Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Amygdalin: A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Xanthomonas axonopodis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus XANTHOMONAS, which causes citrus cankers and black rot in plants.Garlic: One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.Thiophanate: Nematocide used in livestock; also has fungicidal properties.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Peronospora: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.BelgiumAscomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.

Cloning and partial characterization of endopolygalacturonase genes from Botrytis cinerea. (1/339)

Botrytis cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus infecting over 200 different plant species. We use a molecular genetic approach to study the process of pectin degradation by the fungus. Recently, we described the cloning and characterization of an endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) gene from B. cinerea (Bcpg1) which is required for full virulence. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of five additional endoPG-encoding genes from B. cinerea SAS56. The identity at the amino acid level between the six endoPGs of B. cinerea varied from 34 to 73%. Phylogenetic analysis, by using a group of 35 related fungal endoPGs and as an outgroup one plant PG, resulted in the identification of five monophyletic groups of closely related proteins. The endoPG proteins from B. cinerea SAS56 could be assigned to three different monophyletic groups. DNA blot analysis revealed the presence of the complete endoPG gene family in other strains of B. cinerea, as well as in other Botrytis species. Differential gene expression of the gene family members was found in mycelium grown in liquid culture with either glucose or polygalacturonic acid as the carbon source.  (+info)

Processing, targeting, and antifungal activity of stinging nettle agglutinin in transgenic tobacco. (2/339)

The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. ) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism.  (+info)

Requirement of functional ethylene-insensitive 2 gene for efficient resistance of Arabidopsis to infection by Botrytis cinerea. (3/339)

Inoculation of wild-type Arabidopsis plants with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola results in systemic induction of genes encoding a plant defensin (PDF1.2), a basic chitinase (PR-3), and an acidic hevein-like protein (PR-4). Pathogen-induced induction of these three genes is almost completely abolished in the ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1. This indicates that a functional ethylene signal transduction component (EIN2) is required in this response. The ein2-1 mutants were found to be markedly more susceptible than wild-type plants to infection by two different strains of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, no increased fungal colonization of ein2-1 mutants was observed after challenge with avirulent strains of either Peronospora parasitica or A. brassicicola. Our data support the conclusion that ethylene-controlled responses play a role in resistance of Arabidopsis to some but not all types of pathogens.  (+info)

Redox chemistry in laccase-catalyzed oxidation of N-hydroxy compounds. (4/339)

1-Hydroxybenzotriazole, violuric acid, and N-hydroxyacetanilide are three N-OH compounds capable of mediating a range of laccase-catalyzed biotransformations, such as paper pulp delignification and degradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons. The mechanism of their enzymatic oxidation was studied with seven fungal laccases. The oxidation had a bell-shaped pH-activity profile with an optimal pH ranging from 4 to 7. The oxidation rate was found to be dependent on the redox potential difference between the N-OH substrate and laccase. A laccase with a higher redox potential or an N-OH compound with a lower redox potential tended to have a higher oxidation rate. Similar to the enzymatic oxidation of phenols, phenoxazines, phenothiazines, and other redox-active compounds, an "outer-sphere" type of single-electron transfer from the substrate to laccase and proton release are speculated to be involved in the rate-limiting step for N-OH oxidation.  (+info)

The BMP1 gene is essential for pathogenicity in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. (5/339)

In Magnaporthe grisea, a well-conserved mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase gene, PMK1, is essential for fungal pathogenesis. In this study, we tested whether the same MAP kinase is essential for plant infection in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogen that employs infection mechanisms different from those of M. grisea. We used a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to isolate MAP kinase homologues from B. cinerea. The Botrytis MAP kinase required for pathogenesis (BMP) MAP kinase gene is highly homologous to the M. grisea PMK1. BMP1 is a single-copy gene. bmp1 gene replacement mutants produced normal conidia and mycelia but were reduced in growth rate on nutrient-rich medium. bmp1 mutants were nonpathogenic on carnation flowers and tomato leaves. Re-introduction of the wild-type BMP1 allele into the bmp1 mutant restored both normal growth rate and pathogenicity. Further studies indicated that conidia from bmp1 mutants germinated on plant surfaces but failed to penetrate and macerate plant tissues. bmp1 mutants also appeared to be defective in infecting through wounds. These results indicated that BMP1 is essential for plant infection in B. cinerea, and this MAP kinase pathway may be widely conserved in pathogenic fungi for regulating infection processes.  (+info)

A new method to monitor airborne inoculum of the fungal plant pathogens Mycosphaerella brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea. (6/339)

