A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Increased salivary flow.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
Plantar declination of the foot.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The phenomenon of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness being restored. This can apply to appearance, TISSUES, organ functions, or other areas.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain meliavolkinin, melianin C and limonoids.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
An involuntary movement accompanying a volitional movement. It often refers to facial movements that accompany FACIAL PARALYSIS.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A hypermotility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS that is characterized by spastic non-peristaltic responses to SWALLOWING; CHEST PAIN; and DYSPHAGIA.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The turning inward (inversion) of the edge of the eyelid, with the tarsal cartilage turned inward toward the eyeball. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.

Role of Rho and Rho kinase in the activation of volume-regulated anion channels in bovine endothelial cells. (1/1400)

1. We have studied the modulation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) by the small GTPase Rho and by one of its targets, Rho kinase, in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. 2. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed that both RhoA and Rho kinase are expressed in CPAE cells. 3. ICl,swell, the chloride current through VRACs, was activated by challenging CPAE cells with a 25 % hypotonic extracellular solution (HTS) or by intracellular perfusion with a pipette solution containing 100 microM GTPgammaS. 4. Pretreatment of CPAE cells with the Clostridium C2IN-C3 fusion toxin, which inactivates Rho by ADP ribosylation, significantly impaired the activation of ICl,swell in response to the HTS. The current density at +100 mV was 49 +/- 13 pA pF-1 (n = 17) in pretreated cells compared with 172 +/- 17 pA pF-1 (n = 21) in control cells. 5. The volume-independent activation of ICl,swell by intracellular perfusion with GTPgammaS was also impaired in C2IN-C3-pretreated cells (31 +/- 7 pA pF-1, n = 11) compared with non-treated cells (132 +/- 21 pA pF-1, n = 15). 6. Activation of ICl,swell was pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive. 7. Y-27632, a blocker of Rho kinase, inhibited ICl,swell and delayed its activation. 8. Inhibition of Rho and of Rho kinase by the above-described treatments did not affect the extent of cell swelling in response to HTS. 9. These experiments provide strong evidence that the Rho-Rho kinase pathway is involved in the VRAC activation cascade.  (+info)

Lymphocyte migration through brain endothelial cell monolayers involves signaling through endothelial ICAM-1 via a rho-dependent pathway. (2/1400)

Lymphocyte extravasation into the brain is mediated largely by the Ig superfamily molecule ICAM-1. Several lines of evidence indicate that at the tight vascular barriers of the central nervous system (CNS), endothelial cell (EC) ICAM-1 not only acts as a docking molecule for circulating lymphocytes, but is also involved in transducing signals to the EC. In this paper, we examine the signaling pathways in brain EC following Ab ligation of endothelial ICAM-1, which mimics adhesion of lymphocytes to CNS endothelia. ICAM-1 cross-linking results in a reorganization of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton to form stress fibers and activation of the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein Rho. ICAM-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the actin-associated molecule cortactin and ICAM-1-mediated, Ag/IL-2-stimulated T lymphocyte migration through EC monolayers were inhibited following pretreatment of EC with cytochalasin D. Pretreatment of EC with C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of Rho proteins, significantly inhibited the transmonolayer migration of T lymphocytes, endothelial Rho-GTP loading, and endothelial actin reorganization, without affecting either lymphocyte adhesion to EC or cortactin phosphorylation. These data show that brain vascular EC are actively involved in facilitating T lymphocyte migration through the tight blood-brain barrier of the CNS and that this process involves ICAM-1-stimulated rearrangement of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and functional EC Rho proteins.  (+info)

SNAP-25a and -25b isoforms are both expressed in insulin-secreting cells and can function in insulin secretion. (3/1400)

The tSNARE (the target-membrane soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor, where NSF is N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is expressed in pancreatic B-cells and its cleavage by botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT/E) abolishes stimulated secretion of insulin. In the nervous system, two SNAP-25 isoforms (a and b) have been described that are produced by alternative splicing. Here it is shown, using reverse transcriptase PCR, that messages for both SNAP-25 isoforms are expressed in primary pancreatic B and non-B cells as well as in insulin-secreting cell lines. After transfection, both isoforms can be detected at the plasma membrane as well as in an intracellular perinuclear region in the insulin-secreting cell line, HIT. To test for the functional role of the two isoforms in insulin secretion, mutant forms of SNAP-25a and b resistant against cleavage by BoNT/E were generated. Such mutant SNAP-25, when expressed in HIT cells, is not inactivated by BoNT/E and its ability to restore insulin secretion can thus be investigated. To obtain the toxin-resistant mutant isoforms, the sequence around the BoNT/E cleavage site (R176QIDRIM182) was changed to P176QIKRIT182. This is the sequence of the equivalent region of human SNAP-23 (P187-T194), which has been shown to be resistant to BoNT/E. The mutant SNAP-25 was resistant to BoNT/E in vitro and in vivo and both mutant isoforms were able to reconstitute insulin secretion from toxin-treated HIT cells.  (+info)

Involvement of RhoA and its interaction with protein kinase C and Src in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acini. (4/1400)

We evaluated intracellular pathways responsible for the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho p21 in rat pancreatic acini. Intact acini were incubated with or without CCK and carbachol, and Triton X-100-soluble and crude microsomes were used for Western immunoblotting. When a RhoA-specific antibody was used, a single band at the location of 21 kDa was detected. CCK (10 pM-10 nM) and carbachol (0.1-100 microM) dose dependently increased the amount of immunodetectable RhoA with a peak increase occurring at 3 min. High-affinity CCK-A-receptor agonists JMV-180 and CCK-OPE (1-1,000 nM) did not increase the intensities of the RhoA band, suggesting that stimulation of RhoA is mediated by the low-affinity CCK-A receptor. Although an increase in RhoA did not require the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM abolished the appearance of the RhoA band in response to CCK and carbachol. The Gq protein inhibitor G protein antagonist-2A (10 microM) and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 (10 microM) markedly reduced RhoA bands in response to CCK. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol ester (10-1,000 nM) dose dependently increased the intensities of the RhoA band, which were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor K-252a (1 microM). The pp60(c-src) inhibitor herbimycin A (6 microM) inhibited the RhoA band in response to CCK, whereas the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (100 microM) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin (6 microM) had no effect. RhoA was immunoprecipitated with Src, suggesting association of RhoA with Src. Increases in mass of this complex were observed with CCK stimulation. In permeabilized acini, the Rho inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme dose dependently inhibited amylase secretion evoked by a Ca2+ concentration with an IC50 of C3 exoenzyme at 1 ng/ml. We concluded that the small GTP-binding protein RhoA p21 exists in pancreatic acini and appears to be involved in the mediation of pancreatic enzyme secretion evoked by CCK and carbachol. RhoA pathways are involved in the activation of PKC and Src cascades via Gq protein and PLC.  (+info)

Bacterial toxins and the Rho GTP-binding protein: what microbes teach us about cell regulation. (5/1400)

In the present review activities of two bacterial toxins, Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and Escherichia coli CNF1, both acting on the GTP-binding protein Rho are analyzed. Proteins belonging to the Rho family regulate the actin cytoskeleton and act as molecular switches in a number of signal transduction pathways. C3 and CNF1 have opposite effects on Rho thus representing useful tools for studies on cell division, cell differentiation and apoptosis.  (+info)

Rho-dependent and -independent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin and p130Cas mediated by Ret kinase. (6/1400)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a unique receptor system that includes Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface protein. In the present study, we have identified several proteins in neuroblastoma cells that are phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to GDNF. The phosphorylated proteins include focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Crk-associated substrate, p130Cas, all of which are known to be associated with focal adhesions. Of these, paxillin and p130Cas interacted with Crk proteins in GDNF-treated neuroblastoma cells. GDNF also induced reorganization of the actin cytoskelton. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas was inhibited by cytochalasin D or two specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI-3' kinase), wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that their tyrosine phosphorylation depends on the formation of actin stress fiber and activation of PI-3' kinase. In addition, phosphorylation of FAK but not of paxillin and p130Cas was markedly impaired by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme that specifically ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. These results suggested the presence of Rho-dependent and -independent signaling pathways downstream of PI-3' kinase that mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas through Ret kinase.  (+info)

Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins: mechanism of action and therapeutic uses. (7/1400)

The clostridial neurotoxins responsible for tetanus and botulism are proteins consisting of three domains endowed with different functions: neurospecific binding, membrane translocation and proteolysis for specific components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus. Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. The spastic paralysis induced by the toxin is due to the blockade of neurotransmitter release from spinal inhibitory interneurons. In contrast, the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) act at the periphery by inducing a flaccid paralysis due to the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. TeNT and BoNT serotypes B, D, F and G cleave specifically at single but different peptide bonds, of the vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP) synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles (SSVs). BoNT types A, C and E cleave SNAP-25 at different sites located within the carboxyl-terminus, while BoNT type C additionally cleaves syntaxin. The remarkable specificity of BoNTs is exploited in the treatment of human diseases characterized by a hyperfunction of cholinergic terminals.  (+info)

SNARE complex formation is triggered by Ca2+ and drives membrane fusion. (8/1400)

