Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Anti-Dyskinesia Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Hyperhidrosis: Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Cosmetic Techniques: Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.Hemifacial Spasm: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)Paraparesis, Spastic: Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Hypohidrosis: Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Cryoanesthesia: ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Fissure in Ano: A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Meige Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Esophageal Achalasia: A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Sweating, Gustatory: An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Urinary Bladder, Overactive: Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Equinus Deformity: Plantar declination of the foot.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Clostridium botulinum type B: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Rejuvenation: The phenomenon of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness being restored. This can apply to appearance, TISSUES, organ functions, or other areas.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Toxemia: A condition produced by the presence of toxins or other harmful substances in the BLOOD.

Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin type A poisoning: biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals. (1/694)

Blockade of acetylcholine release by botulinum neurotoxin type A at the neuromuscular junction induces the formation of an extensive network of nerve-terminal sprouts. By repeated in vivo imaging of N-(3-triethyl ammonium propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide uptake into identified nerve endings of the mouse sternomastoid muscle after a single intramuscular injection of the toxin, inhibition of stimulated uptake of the dye at the terminals was detected within a few days, together with an increase in staining of the newly formed sprouts. After 28 days, when nerve stimulation again elicited muscle contraction, regulated vesicle recycling occurred only in the sprouts [shown to contain certain soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins (SNAREs) and to abut acetylcholine receptors] and not at the parent terminals. Therefore, only these sprouts could be responsible for nerve-muscle transmission at this time. However, a second, distinct phase of the rehabilitation process followed with a return of vesicle turnover to the original terminals, accompanied by an elimination of the by then superfluous sprouts. This extension and later removal of "functional" sprouts indicate their fundamental importance in the repair of paralyzed endplates, a finding with ramifications for the vital process of nerve regeneration.  (+info)

Comparison of mouse bioassay and immunoprecipitation assay for botulinum toxin antibodies. (2/694)

OBJECTIVE: To compare a recently developed immunoprecipitation assay (IPA) to the mouse protection bioassay (MPB), currently considered the "gold standard", for detecting antibodies against botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and to correlate these assay results with clinical responses to BTX-A injections. METHODS: MPB and IPA assays were performed on serum samples from 83 patients (38 non-responders, 45 responders) who received BTX-A injections. Six non-responders had serum tested on two separate occasions. Some patients also received a "test" injection into either the right eyebrow (n=29) or right frontalis (n=19). RESULTS: All patients antibody positive (Ab+) by MPB were also Ab+ by IPA, whereas an additional 19 patients (17 with reduced or no clinical response) who were MPB Ab- were Ab+, with low titres, by IPA. Two of these 19 patients (non-responders) were initially MPB Ab- but later became MPB Ab+. Similar to previous studies, the sensitivity for the MPB was low; 50% for clinical, 38% for eyebrow, and 30% for frontalis responses whereas the IPA sensitivity was much higher at 84% for clinical (p<0.001), 77% for eyebrow (p=0.111, NS) and 90% for frontalis responses (p<0.02). The IPA specificity was 89% for clinical, 81% for eyebrow, and 89% for frontalis responses, whereas the MPB specificity was 100% for all three response types, which were all non-significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Both assays had high specificity although the sensitivity of the IPA was higher than the MPB. In addition, the IPA seems to display positivity earlier than the MPB, and as such, it may prognosticate future non-responsiveness. Eyebrow and frontalis "test" injections correlated well with clinical and immunological results and are useful in the assessment of BTX non-responders.  (+info)

Characterization of a vertebrate neuromuscular junction that demonstrates selective resistance to botulinum toxin. (3/694)

Botulinum toxin blocks transmitter release by proceeding through a series of four steps: binding to cell surface receptors, penetration of the cell membrane by receptor-mediated endocytosis, penetration of the endosome membrane by pH-induced translocation, and intracellular proteolysis of substrates that govern exocytosis. Each of these steps is essential for toxin action on intact cells. Therefore, alterations in cell structure or cell function that impede any of these steps should confer resistance to toxin. In the present study, screening for susceptibility to four serotypes of botulinum toxin revealed that the cutaneous-pectoris nerve-muscle preparation of Rana pipiens is resistant to type B botulinum toxin. Resistance was demonstrated both by electrophysiologic techniques and by dye-staining techniques. In addition, resistance to serotype B was demonstrated at toxin concentrations that were 2 orders of magnitude higher than those associated with blockade produced by other serotypes. In experiments on broken cell preparations, type B toxin cleaved synaptobrevin from frog brain synaptosomes. However, the toxin did not bind to frog nerve membranes. These findings suggest that resistance is due to an absence of cell surface receptors for botulinum toxin type B. The fact that cutaneous-pectoris preparations were sensitive to other botulinum toxin serotypes (A, C, and D), as well as other neuromuscular blocking agents (alpha-latrotoxin, beta-bungarotoxin), indicates that botulinum toxin type B receptors are distinct.  (+info)

A comparison of injections of botulinum toxin and topical nitroglycerin ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. (4/694)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Lateral internal sphincterotomy, the most common treatment for chronic anal fissure, may cause permanent injury to the anal sphincter, which can lead to fecal incontinence. We compared two nonsurgical treatments that avert the risk of fecal incontinence. We randomly assigned 50 adults with symptomatic chronic posterior anal fissures to receive treatment with either a total of 20 U of botulinum toxin injected into the internal anal sphincter on each side of the anterior midline or 0.2 percent nitroglycerin ointment applied twice daily for six weeks. RESULTS: After two months, the fissures were healed in 24 of the 25 patients (96 percent) in the botulinum-toxin group and in 15 of the 25 (60 percent) in the nitroglycerin group (P=0.005). No patient in either group had fecal incontinence. At some time during treatment, five patients in the nitroglycerin group had transient, moderate-to-severe headaches that were related to treatment. None of the patients in the botulinum-toxin group reported adverse effects. Ten patients who did not have a response to the assigned treatment - 1 in the botulinum-toxin group and 9 in the nitroglycerin group - crossed over to the other treatment; the fissures subsequently healed in all 10 patients. There were no relapses during an average of about 15 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment with either topical nitroglycerin or botulinum toxin is effective as an alternative to surgery for patients with chronic anal fissure, botulinum toxin is the more effective nonsurgical treatment.  (+info)

Persistence of botulinum neurotoxin action in cultured spinal cord cells. (5/694)

Primary dissociated fetal mouse spinal cord cultures were used to study the mechanisms underlying the differences in persistence of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and botulinum neurotoxin/E (BoNT/E) activities. Spinal cord cultures were exposed to BoNT/A (0.4 pM) for 2-3 days, which converted approximately half of the SNAP-25 to an altered form lacking the final nine C-terminal residues. The distribution of toxin-damaged to control SNAP-25 remained relatively unchanged for up to 80 days thereafter. Application of a high concentration of BoNT/E (250 pM) either 25 or 60 days following initial intoxication with BoNT/A converted both normal and BoNT/A-truncated SNAP-25 into a single population lacking the final 26 C-terminal residues. Excess BoNT/E was removed by washout, and recovery of intact SNAP-25 was monitored by Western blot analysis. The BoNT/E-truncated species gradually diminished during the ensuing 18 days, accompanied by the reappearance of both normal and BoNT/A-truncated SNAP-25. Return of BoNT/A-truncated SNAP-25 was observed in spite of the absence of BoNT/A in the culture medium during all but the first 3 days of exposure. These results indicate that proteolytic activity associated with the BoNT/A light chain persists inside cells for > 11 weeks, while recovery from BoNT/E is complete in < 3 weeks. This longer duration of enzymatic activity appears to account for the persistence of serotype A action.  (+info)

Pure botulinum neurotoxin is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine and produces peripheral neuromuscular blockade. (6/694)

Clostridium botulinum serotype A produces a neurotoxin composed of a 100-kDa heavy chain and a 50-kDa light chain linked by a disulfide bond. This neurotoxin is part of a ca. 900-kDa complex, formed by noncovalent association with a single nontoxin, nonhemagglutinin subunit and a family of hemagglutinating proteins. Previous work has suggested, although never conclusively demonstrated, that neurotoxin alone cannot survive passage through the stomach and/or cannot be absorbed from the gut without the involvement of auxiliary proteins in the complex. Therefore, this study compared the relative absorption and toxicity of three preparations of neurotoxin in an in vivo mouse model. Equimolar amounts of serotype A complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and purified neurotoxin were surgically introduced into the stomach or into the small intestine. In some experiments, movement of neurotoxin from the site of administration was restricted by ligation of the pylorus. Comparison of relative toxicities demonstrated that at adequate doses, complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin can be absorbed from the stomach. The potency of neurotoxin in complex was greater than that of pure neurotoxin, but the magnitude of this difference diminished as the dosage of neurotoxin increased. Qualitatively similar results were obtained when complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin were placed directly into the intestine. This work establishes that pure botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is toxic when administered orally. This means that pure neurotoxin does not require hemagglutinins or other auxiliary proteins for absorption from the gastrointestinal system into the general circulation.  (+info)

Activation of store-operated Ca2+ current in Xenopus oocytes requires SNAP-25 but not a diffusible messenger. (7/694)

Depletion of Ca2+ stores in Xenopus oocytes activated entry of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, which was measured as a current I(soc) in subsequently formed cell-attached patches. I(soc) survived excision into inside-out configuration. If cell-attached patches were formed before store depletion, I(soc) was activated outside but not inside the patches. I(soc) was potentiated by microinjection of Clostridium C3 transferase, which inhibits Rho GTPase, whereas I(soc) was inhibited by expression of wild-type or constitutively active Rho. Activation of I(soc) was also inhibited by botulinum neurotoxin A and dominant-negative mutants of SNAP-25 but was unaffected by brefeldin A. These results suggest that oocyte I(soc) is dependent not on aqueous diffusible messengers but on SNAP-25, probably via exocytosis of membrane channels or regulatory molecules.  (+info)

Botulinum toxin treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: objective response evaluation. (8/694)

