Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Cholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Mesenteric Lymphadenitis: INFLAMMATION of LYMPH NODES in the MESENTERY.Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Chaetomium: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Chaetomiaceae, order SORDARIALES. Many members are cellulolytic and some mycotoxic. They occur naturally on paper and cotton fabric.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Indolizidines: Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Psittacosis: Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Chlamydophila psittaci: A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.Saudi ArabiaBird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin by local paralysis elicited with intramuscular challenge. (1/45)Clostridium botulinum toxin can be identified by a characteristic, acute local paralysis that follows its injection into the gastrocnemius ("calf" muscle) of mice. The local botulism can be elicited with slightly less than one-tenth the toxin amount that is needed to kill mice by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge route. The practical sensitivities of the intramuscular (i.m.) versus i.p. tests are about equal, however, because maximum sample volume injectable i.m. is 0.1 ml as compared to the 0.5-ml range that can be given i.p. i.m. injection of 10 or more mouse i.p. mean lethal doses causes paralysis in about 1 h, and an i.m. injection of about 0.5 i.p. mean lethal doses causes paralysis in 3 to 4 h. Toxin neutralization by homologous type of antitoxin only can be demonstrated with an incubated mixture of toxin and antitoxin. Although not as convenient as the i.p. method for routine use to detect botulinum toxin, the i.m. method has characteristics which could make it a useful supplement to the presently accepted i.p. procedure. (+info)
Infant botulism. (2/45)Although the worldwide incidence of infant botulism is rare, the majority of cases are diagnosed in the United States. An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. The spores germinate into bacteria that colonize the bowel and synthesize toxin. As the toxin is absorbed, it irreversibly binds to acetylcholine receptors on motor nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions. The infant with botulism becomes progressively weak, hypotonic and hyporeflexic, showing bulbar and spinal nerve abnormalities. Presenting symptoms include constipation, lethargy, a weak cry, poor feeding and dehydration. A high index of suspicion is important for the diagnosis and prompt treatment of infant botulism, because this disease can quickly progress to respiratory failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the organism or toxin in the stool and finding a classic electromyogram pattern. Treatment consists of nutritional and respiratory support until new motor endplates are regenerated, which results in spontaneous recovery. Neurologic sequelae are seldom seen. Some children require outpatient tube feeding and may have persistent hypotonia. (+info)
Botulism. (3/45)Botulism is a rare disease with 4 naturally occurring syndromes: foodborne botulism is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum toxin, wound botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and in situ toxin production, infant botulism is caused by intestinal colonization and toxin production, and adult intestinal toxemia botulism is an even rarer form of intestinal colonization and toxin production in adults. Inhalational botulism could result from aerosolization of botulinum toxin, and iatrogenic botulism can result from injection of toxin. All forms of botulism produce the same distinct clinical syndrome of symmetrical cranial nerve palsies followed by descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis of voluntary muscles, which may progress to respiratory compromise and death. The mainstays of therapy are meticulous intensive care (including mechanical ventilation, when necessary) and timely treatment with antitoxin. (+info)
Wound botulism acquired in the Amazonian rain forest of Ecuador. (4/45)Wound botulism results from colonization of a contaminated wound by Clostridium botulinum and the anaerobic in situ production of a potent neurotoxin. Between 1943, when wound botulism was first recognized, and 1990, 47 laboratory-confirmed cases, mostly trauma-associated, were reported in the United States. Since 1990, wound botulism associated with injection drug use emerged as the leading cause of wound botulism in the United States; 210 of 217 cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1990 and 2002 were associated with drug injection. Despite the worldwide distribution of Clostridium botulinum spores, wound botulism has been reported only twice outside the United States, Europe, and Australia. However, wound botulism may go undiagnosed and untreated in many countries. We report two cases, both with type A toxin, from the Ecuadorian rain forest. Prompt clinical recognition, supportive care, and administration of trivalent equine botulinum antitoxin were life-saving. (+info)
Project BioShield: what it is, why it is needed, and its accomplishments so far. (5/45)Project BioShield is a comprehensive effort involving the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), its component agencies, and other partner federal agencies to speed the research, development, acquisition, and availability of medical countermeasures to improve the government's preparedness for and ability to counter chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threat agents. The legislation authorizes use of the Special Reserve Fund, which makes available $5.6 billion over 10 years for the advanced development and purchase of medical countermeasures. This appropriation is intended to provide an economic incentive to the pharmaceutical industry to develop medical countermeasures for which the government is the only significant market. Acquisitions under Project BioShield are restricted to products in development that are potentially licensable within 8 years from the time of contract award. In exercising the procurement authorities under Project BioShield, HHS has launched acquisition programs to address each of the 4 threat agents, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), smallpox virus, botulinum toxins, and radiological/nuclear agents, originally deemed by the Department of Homeland Security to be threats to the US population sufficient to affect national security. At the time of writing, 7 contracts have been awarded: (1) recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine, the next-generation anthrax vaccine (contract terminated in December 2006 for default); (2) anthrax vaccine adsorbed, the currently licensed anthrax vaccine; (3) anthrax therapeutics (monoclonal); (4) anthrax therapeutics (human immune globulin); (5) the pediatric formulation of potassium iodide; (6) Ca- and Zn-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), chelating agents to treat ingestion of certain radiological particles; and (7) botulinum antitoxins. Additional acquisition contracts are expected to be awarded in 2007. (+info)
Characterization of new formalin-detoxified botulinum neurotoxin toxoids. (6/45)(+info)
Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain. (7/45)(+info)
Bowel loops and eyelid droops. (8/45)(+info)
ATC J06 - Immunszérumok és immunglobulinok - Wikipédia
J06AA01 Diphtheria antitoxin. J06AA02 Tetanus antitoxin. J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum. J06AA04 Botulinum antitoxin. J06AA05 ...
Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available for treatment of botulism. Trivalent (A,B,E) botulinum antitoxin is ... The second antitoxin is Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, which is derived from equine antibodies which have ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. ... Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ...
The second antitoxin, heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, is derived from "despeciated" equine IgG antibodies ... A trivalent antitoxin containing antibodies raised against botulinum toxin types A, B, and E is used most commonly, however a ... Trivalent (A,B,E) botulinum antitoxin is derived from equine sources utilizing whole antibodies (Fab and Fc portions). In the ... "FDA approves first Botulism Antitoxin for use in neutralizing all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes". FDA News ...
Texas Biomedical Research Institute
Developed vaccines, antibodies and antitoxins for deadly agents of bioterrorism such as Ebola, botulinum neurotoxins, and ...
... tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ... When TDAV was found, the original source of virus (the antitoxin) was injected into 4 additional healthy horses, with one ... It is seen almost exclusively in adult horses, and lactating broodmares given tetanus antitoxin post foaling may be more ...
Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority
Emergent also developed the only FDA-licensed botulinum antitoxin, BAT [Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent] for treating naturally ... "1 And HPA Announce Botulinum Vaccine Collaboration". www.biospace.com. Retrieved 2017-01-19. "Health Canada approves Emergent ... BioSolutions' botulism antitoxin". Homeland Preparedness News. 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2017-01-19. "Fujifilm expands biopharma ...
ATC code J06
J06AA01 Diphtheria antitoxin J06AA02 Tetanus antitoxin J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum J06AA04 Botulinum antitoxin J06AA05 Gas- ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.268 - botulinum antitoxin MeSH ... D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.438 - diphtheria antitoxin MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.849 - tetanus antitoxin MeSH D12.776. ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.268 -- botulinum antitoxin MeSH ... antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301.268 -- botulinum antitoxin MeSH ... botulinum antitoxin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.573.601.438 -- diphtheria antitoxin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.573.601.849 ... D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.438 -- diphtheria antitoxin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.849 -- tetanus antitoxin MeSH D12.776. ...
Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available for treatment of botulism. Trivalent (A,B,E) botulinum antitoxin is ... The second antitoxin is Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, which is derived from equine antibodies which have ... Botulinum antitoxin is available and may be used to prevent the worsening of symptoms, though it will not reverse existing ... This antitoxin is effective against all known strains of botulism. Botulinum toxin exerts its effect by cleaving key proteins ...
Heptavalent botulism antitoxin
"Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum ... This action left HBAT as the only botulinum antitoxin available in the US for naturally occurring non-infant botulism. On March ... "HBAT (botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". reference.medscape.com. ... In 2010, the CDC replaced the licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB, or "BabyBIG") and the investigational ...
If botulism is suspected, patients should be treated immediately with antitoxin therapy in order to reduce mortality. Immediate ... botulinum), and wound botulism (infection of a wound with C. botulinum). C. botulinum produces heat-resistant endospores that ... Botulinum toxin produced by C. botulinum is often believed to be a potential bioweapon as it is so potent that it takes about ... C. botulinum is a diverse group of pathogenic bacteria initially grouped together by their ability to produce botulinum toxin ...
List of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States
Botulism (Type A Clostridium botulinum) in Peoria, Illinois. 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an ... All patients were hospitalized and 33 received trivalent botulinal antitoxin. There were two deaths. ... antitoxin. 12 patients required ventilatory support and 1 death resulted. The source was sauteed onions made from fresh raw ...
Well-known exotoxins include: botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin, produced ... For this reason antitoxin, anti-serum containing antibodies, is injected to provide passive immunity. Many exotoxins have been ... These retain their antigenic specificity and can be used to produce antitoxins and, in the case of diphtheria and tetanus ...
Botulin is produced by Clostridium botulinum and causes the deadly disease botulism. While patients may sometimes complain of ... which has replaced horse serum-type tetanus antitoxin in most of the developed world. Anatoxin "The Preparation and Testing of ...