Neurotransmitter exocytosis, a process mediated by a core complex of syntaxin, SNAP-25, and VAMP (SNAREs), is inhibited by SNARE-cleaving neurotoxins. Botulinum neurotoxin E inhibition of norepinephrine release in permeabilized PC12 cells can be rescued by adding a 65 aa C-terminal fragment of SNAP-25 (S25-C). Mutations along the hydrophobic face of the S25-C helix result in SNARE complexes with different thermostabilities, and these mutants rescue exocytosis to different extents. Rescue depends on the continued presence of both S25-C and Ca2+ and correlates with complex formation. The data suggest that Ca2+ triggers S25-C binding to a low-affinity site, initiating trans-complex formation. Pairing of SNARE proteins on apposing membranes leads to bilayer fusion and results in a high-affinity cis-SNARE complex.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Possible mechanisms for the effects of botulinum toxin on pain. AU - Arezzo, Joseph C.. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. N2 - The therapeutic effects of botulinum toxin are principally, if not exclusively, derived from an alteration in the release of acetylcholine (ACh) at pre-synaptic neurons. The rationale for how these effects could be beneficial in conditions characterized by excessive muscle contraction is clear, but the hypotheses regarding botulinum toxin-induced effects on pain are highly speculative. We explore five possible mechanisms by which botulinum toxin could directly or indirectly alter pain, including: 1) changes in the sensitivity and response patterns of group III and IV muscle nociceptors, 2) diminished activity in the γ-motor neurons and consequent changes in muscle spindle afferents, 3) alterations in cholinergic control of vascular and autonomic functions, including neurogenic inflammation, 4) induced neuroplastic changes in the processing of afferent ...
Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont genes in strains representing the different Groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species. Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E strain were compared to examine their genomic organization, or synteny, and the location of the botulinum toxin complex genes. These comparisons identified synteny among proteolytic (Group I) strains or nonproteolytic (Group II) strains but not between the two Groups. The bont complex genes within the strains examined were not randomly located but found within three regions of the chromosome or in two specific sites within plasmids. A
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to humankind. It is essential to have a simple, quick, and sensitive method for the detection and quantification of botulinum toxin in various media, including complex biological matrices. Our laboratory has developed a mass spectrometry-based Endopep-MS assay that is able to rapidly detect and differentiate all types of BoNTs by extracting the toxin with specific antibodies and detecting the unique cleavage products of peptide substrates. Botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) is a member of a family of seven distinctive BoNT serotypes (A-G) and is the causative agent of botulism in both humans and animals. To improve the sensitivity of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the development of novel peptide substrates for the detection of BoNT/E activity through systematic and comprehensive approaches. Our data demonstrate that several optimal peptides could accomplish 500-fold improvement in ...
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS Botulinum toxin has become a widely adopted treatment for patients with recalcitrant overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Some recommend clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC) if a postvoid residual (PVR) ,200 ml posttreatment, but there is no evidence for this recommendation. The aim of this study was to identify whether abstinence from CISC as a routine strategy for patients with a PVR following intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections is associated with any measurable adversity. METHODS This was a cohort observation study. Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) attending a medical urology centre were observed before and after botulinum toxin treatment. Intradetrusal botulinum toxin injections were administered in the day-treatment centre at a medical urology centre in London, UK. Patients were reviewed at follow-up consultations to measure PVR. RESULTS Of the 240 patients studied, 215 were women and 25 were men, of whom, 196 (82%) received ...
Botulinum Toxin is a natural substance which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum. Botulinum Toxin was originally approved to relax spastic muscles in order to treat dystonia, a neuromuscular disease. It was then discovered that it was also highly effective in the treatment of fine lines and wrinkles and has now become one of the most popular cosmetic procedures worldwide. Botulinum Toxin blocks the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles and is used to alleviate dynamic wrinkles. Dynamic wrinkles arise due to facial mimicry and hence manifest themselves as the well-known frown, on the forehead and around the eye area as crows feet. Because the muscle contraction is inhibited, fine lines and wrinkles are smoothed out. Besides that, botulinum toxin helps prevent the formation of new wrinkles. Extensive research has shown that this procedure is completely safe as Botulinum is naturally being degraded by the body after a certain period of time.. Depending on the extent of ...
0038]Botulinum toxin type A can be obtained by establishing and growing cultures of Clostridium botulinum in a fermenter and then harvesting and purifying the fermented mixture in accordance with known procedures. All the botulinum toxin serotypes are initially synthesized as inactive single chain proteins which must be cleaved or nicked by proteases to become neuroactive. The bacterial strains that make botulinum toxin serotypes A and G possess endogenous proteases and serotypes A and G can therefore be recovered from bacterial cultures in predominantly their active form. In contrast, botulinum toxin serotypes C1, D and E are synthesized by nonproteolytic strains and are therefore typically unactivated when recovered from culture. Serotypes B and F are produced by both proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains and therefore can be recovered in either the active or inactive form. However, even the proteolytic strains that produce, for example, the botulinum toxin type B serotype, only cleave a ...
The objective of the project is the development of in vitro detection methods for the different toxins (A, B, C, D, E and F) of Clostridium botulinum by optimizing both a competitive immuno-PCR test (icqPCR) and a quantitative immuno-PCR (iqPCR) and by comparing one to another with regard to the obtained specificity and sensitivity of detection for each type of botulinum toxin as well as to compare them to the reference method for detection of botulinum toxins being the mice toxicity test ...
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Author summary The seven established Botulinum Neurotoxins serotypes (BoNT/A to G) and the many BoNT subtypes, the causative agents of botulism, are the most poisonous substances known (lethal doses in the low ng/kg range). Due to their toxicological properties, BoNTs are Janus-faced toxins: potent pathogenic factors and potential bioterrorism agents as well as safe and efficacious therapeutics. BoNTs exert their neuroparalytic action by cleaving SNARE proteins, either SNAP-25 or synaptobrevin/VAMP, which mediate neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction; BoNT/C is the only serotype shown to cleave SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1 in vitro. Our study shows for the first time that this parallel cleavage also occurs in vivo. By using mutated toxins reported to be syntaxin-selective, we found that SNAP-25 proteolysis at the neuromuscular junction is the key determinant of BoNT/C lethality as it completely blocks nerve-muscle transmission. Conversely, syntaxin-1 cleavage only attenuates nerve terminal
The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are category A biothreat agents which have been the focus of intensive efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based prophylaxis and treatment. Such approaches must take into account the extensive BoNT sequence variability; the seven BoNT serotypes differ by up to 70% at the amino acid level. Here, we have analyzed 49 complete published sequences of BoNTs and show that all toxins also exhibit variability within serotypes ranging between 2.6 and 31.6%. To determine the impact of such sequence differences on immune recognition, we studied the binding and neutralization capacity of six BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2, which differ by 10% at the amino acid level. While all six MAbs bound BoNT/A1 with high affinity, three of the six MAbs showed a marked reduction in binding affinity of 500- to more than 1,000-fold to BoNT/A2 toxin. Binding results predicted in vivo toxin neutralization; NlAbs or MAb combinations that ...
Hyperactive glandular conditions are treated using topically formulated botulinum toxin compositions. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, topical botulinum preparations are applied directly to the skin by a patient as needed to suppress his or her hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis, chromhidrosis, nevus sudoriferous, acne, seborrhiec dermatitis or other glandular condition. In other embodiments, topical botulinum toxins are applied with the aid of mechanical, electrical, and/or chemical transdermal delivery enhancers.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases produced by members of the bacterial genus Clostridium (17, 36, 64). The seven BoNT serotypes, designated A to G, are structurally similar, each comprising a heavy chain that governs neuron-specific cell binding, cell uptake, and translocation into the cytosol and a light chain that contains endopeptidase activity (35, 43, 45). While cell surface receptor and endopeptidase substrate specificity differ between serotypes, all BoNTs act by specifically cleaving one or more soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, inhibiting neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction (11, 12, 44, 49, 52-54, 67). This block in neurotransmitter release leads to the flaccid paralysis characteristic of the disease botulism and can cause death by respiratory failure resulting from paralysis of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles. BoNTs are extremely toxic, with estimated human lethal doses of BoNT ...
Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxins effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and
Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxins effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and
Clostridium botulinum Toxin A antibody [B364M] for ELISA, ICC/IF, RIA. Anti-Clostridium botulinum Toxin A mAb (GTX44113) is tested in Clostridium botulinum samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Myofascial pains are frequently found during the clinical examination of the patients presenting a painful chronic syndrome of the pelvis or the perineum. If the physiopathology of this component of the pain characterized by triggerpoints found in the clinical examination, remains uncertain; its coverage contributes to the improvement of the global pain of the patient. The physiotherapy can be useful but when it is not useful, we proposed injections of triggerpoints by local anesthetics. The injections of botulinum toxin on these triggerpoints have a legitimacy (action on the muscular cramp and action on the afferent fibers) but are they superior to the injections of local anesthetics of triggerpoints? The literature remains poor on the subject, justifying this randomized double-blind protocol comparing the efficacy of the botulinum toxin associated with a local anesthetic versus local anesthetic alone with a main criterion of evaluation in 2 months and a monthly follow-up as long as the patient ...
The botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent: molecular and pharmacological insights Roshan Kukreja,1 Bal Ram Singh2 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts, 2Botulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA, USA Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most potent toxins known to mankind, are metalloproteases that act on nerve–muscle junctions to block exocytosis through a very specific and exclusive endopeptidase activity against soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins of presynaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This very ability of the toxins to produce flaccid muscle paralysis through chemical denervation has been put to good use, and these potentially lethal toxins have been licensed to treat an ever expanding list of medical disorders and more popularly in the field of esthetic medicine. In most cases, therapeutic BoNT preparations are high-molecular-weight protein complexes consisting of
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxic protein produced bi the bacterium Clostridium botulinum an relatit species.[1] It prevents the release o the neurotransmitter acetylcholine frae axon endins at the neuromuscular junction an thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection wi the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is an aa uised commercially in medicine, cosmetics, an resairch. ...
Following stroke, 30% of patients are left with a hemiplegic upper limb meaning that they are unable to carry out any movements with the limb and are thus partially or totally dependent for all activities of daily living (dressing, washing, feeding etc). Another 40% have some proximal recovery. These patients are able to carry out some movement of the shoulder and sometimes the elbow. They can use the limb for some activities of daily living such as carrying a bag or stabilising paper while writing. The last 30% recover a certain degree of prehension, however their motor control is altered and they have impairments of both the reaching and grasping phases.. Treatment for chronic stroke symptoms (more than 6 months post-onset) including impairments and activity limitations is mostly based on physiotherapy and botulinum toxin injections (BTI).. Physiotherapy : This treatment has been shown to be effective, and is essential to reduce impairments and improve function in patients with hemiparesis ...
Botulinum toxin injections in surgical wound closure immediately after surgery improve facial surgery scars, according to a small study published in the March i
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Learn more about Botulinum Toxin Injections -- Medical at Medical City Dallas DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
This paper is divided into two parts; the first part provides a background on botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) for medical uses as well as a description of how to use it. The second part provides a critical review of the evidence regarding the use of BoNT for pain in the orofacial region. This review was based on published literature gathered from Medline databases. Specifically, the authors looked for papers that were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RBCTs) that were published in peer-reviewed journals. Where these were not widely available, they describe the case report and open-label clinical trials-based evidence. Regarding the medical use of BoNT, as soon as it became evident that victims of food poisoning experienced motor paralysis as a part of their disease and that the bacterium Clostridium botulinum was responsible, the idea that a toxin that is produced by this bacteria might have medical uses was not far behind. It was in the 1920s that BoNT was purified first . It was ...
Botulinum toxin A is a protein produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the same bacteria that causes botulism food poisoning. When injected into muscle in tiny amounts, botulinum A (Botox) can stop or reduce muscle spasm by blocking nerve signals to the muscle. This treatment has been used since the early 1990s...
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), mainly represented by subtype A1, is the most toxic substance known. It causes naturally-occurring food poisoning, and is among the biological agents at the highest risk of being weaponized. Several antibodies neutralizing BoNT/A by targeting its heavy chain (BoNT/A-H) have been isolated in the past. For the first time however, an IgG (4LCA) recently isolated by hybridoma technology and targeting the BoNT/A light chain (BoNT/A-L), was shown to inhibit BoNT/A endopeptidase activity and protect in vivo against BoNT/A. In the present study, a phage-displayed library was constructed from a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) hyper-immunized with BoNTA/L in order to isolate scFvs inhibiting BoNT/A endopeptidase activity for clinical use. Diversity of the scFvs constituting the library was limited due to the frequent presence, within the genes intended to be part of the library, of restriction sites utilized for its construction. After screening with several rounds of increasing
Interpretive Summary: Botulism is a serious, often fatal neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals caused by a protein toxin (botulinum toxin, BoNT) produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. BoNT is considered the most toxic biological toxin known. Because of its high toxicity, the need for a long recovery period requiring extensive treatment, and the ease of producing BoNT, it is considered a class A bioterrorism agent. The gold standard for detection of botulinum toxin is the mouse bioassay. In a previous report we described the development of a simple, non-rodent-based rapid detection based on newly developed monoclonal antibodies. This simple assay will detect BoNT at levels below the mouse bioassay. In this report we describe the location on the BoNT that are bound by one of the antibodies used in the above assay. This information extends our knowledge of the parameters controlling the immunoassay and improves our ability to design even better tests for toxin and predict assay ...
The clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise a family of eight related toxins: tetanus (TeNT) and seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), which cause the disease...
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing death or respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care. Treatment includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication. Rapidly determining human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and ...
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We herein demonstrated that Tat PTD-mediated protein transduction was successfully applied to intact arterial strips. It was reported earlier that Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 tagged with Tat PTD inhibited the urotensin-induced contraction in the rat aorta.29 In the present study, the introduction of the protein into the cells by Tat PTD was clearly proved by the observation of GFP fluorescence in the TAT-GFP-treated strips, and by immunoblot detection of Tat PTD-tagged MYPT1 fragments in the extract of the strips. The introduction of protein is also supported by the observation that the MYPT1 fragments enhanced the Ca2+-induced contraction only when tagged with Tat PTD. The time needed to obtain a significant enhancement of contraction suggested that the transduction of functional protein into the intact arterial strips takes place within 10 minutes, which is consistent with previous reports.22,23⇓. Treatment with TAT-MYPT11-374 enhanced the Ca2+-induced contraction with no effect on ...