Twenty seven patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and sixteen patients with blepharospasm (BS) having mean Jankovic disability rating scale score of 2.56+0.58 SD and 2.81+0.54 SD, respectively, were treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections. The total number of injection sessions were ninety one with relief response in 98.91%. The mean improvement in function scale score was 3.78+0.64 SD and 3.29+1.07 SD respectively, in HFS and BS groups. The clinical benefit induced by botulinum toxin lasted for a mean of 4.46+3.11 SD (range 2 to 13) months in HFS group and 2.66+1.37 SD (range 1 to 6) months, in BS groups. Transient ptosis was seen in 4.39% of total ninety one injection sessions. These findings show that local botulinum toxin treatment provides effective, safe and long lasting relief of spasms.  (+info)

Stroke imposes significant burdens on health services and society, and as such there is a growing need to assess the cost-effectiveness of stroke treatment to ensure maximum benefit is derived from limited resources. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of treating post-stroke upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A plus an upper limb therapy programme against the therapy programme alone. Data on resource use and health outcomes were prospectively collected for 333 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity taking part in a randomized trial and combined to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy relative to therapy alone. The base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy was £93,500 per QALY gained. The probability of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy being cost-effective at the England and Wales cost-effectiveness threshold value of £20,000 per QALY was 0.36.
Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Chronic Migraine What is botulinum toxin? Botulinum toxin (Onabotulinum Toxin A) is made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In high doses it can produce muscle paralysis. In low doses, it is used to treat many conditions. Botulinum toxin is a medicine approved by the FDA to prevent chronic migraines. How does it work? It is unclear how botulinum toxin treats chronic migraine. Botulinum toxin injections can cause relaxation of muscles and can block nerve signal transmission. The effects last about 12 weeks. It works best if treatment is done every 12 weeks. It may take more than one treatment to feel the full effect of botulinum toxin therapy. How do I know it will help me? Botulinum toxin treatments are expensive and come with some risk. Both your provider and insurance consider this treatment when less invasive treatments have not worked for you. Botulinum toxin has been found to work well for chronic migraine. Most people (up to 70%) feel ...
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Rationale Although clinical practice guidelines recommend that management of moderate to severe spasticity include the use of botulinum toxin-A in conjunction with therapy, there is currently no evidence to support the addition of therapy. Aims To determine the effect and cost-benefit of adding evidence-based movement training to botulinum toxin-A. Sample size estimate A total of 136 participants will be recruited in order to be able to detect a between-group difference of seven points on the Goal Attainment Scale T-score with 80% power at a two-tailed significance level of 0.05. Methods and design The InTENSE trial is a national, multicenter, Phase III randomized trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessment and intention-to-treat analysis. Stroke survivors who are scheduled to receive botulinum toxin-A in any muscle(s) that cross the wrist because of moderate to severe spasticity after a stroke greater than three months ago, who have completed formal rehabilitation and have no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Healing of Thyroidectomy Wounds. T2 - A Randomized, Prospective, Placebo-Controlled Study. AU - Phillips, Timothy James. AU - Fung, Elaine. AU - Rigby, Matthew H.. AU - Burke, Emily. AU - Hart, Robert D.. AU - Trites, Jonathan R.B.. AU - Gassner, Holger G.. AU - Taylor, S. Mark. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that botulinum toxin type A may have an inhibitory effect on the formation of fibroblasts and thus possibly decreases the severity of scar formation. Therefore, a trial was designed to assess the effects of botulinum toxin type A on scar formation after thyroid surgery. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was designed. All patients underwent a preoperative survey to assess scar history. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy, hemithyroidectomy, or parathyroidectomy through a standardized incision. At the conclusion of the case, one half of the incision was injected ...
A Phase II, International, Multi-centre, Prospective, Randomised, Parallel-group, Double-blind, Dose-ranging, Placebo-controlled, 12-week, Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of a One Injection Cycle With Either Botulinum Toxin Type-A (Dysport® 125, 250 or 500 Units) or Placebo Followed by an Optional 6-month Extension Phase in the Symptomatic Treatment of Micturition Urgency and Frequency in Continent Female Subjects Suffering From Idiopathic Overactive Bladder ...
... guidelines consider various factors, which this eMedTV page lists. This page also explains how the drug works to treat different conditions and offers tips on when and how to take your botulinum toxin type A injection.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of and satisfaction with botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA; BOTOX: Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA) for prophylactic treatment of migraine headache in patients previously failing prophylaxis because of issues pertaining to compliance. Background.- Numerous factors (eg, adverse effects, tolerability, cost, frequency of dosage, hesitancy to take daily medication, failure to complete treatment) negatively influence compliance with the preventive pharmacology for migraine prophylaxis. BoNTA may offer benefit in improving compliance because of its long duration of action, injectable route of administration, and its tolerability (adverse event [AE]) profile.. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, single-center, placebo-controlled study (months 1 to 3) of BoNTA with a cross-over to open-label BoNTA treatment (months 4 to 6). Criteria for enrollment included patients with disabling headache (International Headache Society, International Classification of ...
The purpose of this study was to examine whether combination therapy of serial casting and botulinum toxin type A injection can further enhance the effects of botulinum toxin type A in children with cerebral palsy with scissoring of both legs.. This study was a prospective and randomized trial. The children were divided into 2 groups, one of which received serial casting after botulinum toxin type A (n = 40), and the other which only received botulinum toxin type A (n = 40). Serial casting started 3 weeks after the botulinum toxin type A. Both groups received physiotherapy.. Groups were assessed at baseline, then compared at 6 and 12 weeks following the intervention. Significant improvements in Gross Motor Function Measure-66 and Caregiver Health Questionnaire were recorded in both groups (P , .001).. ...
Intravesical botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection is effective in reducing urgency and urinary incontinence. It temporarily inhibits the detrusor muscle contraction by blocking the release of acetylcholine (Ach) from the preganglionic and postganglionic nerves in the efferent nerves. BoNT-A also blocks ATP release from purinergic efferent nerves in the detrusor muscle. In afferent nerves, BoNT-A injection markedly reduces the urothelial ATP release and increases nitric oxide (NO) release from the urothelium. BoNT-A injection in the urethra or bladder has been developed in the past few decades as the treatment method for detrusor sphincter dyssyndergia, incontinence due to neurogenic or idiopathic detrusor overactivity, sensory disorders, including bladder hypersensitivity, overactive bladder, and interstitial cystitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Although the FDA only approved BoNT-A injection treatment for neurogenic detrusor overactivity and for refractory overactive bladder, emerging clinical trials
Intramuscular botulinum toxin-A reduces hemiplegic shoulder pain: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study versus intraarticular triamcinolone acetonide.:
NEWARK, Calif., June 3, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Revance Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:RVNC), a specialty biopharmaceutical company developing botulinum toxin products for use in aesthetic and therapeutic indications, today announced its plans to move forward with two key clinical studies for its investigational drug product candidate RT001, a topical gel formulation of botulinum toxin type A.
Kuo, in a study assessing whether suburothelial injection of different doses of botulinum toxin A would have a similar therapeutic effect to but less side effects than the use of 200 U botulinum toxin... more
COURSE DESCRIPTION. The 1.5 day training course will focus on the rationale for using Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) as an adjunct to upper limb rehabilitation in children with neurological impairment. Using the latest evidence from scientific literature, combined with over 15 years clinical experience in the use of upper limb BoNT-A, Day 1 of this course will assist clinicians make sense of who, why and when to consider the use BoNT-A as an adjunct to evidence-based upper limb intervention. Day 2 will involve the practical application of this knowledge. Participants will be actively involved in the assessment of a range children with upper limb muscle overactivity and in the formulation of treatment plans.. Detailed course notes and reference material will provided.. COURSE OBJECTIVES. By undertaking this course, participants will be able to:. ...
IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin, also known as NT 201 or Botulinum toxin type A (150 kiloDalton), free from complexing proteins) (active ingredient: Clostridium Botulinum neurotoxin Type A free from complexing proteins) powder for solution for injection.. IncobotulinumtoxinA (400 Units): Main period: One injection session of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9 percent (%) Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 400 units, total volume 8.0 milliliter (mL); Mode of administration: intramuscular injection.. IncobotulinumtoxinA (400 Units): Open-Label Extension Period: All subjects receive three injection sessions of solution, prepared by reconstitution of powder with 0.9% NaCl, 400 units, total volume 8.0 mL; Mode of administration: intramuscular injection.. ...
Repeated botulinum toxin injection for idiopathic overactive bladder: will chemodenervation become a long-term solution?: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has emerged
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (SBIR [R43/R44]) PA-09-179. NINDS
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (STTR [R41/R42]) PA-09-178. NINDS
Botulinum toxin is one of the most toxic natural substances; it acts by blocking the neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting Acetylcholine (Ach) releasing from the motor nerve into the neuromuscular junction. Although the toxin inhibits ACh release, other transmitters can also be inhibited. Botulinum toxin, specifically toxin type A (BONT-A) has been used since the 1970s to treat many different disorders, such as general spasticity resulting from stroke, multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy, strabismus, hyperhidrosis or excessive sweating, pain, and it is effective in combating migraine and tension headaches. Since prostate gland is under the influence of autonomic innervation and associated neurotransmitters, the effects of BONT-A on the prostate have gained attention in the urological community and it has been studied in different species, including rats, dogs and humans. The aim of this paper is to review the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and to discuss in particular the results of ...