Ida A. Bengtson
Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin. ... She is also known for preparing, during 1935-1936, the standard for gas gangrene toxins and anti-toxins. One of Bengtson's ... Bengtson's most significant scientific achievement was in regards to an organism called Clostridium botulinum, which causes a ...
Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is a group of neurotoxins consisting of eight distinct compounds, referred to as BTX-A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, ... Due to its high toxicity, BTX antitoxins have been an active area of research. It has been shown that capsaicin (active ... Similar to botulinum toxin, Cltx has been shown to possess significant therapeutic value. Evidence has shown that Cltx can ... Though assisted ventilation may increase the chance of survival after TTX exposure, there is currently no antitoxin. The use of ...
As opposed to the classic cause of botulism, C. botulinum, its environmental source is unknown. Therefore, it is unclear how to ... Newborns can recover spontaneously or as in two known cases improve with injected botulism antitoxin. As of 2015[update], the ...
Botulism - Wicipedia
Mae Botwliaeth in salwch prin a allai fod yn angheuol a achosir gan docsin a gynhyrchir gan y bacteriwm Clostridium botulinum. ... Gellir trin botwliaeth gydag antitoxin. Mae'r rhai sy'n colli eu gallu i anadlu ar eu pennau eu hunain, efallai y bydd angen ... Truong, Daniel; Dressler, Dirk; Hallett, Mark; Zachary, Christopher (2014). Manual of Botulinum Toxin Therapy (yn Saesneg) (arg ...
The only toxins more lethal to mice are botulinum toxin, produced by close relative Clostridium botulinum and the exotoxin ... In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ... Tetanospasmin is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that is structurally similar to botulinum toxin, but with different effects ...
... -antitoxin system "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ... such as botulinum toxin). Toxins are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production-the word ...
... such as botulinum toxin). ... Toxin-antitoxin system. References. *^ "toxin" at ...
In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ... This cluster includes other pathogenic Clostridium species such as Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens. The ...
... immunoglobulin (TIG), also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin. It can be given as intravenous ... In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus immunoglobulin (also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin ... In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ... Porter, J. D., Perkin, M. A., Corbel, M. J., Farrington, C. P., Watkins, J. T., Begg, N. T. (1992). "Lack of early antitoxin ...
টক্সিন - উইকিপিডিয়া
... botulinum toxin (খাদ্যে বিষক্রিয়া এর মাধ্যমে হয়)) এই ধরনের টক্সিন ও দেখা যায়। ... Toxin-antitoxin system. তথ্যসুত্র[সম্পাদনা]. *↑ ডোরল্যান্ডের চিকিৎসাশাস্ত্র অভিধানে "toxin" *↑ "toxin - Definition from the ...
These toxin producing strains cause scarlet fever in people who do not already have antitoxin antibodies. Streptococcal ...
The patient was treated with mechanical ventilation and trivalent (A,B,E) equine botulinum antitoxin. Type A toxin was detected in the beans and so was presumably responsible for the symptoms. He made a slow recovery over the next three months. Botulism in the arctic For many years, epidemics of illness have been described in which ﬁsh or meat products are responsible. This is relatively common in the Arctic, where over 200 outbreaks have been reported since the early 1900s, with an overall fatality rate of about 20%. Recently, hepatitis B virus sequences have been found to be integrated into the liver cell genome in some, but not all, patients with chronic hepatitis or primary hepatocellular carcinoma. This evidence has identiﬁed hepatitis B virus as a major etiological factor for primary hepatocellular carcinoma in certain populations, particularly in Taiwan and the Peoples Republic of China. Some epidemiological studies have suggested that aﬂatoxin poses no detectable independent ...
This report analyses the availability and effectiveness of different types of antitoxins to neutralise type F botulism. A literature review was performed in consultation with the European Medicines Agency. ...
However, foods which are high in refined sugar, trans-fatty acid (milk products) oxidized fatty acids (fried oils) and synthetically hydrogenated vegetable oil contents may not cause acne but are definitely not very good for your health, and so an excess of these foods should be avoided. You can be infected with intestinal toxemia if your diet is low on fiber and essential vitamins and high on these contents. The result of glut of toxins may show on your skin ...
The chaetoglobins are a structurally unique class of azaphilone alkaloid dimers with reported anticancer activity. They are also a potential platform for the development of antibacterial and botulinum antitoxin. Notably, this class of compounds has not been synthesized to date. Chaetoglobin A (1) and B (2) were originally isolated from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum.1 Chaetoglobin A has been shown to be potentially active against human colon and breast cancer. However, the bioactivity of chaetoglobin B has not been studied due lack of material, suggesting the need of further research. The main goal of this project is the design and optimization of a synthetic route for chaetoglobin natural products. Achiral phenol coupling has been studied for many years; however, the regioselective methods reported to date are substrate-dependent and limited in scope. - Previously, we developed a regio- and enantioselective method for oxidative phenol coupling applying a series of bimetallic and monomeric
Notes from the Field: Botulism Outbreak Associated with Home-Canned Peas - New York City, 2018 | MMWR
In June 2018, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene investigated an outbreak of botulism among three related, adult women, which was traced to ingestion of home-canned peas. Botulinum antitoxin was administered and all three patients survived but required prolonged intensive care and rehabilitation.
human botulism, Clostridium botulinum, C botulinum, CB toxin, botulinum toxin, neuroparalysis, neurotoxin, food-borne botulism, FBB, wound botulism, WB
"Wound botulism in injection drug users: time to antitoxin correlates w" by Steven R. Offerman MD, Melissa Schaefer MD et al.
Offerman, S., Schaefer, M., Thundiyil, J., Cook, M., & Holmes, J. (2009). Wound botulism in injection drug users: time to antitoxin correlates with intensive care unit length of stay. The Western Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 10(4), 251-256.. ...
In this study we observed an increase of insula activation and involvement of the PPC conjoint with decreased activation of the somatosensory system during self-paced swallowing in a patient suffering from severe dysphagia due to botulism intoxication. A second measurement after clinical recovery showed cortical swallowing processing in the primary and secondary sensorimotor system as well as declined insula activation comparable to the results of a group of healthy control subjects.. To distinguish whether the changed swallowing behaviour is altering brain activation or whether cortical changes are driving the altered behaviour a slow swallowing task was performed by one of the control subjects. This imitation of impaired swallowing behaviour resulted in a slight increase of EMG power, while wavelet and SAM results where comparable to those in the normal swallowing task. We therefore conclude that the changed behaviour in deglutition alone cannot explain the observed changes in cortical ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 3n7l.1. Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D/C VPI 5993 binding domain
Over the previous 10 years the wellness industry has made super strides in supplying shoppers with innovative wellness companies and merchandise. From wearables, sensible watches and braces, inclusion of behavioural economics and good put on; its undoubtedly imperative to notice wellness trends have grow to be more client oriented and designed in direction of assembly consumer needs. The inclusion of wellness programmes in medical aid schemes and life insurance is a huge stepping stone in the precise path of selling prevention of non communicable ailments(NCDs).However worth delivered by wellness programmes in firm settings and medical aid schemes has been questionable to certain sections of the South African corporate landscape resulting in gradual adoption. For instance within the United States, which operates underneath a mixed market health care system, some physicians may voluntarily limit their observe to secondary care by requiring patients to see a main care provider first, or this ...
Binding agents with differential activity can be provided, whereby certain activities of a first part of the binding agent are reduced or prevented until binding to a target occurs. This is useful if the binding agent is intended to bind both an effector cell and a target to be destroyed, because the effector cell can be protected from significant cell damage that might otherwise occur (e.g. due to premature activation of complement and/or ADCC). Such binding agents are useful in the treatment of cancer, for example.
The paralysis and respiratory failure that occur with botulism may require a patient to be on a breathing machine (ventilator) for weeks, plus intensive medical and nursing care. The paralysis slow improves, usually over several weeks. If diagnosed early, foodborne and wound botulism can be treated with an antitoxin from horse serum which blocks the action of toxin circulating in the blood. This can prevent patients from worsening, but recovery still may take many weeks. ...
For clinical consultation for a patient with suspected infant botulism, the patients physician should contact the Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program (IBTPP) on-call physician at (510) 231-7600 (24/7/365). To obtain BabyBIG® for a patient with suspect infant botulism, the physician must contact the IBTPP on-call physicians ...
Although the worldwide incidence of infant botulism is rare, the majority of cases are diagnosed in the United States. An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. The spores germinate into bacteria that colonize the bowel and synthesize toxin. As the toxin is absorbed, it irreversibly binds to acetylcholine receptors on motor nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions. The infant with botulism becomes progressively weak, hypotonic and hyporeflexic, showing bulbar and spinal nerve abnormalities. Presenting symptoms include constipation, lethargy, a weak cry, poor feeding and dehydration. A high index of suspicion is important for the diagnosis and prompt treatment of infant botulism, because this disease can quickly progress to respiratory failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the organism or toxin in the stool and finding a classic electromyogram pattern. Treatment consists of nutritional and respiratory support until new
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very different modes of action. Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for degradation or preventing its translation or both; type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species.
Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses, Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin indications, usages and related health products lists
... can occur when a newborn ingests bacteria that produce toxins inside the body. Its very rare and most babies who do get botulism recover fully.
... can occur when a newborn ingests bacteria that produce toxins inside the body. Its very rare and most babies who do get botulism recover fully.
SOG System Kits for Motorhomes or Caravans Type F (25328) by SOG - SOG Toilet Kits for Motorhomes Caravans Type F This SOGKit is for a Thetford C250 Series Toilet Cassette System NoteThe image above shows a SOGType F...