This chapter explains the mechanism by which botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causes its neuromuscular paralytic effects, and reviews the developments that led these effects to be harnessed therapeutically. It specifically focuses upon the conditions of dystonia and spasticity. Within the spectrum of these diseases, it discusses those situations where BoNT injections are the treatment of choice. The very accurate targeting of BoNT into specific muscles in many situations is both desirable and crucial in some situations BoNTs therapeutic neuroparalytic effect may need to be restricted to a single muscle fascicle.. In some cases, an inaccurately placed injection may be associated with unacceptable side effects. In order to achieve accuracy of BoNT injection delivery, intramuscular injections of BoNT aided by electromyography (EMG) guidance allows the very accurate targeting of specific muscles. The practical aspects related to the preparation of BoNT for injection and the methodology and techniques for
This year, Botox was linked to a number of hospitalizations and 16 deaths. Of the deaths, four victims of the poisonous Botox injections were children. An additional 87 people were hospitalized. Botox and Myobloc have been linked to the injuries and fatalities because the botulinum toxin spread inside the bodies of the patients, killing some and injuring others. The toxin spreading in the bodies of the children proved most serious, killing four children under the age of 16. In addition to the deaths, there have been reported problems of muscle weakness and difficulty swallowing. American consumer group Public Citizen says it has seen 180 reports sent to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about Botox and Myobloc.. Botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and is known commercially as Botox and Myobloc, is one of the most powerful nerve poisons known. Although best known for smoothing facial ...
Another company mining the bioterrorism threat is Pharmaleads, which is developing a fluorescence-based diagnostic test for detecting botulinum toxin in drinking water. Botulinum toxin is easy to make and introduce into liquid, explained Jean-Pierre Rogala, COO. Also the botulinum A and B toxins are lethal in doses as small as 5 ng/mL and 200 ng/mL, respectively. To be able to monitor drinking water requires a test that is robust and fast, and can be used either by security forces or other nonscientifically trained personnel in the field. To fulfill these needs the company developed a test that utilizes botulinum toxins zinc metalloprotease activity. The firm generated a zinc metalloprotease substrate containing a fluorescent reagent known as Fluofast®. Since botulinum toxins can recognize and cleave specific amino acids in the Fluofast substrate to release a fluorescent signal, the toxins presence can be detected via a fluorometer. To make field detection possible, Pharmaleads also ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic substances known to humans causing respiratory failure upon poisoning. BoNTs lethality and ease of production has led to a category A bioterrorism agent designation for BoNT by the Department of Defense (DoD). Developing effective, post-exposure antagonists to BoNT is a top priority of the DoD. Despite their lethality, BoNTs have cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications and are currently FDA-approved for the treatment of glabellar lines (wrinkles), cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, cranial nerve VII disorders, and cosmoses. BoNT provides relief of muscle tension by silencing neurons that cause muscle contraction. For many disorders, BoNT-based treatments provide significant and long lasting reductions in pain. BoNTs exquisite specificity for neurons and long time of action make it a lead candidate for the treatment of neurological and muscle disorders where conventional treatments have failed. Development of ...
Botox is an injectable substance which is a medical grade form of the botulinum toxin, most often used to soften and relax forehead. Botulin toxin is compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is an enzyme that helps in breaking down one of the fusion proteins that allow neurons to release acetylcholine at a neuromuscular junction. By interfering with nerve impulses in this way, it causes paralysis of muscles in botulism. Its been found that botox injections can help children with cerebral palsy from agravating and suffering some other side effects ...
sufferers, they are ineffective in stopping the painful side effects of teeth grinding, and do nothing for daytime tooth grinding.. Dentists have been injecting small doses of Botox directly into the large muscle that moves the jaw (masseter muscle) thereby successfully weakening it enough to stop involuntary grinding of the teeth and clenching of the jaw. Botox significantly relaxes the muscle, reducing the wear and tear on the teeth, due to grinding. Although it is not a cure for bruxism, Botox appears to effectively control uncomfortable symptoms better than a night guard for some patients, and treatment typically lasts for three to four months.. A downside emerged a number of years ago, though, showing evidence that Botox treatment may trigger a dramatic loss of bone density in the jaw. In a 2012 study in the journal Bone, Rabbits were injected with botulinum toxin on one side of the jaw and researchers found that after four weeks, the bone in the injected side was severely decreased. ...
Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) causes a potentially fatal disease called botulism. With an estimated LD50 of 1 ng/kg body weight, the family of BoNT serotypes, subdivided into more than 40 subtypes, are the most toxic naturally occurring substances known. The most widely accepted method for BoNT detection is the Mouse Lethality Bioassay (MLB) which has a sensitivity of 10-100 pg/mL. However, respiratory failure is the end point, large numbers of mice are required for serotyping and quantitation (, 100 per sample), and it has variable sensitivity and long readout times of 1-4 days. The purpose of the Botulinum NeuroToxin BLD-Test Performance Study is to validate a recently developed molecular-based BoNT assay so that it may be successfully adapted to replace the MLB for detecting and distinguishing the disease causing serotypes in a range of matrices (e.g. food, beverage, environmental, and human and animal samples collected for diagnostic purposes). The BLD-Test employs an automated, portable ...
Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) causes a potentially fatal disease called botulism. With an estimated LD50 of 1 ng/kg body weight, the family of BoNT serotypes, subdivided into more than 40 subtypes, are the most toxic naturally occurring substances known. The most widely accepted method for BoNT detection is the Mouse Lethality Bioassay (MLB) which has a sensitivity of 10-100 pg/mL. However, respiratory failure is the end point, large numbers of mice are required for serotyping and quantitation (, 100 per sample), and it has variable sensitivity and long readout times of 1-4 days. The purpose of the Botulinum NeuroToxin BLD-Test Performance Study is to validate a recently developed molecular-based BoNT assay so that it may be successfully adapted to replace the MLB for detecting and distinguishing the disease causing serotypes in a range of matrices (e.g. food, beverage, environmental, and human and animal samples collected for diagnostic purposes). The BLD-Test employs an automated, portable ...
The Australasian College of Cosmetic Surgery estimated that 1.5 million botulinum toxin injections or 250,000 wrinkle reduction procedures were administered in Australia in 2009. These figures are 30% higher than those reported for 2008. With the need for further and ongoing treatment in those who have previously received injections and the promise of new customers, these numbers are expected to double over the next five years. There are two formulations of botulinum toxin available for injection in Australia: • BOTOX® • DYSPORT® Both are purified from the toxic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. This bacterium has a claim to fame as the cause of the rare but serious condition known as botulism. In this condition, ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium or the toxins it produces, leads to progressive paralysis.. This usually starts with the muscles of the face and eyes and then spreads progressively over the body. It affects the face and eyes first because these are among ...
Authors noted that while the difference was statistically significant, it had uncertain clinical importance, and patients who received injections were more likely to develop urinary tract infections and to need transient self-catheterization.
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
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In managing patients with spasticity, especially when injecting botulinum toxin, there is one motto that holds true. Its that the more one thinks he knows the more there really is to learn. Whether it is patient criteria, medication use or muscle selection for injection, nothing is as straight forward as it seems.. It is the goal of this article to review the factors that form the basis for selection of botulinum toxin therapy in adult patients. The features of botulinum type A and type B will be compared. Finally, techniques and resources available to the clinician in determining when botulinum might be effective and in which muscles will be introduced.. When considering spasticity management the physician needs to take into account the patients physical presentation as well as the goals that they and their care providers have. Positive symptoms of upper motor syndrome include spasticity, heightened reflexes, clonus, and synergy patterns of movement.. Negative symptoms include weakness and ...
Apparatus, systems and methods can provide improved detection of botulinum neurotoxins. In one aspect an isoquinolynyl compound can be used to enhance the sensitivity of both Forster resonance energy
Find Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxins (BoNT and TeNT) research area related information and Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxins (BoNT and TeNT) research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
Manufacturing controls to prevent the growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum - which can lead to the potentially fatal food poisoning botulism - could not be demonstrated by the maker of the product, hence the recall. ...
Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Chronic Migraine What is botulinum toxin? Botulinum toxin (Onabotulinum Toxin A) is made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In high doses it can produce muscle paralysis. In low doses, it is used to treat many conditions. Botulinum toxin is a medicine approved by the FDA to prevent chronic migraines. How does it work? It is unclear how botulinum toxin treats chronic migraine. Botulinum toxin injections can cause relaxation of muscles and can block nerve signal transmission. The effects last about 12 weeks. It works best if treatment is done every 12 weeks. It may take more than one treatment to feel the full effect of botulinum toxin therapy. How do I know it will help me? Botulinum toxin treatments are expensive and come with some risk. Both your provider and insurance consider this treatment when less invasive treatments have not worked for you. Botulinum toxin has been found to work well for chronic migraine. Most people (up to 70%) feel ...
Clostridium botulinum strains that produce botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) are most commonly isolated from botulism cases, marine environments, and animals in regions of high latitude in the Northern hemisphere. A strain of C. botulinum type E (CDC66177) was isolated from soil in Chubut, Argentina. Previous studies showed that the amino acid sequences of BoNT/E produced by various strains differ by | 6% and that the type E neurotoxin gene cluster inserts into the rarA operon. Genetic and mass spectral analysis demonstrated that the BoNT/E produced by CDC66177 is a novel toxin subtype (E9). Toxin gene sequencing indicated that BoNT/E9 differed by nearly 11% at the amino acid level compared to BoNT/E1. Mass spectrometric analysis of BoNT/E9 revealed that its endopeptidase substrate cleavage site was identical to other BoNT/E subtypes. Further analysis of this strain demonstrated that its 16S rRNA sequence clustered with other Group II C. botulinum (producing BoNT types B, E, and F) strains. Genomic
Botulinum toxin type A versus botulinum toxin type B for cervical dystonia: Cochrane systematic review answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Differences between the type B neurotoxin gene sequence of Clostridium botulinum type A(B) and Cl. botulinum type B, including a six nucleotide deletion, were recently proposed as a cause of the lack of expression of this gene in the type A toxigenic strains. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based
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Table of Content 1. Chapter - Report Methodology 1.1. Research Process 1.2. Primary Research 1.3. Secondary Research 1.4. Market Size Estimates 1.5. Data Triangulation 1.6. Forecast Model 1.7. USPs of Report 1.8. Report Description 2. Chapter - Global Botulinum Toxin Market Overview: Qualitative Analysis 2.1. Market Introduction 2.2. Executive Summary 2.3. Global Botulinum Toxin Market Classification 2.4. Market Drivers 2.5. Market Restraints 2.6. Market Opportunity 2.7. Botulinum Toxin Market: Trends 2.8. Porters Five Forces Analysis 2.8.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers 2.8.2. Bargaining Power of Consumers 2.8.3. Threat of New Entrants 2.8.4. Threat of Substitute Product and Services 2.8.5. Competitive Rivalry within the Industry 2.9. Market Attractiveness Analysis 2.9.1. Market Attractiveness Analysis by Segmentation 2.9.2. Market Attractiveness Analysis by Region 3. Chapter - Global Botulinum Toxin Market Overview: Quantitative Analysis 3.1. Global Botulinum Toxin Market Revenue (USD ...
Botulinum Toxin Botox.The advantage of botulinum toxin over oral medication is that the toxin can be targeted only at the muscles causing the problem.
Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the springtime and leading to different signs of neurotoxicity. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease.
Repeated botulinum toxin injection for idiopathic overactive bladder: will chemodenervation become a long-term solution?: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has emerged
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (SBIR [R43/R44]) PA-09-179. NINDS
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Development of In-Vitro Assays to Assess the Potency of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (STTR [R41/R42]) PA-09-178. NINDS
Botulinum toxin is one of the most toxic natural substances; it acts by blocking the neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting Acetylcholine (Ach) releasing from the motor nerve into the neuromuscular junction. Although the toxin inhibits ACh release, other transmitters can also be inhibited. Botulinum toxin, specifically toxin type A (BONT-A) has been used since the 1970s to treat many different disorders, such as general spasticity resulting from stroke, multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy, strabismus, hyperhidrosis or excessive sweating, pain, and it is effective in combating migraine and tension headaches. Since prostate gland is under the influence of autonomic innervation and associated neurotransmitters, the effects of BONT-A on the prostate have gained attention in the urological community and it has been studied in different species, including rats, dogs and humans. The aim of this paper is to review the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and to discuss in particular the results of ...
Botulism is a serious illness that causes flaccid paralysis of muscles. It is caused by a neurotoxin, generically called botulinum toxin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are seven distinct neurotoxins (types A-G) that Clostridium botulinum produce, but types A, B, and E (rarely F) are the most common that produce the flaccid paralysis in humans. The other types mainly cause disease in animals. Most Clostridium species produce only one type of neurotoxin.. ...
The carboxy-terminal domain of the heavy chain recognizes a specific binding site, while the nitrogen-terminus transports the lighter chain into the nerve cytosol (Peck et al. 2010). The lighter chain contains metalloproteases that target specific proteins involved in controlling the exocytosis machinery (Verderio et al. 2006). The inhibition of this integral machinery stops the release of acetylcholine and the neuron fails to send an important signal throughout the body. The lighter chain also decreases the stability of the binding complex, further preventing acetylcholine from being able to bind to the synaptic vesicles (Peck et al. 2010). In addition to releasing neurotoxins when exposed to varying environmental conditions, Clostridium botulinum also increases production of proteases that are secreted from the cell to breakdown polypeptides to contribute to contaminating food and therefore increasing its own toxicity. A large proportion of the bacterias genome encodes for several different ...
Kuo, in a study assessing whether suburothelial injection of different doses of botulinum toxin A would have a similar therapeutic effect to but less side effects than the use of 200 U botulinum toxin... more
Long lauded for its ability to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, botulinum toxin is now being considered for reducing scarring.. By using botulinum toxin to denervate underlying muscle and immobilize tension?which increases inflammation, fibrosis, erythema and scar size?scarring can potentially be reduced, say researchers writing in a review published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. ...
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS ...
Botulinum toxin injection bilateral rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, and gastrocnemius soleus muscles, phenol neurolysis of bilateral obturator nerves, application of bilateral short leg fiberglass casts.
Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming, strictly anaerobic that means they live and grow in low oxygen environments, and gram-positive bacteria. The Clostridium botulinum bacteria remain dormant in the form of spores when conditions for survival are poor. The spore contains a small amount of all essential components of Clostridium botulinum, and has a thick protective …. ...
Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a median of 24 cases of foodborne botulism, 3 cases of wound botulism, and 71 cases of infant botulism have been reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). New vehicles for transmission have emerged in recent decades, and wound botulism associated with black tar heroin has increased dramatically since 1994. Recently, the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become an important concern.. Botulism is characterized by symmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves, usually beginning with the cranial nerves.Blurred vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria are common initial complaints. The diagnosis of botulism is based on compatible clinical findings; history of exposure to suspect foods; and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of ...