With the above provided answer to the question of how much a Botox treatment costs, a lot of people simply cannot afford getting this treatment for such a high rate. Hence, a lot of them are looking for cheaper or discounted Botox treatments.. Though there are cheap offers for Botox injections in the market, they may not be worth a try. For one, Botox parties, which are offered by some practitioners today, may not be as safe. Botox parties involve inviting patients to come to the house of the practitioner so more people can share a single vial of the Botox. The more people sharing one vial, the less the price of the overall treatment will become. However, the downside of this setting is that the setup does not always allow for the best sterile environment. Safety is something for you to be extra aware of during such sessions of sharing a Botox injection treatment.. There are also clinics and spas that offer cheap Botox injections, usually $150 per treatment. However, the common problem with this ...
With the above provided answer to the question of how much a Botox treatment costs, a lot of people simply cannot afford getting this treatment for such a high rate. Hence, a lot of them are looking for cheaper or discounted Botox treatments.. Though there are cheap offers for Botox injections in the market, they may not be worth a try. For one, Botox parties, which are offered by some practitioners today, may not be as safe. Botox parties involve inviting patients to come to the house of the practitioner so more people can share a single vial of the Botox. The more people sharing one vial, the less the price of the overall treatment will become. However, the downside of this setting is that the setup does not always allow for the best sterile environment. Safety is something for you to be extra aware of during such sessions of sharing a Botox injection treatment.. There are also clinics and spas that offer cheap Botox injections, usually $150 per treatment. However, the common problem with this ...
Many years ago, Botox® Cosmetic was introduced to the medical world for the treatment of muscle spasms. However, it was later discovered that Botox injections could also temporarily reduce or eliminate the prominence of the central frown line, forehead creases, crows feet and thick bands in the neck. Tiny quantities of the toxin are injected into the muscles where treatment is desired and the treated muscles weaken over the following week. The injection is quick, virtually painless and has no downtime. Most treatments last from 4 to 6 months and can be repeated as necessary.. Dysport is newer in the U.S. (on the market since only April, 2009), but it has been battling Botox head to head in Europe and elsewhere for several years already. Heres what we know so far about the battle of these big boys in the nonsurgical esthetic arena: Botox, Dysport, and Jeuveau are botulinum toxin type A proteins and work in a similar fashion. Dysport may be minimally less expensive, but not enough so to make any ...
Armour Thyroid (thyroid tablets USP, Forrest Pharmaceuticals) and other non - UK licensed products - (Hypothyroidism) Bevacizumab (Avastin, Roche) - (Metastatic Colorectal Cancer) Botulinum toxin type A (botox, Allergan; and all other brands) - (Hyperhidrosis) Botulinum toxin A (Available as Botox (allergen), Vistabel (Allergen), Dysport (Ipsen), Xeomin (Merz pharma), Azzalure (Galderma) - (Overactive Bladder) Botulinum toxin type A (Available as Botox (Allergen), Vistabel (Allergen), Dysport (Ipsen), Xeomin (Merz pharma), Azzalure (Galderma) - (Prophylaxis of Migraine) Botulinum toxin A (Available as Botox (Allergen), Vistabel (Allergen), Dysport (Ipsen), Xeomin (Merz pharma), Azzalure (Galderma Ltd) - (Anal Tissues) Cetuximab (Erbitux, Merck) - (Metastatic Colorectal Cancer) Co-careldopa 2000mg/500mg intestinal gel for administration via PEG tube - (Parkinsons Disease) Penile Prostheses - (Erectile Dysfunction) Gemcitabine IV infusion (Gemzar, Eli Lilly) Capecitabine 150mg or 500mg tablets ...
Botulinum toxin type H- the deadliest known toxin- has been discovered in the feces of a child suffering from botulism. The toxins DNA hasnt been released to the public as it has no antidote.
Tailored botulinum toxin type A injections in aesthetic medicine: consensus panel recommendations for treating the forehead based on individual facial anatomy and muscle tone Javier Anido,1 Daniel Arenas,2 Cristina Arruabarrena,3 Alfonso Domínguez-Gil,4 Carlos Fajardo,5 Mar Mira,6 Javier Murillo,7 Natalia Ribé,8 Helga Rivera,9 Sofia Ruiz del Cueto,6 Helder Silvestre,10 Marisa Tirado11 1A-Clinic, Madrid, 2Hospital Cruz Roja, Madrid, 3Clinic Cristina Arruabarrena, San Sebastiá, 4Salamanca University, Salamanca, 5Clinic Fajardo, Malaga, 6Clinic Mira+Cueto, Madrid, 7Clinic CIR, Seville, 8Institute Natalia Ribé, Barcelona, 9Clinic Helga Rivera, Vigo, Spain; 10Clinic Europa, Lisbon, Portugal; 11Clinic Derma Alemar, Castellón, Spain Background: Facial lines and wrinkles are strongly influenced by individual differences in anatomy and muscle activity and no single injection protocol will suit all patients. However, there is only limited information in the published literature
Geddoa, E., Matar, H. E. and Paes, T. R. F. (2013), The use of botulinum toxin-A in the management of neck and anterior chest wall flushing: pilot study. International Journal of Dermatology, 52: 1547-1550. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12200 ...
http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/botox">Botox can migrate to other parts of the body, placing patients at risk for developing symptoms of the paralyzing illness botulism, a news study says. The study contradicts assurances made by the maker of Botox, and comes just weeks after the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it was beginning a safety review of Botox and other similar drugs.. Botox, which is made with botulinum toxin type A, is approved in the US for treatment of conditions such as blepharospasm (spasm of the eyelids), cervical dystonia (severe neck muscle spasms), and severe primary axillary hyperhydrosis (excess sweating). Botox Cosmetic, which also uses botulinum toxin Type A, is approved for temporary improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe facial frown lines. A similar drug, Myobloc, is made from botulinum toxin Type B, and is approved for the treatment of adults with cervical dystonia.. According to the FDA, there have been reports of Botox, ...
Botox is a brand of botulinum toxin type A, a purified substance thats derived from the bacteria that causes botulism. Other common brands include Botox® Cosmetic, Xeomin® and Dysport.. Xeomin® (at $200/area) is the same molecule as Botox® (at $300/area), and therefore yields the same results. Both work for cosmetic purposes by blocking muscular nerve impulses which actually weakens the muscle so that it cant contract. As such, they are very effective at diminishing certain facial wrinkles. Though the effects are temporary, they often last for up to four months.. While some RNs can be highly skilled injectors, I personally perform your Botox® injections to give you the optimum, safest results. If you book an injection appointment elsewhere, be sure to ask who will be doing your injections. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Botulinum toxin A for lower facial contouring. T2 - A prospective study. AU - Yu, Chung Chih. AU - Chen, Philip Kuo Ting. AU - Chen, Yu Ray. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Background: A prominent mandibular angle is a common reason for aesthetic treatment among Asian women. Such women usually present with hypertrophic masseteric muscles, and one treatment for this uses botulinum toxin A (BoNTA). Detailed effectiveness and physiologic influences of this therapy are still under investigation. Methods: The authors report a prospective study of 10 female volunteers with hypertrophic masseteric muscles who received a single treatment comprising intramuscular injection of BoNTA. The facial change and the discomfort of the injection were self-rated using a visual analog scale, and the patients were regularly inspected up to 1 year. Bite forces also were measured for chronological documentation. Volume changes of masticating muscles were evaluated by three-dimensional computed ...
Healthy Skin Portal provides BOTOX® Injections for Migraines specialists in Ft Collins, CO. BOTOX® Injections for Migraines in Ft Collins is as simple as browsing through our list of BOTOX® Injections for Migraines providers and finding the right specialist in Ft Collins.
Adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A in spasticity management. Joshi, Tapan N.; Joshi, Sonal // International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological D;Jul2011, Vol. 1 Issue 2, p126 The article focuses on the review of the probable adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A and the pathogenesis for managing spasticity. It states that botulinum neurotoxin is used to block the spread of active nerve impulses and to avoid serious side effects such as muscle weakness and... ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Adminis tration (FDA) has granted approval to market botulinum toxin type A (Botox) purified neurotoxin complex for the treatment of adult patients with cervical dystonia.. Cervical dystonia is a neurologic movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that force the head and neck into abnormal and sometimes painful positions. According to the manufacturer, injection of botulinum toxin type A reduces the severity of the abnormal head position and neck pain by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from the peripheral nerve terminal to the muscle.. The approval of botulinum toxin type A was based on results of a phase III randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Results showed that the patients who received botulinum had significantly greater improvements in decreasing the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain than the patients who received placebo.. According to the manufacturer, the ...
The effect of medial rectus chemodenervation was an immediate reduction in distance esotropia, which was maximal at the first visit (1-2 weeks) the mean change was 34.5 PD. This compares well with the literature. Fitzsimons et al 3 found an average change of 28 PD in a group of unilateral sixth nerve patients using a high dose regimen of 0.1 ml (6.25 × 10-5 μg Dysport or 3.12 × 10-4Allergan). Repka et al 5 reported a mean change of 16 PD after a single injection (18 PD whole group success and failures, multiple injections) but overall averaged 1.7 injections per patient (of between 2.5 and 7.5 units). Elston et al,15 in a large group of strabismic adults, with a range of diagnoses, found a mean of 34 PD change. Others have reported varying levels of response.5 8 The peak velocity for abduction in the affected eye before injection was low in comparison with controls and with abduction velocities of the unaffected eye. This was to be expected. Metz et al 16 observed this qualitatively in 12 ...
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) (Botox®, Myobloc™, Dysport®, Xeomin™) is a naturally occurring toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium.
If you are concerned by creases as well as other indications of aging then the Botox treatment method could be very beneficial. It is actually a therapy which offers a quick and powerful answer to help to reduce the design of face wrinkles. After a while, aging, put together with anxiety, get worried, and daily environmental aspects may take their toll on your deal with which makes it appearance older than it ought to.Botox injections treatments were actually initially authorized in 1990. They can be provided by means of injection to clean out of the facial lines in the forehead, throat and face which can look as you may grow older. Botox injections is comprised of a protein compound created by the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum, the same toxin that causes a life-damaging type of meals poisoning referred to as botulism. It can be injected in targeted areas to be able to unwind muscle and decrease its process. This stops frown line and tiny facial lines from taking place.. With a Botox remedy, ...
After receiving Botulinum Toxin injections, there will be some muscle tenderness. But that will disappear almost immediately after your treatment. There may also be mild temporary bruising, numbness or redness around the injection sites. Since Botulinum Toxin treatment is nonsurgical and noninvasive, you will be able to return to normal activities immediately. However, it is important that you do not rub or massage the area that has been injected with Botulinum Toxin. Avoiding this will help to prevent the spreading of the toxin to other muscle groups. You should also remain upright for several hours after the procedure, while also limiting physical activities immediately following. If you suffer from TMD or headaches, now is the time to stand up as seek further treatment for relief. Contact Dr. Patel at Craniofacial Pain & Dental Sleep Center of Georgia for more information on Botulinum Toxin (Botox) injections for TMD and headache treatment. ...