We describe a new microtiter immunospore trapping device (MTIST device) that uses a suction system to directly trap air particulates by impaction in microtiter wells. This device can be used for rapid detection and immunoquantification of ascospores of Mycosphaerella brassicicola and conidia of Botrytis cinerea by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) under controlled environmental conditions. For ascospores of M. brassicicola correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.943 and 0.9514 were observed for the number of MTIST device-impacted ascospores per microtiter well and the absorbance values determined by ELISA, respectively. These values were not affected when a mixed fungal spore population was used. There was a relationship between the number of MTIST device-trapped ascospores of M. brassicicola per liter of air sampled and the amount of disease expressed on exposed plants of Brassica oleracea (Brussels sprouts). Similarly, when the MTIST device was used to trap conidia of B. cinerea, a correlation coefficient of 0.8797 was obtained for the absorbance values generated by the ELISA and the observed number of conidia per microtiter well. The relative collection efficiency of the MTIST device in controlled plant growth chambers with limited airflow was 1.7 times greater than the relative collection efficiency of a Burkard 7-day volumetric spore trap for collection of M. brassicicola ascospores. The MTIST device can be used to rapidly differentiate, determine, and accurately quantify target organisms in a microflora. The MTIST device is a portable, robust, inexpensive system that can be used to perform multiple tests in a single sampling period, and it should be useful for monitoring airborne particulates and microorganisms in a range of environments.  (+info)

The hypersensitive response facilitates plant infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. (7/339)

BACKGROUND: Plants have evolved efficient mechanisms to combat pathogen attack. One of the earliest responses to attempted pathogen attack is the generation of oxidative burst that can trigger hypersensitive cell death. This is called the hypersensitive response (HR) and is considered to be a major element of plant disease resistance. The HR is thought to deprive the pathogens of a supply of food and confine them to initial infection site. Necrotrophic pathogens, such as the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, however, can utilize dead tissue. RESULTS: Inoculation of B. cinerea induced an oxidative burst and hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis. The degree of B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum pathogenicity was directly dependent on the level of generation and accumulation of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. Plant cells exhibited markers of HR death, such as nuclear condensation and induction of the HR-specific gene HSR203J. Growth of B. cinerea was suppressed in the HR-deficient mutant dnd1, and enhanced by HR caused by simultaneous infection with an avirulent strain of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. HR had an opposite (inhibitory) effect on a virulent (biotrophic) strain of P. syringae. Moreover, H(2)O(2) levels during HR correlated positively with B. cinerea growth but negatively with growth of virulent P. syringae. CONCLUSIONS: We show that, although hypersensitive cell death is efficient against biotrophic pathogens, it does not protect plants against infection by the necrotrophic pathogens B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum. By contrast, B. cinerea triggers HR, which facilitates its colonization of plants. Hence, these fungi can exploit a host defense mechanism for their pathogenicity.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a hexapeptide with activity against phytopathogenic fungi that cause postharvest decay in fruits. (8/339)

A hexapeptide of amino acid sequence Ac-Arg-Lys-Thr-Trp-Phe-Trp-NH2 was demonstrated to have antimicrobial activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi that cause postharvest decay in fruits. The peptide synthesized with either all D- or all L-amino acids inhibited the in vitro growth of strains of Penicilium italicum, P. digitatum, and Botrytis cinerea, with MICs of 60 to 80 microM and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 30 to 40 microM. The inhibitory activity of the peptide was both sequence- and fungus-specific since (i) sequence-related peptides lacked activity (including one with five residues identical to the active sequence), (ii) other filamentous fungi (including some that belong to the genus Penicllium) were insensitive to the peptide's antifungal action, and (iii) the peptide did not inhibit the growth of several yeast and bacterial strains assayed. Experiments on P. digitatum identified conidial germination as particularly sensitive to inhibition although mycelial growth was also affected. Our findings suggest that the inhibitory effect is initially driven by the electrostatic interaction of the peptide with fungal components. The antifungal peptide retarded the blue and green mold diseases of citrus fruits and the gray mold of tomato fruits under controlled inoculation conditions, thus providing evidence for the feasibility of using very short peptides in plant protection. This and previous studies with related peptides indicate some degree of peptide amino acid sequence and structure conservation associated with the antimicrobial activity, and suggest a general sequence layout for short antifungal peptides, consisting of one or two positively charged residues combined with aromatic amino acid residues.  (+info)

*Botrytis

... may refer to: Botrytis, the anamorphs of fungi of the genus Botryotinia Botrytis cinerea, a mold important in wine ... making Botrytis, the cauliflower cultivar group of Brassica oleracea. ...