A previous version of draft guidelines for cannabis testing in Florida listed Clostridium botulinum as a target for microbial testing. On the surface, this seems like a prudent action. After all, C. botulinum is a nasty organism that is responsible for a life-threatening disease called botulism. However, because it is so dangerous, the CDC/USDA has placed it on the FEDERAL SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS LIST. This makes it very difficult for labs to acquire C. botulinum organisms to validate their tests. It requires BL3 storage and BL2 CO2 glove boxes to culture because its an obligate anaerobe. We dont know of a single cannabis testing lab that has a BL3 lab. There are also no attenuated strains available.. We know how hard it can be to test for C. botulinum. In a 2016 study, we detected C. botulinum DNA on a cannabis sample using 16S sequencing of short amplicons. Those results should always be verified with a species-specific confirmation assay, which we have designed. Our qPCR assay detects the ...
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The overall goals of this project were to develop sensitive and specific micro-scale detection systems for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) that can be used to detect BoNT in intentionally adulterated foods or other samples and quickly communicate detection events using wireless technology. Additionally, the liquid crystal sensing component of the system lends itself to integration with food packaging to provide visual indicators of contamination. By developing and merging two sensing methods, (a) biomembrane sensing and bio-electronic transduction and (b) liquid crystal-based sensors, this project has involved into an integrated, wireless, modular platform for sensing botulinum toxin (BoNT). During this project, our laboratories successfully carried out a multidisciplinary collaboration to develop sensing platforms for botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) based on microfluidics and liquid sensor platforms. Wireless and optical sensing for biological toxins was also a method developed in this the project ...
In an abstract (Botulinum neurotoxin vaccines: past present, and future), published by PubMed back in 2007, Smith, LA and Rusnak JM detail that In the early 1930s, a formalin-inactivated toxoid against botulium neurotoxin was first tested in humans. In 1965, a pentavalent botulinum toxiod (PBT) received Investigational New Drug (IND) status under the Centers for Disease Controls IND 161 (for at risk workers), and in 1991 under the United States Armys Office of the Surgeon General IND 3723 (for military deployment). This PBT vaccine has been shown to be safe with over 20,000 injections given to date, and continues to be used in at risk individuals. During the past decade, recombinant DNA technology has been employed to develop second generation vaccines to prevent botulism. Recombinant subunit vaccines utilizing the receptor-binding domains of botulinum neurtoxin (BoNT) have been shown to be safe and efficacious in protecting animal models against BoNT serotypes A, B, C1, D, E and F. In 2004, ...
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The basics of Botulinum Toxin (BT) are important to understand when considering injections. Botulinum toxin (BT) is a safe neuromodulator agent.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Botulinum toxin A for lower facial contouring. T2 - A prospective study. AU - Yu, Chung Chih. AU - Chen, Philip Kuo Ting. AU - Chen, Yu Ray. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Background: A prominent mandibular angle is a common reason for aesthetic treatment among Asian women. Such women usually present with hypertrophic masseteric muscles, and one treatment for this uses botulinum toxin A (BoNTA). Detailed effectiveness and physiologic influences of this therapy are still under investigation. Methods: The authors report a prospective study of 10 female volunteers with hypertrophic masseteric muscles who received a single treatment comprising intramuscular injection of BoNTA. The facial change and the discomfort of the injection were self-rated using a visual analog scale, and the patients were regularly inspected up to 1 year. Bite forces also were measured for chronological documentation. Volume changes of masticating muscles were evaluated by three-dimensional computed ...
The Toxin . . . . . . . Tips and Tricks . . . . . . References . . . . . . . 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 24 24 The requirements and rules are basically the same for every aesthetic procedure. The following list is not intended to give a complete overview but to give some hopefully helpful advice when treating aesthetic indications with botulinum toxin (BNT). 2 Documentation A thorough documentation of all treatment-related data is highly recommended. Besides being useful for legal and billing reasons, thorough documentation will help to improve ones own performance and thus patients satisfaction, too. Botulinum toxin is a powerful agent for the upper third: it can erase wrinkles, lift the eyebrows and improve the eye contour. If the patient presents severe photo-damage, the skin of the three thirds is compromised and what can be improved in the skin appearance in the upper third, can barely be achieved in the lower and even less in the mid third. The question that should be asked now ...
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional scales measure the effect of botulinum toxin (BT) therapy only at specific points in time. The Dystonia Discomfort Scale (DDS), a novel, easy-to-use, self-assessment scale to record temporal profiles of the effect of BT therapy in cervical dystonia (CD), is introduced and evaluated against the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS).
Looking for online definition of C. botulinum in the Medical Dictionary? C. botulinum explanation free. What is C. botulinum? Meaning of C. botulinum medical term. What does C. botulinum mean?
Adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A in spasticity management. Joshi, Tapan N.; Joshi, Sonal // International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological D;Jul2011, Vol. 1 Issue 2, p126 The article focuses on the review of the probable adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A and the pathogenesis for managing spasticity. It states that botulinum neurotoxin is used to block the spread of active nerve impulses and to avoid serious side effects such as muscle weakness and... ...
Food borne botulism is a severe intoxication caused by eating the preformed toxin present in contaminated food.. Food borne botulism occurs when the bacterium Clostridium botulinum is allowed to grow and produce toxin in food that is later eaten without sufficient heating or cooking to inactivate the toxin. Botulinum toxin is one of the most potent neurotoxins known.. Typically in a few hours to several days after you eat the contaminated food you will start to show the classic symptoms; blurred vision, dry mouth, and difficulty in swallowing. Gastrointestinal symptoms may or may not occur. If untreated, the paralysis always descends through the body starting at the shoulders and working its way down.. Celebrate Christmas and New Years Eve in Rome!. The most serious complication of botulism is respiratory failure where it is fatal in up to 10% of people. It may take months before recovery is complete.. If the disease is caught early enough it can be treated with antitoxin. If paralysis and ...
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) (Botox®, Myobloc™, Dysport®, Xeomin™) is a naturally occurring toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium.
Food contaminated with Clostridium botulinum toxin may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, blurred or double vision, dry mouth, respiratory failure and paralysis. In severe cases of illness, people may die. ...
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About Clostridium botulinum:. Clostridium botulinum can cause severe and potentially fatal toxicity in both animals consuming the pet treat and people handling the pet treat or coming in contact with contact areas that have been exposed to the product. Common symptoms may include dizziness, blurred or double vision, trouble with speaking or swallowing, difficulty breathing, muscle weakness, abdominal distension, and constipation. Pets or Persons experiencing these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention.. FIND OUT WHAT OTHER PET BRANDS MADE THE RECALL LIST:. ...
What is Clostridium botulinum? Clostridium botulinum are rod-shaped bacteria (also called C. are anaerobic, meaning they live and grow in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form protective spores when conditions for survival are poor.
... is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[9] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ... Botulinum toxin A is marketed under the brand names Botox and Xeomin. Botulinum toxin B is marketed under the brand name ... when samples containing botulinum toxin are tested.[citation needed] To confirm a diagnosis of botulinum toxin poisoning, ...
Botulinum toxin type A[edit]. Local intradermal injection of botulinum neurotoxin type A may be helpful in chronic focal ... Mittal, SO; Safarpour, D; Jabbari, B (February 2016). "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Neuropathic Pain". Seminars in Neurology. ... toxins, remote manifestations of malignancies, immune mediated disorders and physical trauma to a nerve trunk.[7][8] ...
73 anti-tank hand grenade used in the attack had been modified to contain botulinum toxin. The authors say that there is only ... The botulinum toxin theory has not found widespread acceptance among scholars. Fildes had a reputation for "extravagant boasts ... Middlebrook and Franz (1998). Botulinum toxins (PDF). Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, United States of ... The authors of A Higher Form of Killing claim that Heydrich died from botulism (botulinum poisoning). According to this theory ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-9121-2. Kipioti A, Taylor R (2003). "Botulinum toxin treatment of "one and a half syndrome"". Br J Ophthalmol. ... "Botulinum toxin injections". www.aesthetika.co.uk. Retrieved 30 August 2015.. ... There have been cases of improvement in extra-ocular movement with botulinum toxin injection. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia Wall ...
Injections of botulinum toxin into the bladder is another option. Urinary catheters or surgery are generally not recommended. A ... Botulinum toxin A (Botox) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration in adults with neurological conditions, including ... Botulinum Toxin A injections into the bladder wall can suppress involuntary bladder contractions by blocking nerve signals and ... ISBN 978-3-642-03579-1. Sacco E, Paolillo M, Totaro A, Pinto F, Volpe A, Gardi M, Bassi PF (2008). "Botulinum toxin in the ...
Injections of botulinum toxin type A can be used to block neural control of sweat glands. The effect can last from 3-9 months ... Comite SL, Smith K (2015). "Commenting on: "Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition of botulinum toxin A injections ... Felber ES (October 2006). "Botulinum toxin in primary care medicine". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 ... Bushara KO, Park DM (November 1994). "Botulinum toxin and sweating". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 57 (11 ...
Other Dermatologic Uses of Botulinum Toxin". In Anthony V. Benedetto (ed.). Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Dermatology. Taylor & ... "Other Dermatologic Uses of Botulinum Toxin" of the 2006 compilation book Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Dermatology. They ... and throughout axillary hyperhidrosis treatment with botulinum toxin. They recommended use of the device with the "Wonder Wand ...
"Botulinum toxin A injectable - Allergan". adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Product Discovery and Development". ... botulinum toxin A, Botox) - acetylcholine release inhibitor - specifically under development for the treatment of MDD in women ...
2007). Therapeutic Uses of Botulinum Toxin. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. p. 155. ISBN 9781597452472. Böni, R.; Groscurth, P. ( ... 1-9. ISBN 978-3-8055-7306-1. Kreyden, Oliver Philip; Böni, Roland Emil; Burg, Günter (2002). Hyperhidrosis and Botulinum Toxin ...
Botulinum toxin. Centrally acting. Carbamic acid esters. *Carisoprodol. *Cyclarbamate. *Difebarbamate. *Febarbamate. * ...
SNAP-25 inactivators: Botulinum toxin (A, C, E). *VAMP inactivators: Botulinum toxin (B, D, F, G) ...
Botulinum toxin. *v. *t. *e. *Agents used in chemical warfare. *incapacitation. *riot control ...
Botulinum toxin. Centrally acting. Carbamic acid esters. *Carisoprodol. *Cyclarbamate. *Difebarbamate. *Febarbamate. * ...
SNAP-25 inactivators: Botulinum toxin (A, C, E). *VAMP inactivators: Botulinum toxin (B, D, F, G) ...
Botulinum toxin. Centrally acting. Carbamic acid esters. *Carisoprodol. *Cyclarbamate. *Difebarbamate. *Febarbamate. * ...
Botulinum toxin. Centrally acting. Carbamic acid esters. *Carisoprodol. *Cyclarbamate. *Difebarbamate. *Febarbamate. * ...
Botulinum Toxin. pp. 471-484. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-4928-9.00038-X. ISBN 9781416049289. v t e. ... channel toxin known as δ-TLTX-Ta1a according to the currently developing systematic nomenclature for peptide and protein toxins ...
Botulinum toxin: The neurotoxin Botulinum is the deadliest toxin known to man, and is produced by the bacterium Clostridium ... Nigam, PK; Nigam, A (2010). "BOTULINUM TOXIN". Indian Journal of Dermatology. 55 (1): 8-14. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.60343. PMC ... Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans) Abrin toxin from Abrus precatorius (Rosary peas) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B ... Furthermore, the toxin is readily available worldwide due to its cosmetic applications in injections. Bubonic plague: Plague is ...
Botulinum toxin paralysis reduces total muscle force by removing, or reducing, the contractile component. Botulinum toxin is a ... Botulinum toxin has also been used intraoperatively to augment a surgical effect. In complex strabismus cases, toxin can be ... Botulinum A toxin (introduced as Oculinum), now called Botox, is the principal drug used to temporarily paralyze extraocular ... Botulinum toxin injection is commonly used for small and moderate degrees of infantile esotropia, acquired adult strabismus, ...
See for example "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon". Dustiness is defined as the tendency of a powder material to generate ... "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon". Center For Infectious Disease Research & Policy. Ding, Yaobo; Stahlmecke, Burkhard; ...
Intravesical botulinum toxin is also useful. Liver toxicity of ketamine also involves higher doses and repeated administration ...
His later interest in movement disorders led him to show the utility of botulinum toxin in the treatment of various movement ... Yoshimura, DM; Aminoff, MJ; Tami, TA; Scott, AB (1992). "Treatment of hemifacial spasm with botulinum toxin". Muscle and Nerve ... Blackwells: Oxford, 1976 Gelb, DJ; Lowenstein, DH; Aminoff, MJ (1989). "Controlled trial of botulinum toxin injections in the ... Yoshimura, DM; Aminoff, MJ; Olney, RK (1992). "Botulinum toxin therapy for limb dystonias". Neurology. 42 (3): 627-630. doi: ...
Biological Toxins[edit]. Main article: Toxin. *X - botulinum toxin A. *XR - partially purified botulinum toxin A ...
Muscarinic toxin 7. *N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate. *N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ...
SNAP-25 inactivators: Botulinum toxin (A, C, E). *VAMP inactivators: Botulinum toxin (B, D, F, G) ...
Botulinum toxin (BTX). *Tetanospasmin (TeNT). *Chlorophenylsilatrane. *Tetrodotoxin. Nettle. *Phosgene oxime (CX). Pulmonary/ ...
... commercially available botulism anti-toxin that effectively neutralizes all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes (types ... Pleased with Canada's decision to prepare for botulinum toxin events, one of the "more likely biological threat agents", Adam ... "Botulinum Toxin (Botulism)". Center for Health Security. Retrieved September 12, 2017. [1] "WebWISER - Substance Data". ... This process renders it less efficacious at neutralizing toxin than the other product - trivalent botulinum antitoxin (TBAT) - ...
Attempts to stockpile botulinum toxin proved unsuccessful. Seiichi Endo - one of the members tasked with acquiring botulinum ... Under the oversight of Endo, the biological weapons division of the cult resumed - this time pursuing not only botulinum toxin ... They had also produced several other nerve agents, including VX, and attempted to produce botulinum toxin and had perpetrated ... Five days before the sarin attack on the Tokyo subways, botulinum was dispersed in a failed attack on Kasumigaseki station - a ...
Botulinum toxin therapy has been reported to be similarly successful as strabismus surgery for people with binocular vision and ... Kowal L, Wong E, Yahalom C (December 2007). "Botulinum toxin in the treatment of strabismus. A review of its use and effects". ... Gursoy H, Basmak H, Sahin A, Yildirim N, Aydin Y, Colak E (June 2012). "Long-term follow-up of bilateral botulinum toxin ... In 1989, the US FDA approved botulinum toxin therapy for strabismus in people over 12 years old. Most commonly used in adults, ...
In August 2016, researchers at the Instituto de Assistência dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro used botulinum toxin as ... Manhães, Roberta K.J.V.; Spitz, Mariana; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe (2016). "Botulinum toxin for treatment of Harlequin syndrome ...
Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus. Medical imaging. *Fluorescein angiography. *Fundus photography. *Corneal topography ...
Many are trained in their residency on the use of botulinum toxin, fillers, and laser surgery. Some dermatologists perform ...
Botulinum Toxin. BTX. 抗面部痙攣、除皺. 肉毒桿菌抗毒素. Botulinum Antitoxin. -. - ...
1989 లో, యుఎస్ ఎఫ్డిఏ (US FDA) 12 ఏళ్ళ వయస్సుకు పైగా ఉన్న రోగులలో మెల్లకన్ను కొరకు బోటులినమ్ టాక్సిన్ (Botulinum toxin) ... బోటులినుం టాక్సిన్ (Botulinum toxin) చికిత్స ద్వంద్వ దృష్టి ఉన్నవారికి మెల్లకన్ను శస్త్రచికిత్స వలె అదేవిధంగా విజయం సాధించిందని ...
Epidermolytic toxin-producing staphylococci as the etiologic agent of the fourth childhood exanthem". American Journal of ...
... medications and toxins.[47] Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide ...
Botulinum toxin A. *Bupropion. *Cannabinoids (e.g., cannabis, dronabinol, nabilone). *NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine ...
SNAP-25 inactivators: Botulinum toxin (A, C, E). *VAMP inactivators: Botulinum toxin (B, D, F, G) ...
Injections of botulinum toxin type A can be used to block neural control of sweat glands. The effect can last from 3-9 months ... Comite SL, Smith K. "Commenting on: "Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition of botulinum toxin A injections in ... "Botulinum toxin in primary care medicine". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 (10): 609-14. PMID 17122031 ... Percutaneous sympathectomy is a minimally invasive procedure similar to the botulinum method, in which nerves are blocked by an ...
Botulinum toxin (Botox). *Concealer. *Cleanser. *Facial. *Facial toning. *Foundation. *Moisturizer. *Permanent makeup ...
... baclofen and botulinum toxin may help relax stiff muscles.[1] Surgery may include lengthening muscles and cutting overly active ... botulinum toxin, baclofen, or even a neurosurgery known as a selective dorsal rhizotomy (which eliminates the spasticity by ... botulinum toxin, bisphosphonates, diazepam), therapy (bimanual training, casting, constraint-induced movement therapy, context- ... occupational therapy after botulinum toxin, pressure care) and surgery. Surgical intervention in CP children mainly includes ...
Botulinum toxin A. *Bupropion. *Cannabinoids (e.g., cannabis, dronabinol, nabilone). *NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine ...
Botulinum toxin has been used to treat SPS, but it does not appear to have long-term benefits and has potential serious side ...