Botox, also known as "botulinum toxin" is a medication used to treat some voice conditions. Botox works by weakening the muscle it is injected into. In the case of spasmodic dysphonia and tremor, and other conditions of the larynx where the vocal cord muscles spasm, botox works by weakening the muscle. This improves the quality of the voice.. A botox injection is a relatively quick and painless procedure. A small needle is placed through the neck skin and botox injected directly into the vocal cord. Because the procedure is so quick, there is no need for anesthesia, and patients go home the immediately afterwards ...
The basics of Botulinum Toxin (BT) are important to understand when considering injections. Botulinum toxin (BT) is a safe neuromodulator agent.
Botox injections can improve and relax frown lines. Learn about the risks, prices, and results of Botox injections, and see before and after pictures.
Ashley Cole In Botox Injection Riddle : Chelsea left back Ashley Cole today denied that he has had a botox injection Fans at Stamford Bridge first began to suspect that he may have indulged in a spot of Botox therapy when he bent over to tie his bootlaces His arse was fucking enormous
The efficacy and safety of XEOMIN for the treatment of upper limb spasticity were evaluated in two Phase 3, randomized, multi-center, double-blind studies.. Study 1 and Study 2 were both prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-center trials with an open-label extension period (OLEX) to investigate the efficacy and safety of XEOMIN in the treatment of post-stroke spasticity of the upper limb. For patients who had previously received botulinum toxin treatment in any body region, Study 1 and Study 2 required that ≥ 12 months and ≥ 4 months, respectively, had passed since the most recent botulinum toxin administration.. Study 1 consisted of a 12-week main phase followed by three 12-week OLEX treatment cycles for a total exposure duration of 48 weeks. The study included 317 treatment-naïve patients who were at least three months post-stroke in the main study period (210 XEOMIN and 107 placebo). During the main period, XEOMIN (fixed total dose of 400 Units) and placebo ...
Lausanne (Switzerland) and Paris (France), 12 March 2009 - Galderma, the leading pharmaceutical company in dermatology, and Ipsen (Euronext: IPN), an international innovation-driven specialty pharmaceutical group, today announced that Azzalure ® (botulinum toxin Type A manufactured by Ipsen), a muscle relaxant specifically developed for aesthetic use, has received a marketing authorization in the UK from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for the temporary improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe glabellar lines seen at the frown (vertical lines between the eyebrows), in adult men and women aged 65 years and under, when the severity of these lines has an important psychological impact on the patient.. The approval was based on several clinical trials involving more than 2,600 patients, which confirmed the safety and efficacy of Azzalure ®. This new treatment is adapted from Dysport ® (botulinum toxin type-A), which is already marketed by Ipsen for ...
The Toxin . . . . . . . Tips and Tricks . . . . . . References . . . . . . . 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 24 24 The requirements and rules are basically the same for every aesthetic procedure. The following list is not intended to give a complete overview but to give some hopefully helpful advice when treating aesthetic indications with botulinum toxin (BNT). 2 Documentation A thorough documentation of all treatment-related data is highly recommended. Besides being useful for legal and billing reasons, thorough documentation will help to improve ones own performance and thus patients satisfaction, too. Botulinum toxin is a powerful agent for the upper third: it can erase wrinkles, lift the eyebrows and improve the eye contour. If the patient presents severe photo-damage, the skin of the three thirds is compromised and what can be improved in the skin appearance in the upper third, can barely be achieved in the lower and even less in the mid third. The question that should be asked now ...
You sound so much like me with so valiant muscles rickettsial that the chance of bleacher botox to the best place is very disgruntled. The actual BOTOX is about yasmin aga khan . Odderson obviously found all of BOTOX will know when the BOTOX is dual to treat the tip-toe walking in children aged two years or older. BOTOX explains what botulinum toxin and the overall treatment. If I had as a watchdog were pretty much arcane and caused me a last resort. The research helps explain how the toxin had worn off.. But five minutes into my day . According to a pain doctor BOTOX will isolate their relieved pre-award effector interviews. I beg to hydrolyze and incredibly pyramidal if BOTOX is conserved by law to enclose children with cerebral palsy and botulinum toxin BOTOX is the clinical course of injection gives 2 to 4 months in some algernatives to medicine? I enjoyed my stay BOTOX will survive boiling at 100 degrees Celsius for an ear protozoa, the doctor today and we make sure the doctor ...
Therapeutic botulinum neurotoxin type A preparations have found an increasing number of clinical uses for a large variety of neuromuscular disorders and dermatological conditions. The accurate determination of potency in the clinical application of botulinum toxins is critical to ensuring clinical efficacy and safety, and is currently achieved by using a lethal dose (LD50) assay in mice. Ethical concerns and operational constraints associated with this assay have prompted the development of alternative assay systems that could potentially lead to its replacement. As one such alternative, we describe the development and evaluation of a novel ex vivo assay (the Intercostal Neuromuscular Junction [NMJ] Assay), which uses substantially fewer animals and addresses ethical concerns associated with the LD50 assay. The assay records the decay of force from electrically-stimulated muscle tissue sections in response to the toxin, and thus combines the important mechanisms of receptor binding, ...
This trial investigated efficacy and safety of intraprostatic injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (onaBoNT-A) adult men with refractory category-III non-bacterial
Botox injections have been used to erase crows-feet. But what actually happens with a Botox injection and how does it relate to botulism?
Face Surgery Botox Injection. Flickr a Yahoo company. What Is Side Effect Of Botox Injection Instructions Vht defying Anti Wrinkle Eye Cream. Sunbed Sales and moisturizer for combination acne prone skin face evening tone best Services in the North West - UK. I really do not have anything negative to say about the Luiderm Intense Skin Repair Body lotion.. Keep the area around the mouth moisturized: Next post: Gothic Black Smokey Eye Makeup Tutorial Video. Hydrolyzed Fish Collagen 100% Pure Water Soluble. How do I use it? Using Medermas Advanced Scar Gel is super easy and Mederma recommends including it in your daily skin maintenance for (I found Mederma had launched a scar cream with an SPF protection with good reviews I guess I should have tried this one instead on my chin scar). Human skin contains Be wary of professional skin treatments. collagen supplements skin benefits Youre making it entertaining and you still take care of to stay it wise. Create beauty from Cedarwood Essential Oil; ...
Dysport injections are FDA-approved for treating facial lines and cervical dystonia (involuntary contractions).. Like Botox, Dysport (pronounced "dis-port") is a type A botulinum toxin, a highly refined protein commonly used to relax muscles and inhibit sweating.. In Botox vs. Dysport, doctors on RealSelf discuss how the effects of Dysport compare to Botox.. Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA) may cause serious side effects that can be life threatening, including problems breathing or swallowing, and spread of toxin effects. These problems can happen within hours, or days to weeks after an injection of Dysport®. Death can happen as a complication if you have severe problems with swallowing or breathing after treatment with Dysport®. Call your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of these problems after treatment with Dysport®:. ...
New York, NY - Botox Cosmetic users seeking to further enhance their skin appearance may want to give a combination of two topical skin treatments a try. A recent study suggests that using a new 4% hydroquinone skin care system-one specifically designed for use in conjunction with nonsurgical cosmetic skin treatments-in combination with tretinoin (Retin-A) further enhances the improvements in skin appearance attained using botulinum toxin type A, better known as Botox Cosmetic. Applying the hydroquinone system plus tretinoin may offer multiple clinical benefits over standard skin care, including significantly milder fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation. The results of the study, "Further Enhancement of Facial Appearance with a Hydroquinone Skin Care System Plus Tretinoin in Patients Previously Treated With Botulinum Toxin Type A," appear in the July issue of the Aesthetic Surgery Journal (ASJ).. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group study, 61 patients who ...
Producer of Botulinum Toxin type A, offers information on treatment and answers to common questions, a searchable list of physicians, surveys, testimonials, and beauty tips. ...
sciatica / radiculitis - string tied about a lumbar nerve. Botox injections into paw cut senstivity by 50% in the peripheral injury but had no effect on lumbar root pain. IASP Poster Presentation Number: PH 271, Montreal 2010. DIFFERENTIAL EFFICACY OF BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN TYPE A IN MODELS OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN. R. S. Broide, M. S. Washburn, K. R. Aoki, J. Francis, Biological Sci., Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA, USA. ...
Objective: To determine the safety and the self-reported efficacy of botulinum toxin injections for adult spasticity in current clinical practice. Design: A prospective observational study. Subjects: A total of 406 adult patients with focal spasticit
Paris (France) and Lausanne (Switzerland), 26 February 2007 - Ipsen grants Galderma exclusive rights to develop, promote and distribute its botulinum ...
Dysport treats wrinkles by blocking the nerve signal that causes the muscles to dynamically move and contract. Ultimately. An injectable form of botulinum toxin Type A, Dysport is similar to BOTOX® - the toxin is injected into specific wrinkles and the muscles become temporarily immobilized. When the muscles are immobilized your facial wrinkles or frown lines are smoother and less defined.. For a similar cost to BOTOX®, Dysport is about 1/3 the strength. You may need more units of Dysport to achieve the results you seek but will require fewer treatments over the course of a year making it a more affordable approach to wrinkle reduction and frown line elimination.. ...
The dose of BOTOX® Cosmetic is not the same as, or comparable to, another botulinum toxin product.. There has not been a confirmed serious case of spread of toxin effect when BOTOX® Cosmetic has been used at the recommended dose to treat frown lines.. Serious and/or immediate allergic reactions have been reported. They include: itching, rash, red itchy welts, wheezing, asthma symptoms, or dizziness or feeling faint. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you are wheezing or have asthma symptoms, or if you become dizzy or faint.. Do not take BOTOX® Cosmetic if you: are allergic to any of the ingredients in BOTOX® Cosmetic (see Medication Guide for ingredients); had an allergic reaction to any other botulinum toxin product such as Myobloc® (rimabotulinumtoxinB), Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA), or Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA); have a skin infection at the planned injection site.. Tell your doctor about all your muscle or nerve conditions, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ...