*Botrytis fabae

... is a plant pathogen, a fungus that causes chocolate spot disease of broad or fava bean plants, Vicia faba. It ... Chocolate spot disease caused by Botrytis fabae manifests itself as small red-brown spots on leaves, stems and flowers of broad ... 1974). "Botrytis fabae". CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. 432. ...

*Ramaria botrytis

Other species with which R. botrytis may be confused include: R. formosa, which has branches that are pinker than R. botrytis, ... Obsolete historical synonyms include Gotthold Hahn's 1883 Corallium botrytis and A. A. Pearson's variety Clavaria botrytis var ... botrytis by its smooth spores. The European species R. rielii, often confused with R. botrytis and sometimes considered ... Ramaria botrytis is a "snowbank fungus", meaning it commonly fruits near the edges of melting snowbanks in the spring. In Korea ...

*Botrytis squamosa

"Onion-Botrytis Leaf Blight(Botrytis squamosa)". Vegetable MD online, Cornell University. Shoemaker, P.B. "Timing initial ... Botrytis squamosa (teleomorph: Botryotinia squamosa) is a fungus that causes leaf blight on onion (often termed 'blast') that ... Sutton, John (1983). "Relation of weather and host factors to an epidemic of Botrytis leaf blight in onions". Canadian Journal ... Alderman, S.C. (1984). "Influence of leaf position and maturity on development of Botrytis squamosa in onion leaves" (PDF). ...

*Botrytis narcissicola

INFECTION OF NARCISSUS BY BOTRYTIS NARCISSICOLA AND BOTRYTIS CINEREA. 1980. Hong SK1, Kim WG, Cho WD, Kim HG. Occurrence of ... Botrytis narcissicola is a plant pathogen, a fungus that causes narcissus smoulder of daffodils, genus Narcissus. T.M. O'Neill ... Narcissus Smoulder Caused by Botrytis narcissicola in Korea. Mycobiology. 2007 Dec;35(4):235-7. DOI: 10.4489/MYCO.2007.35.4.235 ...

*Botrytis (fungus)

Botrytis aclada Botrytis allii Botrytis allii-fistulosi Botrytis ampelophila Botrytis anacardii Botrytis anthophila Botrytis ... argillacea Botrytis arisaemae Botrytis artocarpi Botrytis bifurcata Botrytis bryi Botrytis capsularum Botrytis carnea Botrytis ... Botrytis cinerea Botrytis citricola Botrytis citrina Botrytis convallariae Botrytis croci Botrytis cryptomeriae Botrytis densa ... Botrytis diospyri Botrytis elliptica Botrytis fabae Botrytis fabiopsis Botrytis galanthina Botrytis gladioli Botrytis gossypina ...

*Ulocladium botrytis

The U. botrytis MAT genes have lost the ability to regulate sexual reproduction in U. botrytis; however, they have the ability ... The allergic symptoms caused by U. botrytis are compatible with rhinitis and asthma; however, U. botrytis was also found in ... Dodecane and 9,10,12,13-tetrahydroxyheneicosanoic acid were also found as metabolites of U. botrytis. Another U. botrytis ... botrytis MAT genes are essential for controlling colony size and asexual traits such as conidial size and number in U.botrytis ...

*Botrytis allii

"Botrytis Species Associated with Neck Rot, Scape Blight, and Umbel Blight of Onion." Detection and Identification of Botrytis ... "Botrytis allii Munn: 396, 1917". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2013-03-31. "Botrytis allii Munn". ... Botrytis allii poses a threat to that value because it can potentially cause a 50% reduction in yield if left unchecked. These ... Botrytis allii is a plant pathogen, a fungus that causes neck rot in stored onions (Allium cepa) and related crops. Its ...

*Botrytis cinerea

Genome information for Botrytis cinerea Genome analysis of Botrytis cinerea Choquer M, Fournier E, Kunz C, et al. (December ... Botrytis cinerea ("botrytis" from Ancient Greek botrys (βότρυς) meaning "grapes" plus the New Latin suffix -itis for disease) ... Botrytis complicates winemaking by making fermentation more complex. Botrytis produces an anti-fungal that kills yeast and ... Botrytis bunch rot is another condition of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea that causes great losses for the wine industry. It ...

*Botrytis-induced kinase 1

As its name suggests, BIK1 is only active after being induced by Botrytis infection. When Botrytis cinerea is present, the BIK1 ... Current research regarding Botrytis-induced kinase1 aims to determine how BIK1 interacts with MAPK pathway proteins as well as ... When Botrytis cinerea or Alternaria brassicicola or any other necrotrophic pathogen is present, BIK1 is transcribed to regulate ... Botrytis-induced kinase 1 (BIK1) is a membrane-anchored kinase that provides resistance to necrotrophic and biotrophic ...