... that prevented Clostridium botulinum growth.[15][18] ... used in meats to prevent botulism toxin E251 - E252 nitrates ...
"Botulinum Toxin in Management of Limb Tremor". Toxins. 9 (11). doi:10.3390/toxins9110365. PMC 5705980. PMID 29125566.. ... When medications do not control the tremor or the person does not tolerate medication, botulinum toxin,[49][50][51][52] deep ... Samotus O, Kumar N, Rizek P, Jog M (January 2018). "Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections as Monotherapy for Upper Limb Essential ... "Long-term tremor therapy for Parkinson and essential tremor with sensor-guided botulinum toxin type A injections". PLOS One. 12 ...
Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Alpha toxin, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). khác: ... Shiga toxin · Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli) · E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin · Cholera toxin · Pertussis ... "toxin" tại Từ điển Y học Dorland *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 12 ... type I (Superantigen) · type II (Pore forming toxins) · type III (AB toxin/AB5) ...
Truong, Daniel; Dressler, Dirk; Hallett, Mark; Zachary, Christopher (2014). Manual of Botulinum Toxin Therapy (yn Saesneg) (arg ... Mae Botwliaeth in salwch prin a allai fod yn angheuol a achosir gan docsin a gynhyrchir gan y bacteriwm Clostridium botulinum. ...
Biological toxinsEdit. Toxin Toxin Comes From: Toxin Causes: Comments Botulinum. Clostridium botulinum. Botulism. One of the ... "What Are Biological and Toxin Weapons?". The United Nations Office at Geneva. The United Nations. Retrieved February 8, 2016.. ... A biological weapon is a weapon that delivers toxins or pathogens (like bacteria or viruses), with the goal of making people ... "Select Agents and Toxins List". Federal Select Agent Program. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ...
Botulinum toxin (Botox). *CC cream. *Concealer. *Cotton pad. *Cleanser. *DD cream. *Facial ...
Other drugs include:propranolol, valproic acid, barbiturates, MMR vaccine, botulinum toxin, epinephrine, antithyroid drugs, ...
... that prevented Clostridium botulinum growth.[13][16] ... used in meats to prevent botulism toxin E251 - E252 nitrate ...
... botulinum and the biotech C. acetobutylicum) ... Coley's toxins. *Exotoxin. *Lysogenic cycle. *Pathogenic ...
The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by ... High-Pressure-Mediated Survival of Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Endospores at High Temperature. Appl ... Clostridium botulinum merupakan salah satu contoh bakteri penghasil endospora yang sangat tahan suhu dan tekanan tinggi, dimana ... Clostridium botulinum, menghasilkan racun botulinin, seringkali terdapat pada makanan kalengan dan kini senyawa tersebut ...
Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus. Medical imaging. *Fluorescein angiography. *Fundus photography. *Corneal topography ...
Simpson, L. L. (1986) "Molecular Pharmacology of Botulinum Toxin and Tetanus Toxin." Annual Review of Pharmacology and ... Brin, Mitchell F (1997) "Botulinum Toxin: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicity, and Immunology." Muscle & Nerve, 20 (S6): 146-68. ... Montecucco, C. (1986) "How Do Tetanus and Botulinum Toxins Bind to Neuronal Membranes?"Trends in Biochemical Sciences 11.8: 314 ... "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon." The Journal of the Americal Medical Association, 285 (8): 1059-069. ...
Clostridium botulinum. botulinum toxin group (en) Sintoma(k). blurred vision (en) , mydriasis (en) , ptosis (en) , idorreria, ... Botulismoa Clostridium botulinum bakterioak eragindako patologia larria da, janari-intoxikaziotzat jotzen dena. Gaitzaren ... Janari bat kutsatzen duenean Clostridium botulinum-ek bere toxina hilgarria ekoizten du. Toxina hori neurotoxina da, ... Botulismoaren kasu gehienak janari intoxikazioak dira, Clostridium botulinum bakterioaz kutsatutako janariak kontsumitzarakoan ...
The toxin appears to act by selective cleavage of a protein component of synaptic vesicles, synaptobrevin II, and this prevents ... The tetanus toxin initially binds to peripheral nerve terminals. It is transported within the axon and across synaptic ... The effect of the toxin is to block the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ... This is due to the extreme potency of the tetanospasmin toxin. Tetanospasmin will likely be lethal before it will provoke an ...
Simpson, L. L. (1986) "Molecular Pharmacology of Botulinum Toxin and Tetanus Toxin." Annual Review of Pharmacology and ... "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon." The Journal of the Americal Medical Association, 285 ... Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Toksin alpha, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). lain: ... "Extrafusal and Intrafusal Muscle Effects in Experimental Botulinum Toxin-A Injection." Muscle & Nerve, 19 (4): 488-96. ...
Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[17] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ... Botulinum toxin A is marketed under the brand names Jeuveau, Botox and Xeomin. Botulinum toxin B is marketed under the brand ... when samples containing botulinum toxin are tested.[citation needed] To confirm a diagnosis of botulinum toxin poisoning, ... botulinum toxin is being evaluated for use in treating chronic pain.[39] Studies show that botulinum toxin may be injected into ...
Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[9] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ... Botulinum toxin A is marketed under the brand names Botox and Xeomin. Botulinum toxin B is marketed under the brand name ... when samples containing botulinum toxin are tested.[citation needed] To confirm a diagnosis of botulinum toxin poisoning, ...
Botulinum toxin.. BMJ 1992; 305 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.305.6863.1169 (Published 14 November 1992) Cite this as: BMJ ...
Clostridium botulinum.,/I, The toxins are proteins with molecular weights of approximately 150,000, which bind to the ... The toxin is also a popular agent for its cosmetic uses. Botulinum toxins as a Biological Weapon. Botulinum toxins have been ... Botulinum Toxins. Botulinum Toxins are produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum under anaerobic conditions. The bacteria ... Botulinum toxins are some of the most lethal known toxins. The toxin blocks the nerves ability to release acetylcholine, the ...
Botulinum toxin. BMJ 1989; 298 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6672.522-b (Published 25 February 1989) Cite this as: BMJ ...
... is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium.{ref1} The clinical syndrome of botulism can occur ... Botulinum toxin (abbreviated either as BTX or BoNT) ... Botulinum Toxin Q&A What is botulinum toxin (BoNT)?. Updated: ... encoded search term (What is botulinum toxin (BoNT)?) and What is botulinum toxin (BoNT)? What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Botulinum toxin (abbreviated either as BTX or BoNT) is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. ...
Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles (American Academy of Ophthalmology) * Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for ... Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same toxin that causes a life- ... Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Overview (American Academy of Dermatology) * Can Botox Injections Relieve Arthritis Pain? (Mayo ... Article: Long-term stable efficacy of botulinum toxin A in facial movement disorders... ...
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by Clostridium botulinumis the most toxic substance known to humans that causes the ... Botulinum Toxin Cervical Dystonia Botulinum Neurotoxin Clostridium Botulinum Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity These keywords ... Immunogenecity of botulinum toxins. J Neural Transm. 2013;120:275-90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... A self-pumping lab-on-a-chip for rapid detection of botulinum toxin. Lab Chip. 2010;10:2265-70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Botulimum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they relax. ... guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Adductor dysphonia-BTX ... BTX is the toxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious illness. It is safe when used in very small doses. ... Botulimum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they relax. ...
Nobre M.E., Ciciarelli M.C., Souza J.A. (2019) Botulinum Toxin for Migraine. In: Issa M., Tamura B. (eds) Botulinum Toxins, ... Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for migraine: an open label assessment. Mov Disord. 1998b;13:241. (Abstract)Google Scholar ... Treatment of hyperfunctional lines of the face with botulinum toxin A. Dermatol Surg. 1998a;24:1198-205.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Botulinum toxin type A versus amitriptyline for the treatment of chronic daily migraine. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:463-6. ...
... which is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. ... injections contain the active ingredient botulinum toxin type A ... Vistabel (Botulinum toxin type A). Vistabel injections contain the active ingredient botulinum toxin type A, which is a toxin ... which is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.. Botulinum toxin type A is a bacterial toxin that prevents ... Tell your doctor if you have recently had any other botulinum toxin injections, because if this injection is given too close to ...
... This must be done with great care to avoid paralysing nearby muscle groups with resulting ... My consultant now wants to try botulinum toxin injections. I think I am right in saying that these will weaken my muscles and ... The botulinum toxin is injected by the specialist to deliberately paralyse the muscles that are causing the spasms. ... Please tell me about botulinum toxin. For three years I have suffered from spinal myoclonus, which mainly causes frequent and ...
... warning that botulinum toxin products can spread to other parts of the body. Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum ... Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms. Botulinum toxins are the most poisonous ... Botulinum toxin A is marketed under the brand names Jeuveau, Botox, and Xeomin. Botulinum toxin B is marketed under the brand ... botulinum toxin is being evaluated for use in treating chronic pain. Studies show that botulinum toxin may be injected into ...
This primer covers the various preparations of botulinum toxin and their safe use for cosmetic and functional indications in ... and potential complications of botulinum toxin.. Several preparations of botulinum toxin have emerged over the past decade. The ... Table 1. Type A Botulinum Toxins Available for Therapeutic Injection in the United States Toxins. Trade Name. Manufacturer. ... Indeed, injection of botulinum toxin is now the most frequently performed nonsurgical cosmetic procedure.[4] Given its ...
Botulinum toxin type A that is free of complexing proteins found in natural toxin from Clostridium botulinum. Acetylcholine ... Botulinum toxin in blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia: comparing different botulinum toxin preparations. Eur J Neurol. ... The use of botulinum toxin type-B in the treatment of patients who have become unresponsive to botulinum toxin type-A -- ... Unlabeled uses of botulinum toxins: a review, part 2. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006 Feb 1. 63(3):225-32. [Medline]. ...
The limited literature that suggests adding botulinum toxins to cell culture slows/halts the growth of certain cancer cells is ... This review provides updated information about the effect of botulinum toxin injection on local pain caused by cancer, painful ... Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) possess an analgesic effect through several mechanisms including an inhibition of acetylcholine ... Toxins 2020, 12, 32. AMA Style. Mittal SO, Jabbari B. Botulinum Neurotoxins and Cancer-A Review of the Literature. Toxins. 2020 ...
Diffusion, spread, and migration of botulinum toxin.. Ramirez-Castaneda J1, Jankovic J, Comella C, Dashtipour K, Fernandez HH, ... Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent used for the treatment of a ... The passive kinetic dispersion of the toxin away from the injection site in a gradient-dependent manner may also play a role in ... toxin spread. In addition to unique properties of the various BoNT products, volume and dilution may also influence local and ...
Botulinum toxin is an injectable neuromodulator derived from neurotoxins produced byClostridium botulinum, the bacterium ... Botulinum toxin type B (MYOBLOC) versus botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) frontalis study: rate of onset and radius of diffusion. ... The use of botulinum toxin for specific cosmetic or medical indications is discussed elsewhere. (See Botulinum toxin for ... Botulinum toxin type B for dynamic glabellar rhytides refractory to botulinum toxin type A. Dermatol Surg 2003; 29:516. ...
... is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. The clinical syndrome of botulism can occur ... Botulinum toxin (abbreviated either as BTX or BoNT) ... Botulinum Toxin Use in Dystonia. *Botulinum Toxin Use in ... Table 1. Botulinum Toxin Types, Target Sites, Discoverers, and Year Discovered. *Table 2. Studies of Botulinum Toxin in the ... encoded search term (Botulinum Toxin) and Botulinum Toxin What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Injecting botulinum toxin into the fat pads around the heart after bypass surgery might stave off postoperative atrial ... "If, in fact, at the time of surgery you can squirt some [botulinum toxin] into the four fat pads, and if that is quick and safe ... Calkins said hes not sure what botulinum toxin costs, but "if it adds 5 minutes to surgery and its safe and it adds $200 to ... SAN FRANCISCO -- Injecting botulinum toxin into the fat pads around the heart after bypass surgery might stave off ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Botulinum Toxin Injection , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Botulinum Toxin Injection via the Trip Database. ... 2. Toxins for Health? Botulinum toxin for migraine for Health? Botulinum toxin for migraine. Clinical Question: What is the ... Injection of botulinum toxin (Botox) for prophylaxis of headaches in adults with chronic migraine Injection of botulinum toxin ...
... cholera-like toxins, binary toxins and C3-like exoenzymes. C3-like exoenzymes unlike other ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins do not ... Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme is a toxin that causes the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to Rho-like proteins ... All the toxins of this family share a highly conserved glutamate, which is the catalytic residue critical for the NAD- ... Many bacterial toxins nucleotide-binding modify by ADP-ribosylation proteins involved in essential cell functions, leading to ...
Botulinum Toxin Paves the Way for the Treatment of Functional Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is a ... A review of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of neurogenic bladder. Prior to FDA approval of intradetrusor botulinum toxin ( ... Use of botulinum toxin for genitourinary conditions: what is the evidence? Botulinum toxin A is licensed for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin in low urinary tract disorders - over 30 years of practice (Review). Botulinum toxin is a substance produced by ...
... , Onabotulinum Toxin A, Abobotulinum Toxin A, Botulinum Toxin Type A, Botox. ... botulinum injection toxin, botulinum injections toxin, injection of botulinum toxin, botulinum toxin injection, Botulinum toxin ... Botulinum Toxin Injection. Botulinum Toxin Injection Aka: Botulinum Toxin Injection, Onabotulinum Toxin A, Abobotulinum Toxin A ... Botulinum Toxin serotype A (most common serotype used for cosmetic procedures). *Onabotulinum Toxin A (Botox) ...
Distant effects of local injection of botulinum toxin.. Lange DJ, Brin MF, Warner CL, Fahn S, Lovelace RE. ... We studied five patients who received local injections of botulinum toxin for dystonic disorders to determine if there had been ... In all patients who received more than 245 U of toxin, SFEMG in the extensor digitorum communis muscle, a muscle distant to all ... results reveal that there is an effect on neuromuscular transmission in muscles distant to those injected with botulinum toxin ...
... is raising questions about the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin A. The study found that animals injected with Clostridium ... Botulinum Toxin A is also used as a cosmetic treatment, where the drug paralyzes small muscles in the face to reduce the ... "We were surprised by the degree of muscle loss and atrophy in the limb that was not injected with the Botulinum toxin," says ... This study shows, for the first time, that over time Botulinum toxin A use also results in muscle weakness, atrophy and loss of ...
No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment). In conclusion, botulinum toxin is an ... the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old ... Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin) into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U), flexor ... A Beauticians Dystonia: Long-Lasting Effect of Botulinum Toxin. Siria Di Martino. ,1 Stefania Dalise. ,1 Giuseppe Lamola. ,1 ...
Botulinum toxin has been used safely for many years to treat both ophthalmic and nonophthalmic conditions. Extensive ...
... is a naturally occurring protein made by the bacterium called clostridium botulinum. In the past, people only knew BoNT as a ... Botulinum Toxin: Essential Facts for Patients. What Is It?. Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) is a naturally occurring protein made ... What Diseases Can Botulinum Toxin Treat?. Ophthalmologists first used BoNT as an alternative to surgery for treating eye ... The doses differ for each drug, so doctors need to use the correct dosage for that toxin. ...
Read the side effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt consult your ... Botulinum Toxin Type A - Information. Botulinum Toxin Type A is an injectable neuro-toxin, indicated for spasms (involuntary ... Side effect(s) of Botulinum Toxin Type A Read the side effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A as described in the medical literature ... Botulism is a rare but potentially lethal illness caused by botulinum neurotoxin released by the bacterium Clostridium ...
  • Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin type A poisoning: biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin A selectively cleaves the synaptic protein SNAP-25. (medscape.com)
  • Wohlfarth K, Müller C, Sassin I, Comes G, Grafe S. Neurophysiological double-blind trial of a botulinum neurotoxin type a free of complexing proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Practice guideline update summary: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by Clostridium botulinum is the most toxic substance known to humans that causes the clinical condition known as botulism. (springer.com)
  • Attrée O, Guglielmo-Viret V, Gros V, Thullier P. Development and comparison of two immunoassay formats for rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxin type A. J Immunol Methods. (springer.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin detection and differentiation by mass spectrometry. (springer.com)
  • A highly sensitive immuno polymerase chain reaction assay for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A. Toxicon. (springer.com)
  • Detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B using a chemiluminescent versus electrochemiluminescent immunoassay in food and serum. (springer.com)