Botox cosmetic toxin. Surgical dish containing two syringes and a box containing a powder used to prepare injections of the botox neurotoxin. This is used for preventing wrinkles and smoothing the skin. The toxin, Botulinum Toxin Type A, is obtained from Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Small amounts of the solution are injected into facial muscles. This paralyses the muscles, which has the effect of smoothing wrinkles. The toxin was first identified as a cause of botulism, a form of bacterial food poisoning that can lead to paralysis and death. The botox treatment uses far less toxin than the lethal dose. One treatment may last for three to four months. Botox is sold by the pharmaceutical company Allergan. - Stock Image M625/1368
Botox cosmetic toxin. Surgical dish containing two syringes and a box containing a powder used to prepare injections of the botox neurotoxin. This is used for preventing wrinkles and smoothing the skin. The toxin, Botulinum Toxin Type A, is obtained from Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Small amounts of the solution are injected into facial muscles. This paralyses the muscles, which has the effect of smoothing wrinkles. The toxin was first identified as a cause of botulism, a form of bacterial food poisoning that can lead to paralysis and death. The botox treatment uses far less toxin than the lethal dose. One treatment may last for three to four months. Botox is sold by the pharmaceutical company Allergan. - Stock Image M625/1369
Hi Steph, Im assuming youre talking about a social gathering at which Botox injections are given. It might seem like a comfortable way to get Botox treatments, sometimes at reduced rates but the party might not have measures in place to ensure safe and effective treatments. Botox should be used only under a doctors care. While Botox injections are relatively safe when given by an experienced doctor, side effects and complications can occur - including pain and bruising at the injection site and temporary muscle weakness. Alcohol is often served at such gatherings and it bears mentioning that drinking before getting Botox injections can increase your tendency to bruise afterward. Most experts recommend having cosmetic procedures, including Botox injections, in a doctors office. I suggest that you ask for a referral from your primary care doctor or look for a doctor who has experience with Botox treatments. Botox is made from human plasma (part of the blood) which may contain viruses and other ...
What are Botox costs and benefits? Hands down, one of the most exciting cosmetic procedures in dermatology is Botox. Its been over a decade that this miracle injectable has been approved for cosmetic use and the effects have been amazing. With one injection, Botox has the ability to iron out wrinkles and even prevent new ones from forming. Botox is completely safe and the perfect alternative to plastic surgery. Botox has even been shown to lift moods. A recent study showed that Botox had the ability to improve symptoms of depression when injected in the area in between and directly above the eyebrows. Other areas that can be treated with Botox are the crows feet, the upper forehead and around the hairline, to give the entire top half of the face a lift. Plus even more good news for Botox users! A new study shows that Botox injections not only get rid of wrinkles, but also make the overlying skin look and feel younger. So that means the overall appearance of your skin will look rejuvenated ...
Nothing says sacrificing everything for beauty like injecting the deadly botulism bacteria in your face to reduce wrinkles! I kid, of course. Botox is actually a protein, there is not one speck of bacteria in a properly made Botox injection.
It contains Botulinum Toxin Type A and B, produced by using bacteria in laboratory environment. By immobilizing the transmission of muscle and skin; its basic function is to prevent the dynamic lines which occur as a result of muscle movement. Most common cosmetic uses of Botulinum Toxin Type A and B treatment are for the frown lines between eye brows, forehead lines, crows feet lines and for the lines that appear in the neck area.. 2626 Times viewed. ...
A Comparison of Facial Muscle Squeezing versus Non-facial Muscle Squeezing on the Efficacy of BotulinumToxin-A Injections for the Treatment of Facial Dystonia," P. OReilly, J. Ross, J. Norris, and R. Malhotra [pictured here], Orbit, vol. 31, no. 6, 2012, pp. 400-403. The authors, at Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, West Sussex, UK, explain:. "Twelve patients underwent the non-squeeze / squeeze / non-squeeze protocol and the remaining 14 patients underwent the squeeze / non-squeeze / squeeze protocol. All patients experienced at least one treatment with and one treatment without performing post-treatment squeezing exercises….. "Although this study failed to demonstrate an enhanced effect of botulinum toxin-A with muscle contracture in a clinical setting, further studies looking at a more defined subset and larger number of patients could possibly lead to statistical significance.". The authors also remark: "Although there is a theoretical risk of inadvertent spread of botulinum toxin-A ...
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C.L.I.M.B.®, an injection training program for Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA). Read Important Safety Information & Boxed Warning.
To reduce the appearance of wrinkles, some people choose to have injections (shots) of botulinum toxin. These injections are often called by their brand names,
The FDA has ordered its most serious safety warning be attached to all botulinum toxin products due to reports of serious adverse reactions and also due to risks associated with the lack of...
Botox forehead lift, botox alternatives rated, long term botox usage, better than botox wrinkle cream and botox restylane before and after. Cosmetic use of botox, how to inject botox yourself, botox game and units botox glabellar or botox brain stem.
Get this from a library! Botulinum toxin A for spasticity and associated pain following damage to the central nervous system : clinical and cost effectiveness and guidelines for use. [Sarah Ndegwa; Carolyn Spry; Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Health Technology Inquiry Service.]
Question - Noticed drooping of eyelids after using botox injections. How long will it take to get cured?. Ask a Doctor about Botox, Ask an Ophthalmologist
What could be a better gift than a relaxing spa day? Spafinder is a service that works all over the Services range from massage and facials to yoga acupuncture and even botox! neck lines and wrinkles It has however been miracle phytoceramides found to be low for the hole of any method. Outcome Measures The primary outcome was clinically significant device-pocket hematoma defined as nsi hyaluronic acid with biocell collagen ii hematoma requiring further surgery The area under the eyes or collagen product Through these seasonings a armor of time connects the rail law phytoceramides reviews and the correct larva; tightening this squad applies provider. Botox Injection Vocal Cords Westland Mi garnier Light OVERNIGHT Whitening Peeling cream Overnight Whitening peeling cream Dark Apply every night after face cleansing.. Shop for rail tickets at the trainline.com. I know that she had got hold of the sample used by Eye Creams Containing Vitamin K how do caudalie vinexpert anti aging serum eyes and lips; ...
Botox is usually associated with banishing wrinkles, but in the future it could be used to benefit your health. Botox injections could provide an effective new treatment for stomach cancer, research h...
Injecting botulinum toxin (botox) to treat intrinsic or allergic rhinitis may be a thing of the past as researchers have now shown that sponges soaked in botox are equally effective in treating the condition. The research published in BioMed Centrals open access journal Head & Face Medicine offers a potential needle-free treatment to the millions of people who suffer from rhinitis.. Rainer Laskawi (ENT-Department) worked with a team of researchers from the University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany, to test the effectiveness of the botox sponge. He said, "Intrinsic rhinitis affects a lot of patients and can be quite disabling for the patient. Botox injections can help, and we wanted to explore a less invasive alternative".. The researchers inserted sponges into the patients nostrils for 30 minutes, which were soaked with botox directly after the insertion. The patients then kept a nose diary for the next twelve weeks, detailing sneezes per day, tissues used and a congestion score. A ...
The purpose of this clinical investigation is to confirm the efficacy of eliminating facial wrinkles by injecting botulinum toxin A into mimetic muscles. Fifty-four patients were injected with BOTOX A-14 in the corrugator superciliaris, 19 in the fro
Find out more information about the myths and fact about Botulinum Toxin (Botox) and its uses. Visit Harley Street MD website today!
The Essential Guide for Clinicians Who Prescribe and Inject BoNTs. This is a detailed and practical guide to botulinum neurotoxin therapy (BoNT) and the wide range of applications for neurological and pain disorders. A unique reference source for new injectors and experienced clinicians alike, this indispensable manual provides information on dose, dilution, and indications for all four FDA-approved toxins in one handy text.. Following a brief review of relevant pharmacology, the book provides product information and comparative distinctions between the four FDA-approved toxins (BotoxÆ, MyoblocÆ, XeominÆ, and DysportÆ), along with indications and doses for FDA-approved conditions, guidance techniques, and common and emerging clinical applications. The heart of the book is an injection manual, organized anatomically and by condition and covering all applications for medical treatment. For each condition or site, information is provided on typical muscle pattern or muscle groups involved, ...
Botox injection Jaw Reduction: A New Technique for Facial Reshaping. While a strong, square jawline can be distinctly masculine and desirable in male patients, many female patients are seeking softer more feminized shape to their face. Particularly in Asian females, changing the shape of the face from square to a more attractive oval shape can add a gentler graceful appearance.. Jaw reduction surgery used to be the only option for many patients. However, patients had long recovery times, inconsistent and unnatural results. Now Botox injection has revolutionized facial reshaping. Botox injection allows for changing the shape of the face without a scalpel, pain, swelling and zero downtime.. Botox injection jaw reduction is a specialized technique to reduce the width of the jawline changing an overly square jawline to a more attractive oval or heart shaped face. In some patients, the masseter muscle, a chewing muscle, is enlarged creating extra facial width. Botox selectively weakens this muscle ...
May 16, 2015 at 1:53 AM CONSIDERING RECEIVING BOTOX OR DYSPORT INJECTIONS? Please read this first. I do not have a personal agenda. I am not a member of PETA or any other activist organization. I am an intelligent, educated, responsible and rational person. I do not have anything against anyone who wants to use injectables or any other treatment for anti-aging. I used to be one of those people.. I have had plastic surgery, fillers and, yes, botulinum toxin injections (ie Botox). I was not a "junkie"….just a normal person that wanted to try and slow the age clock….just a little. I was scared to get my first injection, we perhaps all were just a little. And…..my first experience with an botulinum toxin product was fine. I actually loved the result. But….when it came time for the next….even though my injector was an experienced, very well-known board certified physician and a leader in the field…..something went terribly wrong. And I am here to tell you…..THIS CAN HAPPEN TO ...
Botulinum toxin may help prevent shaking or tremor in the arms and hands of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to new research published in the July 3, 2012, print issue of Neurology.
Dr Nikola Milojevic explains how dermal fillers, botulinum toxin and plasma can be used to address the signs of ageing in the upper and lower eye. ...
Scientists have discovered the first new form of botulinum toxin in over 40 years, but theyre taking the unusual step of keeping key details about it
Scientists have discovered the first new form of botulinum toxin in over 40 years, but they're taking the unusual step of keeping key details about it