*Cauliflower

botrytis) contains beta-carotene as the orange pigment, a provitamin A compound. This orange trait originated from a natural ... botrytis)". American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628. "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for ... Cultivars include 'Cheddar' and 'Orange Bouquet'. Green Green cauliflower, of the B. oleracea botrytis group, is sometimes ...

*Nago-Torbole

botrytis). This variety of cauliflower or broccoflower was imported from Verona around the middle of the eighteenth century. ...

*Prochloraz

The agent is a broad-spectrum, protective and curative fungicide, effective against Alternaria spp., Botrytis spp., Erysiphe ...

*Cabbage

botrytis), Brussels sprouts (var. gemmifera) and savoy cabbage (var. sabauda) which are sometimes called cole crops. Cabbage ...

*Hyaloperonospora parasitica

Synonyms: Botrytis parasitica Pers., 1796 ... http://www.mycobank.org/Biolomics.aspx?Table=Mycobank&MycoBankNr_=374990[full ...

*2,4,6-Trichloroanisole

Botrytis cinerea, Rhizobium sp., or Streptomyces) are presented with chlorinated phenolic compounds, which they then convert ...

*Verticillium wilt

botrytis (Cauliflower) Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cabbage) Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera (Brussel Sprouts) Buxus (Box ...

*List of honey plants

botrytis L. Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Brassica oleracea L. var. gemnifera Brassica oleracea L. var. gongyloides Eruca ...

*Amphobotrys ricini

1973). "Botrytis and Botrytis-like genera". Persoonia. 7 (2): 183-204 (see p. 192). Amphobotrys ricini in Index Fungorum. ... Originally described as a species of Botrytis in 1949, it was transferred to the genus Amphobotrys in 1973. "GSD Species ...

*Noble rot

Pest Management Guidelines for Grape Botrytis Bunch Rot The Ohio State University Botrytis Bunch Rot Fact Sheet Botrytis Genome ... Botrytis cinerea, affecting wine grapes. Infestation by Botrytis requires moist conditions. If the weather stays wet, the ... Botrytis has also been imported for use by winemakers in California and Australia. A Short History of Riesling Karen MacNeil ... Grapes typically become infected with Botrytis when they are ripe. If they are then exposed to drier conditions and become ...

*Rhizinaceae

1973). "Botrytis and Botrytis-like genera". Persoonia. 7 (2): 183-204. Bonorden HF. (1851). Handbuch der allgemeinen Mykologie ...

*Maria Ragland Davis

Cold induced Botrytis cinerea enolase (BcEnol-1) functions as a transcriptional regulator and is controlled by cAMP. Molecular ... Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Botrytis cinerea Secretome. J. Proteome Res., 2009, 8 (3), pgs. 1123-30, Punit Shah, James A ... "Cold induced Botrytis cinerea enolase (BcEnol-1) functions as a transcriptional regulator and is controlled by cAMP". Molecular ...

*Cerevisterol

A 9-hydroxylated analogue of cerevisterol was found in R. botrytis. A modified version of the compound, (22E, 24R)-cerevisterol ... Yaoita Y, Satoh Y, Kikuchi M (2007). "A new ceramide from Ramaria botrytis (Pers.) Ricken". Journal of Natural Medicine. 61 (2 ... and the coral fungus Ramaria botrytis. In the division Ascomycota, it has been reported in Auricularia polytricha, Bulgaria ...

*Damping off

Botrytis cinerea - also known as "grey mould". Symptoms caused by this often accompany other symptoms. Fusarium species. ...

