined with gingival resection surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Naumann MKHamm HLowe NJ Effect of botulinum toxin type A on quality-of-life measures in patients with excessive axillary sweating: a randomized controlled trial. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Heckmann MCeballos-Baumann AOPlewig G Botulinum toxin for axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating). (jamanetwork.com)
  • I am interested in 100ui Hyamely Botulinum Toxin Type A For Face Anti Wrinkle could you send me more details such as type, size, quantity, material, etc. (ha-dermalfillers.com)
  • The toxin can also interact with medications, such as antibiotics. (epnet.com)
  • Safety and Efficacy Based on Evidence Given the multiple reasons of age-related skin changes, data on the use of botulinum toxin in older people is sparse and wrinkling in the elderly, as well as the high risk of concomitant diseases and potential side effects of medications, the elderly The patient should be preceded by a careful risk-benefit assessment of the decision to use Botox. (buygenericpills.com)
  • 2 decades ago intravesical botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was initially used being a healing alternative. (tam-receptor.com)
  • Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is widely used in the management of muscle spasticity in children. (nih.gov)
  • We have determined the crystal structure of M type Progenitor complex of botulinum neurotoxin E [PTC-E(M)], a heterodimer of BoNT and NTNH. (nature.com)
  • It is known that progenitor toxin complex protects the neurotoxin during exposure to harsh conditions found in the stomach and small intestines where it is exposed to acidic pH (2.0) and peptidases like pepsin. (nature.com)
  • In spite of these harsh conditions, the toxin and other components of the complex can be detected in the general blood circulation. (nature.com)