  • Ching KH, Lin A, McGarvey JA, Stanker LH, Hnasko R. Rapid and selective detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype-A and -B with a single immunochromatographic test strip. (springer.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A is a bacterial toxin that prevents nerves from functioning normally (a neurotoxin). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Structures of botulinum neurotoxin, its functional domains, and perspectives on the crystalline type A toxin. (uptodate.com)
  • Insights into the extended duration of neuroparalysis by botulinum neurotoxin A relative to the other shorter-acting serotypes: differences between motor nerve terminals and cultured neurons. (uptodate.com)
  • The therapeutic effects of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) are well documented in upper limb spasticity. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin (BotN) is used to treat detrusor overactivity (DO) refractory to medical treatment. (urotoday.com)
  • Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on the role of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). This review aims to answer which symptoms of multiple sclerosis may be amenable to BoNT therapy. (urotoday.com)
  • The study found that animals injected with Clostridium Botulinum type A neurotoxin complex (BOTOX, Allergan, Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada) experienced muscle weakness in muscles throughout the body, even though they were far removed from the injection site. (scienceblog.com)
  • Of the different therapies used in focal dystonia, injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A), a neurotoxin that is extensively used to treat a variety of movement disorders, are the current treatment of choice [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Botulinum NeuroToxin (BoNT) is a naturally occurring protein made by the bacterium called clostridium botulinum. (movementdisorders.org)
  • Botulism is a rare but potentially lethal illness caused by botulinum neurotoxin released by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum into contaminated food, or wounds. (medindia.net)
  • Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. (mdpi.com)
  • Ultrastructural changes in human masseter muscles after botulinum neurotoxin a injection. (nvcg.nl)
  • The saga, well publicized at the time in the popular press, began on Nov. 23, 2004, when a clinic here received a shipment of a 100-µ vial of pure botulinum A neurotoxin, related investigators in today's issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association . (medpagetoday.com)
  • The company that sold the pure neurotoxin was found in compliance with toxin-shipping practices, whereas two individuals associated with the company that shipped the 5.0 ng vials of toxin were eventually sentenced to prison terms and were ordered to pay restitution. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This is the first time a botulinum neurotoxin has been found outside of Clostridium botulinum -- and not just the toxin, but an entire unit containing the toxin and associated proteins that prevent the toxin from being degraded in the GI tract," says Min Dong , PhD, a scientist in Boston Children's Hospital's Department of Urology and Harvard Medical School and one of the world's experts on botulinum toxins. (innovations-report.com)
  • Neurobloc® is made from purified type - B neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. (consultingroom.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is responsible for causing botulism, a potentially fatal disease characterized by paralysis of skeletal muscle. (mdpi.com)
  • 61 , 75 ] There are three steps to the neurotoxic process: the toxin binds to cholinergic receptors via the H chain, the neurotoxin is internalized by endocytosis, and finally acetycholine release is blocked. (sweathelp.org)
  • Adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A in spasticity management. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article focuses on the review of the probable adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A and the pathogenesis for managing spasticity. (ebscohost.com)
  • It states that botulinum neurotoxin is used to block the spread of active nerve impulses and to avoid serious side effects such as muscle weakness and. (ebscohost.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a protein and neurotoxin which is extremely effective in treating certain neurological and movement disorders. (bumrungrad.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin HC binds to dual host receptors on the surface of motor neurons to deliver the BoNT to acidified vesicles where the LC is translocated into the cytoplasm of the neuron. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • In an advanced online publication of the journal Nature, the scientists show structurally how botulinum neurotoxin B (one of seven toxins the bacterium produces) recognizes receptors on the surface of human neurons. (brightsurf.com)
  • ARTICLE: "Structural basis of cell surface receptor recognition by botulinum neurotoxin B," by Q Chai et al. (brightsurf.com)
  • Botulinum toxin ( Botox ) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wohlfarth K, Schwandt I, Wegner F, Jürgens T, Gelbrich G, Wagner A. Biological activity of two botulinum toxin type A complexes (Dysport and Botox) in volunteers: a double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging study. (medscape.com)
  • Tang X, Wan X. Comparison of Botox with a Chinese type A botulinum toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin (Botox) treatments are available through the EMG laboratory in the Neuromuscular Disorders Unit to treat spasticity resulting from stroke, head injury, spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis and dystonias. (massgeneral.org)
  • In many cases, dystonias can be treated with botulinum toxin (Botox). (massgeneral.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) for treatment of migraine headaches: an open-label study. (springer.com)
  • Bottom Line: Patients with chronic migraine who receive botulinum toxin (example Botox ™) have 2 fewer migraine days per month compared to placebo (from 19 days to 11 days with treatment versus 13 days with placebo), with no benefit in episodic migraine. (tripdatabase.com)
  • We were surprised by the degree of muscle loss and atrophy in the limb that was not injected with the Botulinum toxin," says Rafael Fortuna the lead author of the paper will soon be published in The Journal of Biomechanics , "I think it's fair to say that the paper raises some important questions about the long-term therapeutic use of Botox, especially with children and adolescents. (scienceblog.com)
  • This study examines botulinum toxin (BOTOX, or BTX) for the treatment of muscle twitches and spasticity associated with cerebral palsy in children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • How Does Botulinum Toxin (Botox) Work? (aao.org)
  • Botulinum toxin (botox) is made from a type of bacteria. (epnet.com)
  • Examples include Botox, Dysport, and Reloxin, which are formulations of botulinum toxin type A. Myobloc is another brand, but it is a formulation of botulinum toxin type B. These products are used for cosmetic and medical reasons. (epnet.com)
  • Head drop after botox: Electrodiagnostic evaluation of iatrogenic botulinum toxicity. (nvcg.nl)
  • Botox is the brand name for botulinum toxin - the same one that can cause food poisoning when consumed orally. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Silberstein S, Mathew N, Saper J, Jenkins S. Botulinum toxin type A as a migraine preventive treatment for the BOTOX Migraine Clinical Research Group. (springer.com)
  • The injection process is often called botox injection, although any brand of the botulinum toxin may be used. (memorialhealth.com)
  • Very small amounts of the same toxin are used in medical treatments, one of which is known as Botox. (innovations-report.com)
  • Like Botox, it's an injectable drug derived from a botulinum toxin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (Botox) does not just have cosmetic purposes, although it is normally used for reducing facial wrinkles. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • An example of this is the use of botulinum toxin in migraine prophylaxis where early indications of its potential benefit were derived from patients undergoing cosmetic treatment with Botox and noting a decrease in the frequency and severity of their migraine headaches. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • Botulinum toxin injections - commonly known as Botox - can be used to treat a variety of problems such as chronic migraines and eye muscle disorders. (vidanthealth.com)
  • 76 ] After approval from the FDA to study botulinum toxin in humans, Schantz's work eventually led to FDA approval of botulinum toxin A as an orphan drug in 1989 for use in strabismus, blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm (Botox, Allergan). (sweathelp.org)
  • Botox and Botox Cosmetic are brand name prescription drugs produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum, the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of botulism, or food poisoning. (cerebralpalsy.org)
  • The article discusses a research study on the cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin A (Botox) as treatment for moderate or severe wrist and hand disability resulting from post-stroke spasticity in Scotland, presented at the 15th Congress of the European Federation of Neurological Societies. (ebscohost.com)
  • Botulinum toxin - best known by the brand name Botox - was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of chronic migraine in 2010. (brightsurf.com)
  • Botox and Dysport are botulinum toxins, which provide temporary relaxation of the muscles that cause these wrinkles by blocking nerve impulses. (uky.edu)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) possess an analgesic effect through several mechanisms including an inhibition of acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction as well as an inhibition of specific pain transmitters and mediators. (mdpi.com)
  • What is botulinum toxin (BoNT)? (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (abbreviated either as BTX or BoNT) is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent used for the treatment of a variety of neurologic and medical conditions. (nih.gov)
  • In 1928, Dr. Herman Sommer, at the University of California, San Francisco, first isolated in purified form botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) as a stable acid precipitate. (medscape.com)
  • In 1946, Dr. Edward J Schantz succeeded in purifying BoNT-A in crystalline form-cultured Clostridium botulinum and isolated the toxin. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin's (BoNT) success in treating several pain disorders has triggered interest in its application for pelvic pain disorders. (urotoday.com)
  • The Botulinum toxin (BoNT) operates by temporarily stopping muscles contracting. (medindia.net)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are produced by several species of clostridium. (mdpi.com)
  • There are seven immunologically unique BoNT serotypes (A-G). The Centers for Disease Control classifies BoNTs as 'Category A' select agents and are the most lethal protein toxins for humans. (mdpi.com)
  • The toxin, dubbed BoNT/En, is the ninth botulinum toxin to be described. (innovations-report.com)
  • Last August, Dong and colleagues reported the eighth , BoNT/X, made by C. botulinum and the first new botulinum toxin to be found in close to 50 years. (innovations-report.com)
  • Is BoNT/En toxic to humans? (innovations-report.com)
  • Teams led by Dong's collaborators, Michael Gilmore, PhD , at Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Harvard Medical School, and Andrew Doxey, PhD , at the University of Waterloo, found that the BoNT/En botulinum toxin genes were carried by a plasmid. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, we describe a panel of six highly protective sheep monoclonal antibodies (SMAbs) derived from sheep immunized with BoNT/A1 toxoid (SMAbs 2G11, 4F7) or BoNT/A1 heavy chain C-terminus (HcC) (SMAbs 1G4, 5E2, 5F7, 16F9) with or without subsequent challenge immunization with BoNT/A1 toxin. (mdpi.com)
  • Although each SMAb bound BoNT/A1 toxin, differences in specificity for native and recombinant constituents of BoNT/A1 were observed. (mdpi.com)
  • There is no consensus of the therapeutic efficacy and safety between suburothelial injection and trigonal injection of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) in treatment of interstitial cystitis/blad. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) was chosen as the paradigm for the clostridial neurotoxins, since the dual host receptors for BoNT/A have been determined and the basis for recognizing cleavage of the SNARES substrate SNAP25 has been characterized. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • These studies will enhance the understanding of the unique properties of each BoNT serotype and Tetanus toxin to extend their utility in human inflictions. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • [23] Injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles under facial wrinkles causes relaxation of those muscles, resulting in the smoothing of the overlying skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, injection of botulinum toxin is now the most frequently performed nonsurgical cosmetic procedure. (medscape.com)
  • Today, the injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles that surround the eyes is one of the available options in the management of strabismus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For patients who have had healthy vision heretofore until a small, horizontal deviation set in suddenly, the injection of botulinum toxin may allow them to maintain the binocular vision skills that had been acquired earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distant effects of local injection of botulinum toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin) into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U), flexor carpi radialis (35 U), and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U) muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • In the second case, an eight year-old female patient was given an injection of botulinum toxin into her salivary glands to treat excessive salivation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Efficacy of first injection of botulinum toxin lasted for a mean period of 15.6 months (range 2-30). (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to examine how injection of botulinum toxin in the bladder affects bladder function. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Injection of botulinum toxin into muscles causes temporary paralysis of the specific muscle, which lasts for months to over one year. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Boroff DA, Shu-Chen G. Radioimmunoasssay for type A toxin of Clostridium botulinum . (springer.com)
  • The purification and crystallization of Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. (springer.com)
  • Vistabel injections contain the active ingredient botulinum toxin type A, which is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • It is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is an injectable neuromodulator derived from neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum , the bacterium responsible for botulism. (uptodate.com)
  • In 1895, Professor Emile Van Ermengem, of Belgium, first isolated the bacterium Clostridium botulinum . (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is a substance produced by Clostridium Botulinum and is responsible for human botulism. (urotoday.com)
  • No. 60/343,389, filed on Dec. 18, 2001, and entitled "Method and Compositions for Treatment of Hyperhidrosis Using Clostridium Botulinum Toxin. (google.es)
  • Remarkably, the toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum are one of the few large molecules that are absorbed intact from the gastrointestinal tract, where they enter the bloodstream and prevent the contraction of skeletal muscles primarily by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine from nerve cells. (google.es)
  • This toxin is the one real weapon in the genome of Clostridium botulinum and less than 2 kg - the weight of two bags of sugar - is enough to kill every person on the planet. (innovations-report.com)
  • Botulinum toxin, derives from the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is a naturally occurring protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum . (uofmhealth.org)
  • The botulism toxin comes from Clostridium botulinum bacteria, seen here in a colorized micrograph. (kbia.org)
  • 40 ] In 1895, the bacteria Clostridium botulinum was first isolated from spoiled pork and autopsied tissues by a Belgian physician Van Ermengem. (sweathelp.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum produces seven antigenically different toxins: BTX-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F and -G.[ 61 ] The toxins are 150-kd proteins, which are activated when cleaved into a heavy and light chain by a bacterial protease. (sweathelp.org)
  • The Botulinum neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum and Tetanus toxin produced by C. tetani are members of the family of clostridial neurotoxins. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • These neurotoxins are produced by Clostridium botulinum, a bacterium found in soil and food. (brightsurf.com)
  • It's the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since the discovery of the toxin about 100 years ago, various clinical forms of botulism have been described comprising classic or foodborne botulism, wound botulism, infant botulism, and inadvertent botulism. (springer.com)
  • Laboratory proof of botulism is established with the detection of toxin in the patient's serum, stool, or wound. (springer.com)
  • This clearly cannot meet the immediate need for clinical diagnosis of botulism, botulinum detection in field conditions, and screening of large scale samples. (springer.com)
  • BTX is the toxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious illness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The toxin causes the disease botulism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical relevance of C. botulinum , a gram-positive bacillus, was first recognized in 1897, when the toxin produced by the organism was identified as the etiologic agent of botulism [ 1,2 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • TALLAHASSEE, Fla., Nov. 22 -- Lest we forget, botulinum toxin can cause botulism, and four patients with levels up to 40 times the estimated human lethal dose from an unlicensed product barely survived, according to CDC and state health officials. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Medical chart review of seven additional patients could not determine the toxin product used, and none of the patients developed botulism, the researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Isolated from cow feces sampled at a South Carolina farm, the bug was unexpectedly found to carry a toxin resembling the toxin that causes botulism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Traditionally, bacterial toxins, such as those produced by the genus Clostridia, were best known for their wide-ranging pathogenic effects, including food poisoning, tetanus, and botulism. (google.es)
  • One of the more gruesome conditions caused by the ingestion of C. botulinum toxin, botulism is a rare but often fatal disease. (google.es)
  • Risk of the botulinum toxin spreading beyond the injection area-may cause botulism symptoms, including difficulty breathing and death in severe cases. (memorialhealth.com)