*List of pests and diseases of roses

On petals botrytis cinerea produces pink rings. Verticillium wilt (Class Incertae sedis: Family Verticillium) Verticillium ... Grey mould (Class Leotiomycetes: Family Sclerotiniceae) Botrytis cinerea - On roses grey mould is primarily a disease of the ...
Literature Cited. 1. Black, L. L., McInnes, T. B., and Gatti, J. M. 1990. Evaluation of fungicides for control of strawberry fruit rots in Louisiana. Adv. Strawberry Prod. 9:33-36.. 2. Braun, P. G., and Sutton, J. C. 1987. Inoculum sources of Botrytis cinerea in fruit rot of strawberries in Ontario. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 9:1-5.. 3. Brent, K. J., and Hollomon, D. W. 2007. Fungicide resistance in crop pathogens: How can it be managed? FRAC Monagraph No. 1, 2nd Edn. Fungicide Resistance Action Committee, CropLife International A.I.S.B.L., Brussels, Belgium.. 4. Bristow, P. R., McNicol, R. J., and Williamson, B. 1986. Infection of strawberry flowers by Botrytis cinerea and its relevance to grey mould development. Ann. Appl. Biol. 109:545-554.. 5. Bulger, M. A., Ellis, M. A., and Madden, L. V. 1987. Influence of temperature and wetness duration on infection of strawberry flowers by Botrytis cinerea and disease incidence of fruit originating from infected flowers. Phytopathology 77:1225-1230.. 6. ...
The genetic architecture of plant defense against microbial pathogens may be influenced by pathogen lifestyle. While plant interactions with biotrophic pathogens are frequently controlled by the action of large-effect resistance genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that plant defense against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Few studies of quantitative resistance to necrotrophic pathogens have used large plant mapping populations to dissect the genetic structure of resistance. Using a large structured mapping population of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified quantitative trait loci influencing plant response to B. cinerea, measured as expansion of necrotic lesions on leaves and accumulation of the antimicrobial compound camalexin. Testing multiple B. cinerea isolates, we identified 23 separate QTL in this population, ranging in isolate-specificity from being identified with a single isolate to controlling ...
The plant hormone ethylene regulates fruit ripening, other developmental processes, and a subset of defense responses. Here, we show that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS)-silenced apple (Malus domestica) fruit that express a sense construct of ACS were more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea than untransformed apple, demonstrating that ethylene strengthens fruit resistance to B. cinerea infection. Because ethylene response factors (ERFs) are known to contribute to resistance against B. cinerea via the ethylene-signaling pathway, we cloned four ERF cDNAs from fruit of M. domestica: MdERF3, -4, -5, and -6. Expression of all four MdERF mRNAs was ethylene dependent and induced by wounding or by B. cinerea infection. B. cinerea infection suppressed rapid induction of wound-related MdERF expression. MdERF3 was the only mRNA induced by wounding and B. cinerea infection in ACS-suppressed apple fruit, although its induction was reduced compared with wild-type apple. Promoter regions of ...
Literature Cited. 1. Beever, R. E., and Weeds, P. L. 2004. Taxonomy and genetic variation of Botrytis and Botryotinia. Pages 29-52 in: Botrytis: Biology, Pathology and Control. Y. Elad, B. Williamson, P. Tudzynski, and N. Delen, eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers.. 2. DiCosmo, F., Nag Raj, T. R., and Kendrick, W. B. 1984. A revision of the Phacidiaceae and related anamorphs. Mycotaxon 21:1-234.. 3. Coley-Smith, J. R., Verhoeff, K., and Jarvis, W. R. 1980. The Biology of Botrytis. Academic Press.. 4. Faretra, F., Antonacci, E., and Pollastro, S. 1988. Sexual behaviour and mating system of Botryotinia fuckeliana, teleomorph of Botrytis cinerea. Journal of General Microbiology 134:2543-2550.. 5. Farr, D. F., Bills, G. F., Chamuris, G. P., and Rossman, A. Y. 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.. 6. Kim, Y. K., Xiao, C. L., and Rogers, J. D. 2005. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and ...
Botrytis is, in almost all cases bad for wine grapes. There is on very specific wine style that is can help, called "Noble rot".. Firstly "Noble Rot" and "Botrytis Bunch Rot" in grapes are both caused by the same organism - Botrytis cinerea. Often in photographs both rots will look the same the difference being one is considered a problem the other a desirable trait!. Grapes are susceptible to this fungus as they ripen and produce sugar. Generally it causes a bunch rot that is bad for grape quality, it turns grapes mouldy, as mention above commonly known as "Bunch Rot", "Botrytis Rot" or "Grey Rot". It also creates conditions favorable for the growth of other nastiness like yeast, mould, and bacteria are we call secondary rots. These rots are even worse for grape quality with some being toxic! ...
