A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Increased salivary flow.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
Plantar declination of the foot.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The phenomenon of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness being restored. This can apply to appearance, TISSUES, organ functions, or other areas.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A plant genus of the family MELIACEAE. Members contain meliavolkinin, melianin C and limonoids.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
An involuntary movement accompanying a volitional movement. It often refers to facial movements that accompany FACIAL PARALYSIS.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
"Handwriting is a form of personal script or symbolic representation, primarily used in communication, created by the controlled motion of a writing instrument over a surface, typically performed with the hand and fingers."
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Eyelid diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the function, structure, or appearance of the eyelids, including inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, congenital, and traumatic disorders, which can impact vision, comfort, and overall ocular health.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A hypermotility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS that is characterized by spastic non-peristaltic responses to SWALLOWING; CHEST PAIN; and DYSPHAGIA.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The turning inward (inversion) of the edge of the eyelid, with the tarsal cartilage turned inward toward the eyeball. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.
Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
A disease characterized by suppurative and granulomatous lesions in the respiratory tract, upper alimentary tract, skin, kidneys, joints, and other tissues. Actinobacillus lignieresii infects cattle and sheep while A. equuli infects horses and pigs.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.

Role of Rho and Rho kinase in the activation of volume-regulated anion channels in bovine endothelial cells. (1/1400)

1. We have studied the modulation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) by the small GTPase Rho and by one of its targets, Rho kinase, in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. 2. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed that both RhoA and Rho kinase are expressed in CPAE cells. 3. ICl,swell, the chloride current through VRACs, was activated by challenging CPAE cells with a 25 % hypotonic extracellular solution (HTS) or by intracellular perfusion with a pipette solution containing 100 microM GTPgammaS. 4. Pretreatment of CPAE cells with the Clostridium C2IN-C3 fusion toxin, which inactivates Rho by ADP ribosylation, significantly impaired the activation of ICl,swell in response to the HTS. The current density at +100 mV was 49 +/- 13 pA pF-1 (n = 17) in pretreated cells compared with 172 +/- 17 pA pF-1 (n = 21) in control cells. 5. The volume-independent activation of ICl,swell by intracellular perfusion with GTPgammaS was also impaired in C2IN-C3-pretreated cells (31 +/- 7 pA pF-1, n = 11) compared with non-treated cells (132 +/- 21 pA pF-1, n = 15). 6. Activation of ICl,swell was pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive. 7. Y-27632, a blocker of Rho kinase, inhibited ICl,swell and delayed its activation. 8. Inhibition of Rho and of Rho kinase by the above-described treatments did not affect the extent of cell swelling in response to HTS. 9. These experiments provide strong evidence that the Rho-Rho kinase pathway is involved in the VRAC activation cascade.  (+info)

Lymphocyte migration through brain endothelial cell monolayers involves signaling through endothelial ICAM-1 via a rho-dependent pathway. (2/1400)

Lymphocyte extravasation into the brain is mediated largely by the Ig superfamily molecule ICAM-1. Several lines of evidence indicate that at the tight vascular barriers of the central nervous system (CNS), endothelial cell (EC) ICAM-1 not only acts as a docking molecule for circulating lymphocytes, but is also involved in transducing signals to the EC. In this paper, we examine the signaling pathways in brain EC following Ab ligation of endothelial ICAM-1, which mimics adhesion of lymphocytes to CNS endothelia. ICAM-1 cross-linking results in a reorganization of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton to form stress fibers and activation of the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein Rho. ICAM-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the actin-associated molecule cortactin and ICAM-1-mediated, Ag/IL-2-stimulated T lymphocyte migration through EC monolayers were inhibited following pretreatment of EC with cytochalasin D. Pretreatment of EC with C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of Rho proteins, significantly inhibited the transmonolayer migration of T lymphocytes, endothelial Rho-GTP loading, and endothelial actin reorganization, without affecting either lymphocyte adhesion to EC or cortactin phosphorylation. These data show that brain vascular EC are actively involved in facilitating T lymphocyte migration through the tight blood-brain barrier of the CNS and that this process involves ICAM-1-stimulated rearrangement of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and functional EC Rho proteins.  (+info)

SNAP-25a and -25b isoforms are both expressed in insulin-secreting cells and can function in insulin secretion. (3/1400)

The tSNARE (the target-membrane soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor, where NSF is N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is expressed in pancreatic B-cells and its cleavage by botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT/E) abolishes stimulated secretion of insulin. In the nervous system, two SNAP-25 isoforms (a and b) have been described that are produced by alternative splicing. Here it is shown, using reverse transcriptase PCR, that messages for both SNAP-25 isoforms are expressed in primary pancreatic B and non-B cells as well as in insulin-secreting cell lines. After transfection, both isoforms can be detected at the plasma membrane as well as in an intracellular perinuclear region in the insulin-secreting cell line, HIT. To test for the functional role of the two isoforms in insulin secretion, mutant forms of SNAP-25a and b resistant against cleavage by BoNT/E were generated. Such mutant SNAP-25, when expressed in HIT cells, is not inactivated by BoNT/E and its ability to restore insulin secretion can thus be investigated. To obtain the toxin-resistant mutant isoforms, the sequence around the BoNT/E cleavage site (R176QIDRIM182) was changed to P176QIKRIT182. This is the sequence of the equivalent region of human SNAP-23 (P187-T194), which has been shown to be resistant to BoNT/E. The mutant SNAP-25 was resistant to BoNT/E in vitro and in vivo and both mutant isoforms were able to reconstitute insulin secretion from toxin-treated HIT cells.  (+info)

Involvement of RhoA and its interaction with protein kinase C and Src in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acini. (4/1400)

We evaluated intracellular pathways responsible for the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho p21 in rat pancreatic acini. Intact acini were incubated with or without CCK and carbachol, and Triton X-100-soluble and crude microsomes were used for Western immunoblotting. When a RhoA-specific antibody was used, a single band at the location of 21 kDa was detected. CCK (10 pM-10 nM) and carbachol (0.1-100 microM) dose dependently increased the amount of immunodetectable RhoA with a peak increase occurring at 3 min. High-affinity CCK-A-receptor agonists JMV-180 and CCK-OPE (1-1,000 nM) did not increase the intensities of the RhoA band, suggesting that stimulation of RhoA is mediated by the low-affinity CCK-A receptor. Although an increase in RhoA did not require the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM abolished the appearance of the RhoA band in response to CCK and carbachol. The Gq protein inhibitor G protein antagonist-2A (10 microM) and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 (10 microM) markedly reduced RhoA bands in response to CCK. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol ester (10-1,000 nM) dose dependently increased the intensities of the RhoA band, which were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor K-252a (1 microM). The pp60(c-src) inhibitor herbimycin A (6 microM) inhibited the RhoA band in response to CCK, whereas the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (100 microM) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin (6 microM) had no effect. RhoA was immunoprecipitated with Src, suggesting association of RhoA with Src. Increases in mass of this complex were observed with CCK stimulation. In permeabilized acini, the Rho inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme dose dependently inhibited amylase secretion evoked by a Ca2+ concentration with an IC50 of C3 exoenzyme at 1 ng/ml. We concluded that the small GTP-binding protein RhoA p21 exists in pancreatic acini and appears to be involved in the mediation of pancreatic enzyme secretion evoked by CCK and carbachol. RhoA pathways are involved in the activation of PKC and Src cascades via Gq protein and PLC.  (+info)

Bacterial toxins and the Rho GTP-binding protein: what microbes teach us about cell regulation. (5/1400)

In the present review activities of two bacterial toxins, Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and Escherichia coli CNF1, both acting on the GTP-binding protein Rho are analyzed. Proteins belonging to the Rho family regulate the actin cytoskeleton and act as molecular switches in a number of signal transduction pathways. C3 and CNF1 have opposite effects on Rho thus representing useful tools for studies on cell division, cell differentiation and apoptosis.  (+info)

Rho-dependent and -independent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin and p130Cas mediated by Ret kinase. (6/1400)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a unique receptor system that includes Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface protein. In the present study, we have identified several proteins in neuroblastoma cells that are phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to GDNF. The phosphorylated proteins include focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Crk-associated substrate, p130Cas, all of which are known to be associated with focal adhesions. Of these, paxillin and p130Cas interacted with Crk proteins in GDNF-treated neuroblastoma cells. GDNF also induced reorganization of the actin cytoskelton. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas was inhibited by cytochalasin D or two specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI-3' kinase), wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that their tyrosine phosphorylation depends on the formation of actin stress fiber and activation of PI-3' kinase. In addition, phosphorylation of FAK but not of paxillin and p130Cas was markedly impaired by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme that specifically ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. These results suggested the presence of Rho-dependent and -independent signaling pathways downstream of PI-3' kinase that mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas through Ret kinase.  (+info)

Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins: mechanism of action and therapeutic uses. (7/1400)

The clostridial neurotoxins responsible for tetanus and botulism are proteins consisting of three domains endowed with different functions: neurospecific binding, membrane translocation and proteolysis for specific components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus. Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. The spastic paralysis induced by the toxin is due to the blockade of neurotransmitter release from spinal inhibitory interneurons. In contrast, the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) act at the periphery by inducing a flaccid paralysis due to the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. TeNT and BoNT serotypes B, D, F and G cleave specifically at single but different peptide bonds, of the vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP) synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles (SSVs). BoNT types A, C and E cleave SNAP-25 at different sites located within the carboxyl-terminus, while BoNT type C additionally cleaves syntaxin. The remarkable specificity of BoNTs is exploited in the treatment of human diseases characterized by a hyperfunction of cholinergic terminals.  (+info)

SNARE complex formation is triggered by Ca2+ and drives membrane fusion. (8/1400)

Neurotransmitter exocytosis, a process mediated by a core complex of syntaxin, SNAP-25, and VAMP (SNAREs), is inhibited by SNARE-cleaving neurotoxins. Botulinum neurotoxin E inhibition of norepinephrine release in permeabilized PC12 cells can be rescued by adding a 65 aa C-terminal fragment of SNAP-25 (S25-C). Mutations along the hydrophobic face of the S25-C helix result in SNARE complexes with different thermostabilities, and these mutants rescue exocytosis to different extents. Rescue depends on the continued presence of both S25-C and Ca2+ and correlates with complex formation. The data suggest that Ca2+ triggers S25-C binding to a low-affinity site, initiating trans-complex formation. Pairing of SNARE proteins on apposing membranes leads to bilayer fusion and results in a high-affinity cis-SNARE complex.  (+info)

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Neuromuscular agents are drugs or substances that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These agents can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals across the neuromuscular junction, leading to a variety of effects on muscle tone and activity.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a type of neuromuscular agent that is commonly used in anesthesia and critical care settings to induce paralysis during intubation or mechanical ventilation. NMBAs can be classified into two main categories: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing NMBAs, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle contraction followed by paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs, such as rocuronium and vecuronium, block the activation of these receptors, preventing muscle contraction and leading to paralysis.

Other types of neuromuscular agents include cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and can be used to reverse the effects of NMBAs, and botulinum toxin, which is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and is used in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

Anti-dyskinetic agents are a class of medications that are used to treat or manage dyskinesias, which are involuntary movements or abnormal muscle contractions. These medications work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in movement control.

Dyskinetic symptoms can occur as a side effect of long-term use of levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Anti-dyskinetic agents such as amantadine, anticholinergics, and dopamine agonists may be used to manage these symptoms.

Amantadine works by increasing the release of dopamine and blocking its reuptake, which can help reduce dyskinesias. Anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl and benztropine work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to dyskinesias. Dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinirole mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can help reduce dyskinesias by reducing the dose of levodopa required for symptom control.

It is important to note that anti-dyskinetic agents may have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

Botulinum antitoxin refers to a medication made from the antibodies that are generated in response to the botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that can cause paralysis and other serious medical complications in humans and animals.

The antitoxin works by neutralizing the effects of the toxin in the body, preventing further damage to the nervous system. It is typically used in emergency situations to treat individuals who have been exposed to large amounts of botulinum toxin, such as in a bioterrorism attack or accidental exposure in a laboratory setting.

Botulinum antitoxin is not the same as botulinum toxin type A (Botox), which is a purified form of the toxin that is used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. Botox works by temporarily paralyzing muscles, whereas the antitoxin works by neutralizing the toxin in the body.

Blepharospasm is a medical condition characterized by involuntary spasms and contractions of the muscles around the eyelids. These spasms can cause frequent blinkings, eye closure, and even difficulty in keeping the eyes open. In some cases, the spasms may be severe enough to interfere with vision, daily activities, and quality of life.

The exact cause of blepharospasm is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, a part of the brain that controls movement. It can occur as an isolated condition (known as essential blepharospasm) or as a symptom of other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.

Treatment options for blepharospasm may include medication, botulinum toxin injections, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of the spasms, improve symptoms, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Muscle spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by an involuntary increase in muscle tone, leading to stiffness and difficulty in moving muscles. It is often seen in people with damage to the brain or spinal cord, such as those with cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injuries.

In muscle spasticity, the muscles may contract excessively, causing rigid limbs, awkward movements, and abnormal postures. The severity of muscle spasticity can vary from mild stiffness to severe contractures that limit mobility and function.

Muscle spasticity is caused by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory signals in the central nervous system, leading to overactivity of the alpha motor neurons that control muscle contraction. This can result in hyperreflexia (overactive reflexes), clonus (rapid, rhythmic muscle contractions), and flexor or extensor spasms.

Effective management of muscle spasticity may involve a combination of physical therapy, medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve function, reduce pain, and prevent complications such as contractures and pressure sores.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a condition where the neck muscles contract and cause the head to turn to one side. There are different types of torticollis including congenital (present at birth), acquired (develops after birth), and spasmodic (neurological).