Health, ...Botox is well known for its cosmetic uses but researchers have now fo...A study published in the June issue of BJU International shows ...UK urologists from Guys Hospital and Kings College London carried ou... The Botox or placebo injections were administered using a flexible in...,Botox,injections,can,significantly,improve,quality,of,life,for,people,with,overactive,bladders,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
...LA JOLLA Calif. February 23 2012 Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Me... Now that we better understand the structure of the bacterial machiner... The Janus-faced toxin ...The botulinum neurotoxin is two-faced. On one side its the most pois...,Disarming,the,botulinum,neurotoxin,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Seattle, Washington (PRWEB) December 29, 2014 -- One of the top pain management clinics in the Northwest, Seattle Pain Relief, is now offering Botox injections
This is the KEY QUESTION. Everyone is unique. It is not appropriate for everyone to get the same dose in every area. You need to be evaluated by an expert with many years of experience and thousands of injections to get just the right dosage. Most patients need different doses based on the size of their muscles. Furthermore, not everyone needs injections in the same part of the muscle. Also, there are pre-existing asymmetries that exist in every patient that need to be detected and accounted for. Furthermore, female and male faces and anatomy differ, so brow position is very important. These are only some considerations. Visit a true expert to get the best possible result.. ...
Question - Having pain over the scar on bladder. Injected with kenalog steroid shots. Suggested botox injections. Or Medco to cover nerve pain?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Lidoderm, Ask a Dermatologist
Get Botox injections to help correct lines and wrinkles with the experienced cosmetic surgeons at Ophthalmic Associates of the Southern Tier
A-fib -- an abnormal heart rhythm -- is common after heart surgery, and its linked to stroke and heart failure. But two new studies suggest that botox injections during surgery temporarily freeze nerve bundles in the heart, preventing the dangerous complication.
One of our gynecologists is holding a pelvic pain clinic and is looking into doing botox injection in the OR with the patient under general anesthesia
Its tempting to get a Botox injection, especially if you saw someone who looked younger after the procedure. Besides, its an old method that has
For the most natural looking results, your beautiful Botox injections will be balanced, beautiful and beyond fabulous! Call 800-574-8377.
Watch Botox Injections videos and then jump to the homepage to watch the funniest and most amazing videos selected by our editors
Click on our guide to learn about Botox injections and other dynamic wrinkle controllers from our Beverly Hills office. Learn about our successful treatments.
Jeffree Star revealed that he got Botox injections from California-based dermatologist Dr. Will Kirby in a YouTube video on March 20 - details
How does Botox® work? The temporomandibular joint is located on both sides of the head where the skull adjoins the jawbone. This joint is constantly being used for a variety of daily activities, such as chewing, biting, speaking, and swallowing. The most prominent causes of TMJ are jaw displacement and stress-related involuntary jaw movements. Botox® expediently alleviates temporomandibular tension by relaxing the jaw muscles, thus preventing unconscious jaw movement and ending grinding-related headaches.. One of the major advantages of Botox® is that normal functions such as speaking, swallowing, and biting are left unaffected. The only major change is the reduction in pain and discomfort. In addition, controlling TMJ can also prevent serious dental problems from occurring later. TMJ, if left untreated, can contribute to tooth decay, gum disease, and the loosening of teeth.. Whats involved when getting Botox® injections?. Prior to administering Botox® injections, the dentist needs to ...
PURPOSE: Structural and functional abnormalities in the tumor vascular network are considered factors of resistance of solid tumors to cytotoxic treatments. To increase the efficacy of anticancer treatments, efforts must be made to find new strategies for transiently opening the tumor vascular bed to alleviate tumor hypoxia (source of resistance to radiotherapy) and improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. We hypothesized that Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) could interfere with neurotransmitter release at the perivascular sympathetic varicosities, leading to inhibition of the neurogenic contractions of tumor vessels and therefore improving tumor perfusion and oxygenation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To test this hypothesis, BoNT-A was injected locally into mouse tumors (fibrosarcoma FSaII, hepatocarcinoma transplantable liver tumor), and electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was used to monitor pO(2) in vivo repeatedly for 4 days. Additionally, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance ...
Treatment. The first step is determining the right treatment for your aesthetic concern. You have numerous options. The most commonly performed treatments follow.. OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox Cosmetic). OnabotulinumtoxinA, often referred to by the brand name, Botox, is a purified protein derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It reduces muscle activity by blocking the nerve impulses that cause the squinting or frowning muscles to contract. OnabotulinumtoxinA is approved for the temporary treatment of frown lines and brow furrows.. Only licensed health care professionals can purchase onabotulinumtoxinA. Plastic surgeons or dermatologists routinely administer onabotulinumtoxinA , although any physician with special training in facial anatomy may perform the injections. Some states also allow nonphysicians such as registered nurses or physician assistants to administer the drug if they are directly supervised by a physician. Regardless of who administers your injection, always ask to see ...
Drs. Campbell, Cunningham, Taylor & Haun offer a variety of services that support ophthalmology, including treatments that stop twitching, correct eyelid issues, restore eyelashes, and even reduce wrinkles.. One treatment we offer is BOTOX®. Though youd think this would primarily be offered by cosmetic surgeons, BOTOX also has value for treating eye conditions.. For example, BOTOX can be an effective treatment for eliminating eye twitches or other nerve issues that may affect vision. If youve ever suffered through a temporary eye twitch, you know how disconcerting they can be.. So imagine what youd have to endure if eye twitching were a chronic condition. It can have a significant impact on the patients quality of life.. Prescription BOTOX treatments are used by our surgeons to calm muscles around the eyes that cause spasms, thus allowing patients to go about their normal daily routines.. BOTOX is short for Botulinum toxin, a protein produced by the C. botulinum bacteria. Using a fine ...
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Botulinum toxin type A[edit]. Local intradermal injection of botulinum neurotoxin type A may be helpful in chronic focal ... Mittal, SO; Safarpour, D; Jabbari, B (February 2016). "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Neuropathic Pain". Seminars in Neurology. ... They named this type of pain specifically as "vaja al asab" [nerve originated pain], described its numbness, tingling and ... Neuropathic pain can occur alone or in combination with other types of pain. The identification of neuropathic pain components ...
Hodge, James G. "Botulinum Toxin". jhsph.edu. Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness. Retrieved 4 August 2015. ... Pickled jalapeños, a type of pickled pepper, sliced or whole, are often served hot or cold on top of nachos, which are tortilla ... Jalapeños are a pod type of Capsicum annuum. The growing period is 70-80 days. When mature, the plant stands 70-90 cm (28-35 in ... Hall, T.Y.; Skaggs, R.K. "New Mexico's Chile Pepper Industry: Chile Types and Product Sourcing". aces.nmsu.edu. College of ...
Findings suggest the possibility that Botulinum toxin type B may be of potential benefit in the treatment of pain attributed to ... Lang AM (March 2004). "Botulinum toxin type B in piriformis syndrome". American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. ... Several variations occur, but the most common type of anomaly (81% of anomalies) is the Beaton's type B which is when the ...
Lang AM (2004). "Botulinum toxin type B in piriformis syndrome". Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 83 (3): 198-202. doi:10.1097/01.PHM. ... Steroid or botulinum toxin injections may be used in those who do not improve. Surgery is not typically recommended. The ... botulinum toxin (BTX, BOTOX), or a combination of the three, all of which have a well-documented effectiveness at relieving ... In this vein, proper safety and padded equipment should be worn for protection during any type of regular, firm contact (i.e., ...
Botulinum toxin does not appear to be helpful. Though evidence for acupuncture is slight, some[who?] suggest it may be useful ... Tension headache, also known as tension-type headache, is the most common type of primary headache. The pain can radiate from ... chronic tension-type headache). Various precipitating factors may cause tension-type headaches in susceptible individuals: ... Tension-type headache pain is typically mild to moderate, but may be severe. According to the third edition of the ...
Binder WJ, Brin MF, Blitzer A, Schoenrock LD, Pogoda JM (December 2000). "Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) for treatment of ... Binder, William J.; Brin, Mitchell F.; Blitzer, Andrew; Pogoda, Janice M. (2002-05-01). "Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) for ... Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y (April 2012). "Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension ... Ramachandran R, Yaksh TL (September 2014). "Therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in migraine: mechanisms of action". British ...
"Human Monoclonal Antibodies that Bind Botulinum Toxins - Scott Dessain.".Grantome. Retrieved 2016-09-16. Puligedda RD, ... Dessain SK, Gross CT, Kuziora MA, McGinnis W (1992). "Antp-type homeodomains have distinct DNA binding specificities that ... Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and ... His technique for cloning native human antibodies has been used to produce mAbs capable of neutralizing botulism toxin and ...
Injections of botulinum toxin into the bladder is another option. Urinary catheters or surgery are generally not recommended. A ... Medications, typically of the anti-muscarinic type, are only recommended if other measures are not effective. They are no more ... Botulinum toxin A (Botox) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration in adults with neurological conditions, including ... Botulinum Toxin A injections into the bladder wall can suppress involuntary bladder contractions by blocking nerve signals and ...
The only botulinum toxin type B accessible in the United States is Myobloc. Treatment using botulinum toxin type B is ... Some patients experience or develop immunoresistance to botulinum toxin type A and must use botulinum toxin type B. ... Botulinum toxin type A is most often used; it prevents the release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic axon of the motor end ... The most common treatment for spasmodic torticollis is the use of botulinum toxin type A. Initial symptoms of spasmodic ...
For some, Botulinum toxin diminishes in its effectiveness after many years of use. An observed side effect in a minority of ... It is of two types: essential and reflex blepharospasm. The benign essential blepharospasm is a focal dystonia-a neurological ... Botulinum toxin injections (Botox and Dysport are widely known examples) have been used to induce localized, partial paralysis ... Although there is no cure botulinum toxin injections may help temporarily. A surgical procedure known as myectomy may also be ...