The simultaneous suppression of the tomato fruit ripening-associated LePG and LeExp1 expression reduces susceptibility to B. cinerea infection during ripening, whereas suppression of LePG or LeExp1 alone does not reduce susceptibility, indicating that PG and Exp act cooperatively to support both softening (4, 22, 23, 29) and full pathogenicity of B. cinerea. The host CW is a primary target during B. cinerea growth on plant tissue (30). B. cinerea possesses a wide array of CWDEs (31, 32), including six PGs (33). B. cinerea mutants of either BcPG1 or BcPG2 resulted in significantly decreased virulence on multiple hosts, including tomato (5, 8). In addition, the ectopic expression of a potent PG-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from pear fruit (pPGIP) reduced the susceptibility of ripe tomato fruit to B. cinerea infection (6). Thus, the pathogens ability to efficiently disassemble the tomato fruit CW appears to be critical for full virulence. Although the pathogen apparently possesses the required tools ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Various studies revealed that Botrytis cinerea, the causal pathogen of Botrytis bunch rot, is mostly associated with pedicels, rachises, laterals and berry bases, and not with berry skins as previously understood. Provided that sufficient coverage of inner bunch parts was achieved, laboratory studies have shown that fungicides can effectively reduce the amount of B. cinerea at the various positions in bunches, and prevent infection and symptom expression at all growth stages. The same efficacy was, however, not achieved with the same fungicides when using conventional spraying methods in vineyards. Poor disease control on fruit and leaves in vineyards is attributed to inappropriate timing of fungicide applications and/or insufficient coverage of susceptible tissue. Previously, spray coverage evaluations in South Africa were based on the use of water-sensitive cards. A variety of other methods have been used to assess spray coverage in vineyards, but none of these methods could ...
The signal peptides prediction algorithm SignalP v3.0, subcellular protein location prediction algorithm TargetP.v1.1, potential GPI-anchor sites prediction algorithm big-PI predictor, trans-membrane domains prediction algorithm TMHMM v2.0 and bioinformatics algorithm MEME were used to analyze 16446 protein sequences ofBotrytis cinerea. The results showed that there were 579 deduced secretary proteins. Among these proteins, the minimum and maximum of open read frame were 102 bp and 4848 bps respectively and mean score was 1271 bps. The signal peptides length was concentrated to 16~39 amino acids and the average length was 21. 122 of these proteins contain the highly conserved host-targeting-motif RxLx within 100 residues adjacent to the signal peptide cleavage site. According to PEDNAT and COG of GenBank database, this motifs functions include metabolism modification and cell secretion etc. We blast those putative secretary proteins with RxLx motif in GenBenk and found 47.54% of them have highly
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15:1147-1156...Kris Audenaert , 1 Theresa Pattery , 2 Pierre Cornelis , 2 and Monica Höfte 1...© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society...The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 produces secondary metabolites such as pyochelin (Pch), its precursor salicylic acid (SA), and the phenazine compound pyocyanin. Both 7NSK2 and mutant KMPCH (Pch-negative, SA-positive) induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in wild-type but not in tra...
Synthesis of New Hydrated Geranylphenols and in Vitro Antifungal Activity against Botrytis cinerea. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Plants are exposed to many environmental stresses that affect their growth and development. These stresses include biotic stresses (via organisms) and abiotic stresses (via environment). Plants respond to these stresses by transcriptional reprogramming and different signaling pathways. Arabidopsis thaliana has shown great sensitivity to the biotic stress Botrytis cinerea. The WRKY33 gene plays an important role in plant defense mechanism against this pathogen. The overall goal is to identify common regulated genes of wrky33 mutant and 35S:WRKY33 over expressing transgenic lines in response to B. cinerea; ultimately to improve plant stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. The specific aims are to: (1) identify Arabidopsis regulated genes in response to B. cinerea infection; (2) determine common up- and down-regulated genes in response to B. cinerea infection in Arabidopsis wrky33 mutant and 35S:WRKY33 overexpression lines; and (3) characterize the function of the common genes in response to B. cinerea. To
Arabidopsis BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 protein: The BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 gene encodes an R2R3MYB transcription factor protein that is required for biotic and abiotic stress responses; amino acid sequence in first source
In the Winery What are the changes in fruit composition after a Botrytis infection? What impacts can these changes have on the must and wine produced? What can we do to minimize the damage?
A research team led by a University of California, Riverside molecular plant pathologist has discovered the mechanism by which an aggressive fungal pathogen infects almost all fruits and vegetables. The team discovered a novel virulence mechanism of Botrytis cinerea, a pathogen that can infect more than 200 plant species, causing serious gray mold disease on almost all fruits and vegetables that have been around, even at times in the refrigerator, for more than a week.
Botrytis alliiMunn is capable of attacking young onion plants without impeding the growth of the plants, provided conditions for infection are favourable. Infected green leaves are symptomless since...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Botrytis -- Discover Life