Congenital torticollis can be caused by a tight or shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck, which can occur due to positioning in the womb or abnormal blood vessels in the muscle. Acquired torticollis can result from injury, infection, or tumors in the neck. Spasmodic torticollis is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary contractions of the neck muscles and can be caused by a variety of factors including genetics, environmental toxins, or head trauma.

Symptoms of torticollis may include difficulty turning the head, tilting the chin upwards or downwards, pain or discomfort in the neck, and a limited range of motion. Treatment for torticollis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or surgery.

Sialorrhea is the medical term for excessive drooling or saliva production. It's not necessarily a condition where the person produces too much saliva, but rather, they are unable to control the normal amount of saliva in their mouth due to various reasons such as neurological disorders, developmental disabilities, or structural issues that affect swallowing and oral motor function.

Common causes include cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Down syndrome, stroke, intellectual disability, and certain medications. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition and may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, oral devices, or even surgical procedures in severe cases.

Tetanus toxin, also known as tetanospasmin, is a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This toxin binds to nerve endings and is transported to the nervous system's inhibitory neurons, where it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, particularly glycine and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). As a result, it causes uncontrolled muscle contractions or spasms, which are the hallmark symptoms of tetanus disease.

The toxin has two main components: an N-terminal portion called the light chain, which is the enzymatically active part that inhibits neurotransmitter release, and a C-terminal portion called the heavy chain, which facilitates the toxin's entry into neurons. The heavy chain also contains a binding domain that allows the toxin to recognize specific receptors on nerve cells.

Tetanus toxin is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated human lethal dose of just 2.5-3 nanograms per kilogram of body weight when introduced into the bloodstream. Fortunately, tetanus can be prevented through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid, which is part of the standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) immunization series for children and adolescents and the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster for adults.

A fissure in ano, also known as anal fissure, is a linear tear or split in the lining of the anus, usually occurring in the posterior midline. It can cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements. Anal fissures are often caused by constipation, passing hard stools, or prolonged diarrhea. They can also be associated with underlying conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or anal cancer. Treatment typically involves increasing fiber intake, using stool softeners, and topical treatments to promote healing and relieve pain. In some cases, surgery may be required for severe or chronic fissures that do not respond to conservative treatment.

Meige Syndrome, also known as Brueghel's syndrome or Hemifacial spasm-blepharospasm syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the simultaneous contraction of muscles in the face, neck, and sometimes other parts of the body. It is a form of dystonia, which is a movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures.

Meige Syndrome is typically divided into two types:

1. Ocular Meige Syndrome: This type primarily affects the muscles around the eyes, causing involuntary spasms, blinks, and eyelid closure.
2. Cranio-cervical Dystonia or Brueghel's syndrome: This type involves both the cranial (head) and cervical (neck) regions, leading to abnormal head postures, neck pain, and involuntary movements of the facial muscles.

The exact cause of Meige Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to abnormal functioning in the basal ganglia, a part of the brain responsible for controlling movement. In some cases, it may be associated with structural lesions or vascular abnormalities in the brain.

Treatment options for Meige Syndrome include medications such as botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, which help to relax the overactive muscles and reduce spasms. In severe cases, surgical interventions may be considered.

'Clostridium botulinum type A' is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type A. This toxin is one of the most deadly substances known, with a lethal dose estimated to be as low as 1 nanogram per kilogram of body weight. The bacterium and its toxin are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious paralytic illness in humans and animals.

The neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type A works by blocking the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is essential for muscle contraction. This results in flaccid paralysis, which can affect the muscles used for breathing and lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly.

Botulinum toxin type A has also found therapeutic use in the treatment of various medical conditions, including strabismus, blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and chronic migraine. It is marketed under the brand names Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin, among others. However, it is important to note that these therapeutic uses involve carefully controlled doses administered by trained medical professionals, and should not be attempted outside of a clinical setting.

'Clostridium botulinum type E' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces the neurotoxin botulinum toxin type E. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type E causes a form of botulism, a rare but serious illness characterized by muscle paralysis that can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Botulism caused by C. botulinum type E is often associated with the consumption of contaminated fish or marine products in aquatic environments of cold temperature, such as the Baltic and North Seas, and the Great Lakes in North America. The spores of this bacterium are resistant to heat and can survive in improperly processed or preserved food, leading to intoxication when ingested.

Preventive measures include proper handling, storage, and cooking of susceptible foods, as well as prompt medical attention if symptoms of botulism appear, such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. Botulinum toxin type E antitoxin is available for the treatment of botulism caused by this strain, but early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition characterized by excessive sweating beyond the normal requirement for thermoregulation. It can affect various parts of the body, but it primarily occurs in the palms, soles, underarms, and face. The sweating can be so profuse that it can interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress or embarrassment. Hyperhidrosis can be primary (idiopathic), meaning there is no underlying medical condition causing it, or secondary, due to a known cause such as anxiety, certain medications, infections, or medical conditions like diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

Neurotoxins are substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve cells (neurons) and the nervous system. They can cause damage by destroying neurons, disrupting communication between neurons, or interfering with the normal functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins can be produced naturally by certain organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals, or they can be synthetic compounds created in a laboratory. Examples of neurotoxins include botulinum toxin (found in botulism), tetrodotoxin (found in pufferfish), and heavy metals like lead and mercury. Neurotoxic effects can range from mild symptoms such as headaches, muscle weakness, and tremors, to more severe symptoms such as paralysis, seizures, and cognitive impairment. Long-term exposure to neurotoxins can lead to chronic neurological conditions and other health problems.

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, leading to repetitive or twisting movements. These movements can be painful and may affect one part of the body (focal dystonia) or multiple parts (generalized dystonia). The exact cause of dystonia varies, with some cases being inherited and others resulting from damage to the brain. Treatment options include medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery.

Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by involuntary, irregular contractions or twitching of the muscles on one side of the face. These spasms typically begin around the eye and may progress to involve the muscles of the lower face, including those around the mouth.

The primary cause of hemifacial spasm is pressure on or irritation of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) as it exits the brainstem, often due to a blood vessel or tumor. This pressure can lead to abnormal electrical signals in the facial nerve, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions.

In some cases, hemifacial spasm may be associated with other conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Bell's palsy. Treatment options for hemifacial spasm include medications to help relax the muscles, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections to paralyze the affected muscles temporarily, and, in rare cases, surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the facial nerve.

Esophageal achalasia is a rare disorder of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. In this condition, the muscles at the lower end of the esophagus fail to relax properly during swallowing, making it difficult for food and liquids to pass into the stomach. This results in symptoms such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), regurgitation of food, chest pain, and weight loss. The cause of esophageal achalasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to damage to the nerves that control the muscles of the esophagus. Treatment options include medications to relax the lower esophageal sphincter, botulinum toxin injections, and surgical procedures such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Dystonic disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that result in involuntary, repetitive, and often twisting movements and abnormal postures. These movements can affect any part of the body, including the face, neck, limbs, and trunk. Dystonic disorders can be primary, meaning they are caused by genetic mutations or idiopathic causes, or secondary, resulting from brain injury, infection, or other underlying medical conditions.

The most common form of dystonia is cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis), which affects the muscles of the neck and results in abnormal head positioning. Other forms of dystonia include blepharospasm (involuntary eyelid spasms), oromandibular dystonia (affecting the muscles of the jaw, face, and tongue), and generalized dystonia (affecting multiple parts of the body).

Dystonic disorders can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing pain, discomfort, and social isolation. Treatment options include oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation surgery in severe cases.

T-2 toxin is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin, which is a secondary metabolite produced by certain Fusarium species of fungi. It is a low molecular weight sesquiterpene epoxide that is chemically stable and has a high toxicity profile. T-2 toxin can contaminate crops in the field or during storage, and it is often found in grains such as corn, wheat, barley, and oats.

T-2 toxin has a variety of adverse health effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, immune suppression, skin irritation, and neurotoxicity. It is also known to have teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animals, and it is considered a potential human carcinogen by some agencies.

Exposure to T-2 toxin can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. Ingestion is the most common route of exposure, particularly in areas where contaminated grains are used as a food source. Inhalation exposure can occur during agricultural activities such as harvesting and processing contaminated crops. Skin contact with T-2 toxin can cause irritation and inflammation.

Prevention of T-2 toxin exposure involves good agricultural practices, including crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, and proper storage conditions. Monitoring of T-2 toxin levels in food and feed is also important to ensure that exposure limits are not exceeded.

Gustatory sweating, also known as Frey's syndrome, is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive sweating on the face, neck, and scalp while eating, especially spicy or strong-flavored foods. This unusual form of sweating occurs due to an abnormal cross-innervation between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that supply the salivary glands and sweat glands in the skin of the face and neck.

Normally, when we eat, our body activates the parasympathetic nervous system to stimulate saliva production for digestion. In some individuals, this activation can cause an aberrant response where sympathetic nerve fibers are also activated, leading to sweating in the affected areas. This condition is often a result of damage or injury to the nerves in the face, such as after surgery (particularly facial nerve or parotid gland surgeries), trauma, or infection.

Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a protein found in the presynaptic membrane of neurons, which plays a crucial role in the process of synaptic transmission. It is a component of the SNARE complex, a group of proteins that facilitate vesicle docking and fusion with the presynaptic membrane during neurotransmitter release. SNAP-25 binds to other SNARE proteins, syntaxin and VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein), forming a tight complex that brings the vesicle membrane into close apposition with the presynaptic membrane, allowing for the fusion of the two membranes and the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a urological condition characterized by the involuntary contraction of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder, leading to symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia (the need to wake up at night to urinate), with or without urge incontinence (the involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong desire to void). It is important to note that OAB is not necessarily related to bladder volume or age-related changes, and it can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. The exact cause of OAB is not fully understood, but it may be associated with neurological disorders, certain medications, infections, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options for OAB include behavioral modifications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, medications, and, in some cases, surgical interventions.

Equinus deformity is a condition in which the ankle remains in a permanently plantarflexed position, meaning that the toes are pointing downward. This limitation in motion can occur in one or both feet and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired. Acquired equinus deformity can result from conditions such as cerebral palsy, stroke, trauma, or prolonged immobilization. The limited range of motion in the ankle can cause difficulty walking, pain, and abnormalities in gait. Treatment options for equinus deformity may include physical therapy, bracing, orthotic devices, or surgery.

'Clostridium botulinum type B' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin type B. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is responsible for causing botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and even be fatal. The bacterium is commonly found in soil and water and can produce spores that are resistant to heat, which allows them to survive in adverse conditions. Botulinum neurotoxin type B is also used in medical treatments for various neurological disorders, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, and chronic migraine, under the brand name Myobloc or NeuroBloc.

Rejuvenation, in the context of medicine and aesthetics, refers to the process or procedures aimed at restoring a youthful appearance or vitality. This can be achieved through various treatments such as hormone replacement therapy, cosmetic surgery, skin treatments, and lifestyle changes. However, it is important to note that while these procedures can help improve one's appearance or vitality, they do not halt the aging process entirely.

Skin aging, also known as cutaneous aging, is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by various visible changes in the skin's appearance and function. It can be divided into two main types: intrinsic (chronological or natural) aging and extrinsic (environmental) aging.

Intrinsic aging is a genetically determined and time-dependent process that results from internal factors such as cellular metabolism, hormonal changes, and genetic predisposition. The primary features of intrinsic aging include gradual thinning of the epidermis and dermis, decreased collagen and elastin production, reduced skin cell turnover, and impaired wound healing. Clinically, these changes present as fine wrinkles, dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased fragility of the skin.

Extrinsic aging, on the other hand, is caused by external factors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, pollution, smoking, alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. Exposure to these environmental elements leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage, which accelerate the aging process. The main features of extrinsic aging are coarse wrinkles, pigmentary changes (e.g., age spots, melasma), irregular texture, skin laxity, and increased risk of developing skin cancers.

It is important to note that intrinsic and extrinsic aging processes often interact and contribute to the overall appearance of aged skin. A comprehensive approach to skincare should address both types of aging to maintain healthy and youthful-looking skin.

Cosmetic techniques refer to medical or surgical procedures that are performed with the primary goal of improving the appearance or aesthetics of an individual. These techniques can be non-invasive, minimally invasive, or surgical in nature and may involve various treatments such as:

1. Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections: used to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the underlying muscles.
2. Dermal fillers: injected beneath the skin to add volume, smooth out wrinkles, and enhance facial features.
3. Chemical peels: a chemical solution is applied to the skin to remove damaged outer layers, revealing smoother, more even-toned skin.
4. Microdermabrasion: a minimally abrasive procedure that uses fine crystals or diamond tips to exfoliate and remove dead skin cells, resulting in a refreshed appearance.
5. Laser resurfacing: using laser technology to improve the texture, tone, and overall appearance of the skin by removing damaged layers and stimulating collagen production.
6. Micro-needling: a minimally invasive treatment that involves puncturing the skin with fine needles to promote collagen production and skin rejuvenation.
7. Facelift surgery (rhytidectomy): a surgical procedure that tightens loose or sagging skin on the face and neck, restoring a more youthful appearance.
8. Blepharoplasty: cosmetic eyelid surgery that removes excess fat, muscle, and skin from the upper and/or lower eyelids to improve the appearance of tired or aging eyes.
9. Rhinoplasty: nose reshaping surgery that can correct various aesthetic concerns such as a bulbous tip, crooked bridge, or wide nostrils.
10. Breast augmentation: surgical enhancement of the breasts using implants or fat transfer to increase size, improve symmetry, or restore volume lost due to aging, pregnancy, or weight loss.
11. Liposuction: a surgical procedure that removes excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, hips, thighs, and arms, to contour and shape the body.