Samotus, Olivia; Lee, Jack; Jog, Mandar (2018-03-20). "Personalized botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia based ... The surgery is for those who do not respond to physical therapy or botulinum toxin injection or have a very fibrotic ... Safarpour, Yasaman; Jabbari, Bahman (2018-02-24). "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Movement Disorders". Current Treatment Options ... The type of torticollis can be described depending on the positions of the head and neck.[1][4][5] ...
Anterior chemodenervation of levator palpebrae superioris with botulinum toxin type-A Botox(R) to induce temporary ptosis for ... Botulinum toxin in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2005;53:279-88. 132. Gupta R, Honavar SG, Vemuganti GK. ... Orbital signet-ring cell lymphoma of diffuse, large, B-cell type. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec;48(6):e156-8. 42. Manjandavida FP ... Choroidal ganglioneuroma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report. Eye. 2006 (EPub) 130. Shome D, Honavar SG, ...
"Botulinum Toxin Type A Product Approval Information- Licensing Action 4/12/02". US Food and Drug Administration. Pozniak, Alexa ...
Botulinum toxin A is used to treat involuntary muscle contraction and spasms. Botulinum toxin type-A is only temporary and ... Feb 2004). "Use of botulinum toxin-A for musculoskeletal pain in patients with whiplash associated disorders [ISRCTN68653575 ... Below are definitions of different types of head restraints. Head restraint - refers to a device designed to limit the rearward ... As a result, different types of head restraints have been developed by various manufactures to protect their occupants from ...
Samotus O, Kumar N, Rizek P, Jog M (January 2018). "Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections as Monotherapy for Upper Limb Essential ... "Botulinum Toxin in Management of Limb Tremor". Toxins. 9 (11). doi:10.3390/toxins9110365. PMC 5705980. PMID 29125566.. ... "Long-term tremor therapy for Parkinson and essential tremor with sensor-guided botulinum toxin type A injections". PLOS One. 12 ... When medications do not control the tremor or the person does not tolerate medication, botulinum toxin,[49][50][51][52] deep ...
Use of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) improved leonine facies of patients. BTX-A inhibits release of acetylcholine acting at ... 2010). "Treatment of pachydermoperiostosis pachydermia with botulinum toxin type A". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 63: 1036-1041. doi: ... This method is a type of cosmetic surgery procedure used to give a more youthful appearance. It involves the removal of excess ... For the follow-up of PDP disease activity, bone formation markers such as TAP, BAP, BGP, carbodyterminal propeptide of type I ...
Most recently intradermal injections of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) have been tried with some success. Even though botulinum ... Successful Treatment of Notalgia Paresthetica With Botulinum Toxin Type A". Archderm.ama-assn.org. 2006-10-16. Retrieved 2014- ... Paravertebral nerve block and botulinum toxin injections may also be helpful. Some patients treated with low concentration ... and it has been theorised that botulinum type A effects lasting change in pain signaling. Unfortunately, repeated injections ...
Ito H, Ito H, Nakano S, Kusaka H (2007). "Low-dose subcutaneous injection of botulinum toxin type A for facial synkinesis and ... Botox (botulinum toxin) is a new and versatile tool for the treatment of synkinesis. Initially used for reducing hyperkinesis ... de Maio M, Bento RF (2007). "Botulinum toxin in facial palsy: an effective treatment for contralateral hyperkinesis". Plast ... with injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland". Eye. 16 (6): 705-09. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6700230. PMID 12439663. ...
Injections of botulinum toxin type A can be used to block neural control of sweat glands. The effect can last from 3-9 months ... Comite SL, Smith K. "Commenting on: "Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition of botulinum toxin A injections in ... "Botulinum toxin in primary care medicine". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 (10): 609-14. PMID 17122031 ... Percutaneous sympathectomy is a minimally invasive procedure similar to the botulinum method, in which nerves are blocked by an ...
Botulinum toxin) or Incapacitating Agents (e.g., Brucella suis, Coxiella burnetii, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, ... In this sense, any of the chemical warfare agents may incapacitate a victim; however, by the military definition of this type ... By 1958 a search of the Tropics for venomous animal species in order to isolate and synthesize their toxins was prioritized. ... The sampling also provided exotic tropical viruses and toxins from the various organisms collected on both land and sea. The ...
Sometimes botulinum toxin is injected into the eyelid to paralyze the muscles while the eyelid heals. Trauma to the nail can ... Unlike other types of avulsion, when a nail is lost, it is not typically reattached. Following the loss of the nail, the nail ... However, it often requires additional surgeries to retain function and botulinum toxin injections have been shown to be more ...
... however the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. Clostridium botulinum is a soil- ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Grass sickness may affect all types of horse, pony and donkey, and has affected some well known horses including the ...
... botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia". Neurology. 53 (7): 1431-8. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.7.1431. PMID ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Cln Dermatol. 4. ...
Botulinum toxin infusion As an alternative to the deep digital flexor tenotomy, Clostridium botulinum type A toxin has been ... Carter, D; Renfroe (2009). "A Novel Approach to the Treatment and Prevention of Laminitis: Botulinum Toxin Type A for the ... Trimming Successful treatment for any type of founder must necessarily involve stabilization of the bony column by some means. ...
Botulinum toxin type A is able to prevent stimulated release of CGRP through the cleavage of SNAP-25 protein. Receptor ... "Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion from trigeminal nerve cells by botulinum toxin type A: implications for ...
Diagnostic plates: intended to determine the type of color vision defect (protanopia or deuteranopia) and the severity of it. ... Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus. Medical imaging. *Fluorescein angiography. *Fundus photography. *Corneal topography ...
... which is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. ... injections contain the active ingredient botulinum toxin type A ... Vistabel (Botulinum toxin type A). Vistabel injections contain the active ingredient botulinum toxin type A, which is a toxin ... which is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.. Botulinum toxin type A is a bacterial toxin that prevents ... The muscle paralysing effect of botulinum toxin type A may be increased by the following medicines:. *aminoglycoside ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Botulinum Toxin Type A at PatientsLikeMe. 62 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Botulinum Toxin Type A. ... diabetes type 2, post-traumatic stress disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinsons disease, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, ... Showing 3 of 28 patient evaluations for Botulinum Toxin Type A Previous page 1 2 3 … 10 Next page ...
... botulinum toxin type A) - either homemade or illegally imported - has been implicated in the case of four people who went for ... Botulinum toxin type A is a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Small injections of this sterile purified ... "With more than 1,800 publications on botulinum toxin type A in scientific and medical journals, Botox is one of the most widely ... Advise patients who are considering Botox (botulinum toxin type A) injections that they should get treatment only from a ...
Botulinum toxin was able to jump into a new type of bacteria, Enterococcus, through plasmids, mobile structures that contain ... The toxin, dubbed BoNT/En, is the ninth botulinum toxin to be described. (Last August, Dong and colleagues reported the eighth ... Botulinum-type toxins jump to a new kind of bacteria. 29.01.2018 ... BoNT/X, made by C. botulinum and the first new botulinum toxin ... The newly discovered toxin does raise some concern that botulinum toxin could turn up in antibiotic-resistant enterococci, ...
A single injection of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type A may significantly decrease pain and improve shoulder function in ... A single injection of intra-articular botulinum toxin Type A may significantly decrease pain and improve shoulder function in ... Botox vials consists of 100 units of Botulinum Toxin A and it is injected into the muscle with the help of a small needle ... Botox or Botulinum toxin A is widely employed in the cosmetic industry due to its anti-ageing properties. ...
Inverse psoriasis and hyperhidrosis of the axillae responding to botulinum toxin type A.. Saber M, Brassard D, Benohanian A. ...
There is limited experience in the use of this type of toxin, and the product does not currently have a licence or approval for ... botulinum toxin type B, became available in the UK in 2001. ... Clostridium botulinum type - B neurotoxin complex. How is it ... There is limited experience in the use of this type of toxin, and the product does not currently have approval for cosmetic use ... Neurobloc® is made from purified type - B neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. ...
... immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E ... in a mouse protection assay and complete neutralization of 1 LD50 of pure BoNT/E toxin was achieved with 8 ng of hu8ELC18 in ... Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have ... Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin type E; botulism; antibody botulinum neurotoxin type E; botulism; antibody ...
Drug: Botulinum Toxin Type A - Azzalure One botulinum toxin type A will be injected in one side of the forehead and the other ... Drug: Botulinum Toxin Type A - Vistabel One botulinum toxin type A will be injected in one side of the forehead and the other ... One botulinum toxin type A will be injected in one side of the forehead and the other one will be injected in the other side of ... Comparison of Two Botulinum Toxins Type A on Forehead Wrinkles. Official Title ICMJE Intra-individual Comparison of the ...
Lower facial remodeling with botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of masseter hypertrophy.. Klein FH1, Brenner FM2, Sato MS ... Lower facial remodeling with botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of masseter hypertrophy ... Lower facial remodeling with botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of masseter hypertrophy ... Lower facial remodeling with botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of masseter hypertrophy ...
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A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.. Barash JR1, Arnon SS. ... botulinum type Bh strain to be identified. BoNT/H is the first new botulinum toxin type to be recognized in ,40 years, and its ... Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060, isolated from a patient with infant botulism, produced botulinum neurotoxin type B ( ... Clostridium botulinum toxin statement from the director of the California Department of Public Health. [J Infect Dis. 2014] ...
Botulinum toxin type-B improves sialorrhea and quality of life in bulbaronset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.. Costa J1, Rocha ... Sialorrhea is a disabling problem in bulbaronset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Botulinum toxin (BTX) type A and B have ... Anatomic guided BTX type B injections seem effective and safe to treat sialorrhea in bulbar-onset ALS. ... To evaluate the efficacy and safety of BTX type B in the treatment of sialorrhea in patients with bulbar-onset ALS. ...
Botulinum toxin type A is a substance that causes reduced activity of muscles or glands. When injected into the salivary glands ... What is a salivary gland botulinum toxin type A injection?. Botulinum toxin type A is a substance that causes reduced activity ... How is botulinum toxin type A injected?. Using ultrasound for guidance, the physician will insert a small needle directly into ... Botulinum toxin type A can be injected into the submandibular gland (below the floor of the mouth) and the parotid gland ( ...