Fig. S1 The expression levels of RAP2.2 in the wildtype, ctr1, etr1 and ein2 plants.. Fig. S2 The identification of the T-DNA insertion mutant rap2.12-1.. Fig. S3 Root lengths of the wild-type, rap2.2-3, rap2.12-1, rap2.2-3 rap2.12-1 and ein2 mutants under 10 μM ACC treatment.. Fig. S4 Hypocotyl (a) and root (b) lengths of ctr1, rap2.2-3 ctr1, rap2.12-1 ctr1, rap2.2-3 rap2.12-1 ctr1 and the wildtype plants after 3 d incubation in the dark.. Table S1 Primers for quantitative RT-PCR. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell are not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the New Phytologist Central Office. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Ascomycota; saccharomyceta; Pezizomycotina; leotiomyceta; sordariomyceta; Leotiomycetes; Helotiales; Sclerotiniaceae; Botrytis; Botrytis ...
It is confined to older flowers during cold damp weather; it is most common on various genera; small, circular spots often bordered by a delicate rim of pink; the imperfect stage Botrytis cinerea i... Read More ...
Another disease that takes tomato plants out fairly quickly is Botrytis or stem rot. The first sign of this disease is the plants look limp as if they need a drink of water. Starting at the top, most leaves have the drooping effect, which journeys down the plant. You can be fooled in the early stages of the disease as the plants seem to recover late in the day when the air cools at dusk. A careful inspection of the plant will reveal a darkened area around the trunk or branches of the plant. Another change will occur in that bumps or small knobs will appear on the trunk just above the area that is darkening. This is the tomato trying to send out aerial roots to save its life. The dark area is cutting off the flow of nutrients and moisture from the roots to the upper foliage. This area will rot right through and both top and root system will die. Sometimes there maybe laterals growing below this darkened area and these will be unaffected and will keep the roots supplied with energy. The rest of ...
Mold Sickness -The term poisoned is understood by most people, however, it is an inaccurate term when applied to mold / fungus.
N-Acetylneuraminic acid is 50 times more expensive than Gold according to some. Its used in the production of antiviral drugs. However, it can be found/synthesized from the Shells of Sea Creatures. Here is an excerpt from the article... Usually, mould fungi are nothing to cheer about - but now they can be used as chemical…
Illiger, J. K. W. 1815 (1804-1811). Ueberblick der Säugethiere nach ihrer Vertheilung über die Welttheile. Abhandlungen der Physikalischen Klasse der Königlich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften aus den Jahren 1804-1811, 1815:39-159 (not seen, cited in Harris 1968 ...
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Bethke G., Grundman R.E., Sreekanta S., Truman W., Katagiri F., Glazebrook J.. Pectins, major components of dicot cell walls, are synthesized in a heavily methylesterified form in the Golgi and are partially deesterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) upon export to the cell wall. PME activity is important for the virulence of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Here, the roles of Arabidopsis PMEs in pattern-triggered immunity and immune responses to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterial hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) were studied. Plant PME activity increased during pattern-triggered immunity and after inoculation with either pathogen. The increase of PME activity in response to pathogen treatment was concomitant with a decrease in pectin methylesterification. The pathogen-induced PME activity did not require salicylic acid or ethylene signaling, but was dependent on jasmonic acid signaling. In the case of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic diversity of a Botrytis cinerea cryptic species complex in Hungary. AU - Fekete, Éva. AU - Fekete, E.. AU - Irinyi, László. AU - Karaffa, L.. AU - Árnyasi, Mariann. AU - Asadollahi, Mojtaba. AU - Sándor, E.. PY - 2012/5/20. Y1 - 2012/5/20. N2 - Botrytis cinerea has been described as a species complex containing two cryptic species, referred to as groups I and II. The first . B. cinerea group I strains outside of Western Europe were collected in Hungary in 2008 from strawberry and rape plants. Sympatric . B. cinerea cryptic species were analyzed using a population genetic approach and phenotypic markers. Statistically significant, but moderate population differentiation was found between the two groups in Hungary. Group I was originally typified by the lack of the transposable elements Boty and Flipper. However, all the Hungarian group I isolates carried the Boty element and one isolate additionally contained Flipper, indicating a much wider genetic variation than ...
Forster, B.; Staub, T., 1996: Basis for use strategies of anilinopyrimidine and phenylpyrrole fungicides against Botrytis cinerea
The fungus Botrytis cinerea is an opportunistic pathogen on a wide variety of crops, causing disease known as grey mould through infections via wounds or dead plant parts. Synthetic fungicides for controlling this disease are fast becoming ineffective due to the development of resistance. This, coupled with consumers world wide becomng increasingly conscious of potential environment and health problems associated with the build up of toxic chemicals, (particularly in food products), have resulted in pressure to reduce the use of chemical pesticide volumes as well as its residues. An emerging alternative to random synthesis is the study and exploitation of naturally occurring products with fungicidal properties. There have been reports on the uses of synthetic fungicides for the control of plant pathogenic fungi. When utilized in two-way mixtures, such fungicides may maintain or enhance the level of control of a pathogen at reduced rates for both components utilized in combinations, or alone at ...