At the request of the European Commission, ECDC performed a risk assessment after six cases of wound botulism were reported in Norway among people who had injected heroin. As this is an ongoing problem, some relevant measures are proposed for consideration by other EU/EEA Member States. ...
The objective of the project is the development of in vitro detection methods for the different toxins (A, B, C, D, E and F) of Clostridium botulinum by optimizing both a competitive immuno-PCR test (icqPCR) and a quantitative immuno-PCR (iqPCR) and by comparing one to another with regard to the obtained specificity and sensitivity of detection for each type of botulinum toxin as well as to compare them to the reference method for detection of botulinum toxins being the mice toxicity test ...
Botulism in the United States: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Review | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of...
Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in humans is usually caused by toxin types A, B, and E. Since 1973, a median of 24 cases of foodborne botulism, 3 cases of wound botulism, and 71 cases of infant botulism have been reported annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). New vehicles for transmission have emerged in recent decades, and wound botulism associated with black tar heroin has increased dramatically since 1994. Recently, the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become an important concern.. Botulism is characterized by symmetric, descending, flaccid paralysis of motor and autonomic nerves, usually beginning with the cranial nerves.Blurred vision, dysphagia, and dysarthria are common initial complaints. The diagnosis of botulism is based on compatible clinical findings; history of exposure to suspect foods; and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of ...
A severe case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type A with concomitant intestinal viral infections. - PubMed...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Health, ...Botulism is a rare disease and recurrent botulism even more rare. How...From 1993 through 2006 17 injection drug users were identified within... Recurrent cases suggest that exposure to botulism due to injection dr...Dr. Vugia added If these near death experiences do not change behavi...,Study,examines,recurrent,wound,botulism,in,injection,drug,users,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
BioModels is a repository of freely-available mathematical models of biological and biomedical systems. It hosts a vast selection of physiologically and pharmaceutically relevant mechanistic models in standard formats.
Read about outbreaks of botulism poisoning, causes (Clostridium botulinum toxin), symptoms (muscle paralysis, dry mouth, constipation), history, treatment, and types (foodborne, infant, wound). The botulinum toxin is one of the most lethal known substances.
When written, the Professor requested that his name be omitted due to concern for reprisal.. Glyoxylide and associated antitoxins act catalytically, yet the substances themselves are readily oxidized because of the unsaturated double bond linkages, and that is what makes them effective. In this latter respect, the substances differ from true catalysts and enzymes, which are not used up in the process of reaction. It appears as though these antitoxins are so to speak "highly combustible" in the metabolism of animals and their oxidation, therefore can occur at the low oxidative levels which obtain in the sick organism. By analogy, they would have a lower "kindling temperature." And once these metabolites burst into "flame," a great release of energy and radiation occurs which spreads like "wildfire" to toxic substances, which are then burned in their turn. This oxidation then continues from cell to cell in the body in all directions, from many centers of dispersal, operating like a continues ...
Definition: Lifting the front forelegs off of the ground while balancing on the back legs. Can be a reaction to being startled or hurt, insecurity, fear, or a lack of exercise. Rearing is dangerous as horses can topple backwards ...
Patente US7507419 - Topically applied Clostridium botulinum toxin compositions and treatment methods - Google Patentes
Hyperactive glandular conditions are treated using topically formulated botulinum toxin compositions. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, topical botulinum preparations are applied directly to the skin by a patient as needed to suppress his or her hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis, chromhidrosis, nevus sudoriferous, acne, seborrhiec dermatitis or other glandular condition. In other embodiments, topical botulinum toxins are applied with the aid of mechanical, electrical, and/or chemical transdermal delivery enhancers.
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Infant botulism is an exceedingly rare disease. Because confirmatory laboratory testing is not available for several days after time of presentation, infant botulism remains a clinical diagnosis. The authors demonstrate how raised intraocular pressure may provide an additional clinical clue to making the diagnosis.
Two other forms of botulism also have occurred. Adult intestinal botulism is very rare and occurs among adults by the same route as infant botulism. Iatrogenic botulism is also very rare and can occur as a complication from injecting botulism toxin for cosmetic or medical purposes.. Who gets botulism?. Anyone can get botulism with about 200 cases reported in the United States each year. Most cases involve infant botulism which occurs in babies younger than 12 months old. Infant botulism has been associated with honey, a natural product that can contain botulism spores. Foodborne botulism can occur after eating home-canned, preserved or fermented foods that are contaminated with toxin. Foods with low acid content (e.g., asparagus, green beans, beets, corn, and potatoes) are the most common sources of home-canning related botulism. Wound botulism can occur more often in people who inject drugs or who have open wounds that are exposed to soil or gravel. Iatrogenic botulism is rare but can occur ...
Clostridium botulinum Toxin A antibody [B364M] for ELISA, ICC/IF, RIA. Anti-Clostridium botulinum Toxin A mAb (GTX44113) is tested in Clostridium botulinum samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Food contaminated with Clostridium botulinum toxin may not look or smell spoiled but can still make you sick. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, blurred or double vision, dry mouth, respiratory failure and paralysis. In severe cases of illness, people may die. ...
Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxins effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and
Welcome to CDC stacks | Extraction and Inhibition of Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a Panel of...
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing death or respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care. Treatment includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication. Rapidly determining human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and ...
Botulism is a blood poisoning caused by bacteria known as Clostridium botulism. Ingestion of the toxin produced by the bacteria gives rise to the disease known as botulism. It is not an infection but a poisoning caused by the metabolic by-products of the bacteria. The toxin is possibly produced in living animals but normally in rotting food, carcasses or other organic material and is often carried by maggots; it is primarily a disease of warmer climates where conditions are favorable for the organisms to multiply and produce the botulinal toxin. Man and probably all warm-blooded animals are susceptible to some degree. Certain species are more likely to suffer than others on account of their feeding habits. Some birds such as vultures, which eat rotting carcasses or its associated maggots, appear to be relatively resistant. Waterfowl are most commonly affected, becoming poisoned in hot weather when the bacteria in the mud of stagnant ponds produce large quantities of the toxin. Clinical Signs: ...
Diagnosis Code 040.41 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, ICD-10 conversion and references to the diseases index.
subtype A4 neurotoxin (BoNT/A4) is naturally expressed in the dual-toxin-producing strain 657Ba in 100 lower titers than BoNT/B. the clostridial appearance system. Comparative analyses of the actions of rBoNT/A4-L260F and rBoNT/A4 I264R demonstrated 1, 000-fold-lower activity than BoNT/A1 in both nonmutated and mutated BoNT/A4. This indicates these mutations usually do not alter the experience of BoNT/A4 holotoxin. In conclusion, a recombinant BoNT from a dual-toxin-producing stress was purified and portrayed within an endogenous clostridial appearance program, allowing analysis of the toxin. Launch Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) will be the most poisonous chemicals known and so are produced by specific types. ...
Proteins which are synthesized by blood to protect body from nucleic acids and toxins of invading organism
✅ Answered - [interferon] [antitoxins] [antigens] [Both a and b] are the options of mcq question Proteins which are synthesized by blood to protect body from nucleic acids and toxins of invading organism realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on May 03, 2019 05:36
There are three main types of botulism, categorized by the way the disease is acquired. Food-borne botulism is caused by eating food contaminated with botulinum toxin. This typically occurs when a stored food item contains Clostridium botulinum spores which begin to grow and produce the toxin within the food item, if environmental conditions are favorable.. Wound botulism occurs when the Clostridium botulinum bacteria infects a wound and then produces the toxin.. Infant botulism occurs when an infant consumes the spores of the botulinum bacteria which are commonly found in the environment. Once the bacteria enter an infants immature intestines, the spores can grow produce and release the toxins.. Adult intestinal botulism is the rarest form of botulism. Like infant botulism, it is caused when Clostridium botulinum spores are eaten in food. If environmental conditions are favorable in the intestinal tract, the bacteria may grow in that location and produce botulinum toxin, which is then absorbed ...
TETANUS ANTITOXIN Antitoxins & Sera Enzyme refined equine globulin solution 1500 IU/1ml ampoule 10,000 IU/3.4ml vial 20,000 IU/5ml vial Packing : 1ml ampoule X 10, 1ml ampoule X 100 3.4ml vial X 10 5ml vial X 10
DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Neurological Disorders: Peripheral Nervous System: Neuromuscular Junction Diseases:...
Botulism is a neuromuscular (paralytic) disease cause by a bacterial toxin acting in the intestine (enterotoxin) and causing neuromuscular poisoning (resulting from clostridium botulinum toxin).
This is a detailed and practical guide to botulinum neurotoxin therapy and the wide range of applications for neurological and pain disorders
The hemoglobin A (HbA) ranges are derived through the normal purple-cell transfusions gained from the client prior to gene therapy and briefly thereafter (the last crimson-mobile transfusion occurred on day 88). HbA2 is an alternate adult hemoglobin that isnt derived from transfused blood. HbF denotes fetal hemoglobin, and HbS sickle hemoglobin. shows the trajectory of vector duplicate quantities and Determine 1B shows production of HbAT87Q. Gene marking increased progressively in total blood, CD15 cells, B cells, and monocytes (Fig. S2 in the Supplementary Appendix), stabilizing 3 months following transplantation. Boosts in amounts of vector-bearing T cells have been additional gradual ...