  • By deciphering the near atomic-level structure of the catalytic domain of botulinum toxin type E, one of seven neurotoxins that cause botulism, a disease that paralyzes victims by blocking nerve cells' ability to communicate, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory are one step closer to a potential vaccine or treatment for the disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • They use fecal samples from babies to diagnose botulism and characterize the type of toxin that's producing the disease. (kbia.org)
  • Characterized by multiple bulbar palsies and flaccid paralysis with no effect on the sensorium, botulism is a disease caused by ingestion of bacterial toxins in spoiled food. (sweathelp.org)
  • Variants such as wound botulism and infant botulism also are recognized, in which the bacteria multiply with symptoms arising from toxin production in vivo. (sweathelp.org)
  • WHAT: Botulism is a life-threatening disease caused by exposure to botulinum neurotoxins, which are among the most potent toxins known. (brightsurf.com)
  • The botulinum toxin injection was associated with a significantly lower rate of atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence within 30 days, without an increase in any postoperative complications, but Pokushalov acknowledged some limitations of the study, including the small number of patients, the inclusion of patients with prior atrial fibrillation exclusively, and the uncertainty about the long-term effects of botulinum toxin on the maintenance of sinus rhythm. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Read the side effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • The patient was given pyridostigmine through her gastrostomy tube to oppose the effects of botulinum toxin, with the idea that the toxin had spread unintentionally to her neighboring pharyngeal constrictors, causing them to relax. (eurekalert.org)
  • We are very uncertain about the effects of botulinum toxin injections on reducing tic frequency and severity, and measures of overall well-being. (cochrane.org)
  • The effects of botulinum toxin injections on tic frequency, measured by videotape or rated subjectively, and on premonitory urge, are uncertain (very low-quality evidence). (cochrane.org)
  • It can take a few days to a week before you notice the effects of botulinum toxin. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Examines the effects of botulinum toxin type A injection on patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Mittal SO, Jabbari B. Botulinum Neurotoxins and Cancer-A Review of the Literature. (mdpi.com)
  • Okun, M.S. Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins. (mdpi.com)
  • The clostridial neurotoxins are the most lethal protein toxins for humans and recently have been utilized as therapeutic agents to treat numerous human neurological inflictions. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The clostridial neurotoxins are di-chain toxins with the N-terminal catalytic domains (Light Chain, LC) possessing metalloprotease activity that is disulfide linked to the C-terminal domain (Heavy Chain, HC). (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The Botulinum neurotoxins elicit flaccid paralysis, while tetanus toxin elicits spastic paralysis. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • As part of its overall biodefense program, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has established the Regional Centers of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (RCEs) to support basic and applied research on biodefense-related agents, including botulinum neurotoxins. (brightsurf.com)
  • The structure reveals how these toxins work at the molecular level and provides a promising new target for designing drugs to block the action of botulinum neurotoxins. (brightsurf.com)
  • Botulinum toxin was able to jump into a new type of bacteria, Enterococcus, through plasmids, mobile structures that contain DNA independently of the chromosomes and can be swapped from one bacterium to another. (innovations-report.com)
  • FRIDAY, March 9, 2018 -- Botulinum toxin injections in surgical wound closure immediately after surgery improve facial surgery scars, according to a small study published in the March issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery . (drugs.com)
  • Toxins 2018 , 10 , 268. (mdpi.com)
  • the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. (hindawi.com)
  • Muscles weakened by toxin injection recover from paralysis after several months, so it might seem that injection would then need to be repeated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin blocks the nerve's ability to release acetylcholine, the component that relays signals from the nervous system to muscles. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In the EMG Laboratory , the botulinum toxin is injected into specific muscles where it acts to reduce the involuntary contractions. (massgeneral.org)
  • This toxin therefore prevents muscles from receiving nerve stimulation. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The botulinum toxin is injected by the specialist to deliberately paralyse the muscles that are causing the spasms. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus is a medical technique used sometimes in the management of strabismus, in which botulinum toxin is injected into selected extraocular muscles in order to reduce the misalignment of the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For treating strabismus, the toxin is used in much diluted form, and the injection is targeted to reach specific muscles that move the eye, thereby temporarily weakening the selected muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • After local or general anaesthesia has been applied, the botulinum toxin is injected directly into the selected eye muscles using a specially designed needle electrode that is connected to an electromyography (EMG) apparatus as well as to a syringe containing the botulinum toxin solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscles weakened by toxin injection recover from paralysis after several months, so injection might seem to need to be repeated, but muscles adapt to the lengths at which they are chronically held, so that if a paralyzed muscle is stretched by its antagonist, it grows longer, while the antagonist shortens, yielding a permanent effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results reveal that there is an effect on neuromuscular transmission in muscles distant to those injected with botulinum toxin for dystonia. (nih.gov)
  • The study follows previous research in Dr. Walter Herzog's lab, which found that Botulinum toxin A, easily crosses the muscle membrane barrier, resulting in muscles weakness in the surrounding (non-injected) muscles. (scienceblog.com)
  • This study shows, for the first time, that over time Botulinum toxin A use also results in muscle weakness, atrophy and loss of contractile tissue in non-injected muscles far-removed from the injection site. (scienceblog.com)
  • Botulinum Toxin A is also used as a cosmetic treatment, where the drug paralyzes small muscles in the face to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the study, physicians used a drug called pyridostigmine to treat one pediatric patient experiencing immediate complications from botulinum toxin therapy and another with delayed complications in distant muscles. (eurekalert.org)
  • When botulinum toxin is injected into a muscle, it can sometimes travel backward up nerves and cause unintended paralysis of nearby or distant muscles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is a naturally occurring bacterial toxin (botulinum toxin) that inactivates certain parts of muscles. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When botulinum toxin is injected, it blocks certain nerve signals that make muscles contract. (aao.org)
  • The toxin temporarily weakens targeted muscles. (epnet.com)
  • In fact, botulinum toxin is now safely used in the treatment of over a dozen human diseases involving hyperactive skeletal muscles. (google.es)
  • It takes only minute amounts of these bacterial toxins to block signals from nerve cells that control muscles. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To improve outcomes, botulinum toxin A was applied to the oblique muscles to reduce postoperative incisional tension. (sages.org)
  • In six patients, 50units intramuscular botulinum toxin A was delivered pre-incision into the oblique muscles bilaterally under ultrasound guidance. (sages.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A is a substance that causes reduced activity of muscles or glands. (chop.edu)
  • Dr. Alan Scott, an ophthalmologist, was pursuing a nonsurgical treatment of strabismus, and using Dr. Schantz's purified type A toxin he was able to successfully treat monkeys with small amounts of the purified protein injected into extraocular muscles. (sweathelp.org)
  • Botulinum toxin A has been tried for many different muscular conditions, including hyperactive sphincter muscles in the GI and GU tracts,[ 76 ] cervical dystonia, and spasticity in cerebral palsy, as well as for enhancing appearance by relaxing facial muscles to remove facial wrinkles and lines. (sweathelp.org)
  • The German physician and poet Justinus Kerner (1786-1862) first developed the idea of a possible therapeutic use of botulinum toxin, which he called "sausage poison. (medscape.com)
  • A new study by researchers at the Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, is raising questions about the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin A. (scienceblog.com)
  • Four RCTs on the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in strabismus have shown varying responses ranging from a lack of evidence for prophylactic effect of botulinum toxin in acute sixth nerve palsy, to poor response in patients with horizontal strabismus without binocular vision, to no difference in response in patients that required retreatment for acquired esotropia or infantile esotropia. (nih.gov)
  • Jankovic reviews the expanding list of approved and off-label indications for therapeutic use of botulinum toxin (BT). (bmj.com)
  • Looks at the abstract `Botulinum Toxin A in the Treatment of Spasticity: Functional Implications and Patient Selection,' by S.H. Pierson, D.I. Katz and D. Tarsy. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents an abstract of a paper entitled `Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment of Upper Extremity Spasticity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trail,' by D.M. Simpson, D.N. Alexander et al, presented at the Physical Therapy `97: Scientific Meeting and Exposition of the American. (ebscohost.com)
  • An abstract of the article "Effectiveness of switching therapy from complexing protein-containing toxin type A to a formulation with low immunogenicity in spasticity after stroke: a case report," by A. Santamato and colleagues is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • 75 ] Another type, A botulinum complex, was approved in the U.K. in 1991 (Dysport, Ipsen Biopharm). (sweathelp.org)
  • A Practical Guide to Botulinum Toxin Procedures is one of four books in the new Cosmetic Procedures for Primary Care series. (ovid.com)
  • Where to buy botulinum toxin, buy anabolic steroids online, where to buy Anavar UK. (afionline.org)
  • One seller on Instagram had more than 4,000 followers and regularly mechanism for patients for whom androgens or botulinum toxin injections price anabolic steroids are medically necessary. (whatdoiknow.org)
  • Botulinum toxin for sale, buy anabolic in UK, physical effects of anabolic steroids. (weatherwars.info)
  • The cycles involved parenteral testosterone sexual organs in the adult, but effects botulinum toxin for sale of anabolic steroids. (north-eastkingdom.com)
  • The toxin is also used commercially for medical and cosmetic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cosmetic applications, botulinum toxin is considered safe and effective for reduction of facial wrinkles , especially in the uppermost third of the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin is also a popular agent for its cosmetic uses. (globalsecurity.org)
  • When used appropriately, botulinum toxin injection is an overwhelmingly safe method for improving cosmetic defects that are caused by or exacerbated by muscle contraction, such as prominent glabellar rhytides. (uptodate.com)
  • The mechanism of action, formulations, clinical use, and safety of botulinum toxin injections for cosmetic indications will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
  • The use of botulinum toxin for specific cosmetic or medical indications is discussed elsewhere. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Botulinum toxin for cosmetic indications: Treatment of specific sites' and 'Treatment of dystonia', section on 'Botulinum toxin injections' and 'Treatment of myoclonus', section on 'Botulinum toxin injections' . (uptodate.com)
  • Botolinum toxin is not just a cosmetic treatment for wrinkles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Botulinum Toxins in Dermatology: Cosmetic and Clinical Applications provides a comprehensive and in-depth review of the use of botulinum toxin for aesthetic procedures and medical applications as a stand-alone treatment and as part of combination therapy. (waterstones.com)
  • Now a mainstay of cosmetic dermatologic practice, the range of available toxins and their varied applications has grown considerably in recent years requiring the practitioner to carefully consider what approach best suits the needs of their patient. (waterstones.com)
  • Botulinum Toxins in Dermatology: Cosmetic and Clinical Applications provides best-practice guidance on the contemporary use of botulinum toxin in isolation and in combination. (waterstones.com)
  • Botulinum toxin has been used for cosmetic uses, and has been successfully used for treatment of overactive bladder, external sphincter dyssynergia, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). (knowcancer.com)
  • The topical delivery of this composition provides the intrinsic effect of botulinum toxin with greater convenience of use, and can be effectively applied for the treatment of various diseases and aesthetic and/or cosmetic purposes. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is used for cosmetic and medical reasons. (memorialhealth.com)
  • There is limited experience in the use of this type of toxin, and the product does not currently have approval for cosmetic use anywhere in the world. (consultingroom.com)
  • C. botulinum toxin stops nerves from working - the basis of its use in medicine to control tremors and in cosmetic treatments. (innovations-report.com)
  • Initial chapters cover treatment in the upper third of the face for frown lines, horizontal forehead lines, and crow's feet-procedures suited for practitioners who are getting started with cosmetic botulinum toxin treatments. (ovid.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type B: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and efficacy study in cervical dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar lines. (uptodate.com)
  • Clinical Question: What is the efficacy of botulinum toxin for migraine prophylaxis? (tripdatabase.com)
  • To compare the efficacy, safety, patient compliance and quality of life (QoL) (early and at 6 months after treatment), in a group of Iraqi female patients with refractory overactive bladder (OAB), treated with intradetrusor botulinum toxin A (BTX) injections vs sacral neuromodulation (SNM). (urotoday.com)
  • To evaluate the clinical efficacy, urodynamic effect and safety of Botulinum Toxin A (BTXA) injections after failure of augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE) performed for NDO. (urotoday.com)
  • To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin in the treatment of strabismus compared with alternative treatment options, to investigate dose effect and complication rates. (nih.gov)
  • The investigators have previously demonstrated the long term efficacy of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in a small group of patients with post-traumatic/postherpetic neuralgia and allodynia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Efficacy and Safety of Fractional CO2 Laser Combined with Topical Type A Botulinum Toxin for Facial Rejuvenation: A Randomized Controlled Split-Face Study. (nvcg.nl)
  • Efficacy and Safety of Non-Invasive Intravesical Instillation of Onabotulinum Toxin-A for Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Evidence for the efficacy and safety of intravesical onabotulinum toxin A (onabotA) injections has led to them being licensed in many countries, including Korea, for the treatment of patients with urinary incontinence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) resulting from spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis who are refractory or intolerant to anticholinergic medications. (urotoday.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: While retaining efficacy, the endo-injector needle technique appears to be more rapid than the standard procedure for botulinum toxin type A injection for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dowson AJ, Kilminster SG, Salt R. Clinical profile of botulinum toxin A in patients with chronic headaches and cervical dystonia: a prospective, open-label, longitudinal study conducted in a naturalistic clinical practice setting. (medscape.com)
  • Over the past 2 decades, the use of botulinum toxin in clinical practice has grown exponentially across all fields of medicine. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A is the most common form of botulinum toxin used in aesthetic clinical practice. (uptodate.com)
  • Botulinum toxin for migraine Tools for Practice is proudly sponsored by the Alberta College of Family Physicians (ACFP). (tripdatabase.com)
  • Botulinum toxin in low urinary tract disorders - over 30 years of practice (Review). (urotoday.com)
  • She worked in private practice until 2002 and since then she has been working in the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery at the University Hospital of Montpellier (France), working exclusively on Botulinum toxin injections. (omicsonline.org)
  • Botulinum toxins are the most poisonous proteins known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Didsbury J, Weber RF, Bokoch GM, Evans T, Snyderman R: rac, a novel ras-related family of proteins that are botulinum toxin substrates. (drugbank.ca)
  • 8 ] The neuron once again becomes capable of exocytosis when the proteins that are cleaved by toxin are made anew. (sweathelp.org)
  • Autonomic cardiovascular function and baroreflex sensitivity in patients with cervical dystonia receiving treatment with botulinum toxin type A. J Neurol . (medscape.com)
  • Kedlaya D, Reynolds LW, Strum SR. Effective treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxin: review. (medscape.com)
  • Jankovic J. Blepharospasm and oromandibular-laryngeal-cervical dystonia: a controlled trial of botulinum A toxin therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Ondo WG, Gollomp S, Galvez-Jimenez N. A pilot study of botulinum toxin A for headache in cervical dystonia. (epnet.com)
  • The Yale Botulinum Program provides diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of patients with hyperactive neurological disorders such as Cervical Dystonia, Hemifacial Spasm, Blepharospasm, Limb Dystonia , and Spasticity. (yale.edu)
  • VANCOUVER, British Columbia, April 18, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ - The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has updated its 2008 guidelines on the use of botulinum toxin for spasticity, cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and migraine headache, based on recent research. (lifeboat.com)
  • There are seven main types of botulinum toxin, named type A-G. New types are occasionally found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seven main types of botulinum toxin are named types A to G. New types are occasionally found. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review is focused on the toxin structure, mechanism of action, detection methods, clinical diagnosis, and therapy including the second-generation vaccines using cell-free expression system as alternate strategy. (springer.com)