These cosmetic techniques aim to enhance an individual's appearance, boost self-confidence, and help them feel more comfortable in their own skin.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

'Clostridium botulinum type F' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces a powerful neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type F. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The botulinum toxin type F causes a rare form of botulism, known as foodborne or wound botulism, which can lead to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure if left untreated. This bacterium and its toxin are classified as tier 1 select agents due to their high potential for misuse as bioterrorism agents.

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized synapse or chemical communication point, where the motor neuron's nerve terminal (presynaptic element) meets the muscle fiber's motor end plate (postsynaptic element). This junction plays a crucial role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation.

At the NMJ, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic nerve terminal into the synaptic cleft, following an action potential. Acetylcholine then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the generation of an end-plate potential. If sufficient end-plate potentials are generated and summate, they will trigger an action potential in the muscle fiber, ultimately causing muscle contraction.

Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction can result in various neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, where autoantibodies attack acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

Clostridium botulinum type D is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type D. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The bacteria and their toxins are the causative agents of botulism, a rare but serious illness that affects the nervous system and can cause paralysis and death if left untreated.

Botulinum toxin type D is particularly associated with cases of animal botulism, such as those observed in cattle and birds. It has also been studied for its potential therapeutic uses, including its ability to block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which can be useful in treating various medical conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive secretion. However, the use of botulinum toxin type D in humans is not widely approved or practiced due to its lower potency and shorter duration of action compared to other types of botulinum toxins.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a class of drugs that act on the neuromuscular junction, the site where nerve impulses transmit signals to muscles to cause contraction. NMBAs prevent the transmission of these signals, leading to muscle paralysis. They are used in medical settings during surgical procedures and mechanical ventilation to facilitate intubation, control ventilation, and prevent patient movement. It is important to note that NMBAs do not have any effect on consciousness or pain perception; therefore, they are always used in conjunction with anesthetics and analgesics.

NMBAs can be classified into two main categories based on their mechanism of action:

1. Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: These drugs, such as succinylcholine, cause muscle fasciculations (brief, involuntary contractions) before inducing paralysis. They work by binding to the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction and depolarizing the membrane, which results in muscle paralysis. However, the continuous depolarization also causes desensitization of the receptors, leading to a loss of effectiveness over time. Depolarizing NMBAs have a relatively short duration of action.
2. Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: These drugs, such as rocuronium, vecuronium, and pancuronium, do not cause muscle fasciculations. They work by binding to the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction without depolarizing the membrane, which prevents the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles and leads to paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs have a longer duration of action compared to depolarizing NMBAs.

Close monitoring of neuromuscular function is essential when using NMBAs to ensure adequate reversal of their effects before the patient regains consciousness. This can be achieved through the use of nerve stimulators, which assess the degree of blockade and help guide the administration of reversal agents when necessary.

"Intralesional injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a medication directly into a lesion or skin abnormality, such as a tumor, cyst, or blister. This technique is used to deliver the medication directly to the site of action, allowing for higher local concentrations and potentially reducing systemic side effects. Common examples include the injection of corticosteroids into inflamed tissues to reduce swelling and pain, or the injection of chemotherapeutic agents directly into tumors to shrink them.

Marine toxins are toxic compounds that are produced by certain marine organisms, including algae, bacteria, and various marine animals such as shellfish, jellyfish, and snails. These toxins can cause a range of illnesses and symptoms in humans who consume contaminated seafood or come into direct contact with the toxin-producing organisms. Some of the most well-known marine toxins include:

1. Saxitoxin: Produced by certain types of algae, saxitoxin can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by muscle weakness, paralysis, and in severe cases, respiratory failure.
2. Domoic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, domoic acid can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of ASP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, and memory loss.
3. Okadaic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, okadaic acid can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.
4. Ciguatoxin: Produced by certain types of dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin can cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans who consume contaminated fish. Symptoms of CFP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as reversal of hot and cold sensations.
5. Tetrodotoxin: Found in certain types of pufferfish, tetrodotoxin can cause a severe form of food poisoning known as pufferfish poisoning or fugu poisoning. Symptoms of tetrodotoxin poisoning include numbness of the lips and tongue, difficulty speaking, muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures for these types of seafood poisoning include avoiding consumption of fish and shellfish that are known to be associated with these toxins, as well as cooking and preparing seafood properly before eating it. Additionally, monitoring programs have been established in many countries to monitor the levels of these toxins in seafood and issue warnings when necessary.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

R-SNARE proteins are a subgroup of SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptor) proteins that are characterized by the presence of an arginine (R) residue at a specific position in their SNARE motif. The SNARE motif is a conserved region of around 60-70 amino acids that plays a crucial role in mediating membrane fusion events in cells.

R-SNARE proteins are typically located on the target membrane, where they interact with Q-SNARE proteins (which contain a glutamine (Q) residue at the corresponding position) on the vesicle membrane to form a stable complex known as a SNARE complex. The formation of this complex brings the two membranes into close proximity and provides the energy required for their fusion, allowing for the transport of cargo between intracellular compartments or from the outside to the inside of the cell.

R-SNARE proteins are involved in various intracellular trafficking pathways, including endocytosis, exocytosis, and membrane recycling. Mutations in R-SNARE proteins have been implicated in several human diseases, such as neurological disorders and cancer.

ADP Ribose Transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose groups from donor molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), to specific acceptor molecules. This transfer process plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including DNA repair, gene expression regulation, and modulation of protein function.

The reaction catalyzed by ADP Ribose Transferases can be represented as follows:

Donor (NAD+ or NADP+) + Acceptor → Product (NR + ADP-ribosylated acceptor)

There are two main types of ADP Ribose Transferases based on their function and the type of modification they perform:

1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs): These enzymes add multiple ADP-ribose units to a single acceptor protein, forming long, linear, or branched chains known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARylation is involved in DNA repair, genomic stability, and cell death pathways.
2. Monomeric ADP-ribosyltransferases: These enzymes transfer a single ADP-ribose unit to an acceptor protein, which is called mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can regulate protein function, localization, and stability in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, inflammation, and stress response.

Dysregulation of ADP Ribose Transferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Manometry is a medical test that measures pressure inside various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. It is often used to help diagnose digestive disorders such as achalasia, gastroparesis, and irritable bowel syndrome. During the test, a thin, flexible tube called a manometer is inserted through the mouth or rectum and into the area being tested. The tube is connected to a machine that measures and records pressure readings. These readings can help doctors identify any abnormalities in muscle function or nerve reflexes within the digestive tract.

Voice disorders are conditions that affect the quality, pitch, or volume of a person's voice. These disorders can result from damage to or abnormalities in the vocal cords, which are the small bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound.

There are several types of voice disorders, including:

1. Vocal cord dysfunction: This occurs when the vocal cords do not open and close properly, resulting in a weak or breathy voice.
2. Vocal cord nodules: These are small growths that form on the vocal cords as a result of excessive use or misuse of the voice, such as from shouting or singing too loudly.
3. Vocal cord polyps: These are similar to nodules but are usually larger and can cause more significant changes in the voice.
4. Laryngitis: This is an inflammation of the vocal cords that can result from a viral infection, overuse, or exposure to irritants such as smoke.
5. Muscle tension dysphonia: This occurs when the muscles around the larynx become tense and constricted, leading to voice changes.
6. Paradoxical vocal fold movement: This is a condition in which the vocal cords close when they should be open, causing breathing difficulties and a weak or breathy voice.
7. Spasmodic dysphonia: This is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary spasms of the vocal cords, resulting in voice breaks and difficulty speaking.

Voice disorders can cause significant impairment in communication, social interactions, and quality of life. Treatment may include voice therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the disorder.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

"Melia" is not a medical term itself, but it is a term used in dermatology to refer to a type of benign growth on the skin. Melia, also known as "nevus sebaceous," is a congenital abnormality that appears as a yellowish or flesh-colored bump or plaque on the scalp, face, or neck. It results from an overgrowth of sebaceous glands and other skin structures in the affected area.

Melias are usually harmless and do not require treatment unless they become irritated, inflamed, or develop into a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma. In such cases, surgical removal may be necessary. It is important to monitor any changes in the size, shape, or color of a melia and consult with a healthcare professional if there are any concerns.

The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian physiologist who discovered it in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi has two parts: the sphincter papillae, which surrounds the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, and the sphincter choledochus, which is located more proximally in the bile duct. The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help regulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the flow of bile from the liver to aid in digestion.

Hemiplegia is a medical term that refers to paralysis affecting one side of the body. It is typically caused by damage to the motor center of the brain, such as from a stroke, head injury, or brain tumor. The symptoms can vary in severity but often include muscle weakness, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance on the affected side. In severe cases, the individual may be unable to move or feel anything on that side of the body. Hemiplegia can also affect speech, vision, and other functions controlled by the damaged area of the brain. Rehabilitation therapy is often recommended to help individuals with hemiplegia regain as much function as possible.

Shiga toxins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain strains of bacteria, including some types of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Shigella dysenteriae. These toxins get their name from Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered them in the late 19th century.

Shiga toxins are classified into two main types: Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2). Both types of toxins are similar in structure and function, but they differ in their potency and genetic makeup. Shiga toxins inhibit protein synthesis in cells by removing an adenine residue from a specific region of the 28S rRNA molecule in the ribosome, which ultimately leads to cell death.

These toxins can cause severe damage to the lining of the intestines and are associated with hemorrhagic colitis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. In some cases, Shiga toxins can also enter the bloodstream and cause systemic complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is characterized by kidney failure, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.

Exposure to Shiga toxins typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected individuals or animals. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as thorough handwashing, cooking meats thoroughly, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water.

Muscle hypertonia is a term used to describe an increased tone or tension in the muscles, which can be caused by various medical conditions. This state leads to a reduced ability to stretch the muscle fully, and it may interfere with normal movement. The two main types of muscle hypertonia are spasticity and rigidity.

1. Spasticity: It is a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone, which means that the resistance to passive movement increases as the speed of the movement increases. This type of hypertonia is often associated with upper motor neuron lesions, such as those caused by stroke, spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis.
2. Rigidity: It is a constant and non-velocity dependent increase in muscle tone, meaning that the resistance to passive movement remains consistent regardless of the speed. This type of hypertonia can be seen in conditions like Parkinson's disease.

It is essential to diagnose and manage muscle hypertonia effectively to prevent complications such as contractures, pain, and decreased functional abilities. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications (like antispasticity agents), orthoses, or surgical interventions in severe cases.

Synkinesis is a medical term that refers to an involuntary and abnormal movement or contraction of one muscle group that occurs in conjunction with voluntary movement of another muscle group. This condition often arises as a result of nerve injury or regeneration, where the nerves that control facial movements become crossed, causing the muscles to move together unintentionally.

For example, when a person with synkinesis tries to smile, they may also involuntarily blink or raise their eyebrows. This can lead to functional impairments and cosmetic concerns, particularly in cases of facial nerve palsy or Bell's palsy. Treatment for synkinesis typically involves physical therapy, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, or surgical intervention to help restore normal muscle function and movement.

Strabismus is a condition of the ocular muscles where the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions. One eye may turn inward, outward, upward, or downward while the other one remains fixed and aligns normally. This misalignment can occur occasionally or constantly. Strabismus is also commonly referred to as crossed eyes or walleye. The condition can lead to visual impairments such as amblyopia (lazy eye) and depth perception problems if not treated promptly and effectively, usually through surgery, glasses, or vision therapy.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

Muscle denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss of nerve supply to a muscle or group of muscles. This can occur due to various reasons, such as injury to the nerves, nerve compression, or certain medical conditions like neuromuscular disorders. When the nerve supply to the muscle is interrupted, it can lead to muscle weakness, atrophy (wasting), and ultimately, paralysis.

In denervation, the communication between the nervous system and the muscle is disrupted, which means that the muscle no longer receives signals from the brain to contract and move. Over time, this can result in significant muscle wasting and disability, depending on the severity and extent of the denervation.

Denervation may be treated with various therapies, including physical therapy, medication, or surgical intervention, such as nerve grafting or muscle transfers, to restore function and prevent further muscle wasting. The specific treatment approach will depend on the underlying cause and severity of the denervation.

Gastroparesis is a gastrointestinal disorder that affects the stomach's normal motility, resulting in the delayed emptying of food from the stomach into the small intestine. The term "gastroparesis" literally means "stomach paralysis," although the stomach doesn't actually become paralyzed in this condition. Instead, the muscles of the stomach wall become weakened or damaged, leading to a decrease in their ability to contract and push food through the digestive tract effectively.

The causes of gastroparesis can vary, but some common reasons include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), viral infections, surgery involving the vagus nerve (which controls stomach muscle contractions), certain medications (such as narcotics, antidepressants, and high blood pressure drugs), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), scleroderma, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Amyloidosis.

Symptoms of gastroparesis may include nausea, vomiting, feeling full quickly after starting to eat, bloating, heartburn, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, and unintended weight loss. These symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and make it difficult for them to maintain proper nutrition.

Diagnosis typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and various tests such as upper endoscopy, gastric emptying studies (such as the scintigraphy scan), and manometry to assess stomach muscle function. Treatment options may include dietary modifications, medications to stimulate stomach contractions or reduce symptoms like nausea and vomiting, botulinum toxin injections, electrical stimulation of the stomach muscles, or, in severe cases, feeding tubes or surgery.

Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a protein toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), specifically those that belong to serotype O157:H7 and some other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).

Stx2 is named after Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered the related Shiga toxin in 1898. It is a powerful cytotoxin that can cause damage to cells lining the intestines and other organs. The toxin inhibits protein synthesis in the cells by removing an adenine residue from the 28S rRNA of the 60S ribosomal subunit, leading to cell death.

