Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.

Detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin by local paralysis elicited with intramuscular challenge. (1/45)

Clostridium botulinum toxin can be identified by a characteristic, acute local paralysis that follows its injection into the gastrocnemius ("calf" muscle) of mice. The local botulism can be elicited with slightly less than one-tenth the toxin amount that is needed to kill mice by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge route. The practical sensitivities of the intramuscular (i.m.) versus i.p. tests are about equal, however, because maximum sample volume injectable i.m. is 0.1 ml as compared to the 0.5-ml range that can be given i.p. i.m. injection of 10 or more mouse i.p. mean lethal doses causes paralysis in about 1 h, and an i.m. injection of about 0.5 i.p. mean lethal doses causes paralysis in 3 to 4 h. Toxin neutralization by homologous type of antitoxin only can be demonstrated with an incubated mixture of toxin and antitoxin. Although not as convenient as the i.p. method for routine use to detect botulinum toxin, the i.m. method has characteristics which could make it a useful supplement to the presently accepted i.p. procedure.  (+info)

Infant botulism. (2/45)

Although the worldwide incidence of infant botulism is rare, the majority of cases are diagnosed in the United States. An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products. The spores germinate into bacteria that colonize the bowel and synthesize toxin. As the toxin is absorbed, it irreversibly binds to acetylcholine receptors on motor nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions. The infant with botulism becomes progressively weak, hypotonic and hyporeflexic, showing bulbar and spinal nerve abnormalities. Presenting symptoms include constipation, lethargy, a weak cry, poor feeding and dehydration. A high index of suspicion is important for the diagnosis and prompt treatment of infant botulism, because this disease can quickly progress to respiratory failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the organism or toxin in the stool and finding a classic electromyogram pattern. Treatment consists of nutritional and respiratory support until new motor endplates are regenerated, which results in spontaneous recovery. Neurologic sequelae are seldom seen. Some children require outpatient tube feeding and may have persistent hypotonia.  (+info)

Botulism. (3/45)

Botulism is a rare disease with 4 naturally occurring syndromes: foodborne botulism is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum toxin, wound botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and in situ toxin production, infant botulism is caused by intestinal colonization and toxin production, and adult intestinal toxemia botulism is an even rarer form of intestinal colonization and toxin production in adults. Inhalational botulism could result from aerosolization of botulinum toxin, and iatrogenic botulism can result from injection of toxin. All forms of botulism produce the same distinct clinical syndrome of symmetrical cranial nerve palsies followed by descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis of voluntary muscles, which may progress to respiratory compromise and death. The mainstays of therapy are meticulous intensive care (including mechanical ventilation, when necessary) and timely treatment with antitoxin.  (+info)

Wound botulism acquired in the Amazonian rain forest of Ecuador. (4/45)

Wound botulism results from colonization of a contaminated wound by Clostridium botulinum and the anaerobic in situ production of a potent neurotoxin. Between 1943, when wound botulism was first recognized, and 1990, 47 laboratory-confirmed cases, mostly trauma-associated, were reported in the United States. Since 1990, wound botulism associated with injection drug use emerged as the leading cause of wound botulism in the United States; 210 of 217 cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1990 and 2002 were associated with drug injection. Despite the worldwide distribution of Clostridium botulinum spores, wound botulism has been reported only twice outside the United States, Europe, and Australia. However, wound botulism may go undiagnosed and untreated in many countries. We report two cases, both with type A toxin, from the Ecuadorian rain forest. Prompt clinical recognition, supportive care, and administration of trivalent equine botulinum antitoxin were life-saving.  (+info)

Project BioShield: what it is, why it is needed, and its accomplishments so far. (5/45)