  • In this manuscript, we will present a brief overview of the use of botulinum toxin in oculofacial plastic surgery and discuss the similarities and differences between its many preparations, not only with regard to their structural and pharmacologic properties, but also from a practical clinical standpoint. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is considered as an alternative to surgery in certain clinical situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is considered a useful alternative to surgery in particular cases, for example for persons unfit for general anaesthesia, in evolving or unstable clinical conditions, after unsuccessful surgery, or to provide short-term relief from diplopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical utility of botulinum toxin initially became evident in the treatment of strabismus [ 6 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • and Guidelines Last updated: August 22, 2019 Project Number: RC1170-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of injectable botulinum toxin for pelvic floor pain? (tripdatabase.com)
  • Despite limited data, many gastroenterologists are now using botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of gastroparesis outside the context of clinical research studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All but 6 patients (83.7%) were in clinical remission one month after botulinum toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical outcomes of intravesical injections of botulinum toxin type A in patients with refractory idiopathic overactive bladder. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Whilst the number of clinical indications for botulinum toxin has escalated dramatically over the last 5 years it is not a new drug or novel technique. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • The evidence from randomized controlled trials does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of botulinum toxin for all types of spasmodic dysphonia , or for patients with different behavioral or clinical characteristics. (cochrane.org)
  • Based on meta-analysis of pooled clinical trial data, botulinum toxin is superior to inactive placebo for preventive treatment of migraine, report Prof. Benoit Chaput, MD, PhD, of University Hospital Rangueil, Toulouse, France, and colleagues. (brightsurf.com)
  • What is the cost-effectiveness of injectable botulinum toxin for pelvic floor pain? (tripdatabase.com)
  • What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding injectable botulinum toxin for pelvic floor pain? (tripdatabase.com)
  • Buy botulinum toxin online, Melanotan for sale UK, injectable steroids for sale USA. (afionline.org)
  • This review provides updated information about the effect of botulinum toxin injection on local pain caused by cancer, painful muscle spasms from a remote cancer, and pain at the site of cancer surgery and radiation. (mdpi.com)
  • When botulinum toxin (BTX) was first introduced to esthetics, it was after an observation related to its side effects in the context of blepharospasms treatments [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Further described is a composition enabling the transdermal delivery of said botulinum toxin recombinant protein for various local treatments of the skin. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • It's likely that skin treatments like Botulinum toxin may well soon become more appealing as you age, but it can be daunting to go for your first procedure if you've never done anything like this before. (esteticaa.co.uk)
  • Three months after injection, patients treated with botulinum toxin had an average of 1.6 fewer migraine attacks per month, compared to those treated with inactive placebo. (brightsurf.com)
  • The pooled data also showed significant improvement in quality of life in patients treated with botulinum toxin. (brightsurf.com)
  • Reports suggested that the Soviet biological weapons program, Biopreparat, attempted to splice the botulinum toxin gene into other bacteria. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is produced by a specific type of bacteria. (aao.org)
  • Unlike Cdiff, in which more than 10 per cent of genes have been acquired from other bacteria, there is almost no footprint of these in C. botulinum. (innovations-report.com)
  • C. botulinum shows us one extreme of the ways that bacteria can make the most of animal hosts," explained Dr Julian Parkhill of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (innovations-report.com)
  • To see off the competition, C. botulinum comes with its own 'antibiotic' - a chemical called boticin that kills competing bacteria. (innovations-report.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is normally made by bacteria, and it can cause a serious and life-threatening paralytic illness. (kbia.org)
  • A toxin elaborated by the bacteria was thought to cause the symptoms, but the toxin was not isolated until 1946 by Dr. Edward Schantz at Fort Detrick, Maryland. (sweathelp.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the botulinum toxin is type A botulinum toxin. (google.es)
  • Scientists have discovered the first new form of botulinum toxin in over 40 years, but they're taking the unusual step of keeping key details about it secret. (kbia.org)
  • One study found that botulinum toxin therapy had similar long-term success rates for treating infantile esotropia with botulinum toxin A before the age of 12 months as would have been expected from strabismus surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of Botulinum toxin: from poison to beauty. (nvcg.nl)
  • [ 1 ] In 2002, after years of off-label esthetic use, the FDA announced approval of botulinum toxin for the treatment of glabellar furrows. (medscape.com)
  • Pakalnis A, Couch J. Headache therapy with botulinum toxin: form over substance. (springer.com)
  • People who have previously had an allergic reaction to botulinum toxin type A injections. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In 2010, the FDA approved intramuscular botulinum toxin injections for prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine headache . (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for migraine: an open label assessment. (springer.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type A versus amitriptyline for the treatment of chronic daily migraine. (springer.com)
  • The use of botulinum toxin as a treatment for migraine has an inconsistent and lingering history. (springer.com)
  • Botulinum toxin A and migraine surgery. (springer.com)
  • Evidence-based medicine: botulinum toxin A in migraine and tension-type headache. (springer.com)
  • Solomon S. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of chronic migraine: the placebo effect. (springer.com)
  • Behmand RA, Tucker T, Guyuron B. Single-site botulinum toxin type A injection for elimination of migraine trigger points. (springer.com)
  • Guyuron B, Tucker T, Kriegler J. Botulinum toxin A and migraine surgery. (springer.com)
  • Validation of the peripheral trigger point theory of migraine headaches: single-surgeon experience using botulinum toxin and surgical decompression. (springer.com)
  • Botulinum toxin-A is an effective and safe treatment for chronic migraine. (springer.com)
  • Botulinum toxin type a prophylactic treatment of episodic migraine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study. (springer.com)
  • Barrientos N, Chana P. Botulinum toxin type A in prophylactic treatment of migraine headaches: a preliminary study. (springer.com)
  • Role of botulinum toxin type A in the prophylactic treatment of migraine headaches. (springer.com)
  • Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y. Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension headaches in adults: a meta-analysis. (springer.com)
  • Jakubowski M, McAllister PJ, Bajwa ZH, Ward TN, Smith P, Burstein R. Exploding vs. imploding headache in migraine prophylaxis with Botulinum Toxin A. Pain. (springer.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is a safe and well-tolerated treatment that should be proposed to patients with migraine," the researchers write. (brightsurf.com)
  • Prof. Chaput and colleagues identified and analyzed data from 17 previous randomized trials comparing botulinum toxin with placebo for preventive treatment of migraine headaches. (brightsurf.com)
  • On pooled data analysis, botulinum toxin injections significantly reduced the frequency of chronic migraine attacks with. (brightsurf.com)
  • There was also a "statistical tendency" toward less-frequent attacks with botulinum toxin in patients with episodic migraine. (brightsurf.com)
  • Although botulinum toxin injection for chronic migraine is FDA-approved, there are still conflicting data regarding its effectiveness. (brightsurf.com)
  • The results strongly support the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection as preventive treatment for chronic migraine, with significant reductions in headache frequency at both two and three months. (brightsurf.com)
  • Patients who received injections of botulinum toxin instead of a normal saline placebo had a significantly lower rate of atrial tachyarrhythmias -- including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter/tachycardia -- in the first 30 days (30% versus 7%, P =0.024), according to Evgeny Pokushalov, MD, PhD, of the State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology in Novosibirsk, Russia. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Some of the trials specifically compared the effects of either giving the toxin or a placebo injection of saline to two different groups of people with neck pain. (medindia.net)
  • How safe and effective is botulinum toxin, compared to placebo or other medications, in treating motor and phonic tics in Tourette's syndrome? (cochrane.org)
  • A randomized, placebo-controlled trial is necessary to establish the usefulness of pyloric botulinum toxin injection for gastroparesis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with PBS will be enrolled and randomized to receive: Bot A Toxin one single injections treatment versus one single bladder over distention, versus placebo (one single injection). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although botulinum toxin had a higher rate of adverse effects compared to placebo, none of these were serious. (brightsurf.com)
  • [ 4 ] Given its widespread use in the facial region, all ophthalmologists should be well versed in the mechanism, preparations, indications, and potential complications of botulinum toxin. (medscape.com)
  • The botulinum toxin treatment was not associated with any complications, with no cases of congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, death, and no differences between groups for other outcomes, he reported at the Heart Rhythm Society meeting here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Even if the effect of botulinum toxin is short-lived, there could be an important benefit because atrial fibrillation that occurs after cardiac surgery -- though also usually short-lived -- is associated with longer stays in the ICU and hospital and increased risks of complications and death. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Physicians at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) report the first pediatric use of a treatment to reverse complications from botulinum toxin therapy. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yet rare but serious complications to botulinum toxin treatment can occur. (eurekalert.org)
  • Early treatment is critical for patients who experience complications from botulinum toxin therapy, because symptoms can progress to difficulty swallowing or breathing, according to Lucinda A. Halstead, M.D., an associate professor in the MUSC Department of Otolaryngology and senior author on the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Global Aesthetics Consensus: Botulinum Toxin Type A-Evidence-Based Review, Emerging Concepts, and Consensus Recommendations for Aesthetic Use, Including Updates on Complications. (nvcg.nl)
  • The incidence of side effects or complications with botulinum toxin is incredibly small. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • What are the potential complications of botulinum toxin injection? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of therapeutic indications, many of which are not part of the approved drug label. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin: historical perspective and potential new indications. (medscape.com)
  • There are indications that botulinum toxin therapy is as successful as strabismus surgery for patients with binocular vision and that it is less successful than surgery for those who have no binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially used for medical indications, botulinum toxin injection has now become one of the most requested procedures in facial rejuvenation. (uptodate.com)
  • A comparative study between sacral neuromodulation and intravesical botulinum toxin injection for patients with refractory overactive bladder. (urotoday.com)
  • Another Therapeutic Role for Intravesical Botulinum Toxin: Patients with Long-stay Catheters and Refractory Bladder Pain and Catheter Bypass Leakage. (urotoday.com)
  • We hypothesize that LESWs might temporarily increase urothelial permeability and facilitate delivery of intravesical botulinum toxin without the need for injection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Botulinum toxins were first used as a treatment for strabismus, the lack of coordination of the eyes, by ophthalmologist Dr. Alan Scott. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The injection of the toxin to treat strabismus, reported upon in 1981, is considered to be the first ever use of botulinum toxin for therapeutic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a small-scale study, adults whose reading difficulties due to convergence insufficiency had been unsuccessfully addressed by convergence exercises, base-in prism glasses or strabismus surgery showed improved reading after botulinum toxin therapy, maintaining improved reading remaining also after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy has been reported to be similarly successful as strabismus surgery for patients with binocular vision and less successful than surgery for those who have no binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another study reported similar long-term success rates for infantile esotropia treated before 24 months of age by either strabismus surgery or botulinum toxin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of botulinum toxin as an investigative and treatment modality for strabismus is well reported in the medical literature. (nih.gov)
  • We included randomised controlled trials (RCTS) of any use of botulinum toxin treatment for strabismus. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin had a poorer response than surgery in a trial of patients requiring treatment for horizontal strabismus in the absence of binocular vision. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of published literature on the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of strabismus consists of retrospective studies, cohort studies or case reviews. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin A for refractory OAB and idiopathic urinary retention: Can phenotyping improve outcome for patients: ICI-RS 2019? (urotoday.com)
  • Each of the toxins is able to cleave a different specific protein that is part of the acetylcholine transport apparatus. (sweathelp.org)
  • However, only small, weaker doses of botulinum toxin are used to reduce facial wrinkles. (aao.org)
  • Thinking about getting botulinum toxin injections for wrinkles? (aao.org)
  • Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is the most potent of the seven serotypes and is the form available commercially in two products. (sweathelp.org)
  • The results of this review of randomized controlled trials indicate that botulinum toxin is effective for some aspects of voice production, including perceptual measures of improvement post-injection, variability of fundamental frequency, vocal intensity and subglottal air pressure. (cochrane.org)
  • The differential toxicity is due to the unique trafficking of these toxins in motor neurons. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • In 1949, Dr. Burgen's ASV group discovered that botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission. (medscape.com)
  • We studied five patients who received local injections of botulinum toxin for dystonic disorders to determine if there had been any distant effects on neuromuscular transmission. (nih.gov)
  • [30] [31] AbobotulinumtoxinA is the first and only FDA-approved botulinum toxin for the treatment of pediatric lower limb spasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2014, botulinum toxin was approved by UK's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for treatment of restricted ankle motion due to lower limb spasticity associated with stroke in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of post-stroke spasticity. (epnet.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Usefulness of the tendon reflex for assessing spasticity after botulinum toxin-A injection in children with cerebral palsy," by D. H. Jang, I. Y. Sung, and Y. J. Kang in the 2013 issue. (ebscohost.com)
  • A response from the authors of the article "Usefulness of the tendon reflex for assessing spasticity after botulinum toxin-A injection in children with cerebral palsy" in the 2013 issue is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • Botulinum toxin A injections improved wrist and finger spasticity after stroke. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents a study which investigated the role of botulinium toxin A in improving wrist and finger spasticity after stroke. (ebscohost.com)
  • Prior to FDA approval of intradetrusor botulinum toxin (BoTA) injections for the treatment of neurogenic bladder, patients had limited treatment options including 'off-label' use of pharmacotherapies (anti-cholinergics, beta agonists, and alpha-blockers) or invasive interventions including bladder augmentation and urinary diversion procedures. (urotoday.com)
  • 75 ] In 1949, the mechanism of action of the toxin was characterized. (sweathelp.org)
  • [8] Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms . (wikipedia.org)
  • I. European patent No. 1 010 431 entitled 'Botulinum toxins A or B for treating pain associated with muscle spasms' is based on European patent application EP 99203735.8. (epo.org)
  • 1. The use of Botulinum toxin type A or type B for the manufacture of a medicament for relieving pain associated with muscle spasms in smooth muscle disorders. (epo.org)
  • The estimated human lethal dose of type A toxin is 1.3-2.1 ng /kg intravenously or intramuscularly , 10-13 ng/kg when inhaled, or 1000 ng/kg when taken by mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum is the most acutely lethal toxin known, with an estimated human median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 1.3-2.1 ng /kg intravenously or intramuscularly and 10-13 ng/kg when inhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxins are some of the most lethal known toxins. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is the most acutely lethal toxin that is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pretreatment serum toxin levels in three of the four case-patients were equivalent to 21 to 43 times the estimated human lethal dose. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The genome of the organism that produces the world's most lethal toxin is revealed today. (innovations-report.com)