Looking for alimentary toxemia? Find out information about alimentary toxemia. disease state caused by the presence in the blood of bacterial toxins toxin, poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins... Explanation of alimentary toxemia
AC FLANGED PANEL MOUNT OUTLET TYPE F SOCKET EUROPEAN SCHUKO LOCKING (*) 16 AMPERE-250 VOLT CEE7/4 (EU1-16R) TYPE E, F, IP66 /...
AC FLANGED PANEL MOUNT OUTLET TYPE F SOCKET EUROPEAN SCHUKO LOCKING (*) 16 AMPERE-250 VOLT CEE7/4 (EU1-16R) TYPE E, F, IP66 / IP68 WATERTIGHT OUTLET, PANEL / WALL BOX MOUNT,
Scientists have discovered the first new form of botulinum toxin in over 40 years, but theyre taking the unusual step of keeping key details about it
Brevet US3687297 - Shaped body for filtering and drying of liquids and gases and process of ... - Google Brevets
A shaped porous body for filtering and drying gases and liquids is formed of a solid adsorptive drying agent or adsorbent and about between 10 and 0.3 percent of a binding agent relative to the weight of said drying agent or adsorbent, the said binding agent consisting essentially of the reaction product between a di- or polyisocyanate and a polyester or polyetherpolyol which reaction product is hardened to a polyurethane.
Did you know male jumping spiders dance to court the females? Some species raise their forelegs like a surrender or wave them side to side (all the fellas in the…. ...
Three outbreaks of botulism type E occurring in waterbirds on Lake Michigan since autumn 1976 are discussed. Natural ingestion of food containing type E toxin by Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) and the presence of type E toxin in the blood from moribund gulls were demonstrated. Concurrent presence of type C and type E botulinal toxins was found in a die-off of Common Loons (Gavia immer). In combination with previous reported outbreaks, these incidents suggest that this disease is geographically widespread in Lake Michigan, and that environmental conditions conducive to type E botulinal toxin production and consumption occur in both summer and autumn....
Recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and...
Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G). The four species have been classified as C. botulinum Groups I-IV. The presence of bont genes in strains representing the different Groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species. Chromosome and plasmid sequences of several C. botulinum strains representing A, B, E and F serotypes and a C. butyricum type E strain were compared to examine their genomic organization, or synteny, and the location of the botulinum toxin complex genes. These comparisons identified synteny among proteolytic (Group I) strains or nonproteolytic (Group II) strains but not between the two Groups. The bont complex genes within the strains examined were not randomly located but found within three regions of the chromosome or in two specific sites within plasmids. A
Grass sickness is an often fatal disease affecting horses especially in the springtime and leading to different signs of neurotoxicity. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, but there seems be a toxicoinfection with the neurotoxin-producing bacterium clostridium botulinum and the disease.
Structural and Functional Interactions between Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subfamily 1 and Botulinum Neurotoxin...
Structural and Functional Interactions between Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subfamily 1 and Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Southern California Conferences for Undergraduate Research - Southern California Conferences for Undergraduate Research: Amino...
The Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A), a byproduct of the Clostridium botulinum bacteria, is responsible for causing the paralytic disease, Botulism. BoNT/A has a lethal dose (LD50) of 1.3 ng/kg of body weight in humans, making it the worlds most lethal toxin. Its potency, ease of extraction, and reproducibility raises concern the toxin may be weaponized and used in bioterrorism. The therapeutics currently available to treat the disease are not viable for large scale infections, resulting in mass casualties in the case of an attack. Therefore, efforts to develop alternative therapeutics are essential. The toxin is a dimer composed of a heavy chain (HC) and a light chain (LC). The HC binds to neuronal cells and aids the LC into the cytosol of the cell. Once in the cytosol the LC, a zinc metalloprotease, terminates neurotransmission by cleaving SNARE proteins. Our laboratory focuses on the development and synthesis of small molecules as a therapeutic countermeasure against BoNT/A LC. Previously,
In a news release, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) said three people are ill after eating fesikh from Lotus Catering and Fine Food in Toronto. The CFIA said the fish has been recalled because it may be contaminated with Clostridium botulinum, the bacterium that produces toxins which can cause botulism.. Fesikh is a traditional Egyptian fish dish made from mullet, which is dried in the sun until it putrefies and then salted and left to pickle for at least 40 days. Despite annual warnings by health officials against the dangers of fesikh, most Egyptians eat it during the Sham al-Nessim spring celebration.. Cases of food poisoning from incorrectly prepared fesikh are reported each year.. Food contaminated with Clostridium botulinum toxin may not look or smell spoiled. Consumption of food contaminated with the toxin may cause nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, headache, double vision, dry throat, respiratory failure and paralysis. In severe cases of illness, people may die.. For more ...
Clostridium, Clostridium Botulinum, Gene, Gene Cluster, Gene Clusters, Strain, Botulism, Infant, Infant Botulism, Genes, Botulinum Toxin, Infant Formula, Spores, Clostridium Botulinum Type F, Gene Arrangement, Is Element, Time, Chromosome, Identification, Plasmid
Looking for online definition of C. botulinum in the Medical Dictionary? C. botulinum explanation free. What is C. botulinum? Meaning of C. botulinum medical term. What does C. botulinum mean?
Looking for online definition of -toxaemia in the Medical Dictionary? -toxaemia explanation free. What is -toxaemia? Meaning of -toxaemia medical term. What does -toxaemia mean?
Paper: Results from the Hgb-207 (Northstar-2) Trial: A Phase 3 Study to Evaluate Safety and Efficacy of Lentiglobin Gene...
Background. Gene therapy with LentiGlobin Drug Product (DP), which contains autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells transduced with the betibeglogene darolentivec (BB305) lentiviral vector, has been shown to eliminate red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in most patients with TDT with non-β0/β0 genotypes in the prior HGB-204 (Northstar) phase 1/2 study, with a safety profile consistent with myeloablative conditioning. A key finding in HGB-204 was that the average number of therapeutic gene copies per CD34+ cell (i.e. vector copy number [VCN] per diploid genome; median 0.7, range 0.3-1.5) in the DP correlated with peripheral HbAT87Q (transgenic hemoglobin [Hb]) expression at 6 months. To optimize the proportion of patients able to achieve "transfusion independence" and increase unsupported Hb levels after treatment, a refined manufacturing process for LentiGlobin DP was used, to increase the DP VCN and the proportion of transduced cells. Herein, we report initial data from the phase 3 HGB-207 ...
Patent WO2009005552A2 - Methods and compositions for multivalent binding and methods for manufacture ... - Google Patents
The invention provides reagents and methods for multivalent binding and quantitative capture of components in a sample. In one aspect, reagents and methods for diagnostic assay for antigen, ligand, binding agent, or antibody are provided. Compositions of a non-natural or deliberately constructed nucleic acid-like polymeric scaffold are provided, to which multiple antibodies, peptides or other binding agents can be affixed by hybridization of a oligonucleotide: binding agent complex such that the nucleic acid: binding agent construction displays multivalent behavior when interacting with a multivalent analyte. Methods for constructing and using the scaffolds are described. Such compositions may include assembly of mixed specificity binding agents such that the composition displays multivalent binding behavior against a target containing mixed analytes which can be bound by the construct to effect a binding affinity increase such as is observed in avidity reagents against single analytes expressed
Scientists have discovered the first new form of botulinum toxin in over 40 years, but they're taking the unusual step of keeping key details about it
I am now 51 and have been dealing with pre-menopause for six or seven years. The only time in my life that I had high blood pressure was when I had toxemia 32 years ago. I am now on the strongest dose of Diovan on the market, along with a beta blocker, thyroid pills, and two different fluid medications! Every one of these symptoms appeared during pre-menopause and are evidently in some way related to the fact that I had toxemia. My son (the baby from that pregancy) also has a list of similar health issues, that just developed in his adult life ...
Recovery of neuronal function is critical for overcoming botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-mediated paralysis. Strategies for promoting such recovery have proven near...
Although this specimen has bee previously stated as Isotype, this name is a case of nomen nudum, therefore we stated it as Original Specimen but not type [F. Cabezas (W), 2008-11-19].
This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium ...
IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ANTITOXIN PRODUCED IN NORMAL AND ALLERGIC INDIVIDUALS HYPERIMMUNIZED WITH DIPHTHERIA TOXOID |...
1. The immunological properties of two contrasting types of human antisera, each containing a high titer of diphtheria antitoxin, have been investigated. 2. Sera which contain only non-precipitating antitoxin exhibit most of the properties of atopic reagin-containing sera. This type of antitoxin is capable of sensitizing normal human skin to toxin or toxoid and remains for many weeks in the injected area. It exhibits no Danysz effect, does not fix complement unless very large amounts of serum are used, and can be specifically coprecipitated by addition of precipitating antitoxin and toxin. On the other hand, it is capable of sensitizing guinea pigs to fatal anaphylactic shock. Heating at 56°C. for 4 hours destroys the skin-sensitizing properties and results in almost quantitative conversion to a modified antitoxin which is capable of blocking the wheal and erythema reaction caused by injection of toxoid into sensitized skin. Heating at 56°C. does not result in an appreciable loss of ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Optimization of peptide substrates for botulinum neurotoxin E improves detection sensitivity in the...
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to humankind. It is essential to have a simple, quick, and sensitive method for the detection and quantification of botulinum toxin in various media, including complex biological matrices. Our laboratory has developed a mass spectrometry-based Endopep-MS assay that is able to rapidly detect and differentiate all types of BoNTs by extracting the toxin with specific antibodies and detecting the unique cleavage products of peptide substrates. Botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) is a member of a family of seven distinctive BoNT serotypes (A-G) and is the causative agent of botulism in both humans and animals. To improve the sensitivity of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the development of novel peptide substrates for the detection of BoNT/E activity through systematic and comprehensive approaches. Our data demonstrate that several optimal peptides could accomplish 500-fold improvement in ...
The clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise a family of eight related toxins: tetanus (TeNT) and seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), which cause the disease...
The carboxy-terminal domain of the heavy chain recognizes a specific binding site, while the nitrogen-terminus transports the lighter chain into the nerve cytosol (Peck et al. 2010). The lighter chain contains metalloproteases that target specific proteins involved in controlling the exocytosis machinery (Verderio et al. 2006). The inhibition of this integral machinery stops the release of acetylcholine and the neuron fails to send an important signal throughout the body. The lighter chain also decreases the stability of the binding complex, further preventing acetylcholine from being able to bind to the synaptic vesicles (Peck et al. 2010). In addition to releasing neurotoxins when exposed to varying environmental conditions, Clostridium botulinum also increases production of proteases that are secreted from the cell to breakdown polypeptides to contribute to contaminating food and therefore increasing its own toxicity. A large proportion of the bacterias genome encodes for several different ...
botulism immune globulin: in clinical trials; used to treat infant botulism; BIG-IV is an orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous which neutralizes botulinum toxin
...LA JOLLA Calif. February 23 2012 Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Me... Now that we better understand the structure of the bacterial machiner... The Janus-faced toxin ...The botulinum neurotoxin is two-faced. On one side its the most pois...,Disarming,the,botulinum,neurotoxin,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Isolation of a nanomolar scFv inhibiting the endopeptidase activity of botulinum toxin A, by single-round panning of an immune...
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), mainly represented by subtype A1, is the most toxic substance known. It causes naturally-occurring food poisoning, and is among the biological agents at the highest risk of being weaponized. Several antibodies neutralizing BoNT/A by targeting its heavy chain (BoNT/A-H) have been isolated in the past. For the first time however, an IgG (4LCA) recently isolated by hybridoma technology and targeting the BoNT/A light chain (BoNT/A-L), was shown to inhibit BoNT/A endopeptidase activity and protect in vivo against BoNT/A. In the present study, a phage-displayed library was constructed from a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) hyper-immunized with BoNTA/L in order to isolate scFvs inhibiting BoNT/A endopeptidase activity for clinical use. Diversity of the scFvs constituting the library was limited due to the frequent presence, within the genes intended to be part of the library, of restriction sites utilized for its construction. After screening with several rounds of increasing
Fortunately, we have very few, if any, botulism cases associated with foods in the US. Now we only see what is known as "wound botulism." This is what happens when a cut is not cleaned out well and scabs over. In a very few cases, this will provide an ideal environment for the botulism organism to grow. Again, very fortunately this is an extremely rare event…. Many of us believe that home canned foods are probably not as inherently safe as the data might suggest, because almost everyone cooks the food before serving it. Botulism toxin is destroyed by boiling for 10 minutes. So even if the products were improperly canned, people would still be safe because of the cooking. The other nice(?) thing is that there are some spoilage organisms that are even more heat resistant than the one that causes botulism so the food starts to ooze or fizz out of the jar. Most people (but not all, I must report) are sensible enough to throw the stuff out rather than try to eat it." Douglas L. Holt, Ph.D., Chair, ...
Five clinical cases of wound botulism have been reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health since the beginning of February 2002 (1,2).
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) (Botox®, Myobloc™, Dysport®, Xeomin™) is a naturally occurring toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium.
The production of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) for therapeutic and cosmetic applications requires precise determination of batch potency, and (...)
Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity Study of Investigational Recombinant Botulinum Vaccine A/B (rBV A/B) in Volunteers...
Study rBV A/B-CL-001 is a Phase 2b, 2-part, open-label, uncontrolled study to evaluate safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a single dose of recombinant botulinum vaccine A/B (rBV A/B) for the production of BabyBIG in volunteers previously immunized with the pentavalent botulinum (PBT) toxoid. This study is designed to determine neutralizing antibody levels for botulinum toxin types A and B in healthy subjects who were previously immunized with the PBT for occupational protection and who receive the rBV A/B. Subjects with titers of the neutralizing antibodies against the toxins would be candidates for plasma donation for BabyBIG production ...
The basics of Botulinum Toxin (BT) are important to understand when considering injections. Botulinum toxin (BT) is a safe neuromodulator agent.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Meridian Life Science \ Rabbit A C. botulinum Type A \ B76900R for more molecular products just contact us
The Botulinum Journal from Inderscience Publishers provides an international forum and refereed authoritative source of information encompassing varied fields involved with botulinum neurotoxins
Application # 2016/0223524. SENSITIZED CULTURED CELLS FOR BOTULINUM TOXIN CHARACTERIZATION - Patents.com
Apparatus, systems and methods can provide improved detection of botulinum neurotoxins. In one aspect an isoquinolynyl compound can be used to enhance the sensitivity of both Forster resonance energy
Botulinum in Lithuania, company search on Medicina.lt. Reviews and contact details for each business including photos, opening hours and more
building on 2 sides on 4 levels composed of commercial premises on the ground floor as well as a garage and a cellar + 3 apartments type f3 to renovate living space including 1 (4 separate lots). total living area of 317m . More details › ...
The first recorded cetacean in captivity was a beluga whale that lived in the Boston Aquarial and Zoological Gardens (PDF) in 1861. Later that year, P.T. Barnum (the eventual founder of the Barnum and Bailey Circus) displayed two beluga whales in the basement of his New York City American Museum (not the American Museum of Natural History), followed by at least nine whales that lived and died while on display by Barnum between 1861 and 1865. Throughout the 1870s several aquariums in the United States and in Europe began to showcase particular whale species, such as beluga whales and oceanic dolphins, though few were able to keep them alive for very long. In 1938, Floridas Marine Studios, initially built as a film location for underwater productions, was quickly reinvented into a tourist attraction once the owners discovered the dolphins theatrical talents. It wasnt until the 1950s and 60s that people realized dolphins could be trained to perform elaborate tricks and routines. The U.S. Navy ...
0038]Botulinum toxin type A can be obtained by establishing and growing cultures of Clostridium botulinum in a fermenter and then harvesting and purifying the fermented mixture in accordance with known procedures. All the botulinum toxin serotypes are initially synthesized as inactive single chain proteins which must be cleaved or nicked by proteases to become neuroactive. The bacterial strains that make botulinum toxin serotypes A and G possess endogenous proteases and serotypes A and G can therefore be recovered from bacterial cultures in predominantly their active form. In contrast, botulinum toxin serotypes C1, D and E are synthesized by nonproteolytic strains and are therefore typically unactivated when recovered from culture. Serotypes B and F are produced by both proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains and therefore can be recovered in either the active or inactive form. However, even the proteolytic strains that produce, for example, the botulinum toxin type B serotype, only cleave a ...
... guidelines consider various factors, which this eMedTV page lists. This page also explains how the drug works to treat different conditions and offers tips on when and how to take your botulinum toxin type A injection.
Adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A in spasticity management. Joshi, Tapan N.; Joshi, Sonal // International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological D;Jul2011, Vol. 1 Issue 2, p126 The article focuses on the review of the probable adverse effects of botulinum neurotoxin A and the pathogenesis for managing spasticity. It states that botulinum neurotoxin is used to block the spread of active nerve impulses and to avoid serious side effects such as muscle weakness and... ...
The Essential Guide for Clinicians Who Prescribe and Inject BoNTs. This is a detailed and practical guide to botulinum neurotoxin therapy (BoNT) and the wide range of applications for neurological and pain disorders. A unique reference source for new injectors and experienced clinicians alike, this indispensable manual provides information on dose, dilution, and indications for all four FDA-approved toxins in one handy text.. Following a brief review of relevant pharmacology, the book provides product information and comparative distinctions between the four FDA-approved toxins (BotoxÆ, MyoblocÆ, XeominÆ, and DysportÆ), along with indications and doses for FDA-approved conditions, guidance techniques, and common and emerging clinical applications. The heart of the book is an injection manual, organized anatomically and by condition and covering all applications for medical treatment. For each condition or site, information is provided on typical muscle pattern or muscle groups involved, ...
Antitoxins are needed that can be produced economically with improved safety and shelf life compared to conventional antisera-based therapeutics. Here we report a practical strategy for development of simple antitoxin therapeutics with substantial advantages over currently available treatments. The therapeutic strategy employs a single recombinant targeting agent that binds a toxin at two unique sites and a clearing Ab that binds two epitopes present on each targeting agent. Co-administration of the targeting agent and the clearing Ab results in decoration of the toxin with up to four Abs to promote accelerated clearance. The therapeutic strategy was applied to two Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes and protected mice from lethality in two different intoxication models with an efficacy equivalent to conventional antitoxin serum. Targeting agents were a single recombinant protein consisting of a heterodimer of two camelid anti-BoNT heavy-chain-only Ab VH (VHH) binding domains and two E-tag
This amazing plant called psyllium is used as a binding agent when baking with nut flours. Learn about its medicinal properties and use it every day.
Find out more information about the myths and fact about Botulinum Toxin (Botox) and its uses. Visit Harley Street MD website today!
Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
A system of rating degrees of lameness resulting from laminitis developed by Niles Obel circa 1948. Obel Grade I features frequent shifting of weight between the feet, no discernible lameness at the walk, and bilateral lameness at the trot. Obel Grade II horses do not resist having a foreleg lifted, nor are they reluctant to walk, but they do show lameness at the walk. Obel Grade III horses do resist having a foreleg lifted, and are reluctant to walk. Obel Grade IV horses will walk only if forced ...