Project BioShield is a comprehensive effort involving the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), its component agencies, and other partner federal agencies to speed the research, development, acquisition, and availability of medical countermeasures to improve the government's preparedness for and ability to counter chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threat agents. The legislation authorizes use of the Special Reserve Fund, which makes available $5.6 billion over 10 years for the advanced development and purchase of medical countermeasures. This appropriation is intended to provide an economic incentive to the pharmaceutical industry to develop medical countermeasures for which the government is the only significant market. Acquisitions under Project BioShield are restricted to products in development that are potentially licensable within 8 years from the time of contract award. In exercising the procurement authorities under Project BioShield, HHS has launched acquisition programs to address each of the 4 threat agents, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), smallpox virus, botulinum toxins, and radiological/nuclear agents, originally deemed by the Department of Homeland Security to be threats to the US population sufficient to affect national security. At the time of writing, 7 contracts have been awarded: (1) recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine, the next-generation anthrax vaccine (contract terminated in December 2006 for default); (2) anthrax vaccine adsorbed, the currently licensed anthrax vaccine; (3) anthrax therapeutics (monoclonal); (4) anthrax therapeutics (human immune globulin); (5) the pediatric formulation of potassium iodide; (6) Ca- and Zn-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), chelating agents to treat ingestion of certain radiological particles; and (7) botulinum antitoxins. Additional acquisition contracts are expected to be awarded in 2007.  (+info)

Characterization of new formalin-detoxified botulinum neurotoxin toxoids. (6/45)

 (+info)

Neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin by a human monoclonal antibody specific for the catalytic light chain. (7/45)

 (+info)

Bowel loops and eyelid droops. (8/45)

 (+info)

Botulinum antitoxin refers to a medication made from the antibodies that are generated in response to the botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that can cause paralysis and other serious medical complications in humans and animals.

The antitoxin works by neutralizing the effects of the toxin in the body, preventing further damage to the nervous system. It is typically used in emergency situations to treat individuals who have been exposed to large amounts of botulinum toxin, such as in a bioterrorism attack or accidental exposure in a laboratory setting.

Botulinum antitoxin is not the same as botulinum toxin type A (Botox), which is a purified form of the toxin that is used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. Botox works by temporarily paralyzing muscles, whereas the antitoxin works by neutralizing the toxin in the body.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

Investigational drugs, also known as experimental or trial drugs, refer to medications that are currently being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy for the treatment of various medical conditions. These drugs have not yet been approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for general use.

Before entering clinical trials, investigational drugs must undergo extensive preclinical testing in the lab and on animals to assess their safety and potential therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials are conducted in phases, starting with small groups of healthy volunteers to assess safety, followed by larger groups of patients to evaluate efficacy and side effects.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must meet certain eligibility criteria to ensure their safety and the validity of the trial results. Investigational drugs may ultimately be approved for general use if they are found to be safe and effective in clinical trials.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

Tetanus antitoxin is a medical preparation containing antibodies that neutralize tetanus toxin, a harmful substance produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This antitoxin is used to provide immediate protection against tetanus infection in cases of wound management or as a post-exposure prophylaxis when tetanus vaccination history is incomplete or uncertain.

Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a severe and potentially fatal disease characterized by muscle stiffness and spasms, primarily affecting the jaw and neck muscles. The antitoxin works by binding to the tetanus toxin, preventing it from causing damage to the nervous system. It's important to note that tetanus antitoxin does not provide immunity against future tetanus infections; therefore, vaccination with a tetanus-containing vaccine is still necessary for long-term protection.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is a medication used to treat diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can affect the nose, throat, and skin. It is made from the serum of animals (such as horses) that have been immunized against diphtheria. The antitoxin works by neutralizing the harmful effects of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacteria, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is usually given as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it should be administered as soon as possible after a diagnosis of diphtheria has been made. It is important to note that while the antitoxin can help prevent further damage caused by the toxin, it does not treat the underlying infection itself, which requires antibiotics for proper treatment.

Like any medication, Diphtheria Antitoxin can have side effects, including allergic reactions, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis. It should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in its use and can monitor the patient for any adverse reactions.

Neuromuscular agents are drugs or substances that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These agents can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals across the neuromuscular junction, leading to a variety of effects on muscle tone and activity.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a type of neuromuscular agent that is commonly used in anesthesia and critical care settings to induce paralysis during intubation or mechanical ventilation. NMBAs can be classified into two main categories: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing NMBAs, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle contraction followed by paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs, such as rocuronium and vecuronium, block the activation of these receptors, preventing muscle contraction and leading to paralysis.