Exposure to Stx2 can occur through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with infected animals or their feces. In severe cases, it can lead to hemorrhagic colitis, which is characterized by bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a serious complication that can cause kidney failure, anemia, and neurological problems.

It's important to note that Stx2 has two major subtypes, Stx2a and Stx2b, which differ in their biological activities and clinical significance. Stx2a is considered more potent than Stx2b and is associated with a higher risk of developing HUS.

Cholinergic antagonists, also known as anticholinergics or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. They achieve this by binding to and blocking the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary bladder.

The blockade of these receptors results in a range of effects depending on the specific organ system involved. For example, cholinergic antagonists can cause mydriasis (dilation of the pupils), cycloplegia (paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), reduced gastrointestinal motility and secretion, urinary retention, and respiratory tract smooth muscle relaxation.

Cholinergic antagonists are used in a variety of clinical settings, including the treatment of conditions such as Parkinson's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, and urinary incontinence. Some common examples of cholinergic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and oxybutynin.

It's important to note that cholinergic antagonists can have significant side effects, particularly when used in high doses or in combination with other medications that affect the nervous system. These side effects can include confusion, memory impairment, hallucinations, delirium, and blurred vision. Therefore, it's essential to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Central muscle relaxants are a class of pharmaceutical agents that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to reduce skeletal muscle tone and spasticity. These medications do not directly act on the muscles themselves but rather work by altering the messages sent between the brain and the muscles, thereby reducing excessive muscle contraction and promoting relaxation.

Central muscle relaxants are often prescribed for the management of various neuromuscular disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, and stroke-induced spasticity. They may also be used to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions like strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries.

Examples of central muscle relaxants include baclofen, tizanidine, cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol, and diazepam. It is important to note that these medications can have side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, and impaired cognitive function, so they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is a molecule that plays a role in various cellular processes, including the modification of proteins and the regulation of enzyme activity. It is formed by the attachment of a diphosphate group and a ribose sugar to the adenine base of a nucleotide. ADPR is involved in the transfer of chemical energy within cells and is also a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). It should be noted that ADPR is not a medication or a drug, but rather a naturally occurring biomolecule.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "handwriting" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Handwriting refers to the personal style or manner in which a person writes by hand. It can vary from person to person and can be influenced by factors such as an individual's fine motor skills, cultural background, and personal preferences.

However, in a broader context, there are certain medical conditions that can affect handwriting, such as neurological disorders (like stroke, Parkinson's disease, or cerebral palsy) or orthopedic issues (like arthritis or fractures). In these cases, healthcare professionals might assess a person's handwriting as part of the diagnostic process or to monitor the progression or treatment response of a condition. But again, handwriting itself is not a medical term with a specific definition.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is a protein toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), specifically those that belong to serotype O157:H7 and some other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).

Shiga toxins are named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who discovered the first strain of E. coli that produces this toxin in 1897. These toxins inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and cause damage to the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, which can lead to various clinical manifestations such as hemorrhagic colitis (bloody diarrhea) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a severe complication that can result in kidney failure.

Shiga toxin 1 is composed of two subunits, A and B. The B subunit binds to specific glycolipid receptors on the surface of target cells, facilitating the uptake of the toxin into the cell. Once inside the cell, the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis by removing an adenine residue from a specific region of the 28S rRNA molecule in the ribosome, thereby preventing peptide bond formation and leading to cell death.

Shiga toxin 1 is highly toxic and can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Antibiotics are generally not recommended for the treatment of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections because they may increase the risk of developing HUS by inducing bacterial lysis and releasing more toxins into the circulation. Supportive care, hydration, and close monitoring are essential for managing these infections.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Eyelid diseases refer to a variety of medical conditions that affect the function and/or appearance of the eyelids. These can include structural abnormalities, such as entropion (inward turning of the eyelid) or ectropion (outward turning of the eyelid), as well as functional issues like ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid). Other common eyelid diseases include blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margin), chalazion (a blocked oil gland in the eyelid), and cancerous or benign growths on the eyelid. Symptoms of eyelid diseases can vary widely, but often include redness, swelling, pain, itching, tearing, and sensitivity to light. Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific diagnosis and may range from self-care measures and medications to surgical intervention.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Arthropod venoms are toxic secretions produced by the venom glands of various arthropods, such as spiders, scorpions, insects, and marine invertebrates. These venoms typically contain a complex mixture of bioactive molecules, including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and small molecules, which can cause a range of symptoms and effects in humans and other animals.

The specific composition of arthropod venoms varies widely depending on the species and can be tailored to serve various functions, such as prey immobilization, defense, or predation. Some arthropod venoms contain neurotoxins that can disrupt nerve function and cause paralysis, while others may contain cytotoxins that damage tissues or hemotoxins that affect the blood and cardiovascular system.

Arthropod venoms have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, as some of their bioactive components have shown promise in treating various medical conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurological disorders. However, it is important to note that arthropod venoms can also cause severe allergic reactions and other adverse effects in susceptible individuals, making it essential to exercise caution when handling or coming into contact with venomous arthropods.

Sweat glands are specialized tubular structures in the skin that produce and secrete sweat, also known as perspiration. They are part of the body's thermoregulatory system, helping to maintain optimal body temperature by releasing water and heat through evaporation. There are two main types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine.

1. Eccrine sweat glands: These are distributed throughout the body, with a higher concentration on areas like the palms, soles, and forehead. They are responsible for producing a watery, odorless sweat that primarily helps to cool down the body through evaporation.

2. Apocrine sweat glands: These are mainly found in the axillary (armpit) region and around the anogenital area. They become active during puberty and produce a thick, milky fluid that does not have a strong odor on its own but can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

Sweat glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning they function involuntarily in response to various stimuli such as emotions, physical activity, or changes in environmental temperature.

Medical definitions of "fish products" generally refer to any food or supplement that is derived from fish or aquatic animals. This can include:

1. Fresh, frozen, or canned fish such as salmon, tuna, cod, and sardines.
2. Fish oils, which are often used as dietary supplements for their omega-3 fatty acid content.
3. Processed fish products like surimi (imitation crab meat), fish sticks, and fish sauce.

It's important to note that the nutritional content and potential health benefits or risks of fish products can vary widely depending on the specific type of fish, how it was caught or farmed, and how it was processed and prepared.

Paraparesis, spastic type, is a medical term used to describe a condition characterized by partial weakness or loss of voluntary movement in the lower extremities (legs). The term "paraparesis" comes from Greek words "para" meaning beside or beyond, and "paresis" meaning loosening or relaxation.

In spastic paraparesis, the muscle tone is increased, causing stiffness and resistance to movement, particularly during quick or forceful movements. This increased muscle tone, also known as spasticity, results from an upper motor neuron lesion in the brain or spinal cord that affects the corticospinal tract, which carries signals from the brain to the muscles.

Spastic paraparesis can be caused by various conditions, including spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and stroke, among others. The severity of symptoms may vary widely, ranging from mild weakness to complete paralysis. Treatment options for spastic paraparesis depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

The laryngeal muscles are a group of skeletal muscles located in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These muscles play a crucial role in breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds for speech. They include:

1. Cricothyroid muscle: This muscle helps to tense the vocal cords and adjust their pitch during phonation (voice production). It is the only laryngeal muscle that is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Instead, it is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.
2. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle is primarily responsible for abducting (opening) the vocal cords during breathing and speaking. It is the only muscle that can abduct the vocal cords.
3. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle adducts (closes) the vocal cords during phonation, swallowing, and coughing.
4. Transverse arytenoid muscle: This muscle also contributes to adduction of the vocal cords, working together with the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. It also helps to relax and lengthen the vocal cords during quiet breathing.
5. Oblique arytenoid muscle: This muscle is involved in adducting, rotating, and shortening the vocal cords. It works together with the transverse arytenoid muscle to provide fine adjustments for voice production.
6. Thyroarytenoid muscle (Vocalis): This muscle forms the main body of the vocal cord and is responsible for its vibration during phonation. The vocalis portion of the muscle helps control pitch and tension in the vocal cords.

These muscles work together to enable various functions of the larynx, such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Exocytosis is the process by which cells release molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, to the extracellular space. This process involves the transport of these molecules inside vesicles (membrane-bound sacs) to the cell membrane, where they fuse and release their contents to the outside of the cell. It is a crucial mechanism for intercellular communication and the regulation of various physiological processes in the body.

Neurogenic bladder is a term used to describe bladder dysfunction due to neurological damage or disease. The condition can result in problems with bladder storage and emptying, leading to symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy, incontinence, and retention.

Neurogenic bladder can occur due to various medical conditions, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, diabetic neuropathy, and stroke. The damage to the nerves that control bladder function can result in overactivity or underactivity of the bladder muscle, leading to urinary symptoms.

Management of neurogenic bladder typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, bladder training, catheterization, and surgery in some cases. The specific treatment plan depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the symptoms.

Esotropia is a type of ocular misalignment, also known as strabismus, in which one eye turns inward toward the nose. This condition can be constant or intermittent and may result in double vision or loss of depth perception. Esotropia is often classified based on its cause, age of onset, and frequency. Common forms include congenital esotropia, acquired esotropia, and accommodative esotropia. Treatment typically involves corrective eyewear, eye exercises, or surgery to realign the eyes.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Dysphonia is a medical term that refers to difficulty or discomfort in producing sounds or speaking, often characterized by hoarseness, roughness, breathiness, strain, or weakness in the voice. It can be caused by various conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, inflammation, neurological disorders, or injuries to the vocal cords. Dysphonia can affect people of all ages and may impact their ability to communicate effectively, causing social, professional, and emotional challenges. Treatment for dysphonia depends on the underlying cause and may include voice therapy, medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

RhoB GTP-binding protein is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which are involved in regulating various cellular processes such as actin cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, and cell cycle progression. Specifically, RhoB functions as a molecular switch that cycles between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state.

When RhoB is activated by GTP binding, it interacts with various downstream effectors to regulate the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, which is important for cell motility, adhesion, and membrane trafficking. RhoB has been implicated in several physiological processes, including angiogenesis, wound healing, and immune response.

RhoB is unique among the Rho GTPases because it can be localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, allowing it to regulate various cellular processes in different subcellular locations. Dysregulation of RhoB has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

A splint is a device used to support, protect, and immobilize injured body parts, such as bones, joints, or muscles. It can be made from various materials like plastic, metal, or fiberglass. Splints are often used to keep the injured area in a stable position, reducing pain, swelling, and further damage while the injury heals. They come in different shapes and sizes, tailored to fit specific body parts and injuries. A splint can be adjustable or custom-made, depending on the patient's needs. It is essential to follow healthcare professionals' instructions for using and caring for a splint to ensure proper healing and prevent complications.

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological agents or toxins with the intent to cause disease or death in humans, animals, or plants. These agents can be spread through the air, water, or food and can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxic substances produced by living organisms. The purpose of using these agents is typically to cause widespread illness, fear, and disruption. Biological warfare is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is illegal under international law.

Eyelids are the thin folds of skin that cover and protect the front surface (cornea) of the eye when closed. They are composed of several layers, including the skin, muscle, connective tissue, and a mucous membrane called the conjunctiva. The upper and lower eyelids meet at the outer corner of the eye (lateral canthus) and the inner corner of the eye (medial canthus).

The main function of the eyelids is to protect the eye from foreign particles, light, and trauma. They also help to distribute tears evenly over the surface of the eye through blinking, which helps to keep the eye moist and healthy. Additionally, the eyelids play a role in facial expressions and non-verbal communication.

Diffuse Esophageal Spasm (DES) is a motility disorder of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. In DES, the esophagus involuntarily and uncoordinately contracts, causing difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), chest pain, and sometimes regurgitation of food or liquids.

The term "diffuse" refers to the fact that these spasms can occur throughout the entire length of the esophagus, rather than being localized to a specific area. The exact cause of diffuse esophageal spasm is not known, but it may be associated with abnormalities in the nerve cells that control muscle contractions in the esophagus.

Diagnosis of DES typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and specialized tests such as esophageal manometry or ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring. Treatment options may include medications to relax the esophageal muscles, lifestyle modifications such as avoiding trigger foods, and in some cases, surgery.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Urodynamics is a medical test that measures the function and performance of the lower urinary tract, which includes the bladder, urethra, and sphincters. It involves the use of specialized equipment to record measurements such as bladder pressure, urine flow rate, and residual urine volume. The test can help diagnose various urinary problems, including incontinence, urinary retention, and overactive bladder.

During the test, a small catheter is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to measure bladder pressure while filling it with sterile water or saline solution. Another catheter may be placed in the rectum to record abdominal pressure. The patient is then asked to urinate, and the flow rate and any leaks are recorded.

Urodynamics can help identify the underlying cause of urinary symptoms and guide treatment decisions. It is often recommended for patients with complex or persistent urinary problems that have not responded to initial treatments.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Dyskinesias are a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, erratic, and often repetitive muscle movements. These movements can affect any part of the body and can include twisting, writhing, or jerking motions, as well as slow, writhing contortions. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications (such as those used to treat Parkinson's disease), brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to toxins. They can also be a side effect of some medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Dyskinesias can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, making it difficult for them to perform routine tasks and affecting their overall quality of life. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, surgery, or physical therapy. In some cases, dyskinesias may be managed with the use of assistive devices or by modifying the person's environment to make it easier for them to move around.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

A motor endplate, also known as the neuromuscular junction, is the site where a motor neuron's axon terminal synapses with a muscle fiber. It is a specialized chemical synapse that allows for the transmission of electrical signals from the nervous system to the skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle contraction. The motor endplate is composed of several structures including the presynaptic membrane, which contains neurotransmitter-filled vesicles, and the postsynaptic membrane, which contains numerous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. When an action potential reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, where it binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane and causes the opening of ion channels, leading to the generation of an endplate potential that can trigger muscle contraction.