What Not To Eat When You Have Mesenteric Lymphadenitis?
Type F Intestinal Colonization Botulism and Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin. Advertisement PDF Version $34.95 $ ...https://www.epainassist.com/infections/what-not-to-eat-when-you-have-mesenteric-lymphadenitis
Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum...
Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum ... HBAT replaces a licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB and an investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-AB and ... Botulinum antitoxin for treatment of naturally occurring noninfant botulism is available only from CDC. The transition to HBAT ... Antitoxin E CDC announces the availability of a new heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT, Cangene Corporation) through a CDC- ...https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5910a4.htm
January 2001 - Volume 12 - Issue 1 : Reviews in Medical Microbiology
Antitoxin therapy for botulinum intoxication. Mayers, Carl N.; Holley, Jane L.; Brooks, Tim ...https://journals.lww.com/revmedmicrobiol/toc/2001/01000
A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins. - PubMed - NCBI
... and anti-F botulinum antitoxins but not with anti-E antitoxin. A heptavalent F(ab)2 botulinum antitoxin A-G obtained from the ... The combining of antitoxins to neutralize the toxicity of known bivalent C. botulinum strains Ab, Ba, Af, and Bf also failed to ... A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins.. Barash JR1, Arnon SS. ... Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060, isolated from a patient with infant botulism, produced botulinum neurotoxin type B ( ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24106296?dopt=Abstract
Volume 193, Issue 10 | The Medical Journal of Australia
Infant botulism in Australia: availability of human botulinum antitoxin for treatment. Meryta L A May, Michael A Corkeron and ...https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2010/193/10
Toxins | Free Full-Text | A Single Tri-Epitopic Antibody Virtually Recapitulates the Potency of a Combination of Three...
It has been shown that combining three mAbs that bind non-overlapping epitopes leads to highly potent botulinum neurotoxin ( ... Thus, potentially to streamline development of BoNT antitoxins, we sought to achieve the potency of multiple mAb combinations ... a foreign protein with associated safety issues and a short serum half-life which excludes its use as a prophylactic antitoxin ... Keywords: bi-epitopic; tri-epitopic; multivalent antibody; recombinant monoclonal antibody; botulinum neurotoxin; antitoxin; ...https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/10/2/84
ATC J06 - Immunszérumok és immunglobulinok - Wikipédia
J06AA01 Diphtheria antitoxin. J06AA02 Tetanus antitoxin. J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum. J06AA04 Botulinum antitoxin. J06AA05 ...https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATC_J06_%E2%80%93_Immunsz%C3%A9rumok_%C3%A9s_immunglobulinok
Botulinum toxin - Wikipedia
Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available for treatment of botulism. Trivalent (A,B,E) botulinum antitoxin is ... The second antitoxin is Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, which is derived from equine antibodies which have ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. ... Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botox
CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM (PIM 858)
Equine botulinum antitoxin is not used in infant botulism because of the potential risk of anaphylaxis, serum sickness, or the ... None with the botulinum toxin but allergic reactions may occur with the administration of the equine antitoxin. ... C. botulinum spores produced by all strains are highly heat resistant. Toxins produced by some C. botulinum bacteria are non- ... Administer Trivalent ABE antitoxin (7500 IU of type A, 5500 IU of type B, and 8500 IU of type E antitoxins) per patient. First ...http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/bacteria/pim858.htm
SKETCHY MICRO Flashcards by | Brainscape
mice protected with antitoxin are inoculated with toxin from patient or foods ... Clostridium botulinum. *causative agent of botulism *heat labile exotoxing (neurotoxin) inhibits transmission of nerve impulses ...https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/sketchy-micro-6644805/packs/10551965
Outbreak of Suspected Clostridium butyricum Botulism in India - Volume 4, Number 3-September 1998 - Emerging Infectious...
This effect was neutralized by specific polyvalent botulinum antitoxin types A, B, E (Biomed, Warsaw, Poland). Cultures of ... However, the clinical presentation of the patients, response to trivalent botulinum antitoxin, and isolation of toxigenic C. ... Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia that produce botulinum neurotoxin. In: Hauschild AHW, Dodds KL, editors. Clostridium ... Differential diagnosis included botulinum food poisoning, and both patients were administered trivalent (A,B,E) botulinum ...https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/4/3/98-0347_article
Patent US8147561 - Methods and devices to curb appetite and/or reduce food intake - Google Patents
Antitoxins: Botulinum antitoxin, diphtheria antitoxin, gas gangrene antitoxin, tetanus antitoxin; and. *Antigens which elicit ...http://www.google.com/patents/US8147561?dq=5,884,272
Infant botulism: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. It grows inside a ... The use of human-derived botulinum antitoxin may also be helpful.. Outlook (Prognosis). ... Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming organism that is common in nature. The spores may be found in soil and certain foods ( ... Botulism (Clostridium botulinum). In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of ...https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001384.htm
IIS | Code Sets | CPT | Vaccines | CDC
Botulinum antitoxin, equine, any route. 27 botulinum antitoxin. 5/28/2010. 90291 Cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMV-IgIV), ... Diphtheria antitoxin, equine, any route. 12 diphtheria antitoxin. 5/28/2010. 90371 Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg), human, ...https://www2a.cdc.gov/vaccines/IIS/IISStandards/vaccines.asp?rpt=cpt
Antidotes (Printable Chart) | California Poison Control System | UCSF
Botulinum antitoxin/H-BAT- heptavalent. Botulism. Only available through the state health department (CA) or CDC ...https://calpoison.org/topics/antidotes
Botulism antitoxin side effects - Answers on HealthTap
... trusted information on the benefits and side effects of Botulism Antitoxin to treat Botulism: Dr. Pollard on botulism antitoxin ... Botulinum Poisoning (Definition) An severe illness caused by a toxin that attacks the bodys nerves and can paralyze muscles ... Low risk: Proper canning is vital but a high acid fluid like pineapple juice is at low risk for having botulinum spores to ... Intoxication mostly: Classical food botulism is caused by preformed botulinum toxin, usually a, b, or e, ingested in food not ...https://www.healthtap.com/topics/botulism-antitoxin-side-effects
Studying the differential efficacy of postsymptom antitoxin treatment in type A versus type B botulism using a rabbit...
Investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) to replace licensed botulinum antitoxin AB and investigational botulinum ... for effective antitoxin treatment following botulinum intoxication (Tacket et al., 1984). Notably, antitoxin is given only to ... 2014). Botulinum antitoxin. In European Pharmacopoeia, Vol. 1, p. 1029. Strasbourg: EDQM Council of Europe. ... 2016). Retrospective survey to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Japanese botulinum antitoxin therapy in Japan. Toxicon 110, ...https://dmm.biologists.org/content/11/9/dmm035089
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E by a Humanized Antibody
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have ... endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum ... Development of an Innovative in Vitro Potency Assay for Anti-Botulinum Antitoxins ... Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin type E; botulism; antibody botulinum neurotoxin type E; botulism; antibody ...http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/8/9/257
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Categories: Botulinum Antitoxin Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...https://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Botulinum+Antitoxin&parentid=3229&catid=4739
Medscape CME Activity - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Patients clinical signs improved with supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin. Peanut butter from the ... Clinical samples contained Clostridium botulinum spores and botulinum neurotoxins (types A and B) for extended periods (range ... botulinum type A, which corresponded with type A spores found in the patients feces. The food and clinical isolates from this ... botulinum. These cases reinforce the view that an underlying gastrointestinal condition is a risk factor for adult intestinal ...https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/articles/cme/volume-18
Botulism | California Poison Control System | UCSF
The other mainstay of treatment is botulinum antitoxin. There are two types of antitoxin - one that is specific to infant ... Obtaining heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) for non-infant cases requires contact with the local or regional health ... The anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium botulinum, produces all seven serotypes of the botulinum neurotoxin (A through G). There ... Botulism is a potentially fatal neurological disease, resulting from botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum and ...https://calpoison.org/news/botulism
Treatment involves a botulinum anti-toxin which prevents the spread of the toxin throughout the bloodstream. Intravenous fluids ... Clostridium botulinum This is the medical name for botulism: a rare but serious form of food poisoning which is caused by a ... Clostridium botulinum bacteria This bacterium is part of a group of rod shaped organisms which are usually found in soils, the ... Foods which contain the clostridium botulinum bacteria These include canned foods which have not been properly preserved, ...http://www.medic8.com/healthguide/food-poisoning/clostridium-botulinum.html
Heptavalent botulism antitoxin - Wikipedia
"Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum ... This action left HBAT as the only botulinum antitoxin available in the US for naturally occurring non-infant botulism. On March ... "HBAT (botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". reference.medscape.com. ... In 2010, the CDC replaced the licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB, or "BabyBIG") and the investigational ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heptavalent_botulism_antitoxin
Clostridial toxin disease therapy - Ophidian Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Avian antitoxin in an aqueous solution in therapeutic amount that is orally administrable. ... Treating humans and animals intoxicated with a bacterial toxin by administration of antitoxin. ... e) Antitoxin Antibod Titer. The IgY antibody titer to botulinum type A toxoid of eggs harvested between day 409 and 423 was ... The invention is particularly useful where antitoxin comprises clostridial antitoxin such as Clostridial botlinum antitoxin. In ...http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5719267.html