Other types of neuromuscular agents include cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and can be used to reverse the effects of NMBAs, and botulinum toxin, which is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and is used in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

"Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum ... the CDC replaced the licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB) and the investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E ... This action left BAT as the only botulinum antitoxin available in the US for naturally occurring non-infant botulism. On March ... "HBAT (botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". reference.medscape.com. ...
According to the report, BARDA has acquired: 107,000 doses of an antitoxin for Clostridium botulinum (a decrease from the full ... Botulism treatments, as well, including 107,560 doses of Botulinum Antitoxin Therapeutic from Cangene. It ordered 200,000 doses ... To June 2013, eight medical countermeasures (MCM) against anthrax, smallpox, botulinum toxin and radiological threats have been ... an antidote to botulinum toxin, and better treatments for exposure to chemical and radiological weapons. Gibbs, W. Wayt ( ...
... botulinum antitoxin is derived from equine sources using whole antibodies. The second antitoxin is heptavalent botulinum ... Botulinum toxin, or botulinum neurotoxin, is a highly potent neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum ... the case fatality rate for botulinum poisoning can be greatly reduced. Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available ... Botulinum antitoxin is available and may be used to prevent the worsening of symptoms, though it will not reverse existing ...
The second antitoxin, heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, is derived from "despeciated" equine IgG antibodies ... Botulinum antitoxin consists of antibodies that neutralize botulinum toxin in the circulatory system by passive immunization. ... In adults, a trivalent antitoxin containing antibodies raised against botulinum toxin types A, B, and E is used most commonly; ... Trivalent (A,B,E) botulinum antitoxin is derived from equine sources utilizing whole antibodies (Fab and Fc portions). In the ...
... tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, Equine influenza, Equine ... Eight horses that had received prophylactic botulinum antitoxin and developed subsequent signs of Theiler's disease were ... When TDAV was found, the original source of virus (the antitoxin) was injected into 4 additional healthy horses, with one ... It is seen almost exclusively in adult horses, and lactating broodmares given tetanus antitoxin post foaling may be more ...
Emergent also developed the only FDA-licensed botulinum antitoxin, Heptavalent Botulism Antitoxin (BAT) for treating naturally ... Botulism is caused by the botulinum toxin, one of the deadliest known toxins. While the bacteria that cause botulism occur ... BARDA also supported the development of the antitoxins Anthrasil of Cangene (March 2015 FDA approval) and Anthim of Elusys ... BARDA maintains a supply of botulism antitoxins through the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). As of June, seven companies had ...
J06AA01 Diphtheria antitoxin J06AA02 Tetanus antitoxin J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum J06AA04 Botulinum antitoxin J06AA05 Gas- ...
... antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.268 - botulinum antitoxin MeSH ... D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.438 - diphtheria antitoxin MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.849 - tetanus antitoxin MeSH D12.776. ...
... antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.268 - botulinum antitoxin MeSH ... botulinum antitoxin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.573.601.438 - diphtheria antitoxin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.573.601.849 - ... antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH D12.776.124.790.651.114.301.268 - botulinum antitoxin MeSH ... D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.438 - diphtheria antitoxin MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.849 - tetanus antitoxin MeSH D12.776. ...
Developed vaccines, antibodies and antitoxins for deadly agents of bioterrorism such as Ebola, botulinum neurotoxins, and ...
As no antitoxin to type H is yet available, discovered in 2013 and by far the deadliest, details are kept under shroud. A few ... botulinum), and wound botulism (infection of a wound with C. botulinum). C. botulinum produces heat-resistant endospores that ... C. botulinum is a diverse group of pathogenic bacteria initially grouped together by their ability to produce botulinum toxin ... This has led to the reclassification of C. botulinum type G strains as a new species, C. argentinense. Group I C. botulinum ...