'Clostridium botulinum type C' is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces a potent neurotoxin known as botulinum toxin type C. This toxin is one of the seven types of botulinum toxins (A-G) produced by various strains of Clostridium botulinum and related species. The neurotoxin produced by type C strain inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to flaccid paralysis.

The bacteria are commonly found in soil and aquatic environments and can cause a rare but severe form of foodborne illness called botulism. The illness is typically associated with consuming contaminated food, such as improperly canned or preserved foods, that contain the preformed neurotoxin. In addition to foodborne botulism, type C botulinum can also cause wound botulism and infant botulism through different modes of infection.

It is essential to distinguish between the various types of Clostridium botulinum and their toxins because they differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment approaches.

Gastric emptying is the process by which the stomach empties its contents into the small intestine. In medical terms, it refers to the rate and amount of food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This process is regulated by several factors, including the volume and composition of the meal, hormonal signals, and neural mechanisms. Abnormalities in gastric emptying can lead to various gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders, such as gastroparesis, where the stomach's ability to empty food is delayed.

Adenylate cyclase toxin is a type of exotoxin produced by certain bacteria, including Bordetella pertussis (the causative agent of whooping cough) and Vibrio cholerae. This toxin functions by entering host cells and catalyzing the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to increased intracellular cAMP levels.

The elevated cAMP levels can disrupt various cellular processes, such as signal transduction and ion transport, resulting in a range of physiological effects that contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection. For example, in the case of Bordetella pertussis, adenylate cyclase toxin impairs the function of immune cells, allowing the bacteria to evade host defenses and establish a successful infection.

In summary, adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by certain pathogenic bacteria that increases intracellular cAMP levels in host cells, leading to disrupted cellular processes and contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

Sweating, also known as perspiration, is the production of sweat by the sweat glands in the skin in response to heat, physical exertion, hormonal changes, or emotional stress. Sweat is a fluid composed mainly of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, lactate, and urea. It helps regulate body temperature by releasing heat through evaporation on the surface of the skin. Excessive sweating, known as hyperhidrosis, can be a medical condition that may require treatment.

Spider venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by the specialized glands of spiders. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. They contain a variety of molecules such as neurotoxins, proteases, peptides, and other biologically active substances. Different spider species have unique venom compositions, which can cause different reactions when they bite or come into contact with humans or other animals. Some spider venoms can cause mild symptoms like pain and swelling, while others can lead to more severe reactions such as tissue necrosis or even death in extreme cases.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid, particularly the lower eyelid, turns inward or rolls in toward the eye. This can cause the eyelashes or skin to rub against the cornea, which can lead to discomfort, irritation, and potentially damage the front surface of the eye. Entropion can be caused by various factors such as aging, eye inflammation, injury, or congenital defects. Treatment typically involves surgical correction to tighten or reposition the eyelid. If left untreated, entropion may result in corneal abrasions, infections, and vision loss.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

The anal canal is the terminal portion of the digestive tract, located between the rectum and the anus. It is a short tube-like structure that is about 1 to 1.5 inches long in adults. The main function of the anal canal is to provide a seal for the elimination of feces from the body while also preventing the leakage of intestinal contents.

The inner lining of the anal canal is called the mucosa, which is kept moist by the production of mucus. The walls of the anal canal contain specialized muscles that help control the passage of stool during bowel movements. These muscles include the internal and external sphincters, which work together to maintain continence and allow for the voluntary release of feces.

The anal canal is an important part of the digestive system and plays a critical role in maintaining bowel function and overall health.

Synaptosomes are subcellular structures that can be isolated from the brain tissue. They are formed during the fractionation process of brain homogenates and consist of intact presynaptic terminals, including the synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, and cytoskeletal elements. Synaptosomes are often used in neuroscience research to study the biochemical properties and functions of neuronal synapses, such as neurotransmitter release, uptake, and metabolism.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

Urethral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain or discomfort during urination, difficulty in urinating, blood in urine, and abnormal discharge. Some common urethral diseases include urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra due to scar tissue or inflammation), and urethral cancer. The causes of urethral diseases can vary, including infections, injuries, congenital abnormalities, and certain medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing urethral diseases and preventing complications.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

SNARE proteins, which stands for Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptor, are a family of small proteins that play a crucial role in the process of membrane fusion in cells. They are essential for various cellular processes such as neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, and intracellular trafficking.

SNARE proteins are located on both sides of the membranes that are about to fuse, with one set of SNAREs (v-SNAREs) present on the vesicle membrane and the other set (t-SNAREs) present on the target membrane. During membrane fusion, v-SNAREs and t-SNAREs interact to form a tight complex called a SNARE complex, which brings the two membranes into close proximity and facilitates their fusion.

The formation of the SNARE complex is a highly specific process that involves the alignment of specific amino acid sequences on the v-SNARE and t-SNARE proteins. Once formed, the SNARE complex provides the energy required for membrane fusion, and its disassembly is necessary for the completion of the fusion event.

Mutations in SNARE proteins have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including motor neuron disease and epilepsy. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of SNARE proteins is essential for developing therapies for these conditions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Esophageal speech is not a type of "speech" in the traditional sense, but rather a method of producing sounds or words using the esophagus after a laryngectomy (surgical removal of the voice box). Here's a medical definition:

Esophageal Speech: A form of alaryngeal speech produced by swallowing air into the esophagus and releasing it through the upper esophageal sphincter, creating vibrations that are shaped into sounds and words. This method is used by individuals who have undergone a laryngectomy, where the vocal cords are removed, making traditional speech impossible. Mastering esophageal speech requires extensive practice and rehabilitation.

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

Deglutition disorders, also known as swallowing disorders, are conditions that affect the ability to move food or liquids from the mouth to the stomach safely and efficiently. These disorders can occur at any stage of the swallowing process, which includes oral preparation (chewing and manipulating food in the mouth), pharyngeal phase (activating muscles and structures in the throat to move food toward the esophagus), and esophageal phase (relaxing and contracting the esophagus to propel food into the stomach).

Symptoms of deglutition disorders may include coughing or choking during or after eating, difficulty initiating a swallow, food sticking in the throat or chest, regurgitation, unexplained weight loss, and aspiration (inhaling food or liquids into the lungs), which can lead to pneumonia.

Deglutition disorders can be caused by various factors, such as neurological conditions (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), structural abnormalities (e.g., narrowing or blockage of the esophagus), muscle weakness or dysfunction, and cognitive or behavioral issues. Treatment for deglutition disorders may involve dietary modifications, swallowing exercises, medications, or surgical interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

In the context of medicine, spores are typically discussed in relation to certain types of infections and diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. Spores are a dormant, resistant form of these microorganisms that can survive under harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures, lack of nutrients, and exposure to chemicals.

Spores can be highly resistant to heat, radiation, and disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated surfaces or medical equipment. When the conditions are favorable, spores can germinate and grow into mature microorganisms that can cause infection.

Some examples of medically relevant spores include those produced by Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized patients, and Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungus that can cause invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals.

It's worth noting that spores are not unique to medical contexts and have broader relevance in fields such as botany, mycology, and biology.

Trismus is a term used in medicine to describe the inability to open the mouth fully due to spasm or prolonged stiffness of the muscles involved in jaw movement, specifically the masseter and temporalis muscles. This condition can result from various causes such as dental procedures, infections, tetanus, radiation therapy to the head and neck region, or trauma. In some cases, trismus can lead to complications like difficulty eating, speaking, and maintaining oral hygiene, which can negatively impact a person's quality of life. Treatment typically involves physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or in severe cases, surgery.

Hypohidrosis is a medical condition characterized by reduced or absent sweating. It's the opposite of hyperhidrosis, which is excessive sweating. Sweating is an essential function that helps regulate body temperature through the evaporation of sweat on the skin surface. When this process is impaired due to hypohidrosis, it can lead to difficulties in maintaining a normal body temperature, especially during physical exertion or in hot environments.

Hypohidrosis may be localized, affecting only certain areas of the body, or generalized, affecting the entire body. The causes of hypohidrosis are varied and include genetic factors, nerve damage, skin disorders, dehydration, burns, or the use of certain medications. Depending on its underlying cause, hypohidrosis can be managed through appropriate treatments, such as addressing nerve damage, managing skin conditions, or adjusting medication usage.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A muscle cramp is an involuntary and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. It can involve partial or complete muscle groups, often occurring in the legs and feet (hamstrings, quadriceps, calves, and foot intrinsic muscles) during or after exercise, at night, or while resting. The exact cause of muscle cramps is unclear, but they can be associated with muscle fatigue, heavy exercising, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, or underlying medical conditions (e.g., nerve compression or disorders, hormonal imbalances). The primary symptom is a sudden, sharp pain in the affected muscle, which may be visibly tightened and hard to touch. Most muscle cramps resolve on their own within a few minutes, but gentle stretching, massage, or applying heat/cold can help alleviate discomfort.

Actinobacillosis is a bacterial disease caused by the gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria Actinobacillus spp. This disease primarily affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and swine, causing symptoms such as abscesses, respiratory distress, and lameness. In rare cases, actinobacillosis can also affect humans, particularly those who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

In humans, actinobacillosis typically manifests as a localized infection of the skin or mucous membranes, although it can also cause more widespread systemic infections. Symptoms may include fever, chills, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and painful abscesses or ulcers at the site of infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of any abscesses.

It is important to note that actinobacillosis is a relatively rare disease in humans, and it is not considered a significant public health concern. However, healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of this infection in individuals who have close contact with infected animals or consume contaminated food or water.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

The pyloric antrum is the distal part of the stomach, which is the last portion that precedes the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum. It is a thickened, muscular area responsible for grinding and mixing food with gastric juices during digestion. The pyloric antrum also helps regulate the passage of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, which controls the opening and closing of the pylorus. This region is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract's motor functions and overall digestive process.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI), is a motor nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is responsible for moving the eye away from the midline (towards the temple) and enables the eyes to look towards the side while keeping them aligned. Any damage or dysfunction of the abducens nerve can result in strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions, specifically an adduction deficit, also known as abducens palsy or sixth nerve palsy.