ToxinsNeurotoxinsSporesSerotypesBacteriaProduced by the bacteriumBoNTAnaerobicHeptavalentBivalent botulinum antitoxinEquineInjectionsBacterium Clostridium botulinumDysportPolyvalent botulinumInjectionAnti-toxinInfantsMouse bioassayClinicalNeurotoxin serotypeIngestionStrainsTypeProducesFoodborneBotoxTetanusCervical DystoniaDiagnosisGram-positiveBacterialAssayLaboratoryCaused by a toxinHuman-derivedTrivalent antitoxinOrganismSpecies
- A novel strain of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B and type H botulinum toxins. (nih.gov)
- Botulinum toxins have been used off-label for several pediatric conditions, including infantile esotropia . (wikipedia.org)
- it renders harmless (neutralizes) only that toxin under the influence of which it was formed (for example, only the toxin secreted by the causative agent of diphtheria is neutralized by diphtheria antitoxin), and it has no neutralizing effect on other toxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Antitoxins are gamma globulins that are capable of interacting specifically with toxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- No protection was conferred on mice by antitoxins to botulinum toxins A, B, or E. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Clostridium botulinum can produce up to seven different types of toxins named with the letters A-G. The neurotoxins most usually infect individuals by contaminating canned or unrefrigerated food, infecting a wound, or entering a key water source. (kenyon.edu)
- Group II consists of Clostridium botulinum that produces type B, E, and F toxins and is also mostly found in contaminated food products. (kenyon.edu)
- A study in Israel showed that 29 % and 3 % of 39 golden jackals had naturally formed antibodies to botulinum toxins types C and D respectively, but red foxes and wolves were negative, suggesting that some wild carnivores do become exposed to the toxin subject to various factors including eating habits 26 . (scielo.org.za)
- Notice of CDC's discontinuation of investigational pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid vaccine for workers at risk for occupational exposure to botulinum toxins. (springer.com)
- Arnon's team warns that there are probably other botulinum toxins in nature, waiting to be discovered. (newscientist.com)
- C. botulinum produces seven serotypes of BoNTs (A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G), which are distinguished by neutralization of toxicity in mice using homologous antisera prepared against the purified toxins. (asmscience.org)
- Botulinum toxins are widely used worldwide for the treatment of medical and esthetic disorders. (intechopen.com)
- Resistance to botulinum toxins in the medical field has been described, at higher dosages and short intervals. (intechopen.com)
- Recent evidence suggests that resistance to botulinum toxins in esthetics may have higher prevalence than expected. (intechopen.com)
- Both botulinum and tetanus toxins are relatively simple to produce. (springer.com)
- Low oxygen levels and certain temperatures favor the production of the botulinum toxins. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Botulinum toxins block the normal functioning of the nerves. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Botulinum neurotoxins: more and more diverse and fascinating toxic proteins. (nih.gov)
- Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. (mdpi.com)
- Botulism is a rare, life-threatening paralytic illness caused by neurotoxins produced by an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. (marlerblog.com)
- After their ingestion, botulinum neurotoxins are absorbed primarily in the duodenum and jejunum, and pass into the bloodstream and travel to synapses in the nervous system. (marlerblog.com)
- The seven serologically distinct botulinum neurotoxins, designated A through G, share a common structural organization consisting of one Heavy Chain and one Light Chain polypeptide linked by a single disulfide bond. (nih.gov)
- Despite the worldwide distribution of Clostridium botulinum spores, wound botulism has been reported only twice outside the United States, Europe, and Australia. (ajtmh.org)
- C. botulinum bacteria-which cannot survive in the presence of oxygen-normally live in the soil, where they form heat-resistant spores that may contaminate fresh food to be canned. (britannica.com)
- Then, inside the sealed can, the spores germinate and release the bacteria, and, as the bacteria multiply, they secrete botulinum toxin, a protein that is one of the most potent poisons known. (britannica.com)
- This typically occurs when a stored food item contains Clostridium botulinum spores which begin to grow and produce the toxin within the food item, if environmental conditions are favorable. (nyc.gov)
- Infant botulism occurs when an infant consumes the spores of the botulinum bacteria which are commonly found in the environment. (nyc.gov)
- Like infant botulism, it is caused when Clostridium botulinum spores are eaten in food. (nyc.gov)
- Although safe for children and adults, honey should not be fed to infants because it may contain Clostridium botulinum spores. (nyc.gov)
- Most Clostridium botulinum spores reside on the surfaces of fruits, dairy products, vegetables, seafood, and various canned foods. (kenyon.edu)
- An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. (aafp.org)
- Soil and honey contamination are the two recognized sources of botulinum spores. (aafp.org)
- Wound botulism occurs when C. botulinum spores germinate and produce toxin in a contaminated wound or abscess. (rarediseases.org)
- The most common form of botulism in the United States, infant botulism, is caused when ingested C. botulinum spores colonize and subsequently produce toxin in the intestines of affected infants. (rarediseases.org)
- Attention New York Residents: Euphoria Fancy Food Inc., a Brooklyn NY establishment, is now recalling Herring Special Salting sold throughout the state because it may be contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores. (schmidtandclark.com)
- Clostridium botulinum spores can cause botulism , a rare but potentially fatal foodborne illness. (schmidtandclark.com)
- July 20, 2011 - The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) announced today that Euphoria Fancy Food Inc. 149-151 2nd Ave. Brooklyn NY 11215 is currently recalling Herring Special Salting sold in New York state because it was not properly eviscerated prior to processing and may contain Clostridium botulinum spores. (schmidtandclark.com)
- The sale of uneviscerated herring is prohibited under New York state law because Clostridium botulinum spores are more likely to be concentrated in the viscera than any other part of the fish. (schmidtandclark.com)
- Botulism is a rare but extremely serious foodborne disease caused by Clostridium botulinum spores. (schmidtandclark.com)
- The antitoxins can prevent Clostridium botulinum spores from harming your nerves, but cannot reverse any damage that's already been done. (schmidtandclark.com)
- Adult intestinal toxemia botulism is very rare and occurs when (like infants) the spores of Clostridium botulinum get into a person's intestines and then grow and make the toxin. (verywellhealth.com)
- The patient was unaware that low-acid foods (eg, vegetables) must be canned in a pressure canner rather than a boiling water canner to eliminate [Clostridium] botulinum spores," they wrote. (botulismblog.com)
- Infant botulism develops when clostridium botulinum bacterial spores enter the baby's intestinal tract. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Because spores of clostridium botulinum bacteria survive in honey, it is better to avoid giving it to babies less than a year old. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B and E are responsible for most cases of human botulism. (biologists.org)
- The anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium botulinum , produces all seven serotypes of the botulinum neurotoxin (A through G). There are other Clostridium species that produce some of the toxin types as well. (calpoison.org)
- Detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B using a chemiluminescent versus electrochemiluminescent immunoassay in food and serum. (springer.com)
- Therefore, differences in species sensitivities to different botulinum neurotoxin serotypes preclude extrapolation of animal dose-activity relationships to human dose estimates. (nih.gov)
- Functional characterization of botulinum neurotoxin serotype H as a hybrid of known serotypes F and A (BoNT F/A). Anal Chem 2015;87(7):3911-7. (ac.ir)
- A stool sample from the baby may be checked for the botulinum toxin or bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
- That should destroy any botulinum bacteria harbouring within the food. (medic8.com)
- Botulism , poisoning by a toxin , called botulinum toxin , produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. (britannica.com)
- Wound botulism occurs when the Clostridium botulinum bacteria infects a wound and then produces the toxin. (nyc.gov)
- If environmental conditions are favorable in the intestinal tract, the bacteria may grow in that location and produce botulinum toxin, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. (nyc.gov)
- Produced by the bacteria Clostradium botulinum, the toxin is responsible for botulism, a disease which results in paralysis and often death if not treated. (si.edu)
- A laboratory test to identify the botulinum toxin or bacteria is used to confirm the diagnosis. (verywellhealth.com)
- Botulism is a rare disease caused by a type of bacteria called Clostridium botulinum and sometimes, Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii bacteria. (verywellhealth.com)
- The bacteria can produce large amounts of botulinum toxin, which can then spread throughout the body, paralyzing many muscles at a time. (verywellhealth.com)
- The botulinum toxin generated by clostridium botulinum bacteria causes a deadly paralytic condition called botulism. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Clostridium botulinum bacteria are found in both soil and water. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Wound botulism appears when your wound gets infected by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Botulinum toxin is a natural poison produced by certain bacteria in the Clostridium genus. (thehealthsuccesssite.com)
- Botulinum toxin ( BTX ) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. (wikipedia.org)
- The toxin is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum . (cdc.gov)
- Botulism is a type of poisoning caused by a nerve toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. (britannica.com)
- Clostridium botulinum strain IBCA10-7060, isolated from a patient with infant botulism, produced botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) and another BoNT that, by use of the standard mouse bioassay, could not be neutralized by any of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-provided monovalent polyclonal botulinum antitoxins raised against BoNT types A-G. (nih.gov)
- The combining of antitoxins to neutralize the toxicity of known bivalent C. botulinum strains Ab, Ba, Af, and Bf also failed to neutralize the second BoNT. (nih.gov)
- A heptavalent F(ab')2 botulinum antitoxin A-G obtained from the US Army also did not neutralize the second BoNT. (nih.gov)
- An antitoxin raised against IBCA10-7060 toxoid protected mice against BoNT/B (Okra) and against the second BoNT but did not protect mice against BoNT/A (Hall) or BoNT/F (Langeland). (nih.gov)
- The second BoNT thus fulfilled classic criteria for being designated BoNT/H. IBCA10-7060 is the first C. botulinum type Bh strain to be identified. (nih.gov)