Out of 324 soup cans, five were found to be contaminated with botulinum toxin, all in the initial batch of vichyssoise that was ... 28 persons were hospitalized, and 20 patients were treated with an antitoxin. 12 patients required ventilatory support and 1 ... All patients were hospitalized and 33 received trivalent botulinal antitoxin. There were two deaths. Botulism (Type A ...
... the botulinum toxicoses, and anthrax; Antitoxins for diseases such as botulism; Human immune globulin preparations (passive ... The products included diagnostic reagents and procedures, drugs, vaccines, toxoids, and antitoxins. Emphasis is placed on ... an antidote to botulinum toxin, and better treatments for exposure to chemical and radiological weapons. This was a ten-year ...
At the Army Medical School he developed a test for Clostridium botulinum toxin in canned foods. He worked in Harvard from 1933 ... He worked on an anthrax vaccine apart from tetanus antitoxins. In 1918 he was inducted into the Veterinary Corps as a ...
Well-known exotoxins include: botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin, produced ... In such cases, antitoxin, anti-serum containing antibodies, can sometimes be injected to provide passive immunity. Many ... These retain their antigenic specificity and can be used to produce antitoxins and, in the case of diphtheria and tetanus ...
... botulinum neurotoxins, Clostridium difficile toxins). Many pathogens show increasing resistance to currently available drugs, ... "Protection Against Clostridium difficile Infection With Broadly Neutralizing Antitoxin Monoclonal Antibodies". The Journal of ... "A three monoclonal antibody combination potently neutralizes multiple botulinum neurotoxin serotype F subtypes". PLOS ONE. 12 ( ...
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a group of neurotoxins consisting of eight distinct compounds, referred to as BTX-A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, ... Due to its high toxicity, BTX antitoxins have been an active area of research. It has been shown that capsaicin (active ... Similar to botulinum toxin, Cltx has been shown to possess significant therapeutic value. Evidence has shown that Cltx can ... Though assisted ventilation may increase the chance of survival after TTX exposure, there is currently no antitoxin. The use of ...
As opposed to the classic cause of botulism, C. botulinum, its environmental source is unknown. Therefore, it is unclear how to ... Newborns can recover spontaneously or as in two known cases improve with injected botulism antitoxin. As of 2015[update], the ...
In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus immunoglobulin (also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin). It ... Foran P, Shone CC, Dolly JO (December 1994). "Differences in the protease activities of tetanus and botulinum B toxins revealed ... In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ... Porter JD, Perkin MA, Corbel MJ, Farrington CP, Watkins JT, Begg NT (1992). "Lack of early antitoxin response to tetanus ...
Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin. ... She is also known for preparing, during 1935-1936, the standard for gas gangrene toxins and anti-toxins. One of Bengtson's ... Bengtson's scientific achievement was also in the study of an organism called Clostridium botulinum, which causes a paralytic ...
Botulinum toxin was found, and samples were sent to the distinguished microbiologist Bruce White. The most significant sample ... The incident ultimately led to anti-toxins being made more easily available and packaging of preserved food was changed to ...
In order to find the moment when most antitoxins in the blood cells of the horses is produced, frequent blood samples were ... and botulinum. However, these were not widely used. In 1984, Milstein and Köhler won a Nobel Prize for their paper that ... The most common use of antiserum in humans is as antitoxin or antivenom to treat envenomation. Serum therapy, also known as ... he discovered that the body continually produces an antitoxin, which prevents survivors of infections from being infected again ...
In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ... This cluster includes other pathogenic Clostridium species such as C. botulinum and C. perfringens. The closest relative to C. ...
... -antitoxin system Harper, Douglas. "toxin". Online Etymology Dictionary. "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster ... such as botulinum toxin). Toxins are often distinguished from other chemical agents strictly based on their biological origin. ...
... botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & ... Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum ... encoded search term (botulinum antitoxin%2C heptavalent (HBAT)) and botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent (HBAT) What to Read Next ... Replaces licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB) and investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-E) ...
... botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & ... Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum ... encoded search term (botulinum antitoxin%2C heptavalent (HBAT)) and botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent (HBAT) What to Read Next ... Replaces licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB) and investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-E) ...
Botulinum antitoxin Unlicensed/C* Botulism Cidofovir C Vaccinia, monkeypox, smallpox Ciprofloxacin C Anthrax, plague, tularemia ...
Twenty (83%) patients received botulinum antitoxin; 11 patients with mild illness did not receive antitoxin. ... with botulinum toxin type A detected in a serum or stool specimen or Clostridium botulinum cultured from a stool specimen; a ... Possible sources of Clostridium botulinum or toxin include tomato paste, potatoes, other ingredients, or contamination from the ...
Polyvalent botulinum antitoxin. *A safer second generation smallpox vaccine.. *Initial evaluation of treatments for radiation ...
"Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB and Investigational Botulinum ... the CDC replaced the licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB) and the investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E ... This action left BAT as the only botulinum antitoxin available in the US for naturally occurring non-infant botulism. On March ... "HBAT (botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more". reference.medscape.com. ...
CDHS dispatched botulinum antitoxin to the hospital, and it was administered to the couple. Both patients were hospitalized for ... Botulinum toxin was not detected in serum or stool samples from the patients. However, Clostridium botulinum type A was ... Treatment is based on supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin; recovery can take from weeks to months. ... CDHS Microbial Diseases Laboratory found both C. botulinum type A and botulinum toxin type A in the fermented tofu samples, ...
Botulism is a disease caused by the neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum. This microorganism is a spore-forming, gram-positive ... Intensive supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin are vital.. Administration of human-derived botulinum ... Botulinum neurotoxins, whether directly ingested, produced in a C botulinum contaminated wound, or produced by C botulinum ... Botulism, although rare, is a potentially lethal illness caused by the botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum and ...
Botulinum antitoxin has been used for treatment with varying degrees of success, depending on the type of toxin involved and ... Also see Botulism Botulism .) Dogs, cats, and pigs are comparatively resistant to all types of botulinum toxin when challenged ... There are seven types of C botulinum, differentiated by the antigenic specificity of the toxins: A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G. ... Toxicoinfectious botulism is the term given the disease in which C botulinum grows in tissues of a living animal and produces ...
Categories: Botulinum Antitoxin Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
... botulinum antitoxin was administered (5). Stool sample was negative for botulinum toxin and botulinum toxin-producing ... Source of botulinum antitoxin products needs clarification. Pediatr Ann. 2010;39:261-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Botulinum antitoxin was not administered at that time because asymmetric neurologic deficits and lack of exposure to injection- ... Two food items consumed by the patient were submitted for CDC analysis; both were negative for botulinum toxin and botulinum ...
Patients receiving botulinum antitoxin on day 4 had decreased ventilator dependency. In addition, for patients with foodborne ... Mobile teams treated patients with botulinum antitoxin on day 4 or day 6 after exposure in Nan Hospital (Nan, Thailand). ... Conclusions: Patients receiving botulinum antitoxin on day 4 had decreased ventilator dependency. In addition, for patients ... survival analysis identified a shorter period of ventilator dependency among patients receiving botulinum antitoxin on day 4 (P ...
Botulism was suspected, and both patients received botulinum antitoxin. Our male patient survived but underwent prolonged ...
Antitoxin A heptavalent equine botulinum antitoxin (HBAT [A to G]) is available in the United States; it replaces the older ... Heptavalent equine botulinum antitoxin is not used for infant botulism; a human botulinum globulin is given instead. ... Give heptavalent equine botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) via the ... All patients who require the antitoxin must be reported to state health authorities, who then request the antitoxin from the ...
... botulinum antitoxin is derived from equine sources using whole antibodies. The second antitoxin is heptavalent botulinum ... Botulinum toxin, or botulinum neurotoxin (commonly called botox), is a highly potent neurotoxic protein produced by the ... Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available for treatment of botulism. Trivalent (serotypes A, B, E) ... Botulinum toxin B is sold under the brand name Myobloc.[14]. In the United States, botulinum toxin products are manufactured by ...