Botulinum toxins are AB toxins and closely related to Anthrax toxin, Diphtheria toxin, and in particular tetanus toxin. The two ... warning that botulinum toxin products can spread to other parts of the body. Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum ... The use of botulinum toxin A in children with cerebral palsy is safe in the upper and lower limb muscles. While botulinum toxin ... Botulinum toxin A is sold under the brand names Jeuveau, Botox, and Xeomin. Botulinum toxin B is sold under the brand name ...
... cholera-like toxins, binary toxins and C3-like exoenzymes. C3-like exoenzymes unlike other ADP-ribosyltransferase toxins do not ... Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme is a toxin that causes the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to Rho-like proteins ... All the toxins of this family share a highly conserved glutamate, which is the catalytic residue critical for the NAD- ... Many bacterial toxins nucleotide-binding modify by ADP-ribosylation proteins involved in essential cell functions, leading to ...
Botulinum toxin is the most acutely lethal toxin that is known. It is produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. It acts ... is considered to be the first ever use of botulinum toxin for therapeutic purposes. Today, the injection of botulinum toxin ... Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus is a medical technique used sometimes in the management of strabismus, in which botulinum ... found that botulinum toxin therapy had similar long-term success rates for treating infantile esotropia with botulinum toxin A ...
The Botulinum Toxin and Cosmetic Fillers (Children) Act 2021 (2021 c. 19) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The provisions of the Act are: Making it an offence in England for a person to administer either botulinum toxin or cosmetic ... Making it an offence for a person to own a business where a someone other than an approved person administers botulinum toxin ... The Act makes it illegal to administer botulinum toxin or fillers for cosmetic purposes to those under the age of 18. ...
The botulinum toxin theory has not found widespread acceptance among scholars. Fildes had a reputation for "extravagant boasts ... Middlebrook and Franz (1998). Botulinum toxins (PDF). Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, United States of ... The authors of A Higher Form of Killing claim that Heydrich died from botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin poisoning). ... 73 anti-tank grenade used in the attack had been modified to contain the toxin. The authors say that only circumstantial ...
Toxins: Botulinum, Ricin, etc. The earliest documented incident of the intention to use biological weapons is possibly recorded ... Working Group on Civilian Biodefense (February 28, 2001), "Consensus Statement: Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon, Medical ... Iraq admitted to the United Nations inspection team to having produced 19,000 liters of concentrated botulinum toxin, of which ... Clostridium botulinum toxin development in refrigerated reduced oxygen packaged Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) ( ...
Botulinum Toxin. pp. 471-484. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-4928-9.00038-X. ISBN 9781416049289. v t e (Articles with short ... channel toxin known as δ-TLTX-Ta1a according to the currently developing systematic nomenclature for peptide and protein toxins ...
"Botulinum toxin A injectable - Allergan". adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "JNJ 61393215 - AdisInsight". ... botulinum toxin A, Botox) - acetylcholine release inhibitor - specifically under development for the treatment of MDD in women ...
... commercially available botulism anti-toxin that effectively neutralizes all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes (types ... Pleased with Canada's decision to prepare for botulinum toxin events, one of the "more likely biological threat agents", Adam ... "Botulinum Toxin (Botulism)". Center for Health Security. Retrieved September 12, 2017. "INSTRUCTIONS FOR RECEIVING BAT™ ... This process renders it less efficacious at neutralizing toxin than the other product - trivalent botulinum antitoxin (TBAT) - ...
"Botulinum toxin injections". www.aesthetika.co.uk. Retrieved 30 August 2015. (Articles with short description, Short ... Kipioti A, Taylor R (2003). "Botulinum toxin treatment of "one and a half syndrome"". Br J Ophthalmol. 87 (7): 918-9. doi: ... There have been cases of improvement in extra-ocular movement with botulinum toxin injection. Cases related to multiple ...
Intravesical botulinum toxin is also useful. Liver toxicity of ketamine involves higher doses and repeated administration. In a ...
Botulinum Toxin for an Overactive Bladder: Scientific Impact Paper No. 42 (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians and ... "Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust Release: First-of-Its-Kind Study Shows BOTOX(R) (Botulinum Toxin Type A) ... Perspectives from around the world". Botulinum Toxin in Urology. Springer. p. 190. ISBN 978-3-642-03579-1. Alemozaffar, mehrdad ... "Techniques for the intradetrusor administration of botulinum toxin". BJU International. 97 (4): 675-678. doi:10.1111/j.1464- ...
ISBN 978-1-4419-8889-8. Dasgupta, Prokar (2015). "Capsaicin, resiniferatoxin and botulinum toxin-A - a trip down memory lane". ... Perspectives from around the world". Botulinum Toxin in Urology. Springer. p. 190. ISBN 978-3-642-03579-1. Alemozaffar, mehrdad ... "Proposed Mechanism for the Efficacy of Injected Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Human Detrusor Overactivity". European ...
Injections of botulinum toxin into the bladder is another option. Urinary catheters or surgery are generally not recommended. A ... Botulinum Toxin A injections into the bladder wall can suppress involuntary bladder contractions by blocking nerve signals and ... ISBN 978-3-642-03579-1. Sacco E, Paolillo M, Totaro A, Pinto F, Volpe A, Gardi M, Bassi PF (2008). "Botulinum toxin in the ... This procedure can greatly enlarge urine volume in the bladder.[citation needed] Botulinum toxin A (Botox) is approved by the ...
Injections of botulinum toxin type A can be used to block neural control of sweat glands. The effect can last from 3-9 months ... Comite SL, Smith K (2015). "Commenting on: "Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition of botulinum toxin A injections ... Felber ES (October 2006). "Botulinum toxin in primary care medicine". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 ... Bushara KO, Park DM (November 1994). "Botulinum toxin and sweating". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 57 (11 ...
Botulinum toxin injections have been used to induce localized, partial paralysis. Among most sufferers, botulinum toxin ... For some, botulinum toxin diminishes in its effectiveness after many years of use. An observed side effect in a minority of ... Although there is no cure, botulinum toxin injections may help temporarily. A surgical procedure known as myectomy may also be ... A minority of sufferers develop minimal or no result from botulinum toxin injections and have to find other treatments. ...
Other Dermatologic Uses of Botulinum Toxin". In Anthony V. Benedetto (ed.). Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Dermatology. Taylor & ... "Other Dermatologic Uses of Botulinum Toxin" of the 2006 compilation book Botulinum Toxin in Clinical Dermatology. They ... and throughout axillary hyperhidrosis treatment with botulinum toxin. They recommended use of the device with the "Wonder Wand ...
"Study finds botulinum toxin injections in epicardial fat pads reduce AF risk immediately following surgery and after one year ... "Botulinum toxin may help even the heart". Nyheadache.com. Retrieved 2016-08-27. "Botox: An Rx for Irregular Heartbeat After ... "Can Botulinum Toxin Suppress Afib Long Term?". Medpage Today. Retrieved 2016-08-27. "LBCT Botox". Hrsonline.org. 2015-05-14. ... "Botulinum Toxin May Prevent Afib Following Bypass". Medpage Today. Retrieved 2016-08-27. Search Results for author Pokushalov E ...
2007). Therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. p. 214. ISBN 9781597452472. Archived from the original ... Cooper G (5 October 2007). Therapeutic Uses of Botulinum Toxin. Springer. ISBN 9781597452472. "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006 ...
botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type G and Some Nontoxigenic ...
... making it second only to botulinum toxin D as the deadliest toxin in the world. It functions very similarly to botulinum ... Botulinum toxin (also known as botulinum neurotoxin, and commercially sold under the trade name Botox) inhibits the release of ... Papapetropoulos S, Singer C (April 2007). "Botulinum toxin in movement disorders". Semin Neurol. 27 (2): 183-94. doi:10.1055/s- ... Toxins are also used to determine the location of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. α-Bungarotoxin is a ...
2007). Therapeutic Uses of Botulinum Toxin. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. p. 155. ISBN 9781597452472. Böni, R.; Groscurth, P. ( ... 1-9. ISBN 978-3-8055-7306-1. Kreyden, Oliver Philip; Böni, Roland Emil; Burg, Günter (2002). Hyperhidrosis and Botulinum Toxin ...
Some of these species produce harmful toxins such as botulinum toxin and tetanus toxin among others. Most clostridium species ... Alpha toxin Anthrax toxin Dinotoxin Cyanotoxin Diphtheria toxin Exotoxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Shiga-like toxin K R ... Toxin A and toxin B are two toxins produced by Clostridium difficile. Toxin A and toxin B are glycosyltransferases that cause ... The botulinum toxin, which is primarily produced by Clostridium botulinum and less frequently by other Clostridium species, is ...
"Botulinum Toxins", Globalsecurity.org, accessed January 15, 2009. 30°14′02″N 88°40′08″W / 30.233942°N 88.668758°W / ... Because of its proximity to human populations only two lethal agents, both toxins, were ever tested on the island, botulin and ... Testing at Horn Island with the toxin botulin showed that the agent was not a viable aerosol biological weapon. Tests were ... just one of the animals died from inhaled botulin and another died after licking the toxin from its fur. Fort Terry Granite ...
Ghazizadeh, Shirin; Nikzad, Masoomeh (2004). "Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Refractory Vaginismus". Obstetrics & ... Ghazizadeh, Shirin; Nikzad, Masoomeh (2004). "Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Refractory Vaginismus". Obstetrics & ...
"Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon". JAMA. 285 (8): 1059-1070. doi:10.1001/jama.285.8.1059. PMID 11209178. Dennis, David T ...
Jankovic, Joseph (1 August 2017). "Botulinum toxin: State of the art". Movement Disorders. 32 (8): 1131-1138. doi:10.1002/mds. ... His research on drugs for parkinsonian disorders and hyperkinetic movement disorders, including botulinum toxin and ... Toxins, Drugs, and Frontiers in Neurology. He is the editor-in-chief for Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. He has served on ...
The surgery is for those who do not respond to physical therapy or botulinum toxin injection or have a very fibrotic ... Samotus, Olivia; Lee, Jack; Jog, Mandar (2018-03-20). "Personalized botulinum toxin type A therapy for cervical dystonia based ... Other treatments include: Rest and analgesics for acute cases Diazepam or other muscle relaxants Botulinum toxin Encouraging ... Safarpour, Yasaman; Jabbari, Bahman (2018-02-24). "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Movement Disorders". Current Treatment Options ...
Mittal, SO; Safarpour, D; Jabbari, B (February 2016). "Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Neuropathic Pain". Seminars in Neurology. ... Local intradermal injection of botulinum neurotoxin type A may be helpful in chronic focal painful neuropathies. However, it ... toxins, remote manifestations of malignancies, immune mediated disorders and physical trauma to a nerve trunk. Neuropathic pain ...
Botulinum toxin paralysis reduces total muscle force by removing, or reducing, the contractile component. Botulinum toxin is a ... Botulinum toxin has also been used intraoperatively to augment a surgical effect. In complex strabismus cases, toxin can be ... Botulinum toxin blocks the neuromuscular transmission and thus paralyzes injected muscles. Paralysis is temporary, and it might ... Elston JS, Lee JP, Powell CM, Hogg C, Clark P (Oct 1985). "Treatment of strabismus in adults with botulinum toxin A". The ...
Botulinum toxins are AB toxins and closely related to Anthrax toxin, Diphtheria toxin, and in particular tetanus toxin. The two ... warning that botulinum toxin products can spread to other parts of the body. Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum ... The use of botulinum toxin A in children with cerebral palsy is safe in the upper and lower limb muscles. While botulinum toxin ... Botulinum toxin A is sold under the brand names Jeuveau, Botox, and Xeomin. Botulinum toxin B is sold under the brand name ...
The administration/injection code should be reported on the same claim with the botulinum toxin medication. When the botulinum ... Name of botulinum toxin, total dosage, each injection site with the dosage, and frequency of injections. ... According to the FDA Label indications, botulinum toxin treatment for blepharospasm and chronic migraine headaches is limited ... Page Help for Article - Billing and Coding: Botulinum Toxins (A57715). ...
Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles (American Academy of Ophthalmology) * Botulinum Toxin Injections: A Treatment for ... Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same toxin that causes a life- ... Botulinum Toxin Therapy: Overview (American Academy of Dermatology) * Counterfeit Version of Botox Found in the United States ( ... Benefits of Botulinum Toxin: Its Not Just for Wrinkles (National Institutes of Health) Also in Spanish ...
An investigative formulation of a botulinum neurotoxin may have a longer duration of beneficial effect for patients with ... "The majority of the patients had little better, moderately better, or very much better from the botulinum toxin injection with ... Cite this: Investigative Botulinum Toxin More Effective in Cervical Dystonia? - Medscape - Sep 23, 2021. ... "Botulinum neurotoxin is clearly the treatment of choice for cervical dystonia," Jankovic said in an interview. "While the ...
Botulinum toxin treatment of strabismus is not as definitive and stable as the traditional surgical approach, but it has been ... Botulinum A toxin has been used to treat strabismus and a variety of spasmodic neuromuscular diseases. ... Botulinum A toxin has been used to treat strabismus and a variety of spasmodic neuromuscular diseases. Botulinum toxin ... Botulinum A toxin (Oculinum) in ophthalmology Surv Ophthalmol. 1991 Jul-Aug;36(1):28-46. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(91)90207-v. ...
Only within the past 2 decades have clinical applications for this toxin surfaced. ... History Botulinum toxin is best known to clinicians as a deadly poison produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. ... In fact, botulinum toxin injections are extremely safe. To date, no significant long-term hazards of botulinum toxin injections ... encoded search term (Botulinum Toxin Injections to Improve Facial Aesthetics) and Botulinum Toxin Injections to Improve Facial ...
Botulinum toxin treatments, or Botox, can help with many conditions including movement disorders and chronic migraines. Learn ... Botulinum toxin can be used to treat a diverse set of conditions. When botulinum toxin is given in safe amounts and the right ... Botulinum toxin injections: The many uses of botulinum toxin. Botox is not only used for wrinkles. Consider UW Healths highly ... Botulinum toxin injections can be used as a treatment for migraines and movement disorders. Heres what you can expect during ...
Botox is the most potent biological toxin known to exist. Fortunately, science has harnessed its potential to treat a number of ... What is botulinum toxin?. Botulinum toxin is a substance produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Botulism is caused by ... What does Botulinum toxin treatment for Parkinsons look like?. The effects of Botulinum toxin take hold about 3-10 days after ... Different types of Botulinum toxin. There are eight different botulinum toxin species that occur in nature. There are only two ...
Botulinum toxin injection - larynx Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to ... Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its the same toxin that causes a life- ... Botulinum Toxin (Botox) (VisualDX) Botox/Learn More ... Botox ... VisualDX ... Aging gracefully is not desirable to some people ... Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles (American Academy of Ophthalmology) Skin Aging/Treatments and Therapies ... Skin ...
Clostridium botulinum ). It is the same toxin that can cause a type of food poisoning (botulism) if a person gets too much in ... Botulinum toxin is a protein produced by a certain type of bacteria ( ...
Botulinum toxin may spread and affect other areas beyond the injection site, resulting in hoarseness, drooping of the eyelids, ... She was accompanied by a colleague, who received botulinum toxin injections to her face but has remained asymptomatic so far. " ... Do not receive an injection in case of a history of allergy to botulinum toxin, or infection or inflammation on the injection ... The DH urged the public to observe the health advice below before receiving botulinum toxin injections: * Injections should ...
... studies on the effects of botulinum toxin A (BoTA) on IR injury in musculocutaneous flaps are still limited. The purpose of ... The Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model. Tae Hwan Park. 1and Yun Joo Park. 2 ... T. H. Park, J. H. Park, C. H. Chang, and D. K. Rah, "Botulinum toxin A upregulates Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA gene expression in a ... T. K. Kim, E. J. Oh, J. Y. Chung, J. W. Park, B. C. Cho, and H. Y. Chung, "The effects of botulinum toxin A on the survival of ...
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Botulinum Toxin Injections-Cosmetic. (Botulinum Toxin Type A; Botulinum Toxin Type B; Botox Injections). Pronounced: baut-U-lie ... which are formulations of botulinum toxin type A. Myobloc is another brand, but it is a formulation of botulinum toxin type B. ... Botulinum toxin. American Society of Plastic Surgeons website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL). Accessed ... Botulinum toxin (botox) is made from a type of bacteria. Another name for it is bacterial neurotoxin. An injection of botox ...
Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is widely used in the management of muscle spasticity in children. However, at present the dose of ... Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is widely used in the management of muscle spasticity in children. However, at present the dose of ... Safety profile and efficacy of botulinum toxin A (Dysport) in children with muscle spasticity Dev Med Child Neurol. 2001 Apr;43 ... Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage* * Botulinum Toxins, Type A / adverse effects* ...
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Botulinum toxin therapy (also known as Botox) is used to treat a range of neurological conditions and disorders for adults and ... Botulinum toxin is a therapeutic muscle relaxing agent that is injected through a very fine needle. It weakens overactive ... The effects of botulinum toxin therapy typically last longer than other treatments, reducing the number of visits patients need ... Botulinum toxin therapy is delivered in a number of settings in the neurology department. ...
The global botulinum toxin market size was valued at USD 6.4 billion in 2022 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 11.7% from ... Botulinum Toxin Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Type (Botulinum Toxin Type A, Botulinum Toxin Type B), By End ... Botulinum Toxin Market Size, Share & Trends [2023 Report]. ...
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Clostridium botulinum produces all 7 toxin types (2-4). Toxin type E may also be produced by C. butyricum (5), and type F by C ... A stool sample collected on hospital day 1 tested negative for botulinum toxin but yielded C. baratii that produced botulinum ... Botulinum toxin type F was identified by mouse bioassay (2) at the Utah Public Health Laboratories in serum samples drawn on ... Seven serologically distinct botulinum toxins, designated A through G, are known; virtually all human cases are caused by types ...
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Treatment with Botulinum Toxin (Botox©). Sunday, November 29th, 2009 What is Botulinum Toxin ? How does it treat wrinkles ? It ... Tags: botulinum toxin, rides, toxine botulique, wrinkles. Posted in Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Injections, Chemical ... Posts Tagged botulinum toxin. Sweating. Thursday, June 3rd, 2010 Dr Christophe HSU - dermatologist. Geneva, Switzerland ... Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Injections, Chemical Peels *Treatment with Medical Substances (oral or topical drugs) * ...
We conducted a retrospective study of 31 patients diagnosed of MMP who were treated by infiltration of botulinum toxin A in 1, ... To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin A injection (BTA) in the lateral pterygoid muscles assisted by electromyography ( ... SANJUAN-SANJUAN, Alba et al. Electromyography assisted application of botulinum toxin in pterygoid musculature for the ... Palavras-chave : Masticatory myofascial pain; temporomandibular disorders; botulinum toxin; pterygoid muscles; electromyography ...
Botulinum toxin type A is a chemical that relaxes muscles; it is produced by a type of bacteria. It is commonly used to smooth ... How well does botulinum toxin (type A; often called Botox) treat wrinkles on the face?. Key messages ... Injecting botulinum toxin type A probably increases the risk of eyelid drooping. More studies are needed to assess the longer- ... Botulinum toxin type A (BontA) is the most frequent treatment for facial wrinkles, but its effectiveness and safety have not ...
Stensens Duct Injuries The Role of Sialendoscopy and Adjuvant Botulinum Toxin Injection. Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne, 8 ... Botulinum Toxin Type A Satisfaction in Different Neurological Disorders Jasem Yousef Al-Hashel, Doaa Youssry Soliman, Ismail ... Botulinum Toxin A in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal or Esophageal Dysphagia Caroline Beutner, Katharina Bartsch, Harald ... Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Nystagmus Associated with Exotropia Lelio Sabetti, Francesca Guetti, Valeria Pomanti, ...
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Injected to relax facial muscles temporarily to eliminate wrinkles for three to six months.
In addition, the botulinum toxin group had a greater increase in bladder capacity and post-void residual urine. The overall ... Intravesical Botulinum Toxin A Single Injections Can Reduce Bladder Pain in Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain ... Botulinum Toxin Reduces Pain Symptoms in Patients With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome ... Numerous studies have looked at the potential efficacy of botulinum toxin A given via intravesical injection (i.e. delivered ...
... regular FAQs and a guide on Botulinum Toxin ... How does Botulinum Toxin work?. Botulinum Toxin works by ... What is Botulinum Toxin?. Used aesthetically to combat wrinkles Botulinum Toxin is a neurotoxin protein sourced from the ... Botulinum Toxin FACTS…. *First used in the 70s, the injectable was used to treat the medical condition of Strabismus. ... Many use the word Botox as the name of the treatment when in fact this is just the name of one brand of Botulinum Toxin. ...
  • The toxin causes the disease botulism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's the same toxin that causes a life-threatening type of food poisoning called botulism . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Botulism is caused by the harmful effects of this toxin. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health (DH) is today (June 10) investigating an additional suspected case of botulism after receiving injections of botulinum toxin in the Mainland, and again urged the public that such injections should only be prescribed and performed by registered doctors. (gov.hk)
  • and * The CHP's botulism page (www.chp.gov.hk/en/content/9/24/44865.html). (gov.hk)
  • We describe a case of botulism type F in an adult who recovered despite the continued presence of toxin in the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulinum. (animalresearch.info)
  • Botulism is a disease caused by toxin made from certain types of bacteria. (advnt.org)
  • When the toxin gets into somebody's bloodstream it blocks the release of a neurotransmitter between nerves and muscles and this is actually what causes botulism. (cdc.gov)
  • Agam Rao] Botulism is treated with management in an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation when needed, and botulinum antitoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • People who get botulism from food get it from eating foods that contain the actual botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • A second way people can develop botulism is when botulinum toxin is produced in a wound that has C. botulinum in it. (cdc.gov)
  • In the US these days, wound botulism most often occurs in injection drug users who introduce the C. botulinum into wounds when they skin-pop black tar heroin. (cdc.gov)
  • But people can also get wound botulism when C. botulinum from soil contaminates other kinds of wounds, like open fractures and wounds from motor vehicle accidents. (cdc.gov)
  • A third way to get botulism is when C. botulinum gets into infant's intestines. (cdc.gov)
  • Usually the source of infant botulism isn't known, but we do know that C. botulinum can be found in honey, and since it's also often in environmental sources like dust, it's easy to see how C. botulinum could be ingested. (cdc.gov)
  • And finally, the last way of getting botulism can happen when people get too high a dose of botulinum toxin from medical treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • But because botulinum toxin is injected, people can get botulism if the dose is too high. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulism is a rare but potentially deadly illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum . (cdc.gov)
  • Many cases of foodborne botulism have happened after people ate home-canned, preserved, or fermented foods that were contaminated with the toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin, or botulinum neurotoxin, is a highly potent neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. (wikipedia.org)
  • An investigative formulation of a botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) for cervical dystonia may significantly reduce the risk of dysphagia after injection compared with existing injections, and may have a longer duration of beneficial effect, according to results of a phase 3 clinical trial presented at the virtual International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin is clearly the treatment of choice for cervical dystonia," Jankovic said in an interview. (medscape.com)
  • Used aesthetically to combat wrinkles Botulinum Toxin is a neurotoxin protein sourced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (cosmeticcourses.co.uk)
  • The effect of administering different botulinum neurotoxin products at the same time or within several months of each other is unknown. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin with a lethal level in humans of around 1 ng / kg bodyweight (ng = nanogram = 0.000000001 g) and it is therefore vital that material released for clinical use is safe and of the strength stated on the label. (animalresearch.info)
  • Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that causes a flaccid muscle paralysis. (jcadonline.com)
  • In cosmetic applications, botulinum toxin is considered relatively safe and effective for reduction of facial wrinkles, especially in the uppermost third of the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles under facial wrinkles causes relaxation of those muscles, resulting in the smoothing of the overlying skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • You most likely know that Botulinum toxin (more commonly referred to as Botox®, among other brand names) is used for cosmetic purposes to decrease wrinkles. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Injecting botulinum toxin type A (a Botox-like treatment) reduces wrinkles between the eyebrows, and is relatively safe to use. (cochrane.org)
  • We wanted to find out how well botulinum toxin could treat wrinkles on the face, and if it causes any unwanted effects. (cochrane.org)
  • We searched for studies that tested the effects of botulinum toxin to treat wrinkles on the face. (cochrane.org)
  • Our confidence in the evidence is moderate to high that botulinum toxin reduces wrinkles between the eyebrows better than a placebo. (cochrane.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A (BontA) is the most frequent treatment for facial wrinkles, but its effectiveness and safety have not previously been assessed in a Cochrane Review. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effects of all commercially available botulinum toxin type A products for the treatment of any type of facial wrinkles. (cochrane.org)
  • 1 Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) is one of the most popular and less invasive aesthetic procedures available for the improvement of wrinkles. (jcadonline.com)
  • Injection of botulinum toxin is a cosmetic treatment aimed at reducing wrinkles, especially those of expression, which are created in the area of ​​the forehead, in the glabella (area between the two eyebrows) and periocular, caused by the repeated contraction of the mimic muscles. (dariobertossi.com)
  • The cosmetic form of B otulinum Toxin also known as Botox by patients is a popular injectable that temporarily reduces or eliminates wrinkles and fine lines on the face. (canama.ca)
  • Anti-ageing treatments are achieved using a safe amount of botulinum toxin, it is used cosmetically to cause relaxation of the facial muscles and to prevent them from forming into wrinkles on the face for younger, more fresh looking skin. (clinicacosmetics.com)
  • The seven main types of botulinum toxin are named types A to G (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G). New types are occasionally found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies tested four types of botulinum toxin that were licensed for use and some other types that were not yet licensed. (cochrane.org)
  • At four weeks after injection, all types of botulinum toxin reduced glabellar lines more than a placebo. (cochrane.org)
  • Two studies compared two different types of botulinum toxin and found no difference between the types for how well they reduced glabellar lines. (cochrane.org)
  • The different types of botulinum toxin target different components of the release mechanism. (animalresearch.info)
  • While cosmetic treatments are the best known application of botulinum toxin, the important clinical uses for which it was researched and developed are often overlooked. (animalresearch.info)
  • This paper also presents recommendations and guidelines for the application of botulinum toxin in our professional activity, in order to avoid potential ethical and legal litigations against the dentist. (bvsalud.org)
  • Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin is best known to clinicians as a deadly poison produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a protein that exists in 7 serotypes produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum. (medscape.com)
  • The toxin is also used commercially for medical and cosmetic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include Botox, Dysport, and Reloxin, which are formulations of botulinum toxin type A. Myobloc is another brand, but it is a formulation of botulinum toxin type B. These products are used for cosmetic and medical reasons. (epnet.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is best known for its use in cosmetic surgery, where it has been used as a 'face-lift in a bottle' under the brand name Botox since 1990. (animalresearch.info)
  • The widespread advertising of Botox as a cosmetic treatment, and its popularity among celebrities have led to Botulinum toxin becoming well-known as a frivolous treatment to help the rich appear youthful. (animalresearch.info)
  • The use of botulinum toxin is currently controversial, because of the method of testng, which is a mouse potency assay, and because it is viewed as a cosmetic treatment. (animalresearch.info)
  • Ever since Botox Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA, Allergan) hit the market, it has gained enormous popularity in both the cosmetic and medical fields, and many other pharmaceutical and aesthetic companies have tried to produce additional botulinum toxins. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • Botulinum toxins are produced and marketed by several different companies,' says Michael H. Gold, M.D., a cosmetic and dermatologic surgeon and director of Gold Skin Care Center, Tennessee Clinical Research Center and The Laser and Rejuvenation Center. (dermatologytimes.com)
  • As a plastic surgeon with over 20 years experience with Botulinum Toxin for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery ( nerve injuries before it was approved for cosmetic ) I feel I can speak as an expert's expert unchallenged in this regard. (nerve.org)
  • Only recently have the nurses and doctors of all specialties attempted to earn extra money by taking on side line cosmetic procedures such as Botulinum Toxin. (nerve.org)
  • Recently, the botulinum toxin has raising important role in dental therapy, after being widely used in medicine, with both cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. (bvsalud.org)
  • When Botulinum toxin is injected into a muscle, it gets taken up by the nerve endings that interface with the muscle, and interferes with the release of acetylcholine, thereby stopping communication between the nerve and the muscle. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin type A blocks neuromuscular conduction by binding to receptor sites on motor nerve terminals, entering the nerve terminals, and inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The Botulinum Toxins cause paralysis by preventing the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine as the nerve cells meet muscle, at the neuromuscular junction. (animalresearch.info)
  • It wasn't until much later, however, that the discovery was made that Botox , as the diluted form of the toxin came to be named, could be injected into the skin in small doses in order to block the release of a chemical called acetylcholine which causes muscle contractions. (cosmedics.co.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) blocks the release of acetylcholine and many other neurotransmitters from the presynaptic vesicle by deactivating soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. (jcadonline.com)
  • It was hypothesized that localized pruritus in LSC, if mediated by acetylcholine sensitive C-fibers, could be blocked by intradermal botulinum toxin type A injections. (jcadonline.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of therapeutic indications, many of which are not part of the approved drug label. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is a therapeutic muscle relaxing agent that is injected through a very fine needle. (stgeorges.nhs.uk)
  • When injected intramuscularly at therapeutic doses, botulinum toxin type A produces a partial chemical denervation of the muscle resulting in localized muscle paralysis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The history of Botox dates back to the 19th century when Justinus Kerner, a physician, began to understand the potential therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin - or "sausage poison" as it was nicknamed, due to the toxin being found in improperly handled and stored meat products. (cosmedics.co.uk)
  • Eight weeks after treatment, pain relief was significantly greater in the group of patients who had received botulinum toxin injection. (ichelp.org)
  • The effects of botulinum toxin injections for glabellar lines ('11's lines' between the eyes) typically last two to four months and in some cases, product-dependent, with some patients experiencing a longer duration of effect of up to 6 months or longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • While studies using various materials to overcome ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are becoming increasingly common, studies on the effects of botulinum toxin A (BoTA) on IR injury in musculocutaneous flaps are still limited. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of botulinum toxin therapy typically last longer than other treatments, reducing the number of visits patients need to make to hospital. (stgeorges.nhs.uk)