- It has been shown that combining three mAbs that bind non-overlapping epitopes leads to highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) neutralization. (mdpi.com)
- Thus, potentially to streamline development of BoNT antitoxins, we sought to achieve the potency of multiple mAb combinations in a single IgG-based molecule that has a long serum half-life. (mdpi.com)
- Degenerate primers BoNT 1 and BoNT 2 were used, which amplify a specific 1.1-kb fragment of neurotoxin gene C. botulinum types (A, B, E, F, and G) as well as toxigenic strains of C. baratti and C. butyricum (3) . (cdc.gov)
- However, in accordance with the differential serotypic PSAE observed in humans, postsymptom antitoxin treatment was fully effective only in BoNT/A-intoxicated rabbits. (biologists.org)
- In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque ( Macaca fascicularis )-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). In the present study, we germline-humanized scFv-Fc ELC18 into a full IgG hu8ELC18 to increase its immunotolerance by humans. (mdpi.com)
- Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by Clostridium botulinum is the most toxic substance known to humans that causes the clinical condition known as botulism. (springer.com)
- Under permissive conditions, C . botulinum can grow and form BoNT, which on consumption causes botulism. (asmscience.org)
- Foodborne botulism (FBB) is a rare paralyzing disease caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). (ac.ir)
- It occurs when neuromuscular transmission is interrupted by a protein neurotoxin produced by the spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum . (inchem.org)
- Wound botulism results from colonization of a contaminated wound by Clostridium botulinum and the anaerobic in situ production of a potent neurotoxin. (ajtmh.org)
- Infant botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced by the spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-positive bacilli Clostridium botulinum , which is found globally in soil. (aafp.org)
- CDC announces the availability of a new heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT, Cangene Corporation) through a CDC-sponsored Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol. (cdc.gov)
- As of 2010, Heptavalent antitoxin active against all 7 types of botulism toxin (A-G) has been available from the CDC for treatment for food borne and wound botulism. (medscape.com)
- HBAT replaces a licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB and an investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-AB and BAT-E, Sanofi Pasteur) with expiration of these products on March 12, 2010. (cdc.gov)
- In 2010, the CDC replaced the licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB, or "BabyBIG") and the investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-E) with HBAT when the former two products indications expired. (wikipedia.org)
- The standard of treatment for botulism, equine antitoxin, is a foreign protein with associated safety issues and a short serum half-life which excludes its use as a prophylactic antitoxin and makes it a less-than-optimal therapeutic. (mdpi.com)
- Equine Antitoxin Use and Other Factors That Predict Outcome in Type A Foodborne Botulism," Am. J. Med. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Connaught Industries Inc., "Botulism Antitoxin Trivalent (Equine)," Package insert. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Prompt clinical recognition, supportive care, and administration of trivalent equine botulinum antitoxin were life-saving. (ajtmh.org)
- Botulinum antitoxin is available at certain equine clinics, although it has been used with varying degrees of success. (petmd.com)
- In 2010, the FDA approved intramuscular botulinum toxin injections for prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine headache . (wikipedia.org)
- This has been reported in patients who have been treated with intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin. (inchem.org)
- It occurs in patients who have been treated with injections of botulinum toxin for dystonic and other movement disorders. (springer.com)
- Sometimes the botulinum toxin (Botox) is deliberately used for cosmetic injections to temporarily prevent the appearance of wrinkles , to prevent migraine headaches and to relieve muscle stiffness . (verywellhealth.com)
- While it is not common, injections of botulinum toxin for medical or cosmetic reasons can cause unwanted paralysis of eye movement or facial muscles, which is usually temporary. (verywellhealth.com)
- Dysphagia after botulinum toxin injections for spasmodic torticollis: clinical and radiologic findings. (springer.com)
- The bacterium Clostridium botulinum produces the most poisonous biological toxin known. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The neurotoxin is produced by fermentation of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type B (Bean strain) and exists in noncovalent association with hemagglutinin and nonhemagglutinin proteins as a neurotoxin complex. (nih.gov)
- Botulinum toxin type A, the active ingredient in DYSPORT® (abobotulinumtoxinA), is a purified neurotoxin type A complex produced by fermentation of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type A, Hall Strain. (rxlist.com)
- Injecting a mere 2 billionths of a gram, or inhaling 13 billionths of a gram, of the protein botulinum produced by the soil bacterium Clostridium botulinum will kill an adult. (newscientist.com)
- You may not know that Botox® and Dysport® are trade names for botulinum toxin. (cdc.gov)
- Postmarketing reports indicate that the effects of Dysport ® and all botulinum toxin products may spread from the area of injection to produce symptoms consistent with botulinum toxin effects. (drugs.com)
- The recommended initial dose of Dysport ® for the treatment of cervical dystonia is 500 Units given intramuscularly as a divided dose among affected muscles in patients with or without a history of prior treatment with botulinum toxin. (drugs.com)
- Due to differences in specific details such as vehicle, dilution scheme and laboratory protocols for various mouse LD50 assays, Units of biological activity of DYSPORT® are not interchangeable with Units of any other botulinum toxin or any toxin assessed with any other specific assay method [see Dosage Forms and Strengths ]. (rxlist.com)
- The botulinum toxin contained in Dysport can spread to other body areas beyond where it was injected. (rxlist.com)
- Injection of botulinum toxin into the muscles under facial wrinkles causes relaxation of those muscles, resulting in the smoothing of the overlying skin. (wikipedia.org)
- 5) inadvertent, following botulinum toxin injection. (inchem.org)
- Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles. (wikipedia.org)
- ConclusionsUltrasound can be a potent tool for guiding the injection of Botulinum toxin into the masseter muscles. (medworm.com)
- Additionally, iatrogenic botulism has infrequently occurred after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin for treatment of certain dystonias and other disorders. (rarediseases.org)
- Colon and oesophageal content from the male at necropsy were positive for Clostridium botulinum toxin type C by the mouse bioassay neutralisation test, confirming that this male had had concomitant barbiturate toxicity and botulism, and had succumbed to aspiration bronchopneumonia secondary to pharyngeal, laryngeal and oesophageal paralysis and oesophageal impaction. (scielo.org.za)
- Serum, stool, and gastric specimens from case-patients and leftover muktuk were collected and submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory for botulinum toxin detection, using the standard mouse bioassay ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Laboratory studies could not confirm the diagnosis of botulism because clinical materials (such as contents of the gastrointestinal tract, feces) were not submitted for examination for the presence of the botulinum toxin or organisms. (cdc.gov)
- While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. (wikipedia.org)
- This clearly cannot meet the immediate need for clinical diagnosis of botulism, botulinum detection in field conditions, and screening of large scale samples. (springer.com)
- Consequently, the clinical diagnosis of botulism relies on the clinical symptom development, thus limiting the effectiveness of antitoxin treatment. (springer.com)
- 1. Shahcheraghi F, Nobari S, Masoumi-Asl H, Aslani MM. Identification of botulinum toxin type in clinical samples and foods in Iran. (ac.ir)
- Antitoxin is administered soon after the clinical diagnosis. (altiusdirectory.com)
- Five Escherichia coli strains containing clones encoding fragments of the C. botulinum neurotoxin genes were used as positive controls in the PCR assay (kindly provided by Alison East, Institute of Food Research, United Kingdom). (cdc.gov)
- These strains offer encouragement that an antitoxin treatment could slow the progression of Buruli ulcer. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Human botulism is commonly caused by C. botulinum neurotoxin type A, B, and E (4) . (cdc.gov)
- There are eight types of botulinum toxin, named type A-H. Types A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. (wikipedia.org)
- What are side effects after botox (botulinum toxin type a)? (healthtap.com)
- However, a recent meta-analysis of antitoxin efficacy in human botulism cases over the past century concluded that a statistically significant reduction in mortality is associated with the use of type E and type A antitoxin, but not with type B antitoxin. (biologists.org)
- Attrée O, Guglielmo-Viret V, Gros V, Thullier P. Development and comparison of two immunoassay formats for rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxin type A. J Immunol Methods. (springer.com)
- Boroff DA, Shu-Chen G. Radioimmunoasssay for type A toxin of Clostridium botulinum . (springer.com)
- A highly sensitive immuno polymerase chain reaction assay for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A. Toxicon. (springer.com)
- A new type of botulinum toxin - the deadliest substance known - has been discovered. (newscientist.com)
- Molecular characterization of a novel botulinum neurotoxin type H gene. (ac.ir)
- C. botulinum types B, C and D are associated with disease in animals but the type prevalence varies geographically. (thefreedictionary.com)
- If diagnosed early, foodborne botulism can be treated with an antitoxin that blocks the action of toxin circulating in the blood. (marlerblog.com)
- Foodborne botulism is caused by eating foods that contain botulinum toxin. (rarediseases.org)
- Any case of foodborne or unexplained botulism is considered to be a public health emergency because of the potential for toxin-containing foods to injure others who eat them and because of the potential misuse of botulinum toxin as a biological weapon. (rarediseases.org)
- Treating humans and animals intoxicated with a bacterial toxin by administration of antitoxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
- b) Toxoid: A modified bacterial toxin that has been made nontoxic, but retains the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin. (cdc.gov)
- The team sequenced the bacterial DNA that codes for the toxin, and found it constitutes a separate branch on the botulinum family tree. (newscientist.com)
- Due to differences in specific details such as the vehicle, dilution scheme and laboratory protocols for various mouse LD50 assays, units of biological activity of MYOBLOC cannot be compared to or converted into units of any other botulinum toxin or any toxin assessed with any other specific assay method. (nih.gov)