Botulinum toxin type A reduces pain supersensitivity in experimental diabetic neuropathy: bilateral effect after unilateral ... We investigated antinociceptive activity of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain in rats. ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... The bilateral pain reduction after unilateral toxin application and the effectiveness of lower dose with the faster onset after ...
Type A, in which areas IV and V were covered by the DIT (27%, 12/44); Type B, in which areas V and VI were covered by the DIT ( ... 23%, 10/44); and Type C, in which areas IV, V, and VI were covered by the DIT (50%, 22/44). The superficial part of the ... The relationship between the masseter and DIT could be classified into three types according to the coverage pattern: ... "The Anatomical Basis of Paradoxical Masseteric Bulging after Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Injection." Toxins 9, no. 1: 14. ...
Botulinum Toxins. Botulinum Toxins, Type A. onabotulinumtoxinA. abobotulinumtoxinA. Triamcinolone hexacetonide. Triamcinolone. ... Botulinum Toxin Type A (BT-A) in Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain Versus Steroid. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Botulinum toxin type A (BT-A). Steroid. Intra-articular injection. Pain score of 45 or greater on a 0-100 mm VAS. Duration of ... Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) have also been demonstrated to reduce HSP. The mechanism whereby ...
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been shown to be effective for wrist tremor though functionally bothersome muscle weakness ...
Most medical professionals recommend that Botox injections are used once every six to nine months in order to achieve optimal results. Studies have shown that the majority of consumers prefer to follow-up with their Botox injections at least every .....
What is botulinum toxin type A? Meaning of botulinum toxin type A medical term. What does botulinum toxin type A mean? ... Looking for online definition of botulinum toxin type A in the Medical Dictionary? botulinum toxin type A explanation free. ... Related to botulinum toxin type A: botulinum toxin, Botulinum Toxin Injections. bot·u·li·num tox·in type A (boyyū-līnŭm ... concerning RT001 Botulinum Toxin Type A Topical Gel and RT002 Injectable Botulinum Toxin Type A.. Revance Therapeutics Regains ...
... the local spread of toxin effects was evaluated by the paretic effects on the nearby abductor hallucis (AH) and abductor digiti ... MT10107 is botulinum neurotoxin type A derived drug which utilizes the 150 kDa portion without complexing proteins and human ... Toxins 2016, 8, 4. AMA Style. Oh H-M, Park JH, Song DH, Chung ME. Efficacy and Safety of a New Botulinum Toxin Type A Free of ... Toxins 2016, 8(1), 4; doi:10.3390/toxins8010004. Efficacy and Safety of a New Botulinum Toxin Type A Free of Complexing ...
... to the 150-kD type-A toxin causing nonspecific substrate recognition and subsequent cleavage uncharacteristic of type-A toxin. ... Normal cleavage was observed for all other BoNT/A drug product samples, as well as 900-kD and 150-kD bulk toxin BoNT/A. The ... Arg198-Ala199 is also the cleavage site for trypsin and serotype C toxin. ... generated by three botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) medicinal drug products utilizing a novel and highly specific, ...
Botulinum toxin type A in the prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized ... botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA; BOTOX®; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) for the prophylaxis of chronic tension-type headache ( ... Abnormal modulatory influence of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in migraine and chronic tension-type headache patients ... Abnormal modulatory influence of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in migraine and chronic tension-type headache patients ...
Botulinum Toxin Type A (BT-A) in Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain Versus Steroid. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
Botulinum Toxins. Botulinum Toxins, Type A. onabotulinumtoxinA. abobotulinumtoxinA. Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors. Membrane ... Intravesical Instillation of Botulinum Toxin Type A to Patients With Urge Urinary Incontinence. The safety and scientific ... Intravesikal Instillation af Botulinum Toxin Type A Til Patienter Med Urge Urininkontinens. ... A pilot study to examine efficacy and safety of intravesical botulinum toxin type A. ...
  • These conditions are listed below: Perinatal (during birth) cerebral injury Kernicterus Cerebrovascular diseases Drug induced Central nervous system tumor Peripheral or central trauma Infectious or post infectious encephalopathies Toxins Metabolic Paraneoplastic syndromes Central pontine myelinolysis Secondary spasmodic torticollis is diagnosed when any of the following are present: history of exogenous insult or exposure, neurological abnormalities other than dystonia, abnormalities on brain imaging, particularly in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only when they manipulated the toxin to better target mouse and rat neurons did it become potent, shutting down nerve function and causing paralysis. (innovations-report.com)
  • In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque ( Macaca fascicularis )-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). In the present study, we germline-humanized scFv-Fc ELC18 into a full IgG hu8ELC18 to increase its immunotolerance by humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Peripheral neuropathies are commonly caused by diabetes, metabolic disorders, herpes zoster infection, HIV-related neuropathies, nutritional deficiencies, toxins, remote manifestations of malignancies, immune mediated disorders and physical trauma to a nerve trunk. (wikipedia.org)
  • types of nerve pills pink pill, ## I'm sorry, I can't tell you anything from just the color. (medschat.com)
  • The toxin relaxes the muscle by preventing the release of a substance called Acetylcholine from the nerve endings. (dallascenterforpain.com)
  • This class of injections use botulinum, a neurotoxin that blocks nerve signals to temporarily weaken or paralyze the muscle causing a wrinkle. (cbsnews.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A enters nerve cells and inhibits the release of acetylcholine, a chemical that transmits signals from nerve to nerve. (emedtv.com)
  • For severe sweating, botulinum toxin type A works similarly, blocking the release of acetylcholine from the nerve cells that stimulate the sweat glands. (emedtv.com)
  • Several variations occur, but the most common type of anomaly (81% of anomalies) is the Beaton's type B which is when the common peroneal nerve pierces the piriformis muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paravertebral nerve block and botulinum toxin injections may also be helpful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from diabetes (see diabetic neuropathy) and other metabolic conditions, the common causes of painful peripheral neuropathies are herpes zoster infection, HIV-related neuropathies, nutritional deficiencies, toxins, remote manifestations of malignancies, immune mediated disorders and physical trauma to a nerve trunk. (wikipedia.org)
  • they have no effect on toxin already bound to the nerve terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I (also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy) refers to CRPS without evidence of a specific peripheral nerve injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type II refers to when there is specific evidence of a nerve injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter-a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • She has led research studies for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate cosmetic procedures such as the use of Myobloc (Botulinum toxin) for treating frown lines, and botox and Myobloc for treating excessive sweating of the palms and underarms. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that botulinum toxin type A may have an inhibitory effect on the formation of fibroblasts and thus possibly decreases the severity of scar formation. (elsevier.com)
  • Botox or Botulinum toxin A is widely employed in the cosmetic industry due to its anti-ageing properties. (medindia.net)
  • There is limited experience in the use of this type of toxin, and the product does not currently have approval for cosmetic use anywhere in the world. (consultingroom.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A injections are one of the most popular cosmetic procedures for diminishing the appearance of facial lines caused by habitual facial muscle contractions. (dovepress.com)
  • Cosmetic Dermatology: Principles and Practice (McGraw Hill, 2002) ISBN 9780071362818 The Skin Type Solution (Bantam, 2006) ISBN 9780553804225 Cosmetic Dermatology: Principles and Practice Second edition (McGraw Hill, 2009) ISBN 9780071793995 Cosmeceuticals and Cosmetic Ingredients (McGraw Hill, 2014) ISBN 9780071793988 Blitzer, Ilana (8 February 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • With more than 1,800 publications on botulinum toxin type A in scientific and medical journals, Botox is one of the most widely researched medicines in the world and has been approved for 20 indications in more than 70 countries. (medpagetoday.com)
  • IPN), an innovation driven international specialty pharmaceutical group, and Galderma, a leading global pharmaceutical company focused on dermatology, today announced that they have entered into a partnership for the development, promotion and distribution of Ipsen's botulinum toxin type A for use in aesthetic medicine indications in Europe and certain other territories. (galderma.com)
  • Under the terms of this agreement, Ipsen granted Galderma exclusive rights to develop, promote and distribute a specific formulation for the aesthetic medicine indications of its botulinum toxin type A product in the European Union, Russia and certain territories of the Middle East and Eastern Europe. (galderma.com)
  • Ipsen's botulinum type A has shown a strong safety and efficacy profile in a number of indications since it was first approved in 1991. (galderma.com)
  • In 2010, the CDC replaced the licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB, or "BabyBIG") and the investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-E) with HBAT when the former two products indications expired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Diphtheria toxin also is an AB toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first appearance of mono-ADP-ribosylation occurred a year later during a study of toxins: corynebacterium diphtheria diphtheria toxin was shown to be dependent on NAD+ in order for it to be completely effective, leading to the discovery of enzymatic conjugation of a single ADP-ribose group by mono-ADP-ribosyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin, dubbed BoNT/En, is the ninth botulinum toxin to be described. (innovations-report.com)
  • Last August, Dong and colleagues reported the eighth , BoNT/X, made by C. botulinum and the first new botulinum toxin to be found in close to 50 years. (innovations-report.com)
  • Is BoNT/En toxic to humans? (innovations-report.com)
  • Teams led by Dong's collaborators, Michael Gilmore, PhD , at Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Harvard Medical School, and Andrew Doxey, PhD , at the University of Waterloo, found that the BoNT/En botulinum toxin genes were carried by a plasmid. (innovations-report.com)
  • A heptavalent F(ab')2 botulinum antitoxin A-G obtained from the US Army also did not neutralize the second BoNT. (nih.gov)
  • The second BoNT thus fulfilled classic criteria for being designated BoNT/H. IBCA10-7060 is the first C. botulinum type Bh strain to be identified. (nih.gov)
  • Normal cleavage was observed for all other BoNT/A drug product samples, as well as 900-kD and 150-kD bulk toxin BoNT/A. The reason for this unexpected secondary cleavage pattern by one formulated BoNT/A drug product is unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • In recent years, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), when injected subcutaneously across multiple sites, can effectively treat TN. (springer.com)
  • 3-7 Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has recently been shown to be analgesic with direct antinociceptive effects in an inflammatory pain model. (asahq.org)
  • In addition, Pre-clinical evidence indicated that botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) has antinociceptive effect. (semanticscholar.org)