After the suspect case was reported, the patient did receive botulinum antitoxin (BAT). The presence of botulinum neurotoxin ...
Tags: antitoxin, botulism, Clostridium botulinum, Ministry of Health, street food, Vietnam, World Health Organization (WHO) ... The World Health Organization (WHO) was involved in finding a supply of antitoxin to treat botulinum poisoning, which has now ... Botulinum poisoning is a rare but life-threatening condition, caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. It ... Clostridium botulinum type B was detected in three opened tins of pâté collected from the homes of patients. ...
f) Antitoxin: A solution of antibodies (e.g., diphtheria antitoxin and botulinum antitoxin) derived from the serum of animals ... Antitoxins are used to confer passive immunity and for treatment. For a list of antitoxins, see Table 2.. Vaccination and ... Botulinum antitoxin Specific equine antibodies Treatment of botulism Cytomegalovirus immune Specific human antibodies ... Immune globulins and antitoxins available in the U.S., by type. Recommended schedule for routine vaccination of infants & ...
... disorder that causes potentially life-threatening neuroparalysis due to a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The ... FDA approves first Botulism Antitoxin for use in neutralizing all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes. FDA NEWS RELEASE ... Seven antigenically distinct C botulinum toxins are known, including A, B, C, D, E, F, and G [4] . Each strain of C botulinum ... Safety and Improved Clinical Outcomes in Patients Treated With New Equine-Derived Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin. Clin Infect ...
We exploited an equine neutralizing monovalent antitoxin (Botulinum Type A antitoxin from National Institute for Biological ... control vs antitoxin, p , 0.001; control vs horse serum, p = 1.000; horse serum vs antitoxin, p = 0.001; Fig. 4B,C). These ... before intracisternal injection of botulinum Type A antitoxin (20 IU). c-SNAP-25 staining (red) is basically absent in the FN ... antitoxin 1 d later), although it is normally present ipsilateral to BoNT/A administered 5 d before antitoxin (right FN, i.e., ...
... disorder that causes potentially life-threatening neuroparalysis due to a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The ... Replaces licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB) and investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-E). To ... Equine-derived antitoxin that elicits passive antibody (ie, immediate immunity) against Clostridium botulinum toxins A, B, C, D ... FDA Approves First Botulism Antitoxin for Use in Neutralizing All Seven Known Botulinum Nerve Toxin Serotypes. FDA. Mar 22 2013 ...
The new antitoxin includes antibodies against all 7 botulinum neurotoxin types (A-G). A human-derived antitoxin (BabyBIG) has ... The new antitoxin includes antibodies against all 7 botulinum neurotoxin types (A-G). A human-derived antitoxin (BabyBIG) has ... BabyBIG botulism antitoxin The FDA has approved the use of an equine heptavalent botulism antitoxin (BAT, Cangene Corporation ... The heptavalent product is now the preferred antitoxin for adult botulism. It is a solution of immunoglobulin fragments ...
botulinum antitoxin. botulinum antitoxin. Vaccines administered (CVX). Vaccines administered (CVX). Details. 26. cholera. ...
Botulinum. Botulinum antitoxin. 4.. Beta blockers. Glucagon. 5.. Benzodiazepine. Flumazenil. 6.. Caffeine. Esmolol and ...
2010hbat-botulinum-antitoxin-heptavalent-999488. Drugs botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent * 2001/viewarticle/888442 ...
90287 (CPT) - Botulinum antitoxin, equine, any route *90288 (CPT) - Botulism immune globulin, human, for intravenous use ... 90296 (CPT) - Diphtheria antitoxin, equine, any route *90371 (CPT) - Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg), human, for ...
The only effective post-exposure therapy is botulinum antitoxin; however, such products have great potential for improvement. ... A human bispecific antibody neutralizes botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. Lu, Jiansheng; Jiang, Yujia; Guo, Jiazheng; Chen, Lei ... Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) shows high lethality and toxicity, marking it as an important biological threat. ...
Antitoxin A heptavalent equine botulinum antitoxin (HBAT [A to G]) is available in the United States; it replaces the older ... Heptavalent equine botulinum antitoxin is not used for infant botulism; a human botulinum globulin is given instead. ... Give heptavalent equine botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) via the ... All patients who require the antitoxin must be reported to state health authorities, who then request the antitoxin from the ...

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