  • Now, this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial provides confirmation that a single intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A is safe and effective in patients with IC/BPS . (ichelp.org)
  • Forty of the patients underwent hydrodistention plus intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A, while the remaining 20 patients were injected with saline solution. (ichelp.org)
  • Altogether, these results demonstrate a single injection of botulinum toxin A reduces bladder pain symptoms in patients with IC/BPS, with an acceptable rate of adverse effects. (ichelp.org)
  • Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin causes local paralysis, as the toxin remains around the site of injection. (animalresearch.info)
  • We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of localized recalcitrant chronic pruritus in lichen simplex, inverse psoriasis, post-burn itching, lichen planus (hypertrophic), and postherpetic neuralgia. (jcadonline.com)
  • For adductor spasmodic dysphonia, injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) into vocal adductors has become the standard of care, with targeting injections achieving a normal voice in approximately 70% of patients for up to 3 months. (msdmanuals.com)
  • According to the FDA Label indications, botulinum toxin treatment for blepharospasm and chronic migraine headaches is limited to specific muscles. (cms.gov)
  • This toxin has been effective in the treatment of essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, for which it produces temporary relief of symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Morrison DA, Mellington FB, Hamada S. Schwartz-Jampel syndrome: surgical management of the myotonia-induced blepharospasm and acquired ptosis after failure with botulinum toxin A injections. (medscape.com)
  • Injections of botulinum toxin A provide an opportunity to manage these hyperfunctional lines with minimal morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • According to information provided by the patient, she received injections of botulinum toxin on May 23 to her bilateral calves at a residential premises in Guangzhou. (gov.hk)
  • Botulinum A toxin has been used to treat strabismus and a variety of spasmodic neuromuscular diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Aminoglycosides and Other Agents Interfering with Neuromuscular Transmission: Co-administration of BOTOX and aminoglycosides or other agents interfering with neuromuscular transmission (e.g., curare-like compounds) should only be performed with caution as the effect of the toxin may be potentiated. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Excessive neuromuscular weakness may be exacerbated by administration of another botulinum toxin prior to the resolution of the effects of a previously administered botulinum toxin. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Experimental Botulinum Toxin More Effective in Cervical Dystonia? (medscape.com)
  • Side effects "were remarkably minimal," Jankovic said, "but I want to call attention to the low frequency of neck weakness or dysphagia in comparison with other studies of botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia. (medscape.com)
  • Ondo WG, Gollomp S, Galvez-Jimenez N. A pilot study of botulinum toxin A for headache in cervical dystonia. (epnet.com)
  • Objectives: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of botulinum toxin type A (BtA) versus placebo in people with cervical dystonia. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin (botox) injections - can they help your symptoms of Parkinson's disease? (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Anyone who develops compatible symptoms following botulinum toxin injections is urged to immediately seek medical attention for prompt management, and call the DH's hotline (2125 1133), operating from 9am to 6pm from Monday to Friday, to provide details for epidemiological investigations. (gov.hk)
  • Botulinum toxin A appears to be a safe and effective therapy for the improvement of localized recalcitrant itching in LSC, inverse psoriasis, burns, hypertrophic lichen planus, lichen planus, and symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia. (jcadonline.com)
  • In January 2014, botulinum toxin was approved by UK's Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency for treatment of restricted ankle motion due to lower-limb spasticity associated with stroke in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • AbobotulinumtoxinA is the first and only FDA-approved botulinum toxin for the treatment of pediatric lower limb spasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, the FDA approved intramuscular botulinum toxin injections for prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin treatment of strabismus is not as definitive and stable as the traditional surgical approach, but it has been found most useful in postoperative overcorrection, small deviations, sensory deviations, and acute sixth nerve palsy. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of these rhytides with botulinum toxin can increase brow ptosis. (medscape.com)
  • Botulinum toxin injections can be used as a treatment for migraines and movement disorders. (uwhealth.org)
  • In addition, there are causes of urinary problems in PD that are not amenable to Botulinum toxin treatment, so you will need to discuss your particular situation with a urologist. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of post-stroke spasticity. (epnet.com)
  • Detrusor injections with botulinum toxin type A are an effective treatment for neurogenic detrusor overactivity, lasting for 9-12 months. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin A injection (BTA) in the lateral pterygoid muscles assisted by electromyography (EMG) for the treatment of masticatory myofascial pain (MMP). (isciii.es)
  • More studies are needed to assess the longer-term benefits and harms of repeated treatment with botulinum toxin. (cochrane.org)
  • The studies compared one type of botulinum toxin against another type, against a placebo (an injection that did not contain any botulinum toxin), or against an alternative treatment. (cochrane.org)
  • Intravesical Botulinum Toxin A Single Injections Can Reduce Bladder Pain in Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome Refractory to Conventional Treatment - A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. (ichelp.org)
  • Many use the word Botox as the name of the treatment when in fact this is just the name of one brand of Botulinum Toxin. (cosmeticcourses.co.uk)
  • The treatment with botulinum toxin commonly known as "botox", is performed by injecting in very small doses the regions concerned through a syringe with a thin needle, does not require pre-treatment preparations and does not require any kind of anesthesia being practical and painless. (betarmedical.it)
  • Botulinum toxin has also been used experimentally in the treatment of many other dermatological conditions with positive results, including persistent facial flushing, gustatory sweating, anal fissures, familial benign pemphigus, dyshidrotic eczema, and surgical wound closures. (jcadonline.com)
  • Botulinum toxin injection could be used in the treatment of migraine headaches and this use could be complicated by ptosis. (medicinehouse.com)
  • Background: In rehabilitation settings, motor imagery, motor observation and mirror therapy serve as techniques for the recovery of paretic upper limb in patients with movement disorders after stroke, whereas botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) offers the best treatment for focal spasticity. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin was discovered in the 1960s and began to be used in medical treatment in the 1980s. (elle.clinic)
  • The treatment with botulinum toxin can be performed on people ageing between 18 and 65 years and is used in medicine not only for aesthetic purposes, but also, as occurs in more than 70 countries in the world, for the treatment of multiple pathologies such as strabismus, muscle spasms, mandibular joint disorders etc. (dariobertossi.com)
  • The efficacy of botulinum toxin type A treatment and surgery for acute acquired comitant esotropia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Similarly, botulinum toxin is used to relax the clenching of muscles, including those of the esophagus, jaw, lower urinary tract and bladder, or clenching of the anus which can exacerbate anal fissure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscles weakened by toxin injection recover from paralysis after several months, so injection might seem to need to be repeated, but muscles adapt to the lengths at which they are chronically held, so that if a paralyzed muscle is stretched by its antagonist, it grows longer, while the antagonist shortens, yielding a permanent effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The good news is that decades ago, scientists learned how to isolate the toxin and harness its power for medical use, and it can be safely injected into particular muscles in order to decrease unwanted movements of those muscles. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injections, targeting the particular muscles that are moving excessively, can be effective in all these scenarios. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • The toxin temporarily weakens targeted muscles. (epnet.com)
  • We conducted a retrospective study of 31 patients diagnosed of MMP who were treated by infiltration of botulinum toxin A in 1, 2 or 3 times, in the lateral and medial pterygoid muscles by electromyographic control of the puncture site. (isciii.es)
  • Botulinum neurotoxins are unique in the way they cause specific paralysis of skeletal muscles. (animalresearch.info)
  • Botulinum toxin type A was injected into the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercillis, and temporalis muscles bilateral, as well as into the procerus muscle, in a patient with chronic migraine headache. (medicinehouse.com)
  • All botulinum toxin appointments require consultation prior to booking, this will include a through consultation, assessment of your face and muscles and approval of prescription by our medical professional. (clinicacosmetics.com)
  • Botulinum toxin has a wide and ever extending range of clinical indications and in order to ensure it is suitable and safe for these uses, animal testing will be required for the foreseeable future. (animalresearch.info)
  • Numerous studies have looked at the potential efficacy of botulinum toxin A given via intravesical injection (i.e. delivered directly to the bladder through a catheter) in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). (ichelp.org)
  • The estimated human lethal dose of type A toxin is 1.3-2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly, 10-13 ng/kg when inhaled, or 1000 ng/kg when taken by mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin (botox) is made from a type of bacteria. (epnet.com)
  • Repeat injections with botulinum toxin type A are as effective as the first one. (nih.gov)
  • On day 8, she began moving spontaneously, even though blood tests later showed botulinum toxin type F remained. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxin type E may also be produced by C. butyricum ( 5 ), and type F by C. baratii ( 6 - 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Injecting botulinum toxin type A probably increases the risk of eyelid drooping. (cochrane.org)
  • Currently, botulinum toxin type A (BtA) is considered the first line therapy for this condition. (edgehill.ac.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin type A is a well-studied protein that has long been used in various neurological therapy fields. (derma-geilenkirchen.de)
  • To compare the long-term efficiency of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) injection and surgery on acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE). (bvsalud.org)
  • Understand the procedure, potential risks and complications before receiving botulinum toxin injections. (gov.hk)
  • To report operative complications in children treated for esotropia by botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this case report, we present one of the complications of botulinum toxin injection. (medicinehouse.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Le diagnostic et la prise en charge précoces d'un strabisme sont nécessaires pour éviter les complications telles qu'une amblyopie. (who.int)
  • When injected in big quantities, the toxin induces muscular paralysis. (globale-dermatologie.com)
  • Botulinum toxin is indicated in several pathologies and stomatological conditions, among them: temporomandibular disorders, parafunctional habits (bruxism and clenching), masseteric hypertrophy, facial paralysis, drooling, gummy smile and, preventively, in reducing excessive masticatory load after implantodontic rehabilitation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is a substance produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Clostridium botulinum produces all 7 toxin types ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Our Botulinum Toxin Test offers a quick and accurate presumptive identification of the bacteria in environmental samples. (advnt.org)
  • Low-acid foods are foods that are not acidic enough to prevent the growth of botulinum bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Our neurologists offer botulinum toxin treatments through our neurology, movement disorder and headache clinics. (uwhealth.org)
  • All Botulinum Toxin treatments at Clinca include a free 2 week review following your appointment, this ensures that we can monitor your results and provide another session included in the price of your first, to ensure you receive the best results possible. (clinicacosmetics.com)
  • You may not know that Botox® and Dysport® are trade names for botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • When botulinum toxin is given in safe amounts and the right spot, the drug can block nerve signals. (uwhealth.org)
  • i) Binding - the toxin binds rapidly and irreversibly to receptors on the presynaptic nerve (nerve cell) surface. (animalresearch.info)
  • ii) Internalisation - the toxin crosses the membrane of the nerve cell and enters the nerve terminus, where neurotrasmitters are stored ready for release. (animalresearch.info)
  • Injected botulinum toxin has the power to slow down or temporarily block the transmission of the nerve impulse. (dariobertossi.com)
  • Botulinum toxin works by blocking the nerve signal from reaching the muscle, preventing it from contracting and therefore stopping static lines from forming. (clinicacosmetics.com)
  • The first committee report addressed the effects on health of four sets of compounds: depleted uranium, sarin and cyclosarin, pyridostigmine bromide, and vaccines against botulinum toxin and anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • Intradermal botolinum toxin A (BTXA) is an advanced technique that emerged in response to the increased demand for noninvasive facial lifting and skin rejuvenation. (jcadonline.com)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy is delivered in a number of settings in the neurology department. (stgeorges.nhs.uk)
  • Patients are referred for botulinum toxin therapy by other neurology, neurosciences and neurosurgery services. (stgeorges.nhs.uk)
  • Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, including cerebral palsy, post-stroke spasticity, post-spinal cord injury spasticity, spasms of the head and neck, eyelid, vagina, limbs, jaw, and vocal cords. (wikipedia.org)
  • Botulinum toxin is used in various other medical settings such as dystonia that is not related to Parkinson's disease, migraine, and limb spasticity or stiffness after stroke. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • Botulinum toxin therapy (also known as Botox) is used to treat a range of neurological conditions and disorders for adults and children, including dystonia, spasticity and migraine. (stgeorges.nhs.uk)
  • Unilateral versus bilateral botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia in a large cohort [published online ahead of print, 2019 Dec 14]. (msdmanuals.com)
  • iii) Intracellular poisoning - the toxin disables the neurotransmitter release mechanism. (animalresearch.info)
  • Intoxication can occur naturally as a result of either wound or intestinal infection or by ingesting formed toxin in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the patients had little better, moderately better, or very much better from the botulinum toxin injection with respect to clinical global impression of change and patient global impression of change," he said. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic migraine patients will meet with a doctor first to determine if botulinum toxin is appropriate for your condition. (uwhealth.org)
  • Movement disorder patients will meet with a doctor first to determine if botulinum toxin is appropriate for your condition. (uwhealth.org)
  • When the patients develop botulinum resistance, subsequent injections might be less effective. (nih.gov)
  • Dans la présente étude de cohorte rétrospective, nous avons examiné le profil des patients atteints d'un strabisme vertical consultant en établissement de soins dans la ville de Yazd (République islamique d'Iran) et l'issue des interventions chirurgicales. (who.int)
  • L'étude des dossiers médicaux de 265 patients a mis en évidence une déviation verticale simple chez 19,2 % et un strabisme horizontal et vertical chez 80,8 % d'entre eux. (who.int)
  • Le dépistage, le diagnostic et la prise en charge précoces sont requis dans les familles affectées et chez les patients ayant des antécédents familiaux de strabisme. (who.int)
  • Botulinum toxin - commonly known today by the trade name Botox - was categorized simply as a dangerous toxin before scientists began to discover its potential benefits. (cosmedics.co.uk)
  • The first development of Botulinum toxin as a therapy was to treat disorders of localised muscle hyperactivity. (animalresearch.info)
  • The overall success rate was 63% in the botulinum toxin group, versus only 15% in the normal saline group. (ichelp.org)
  • Botulinum toxin injections into the bladder can relax the bladder thereby allowing for more normal urination. (apdaparkinson.org)