Botrytis blight is a very destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., infecting flowers, trees, vegetables and fruits. Twelve new compounds were prepared by the reaction of potassium N-aryl-sulfonyldithiocarbimates with Morita-Baylis-Hillman derivatives bearing phenyl and furyl groups. These are the first examples of allyldithiocarbimate anions and were isolated as tetraphenylphosphonium salts. The new compounds were characterized by HRMS, NMR and Infrared spectroscopy. Further, the structures of three allyldithiocarbimates were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the space group P21/c of the monoclinic system, and the allyldithiocarbimate anions present Z configuration. All the compounds were active against Botrytis cinerea. The best results were achieved with the tetraphenylphosphonium (Z)-3-(furan-2-yl)-2-(methoxycarbonyl)allyl-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)dithiocarbimate (IC50 38 μM). ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
Define Salix cinerea. Salix cinerea synonyms, Salix cinerea pronunciation, Salix cinerea translation, English dictionary definition of Salix cinerea. Noun 1. Salix cinerea - Eurasian shrubby willow with whitish tomentose twigs gray willow, grey willow genus Salix, Salix - a large and widespread genus...
Transcription factor that binds specifically to the W box (5-(T)TGAC[CT]-3), a frequently occurring elicitor-responsive cis-acting element. Has a positive role in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens (e.g. Botrytis cinerea), but a negative effect on plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens (e.g. Pseudomonas syringae).
Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in
long before tasting and writing about them, but I wanted to see how a few years in the fridge would affect them. The examples in question are Dolce 2007, 06, 05 and 04, dessert wines in half-bottles, and what they reveal across four years is a remarkable and gratifying consistency in tone, structure, flavor profile and balance. Differences? Of course, and I will discuss those variations in more detail further in this post. The partners in Far Niente conceived of the project - a small winery devoted to a single dessert wine - in 1985; the first vintage introduced commercially was 1989, released in 1992. The production of dessert wine depends on geographical and climatic conditions - foggy, with a subtle balance between warm and cool - suitable for the inoculation of the botrytis mold, the "noble rot," that can attack grapes, suck out the moisture and reduce them to concentrated sugar bombs. This invasion occurs grape by grape, not cluster by cluster, so harvesting a vineyard affected by botrytis ...
I grow a spring and fall crop here in SW IL. Plant the spring crop with purchased transplants around the end of March and grow my own fall transplants from seeds sown in mid June. Harvest the main head from both crops and then leave the plants for an extended harvest from the side florets. Rabbits, aphids and cabbage loopers a constant battle ...
Gammaflexiviridae is a family of viruses in the order Tymovirales. Fungi serve as natural hosts. There are currently only one genus (Mycoflexivirus) and one species in this family: the type species Botrytis virus F. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Tymovirales Family: Gammaflexiviridae Genus: Mycoflexivirus Botrytis virus F Viruses in Gammaflexiviridae are non-enveloped, with flexuous and Filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 12-13 nm, with a length of 720 nm. Genomes are linear, around 6.8kb in length. The genome has 2 open reading frames. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Fungi serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Howitt, R. L.; Beever, R. E.; Pearson, M. N.; Forster, R. L. (2001). ...
To date, almost all the pathogen effectors studied or discovered have been proteins," said lead author Hailing Jin, a professor of plant pathology and microbiology. "Ours is the first study to add the RNA molecule to the list of effectors. We expect our work will help in the development of new means to control aggressive pathogens.". Small RNAs guide gene silencing in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. In the case of Botrytis cinerea, small RNAs silence the expression of host defense genes, resulting in the host plant cells being less able to resist the fungal attack. The process is similar to how protein effectors weaken host immunity in the case of most pathogens.. "What we have discovered is a naturally-occurring cross-kingdom RNAi phenomenon between a fungal pathogen and a plant host that serves as an advanced virulence mechanism," Jin said.. RNA interference or RNAi is a conserved gene regulatory mechanism that is guided by small RNAs for silencing (or suppressing) genes.. Next, Jin and ...
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme. 25/Mar/2009: Both sites trapped medium numbers this week. Piggabeen Road had a yield of 81, with 40 Culex sitiens, while Beltana Drive trapped 77 including 23 Culex sitiens. 19/Mar/2009: Piggabeen Road trapped low mosquito numbers. Beltana Drive had a high catch of 136 mosquitoes and included 60 Culex sitiens. 11/Mar/2009: Piggabeen Road trapped medium (98) mosquito numbers, dominated by 76 Culex sitiens. Beltana Drive had a low catch. 4/Mar/2009: Both sites trapped high numbers this week. Piggabeen Road had a yield of 194, with 93 Culex sitiens, while Beltana Drive trapped 292 including 185 Culex sitiens. 26/Feb/2009: Piggabeen Road trapped medium (58) mosquito numbers, dominated by 31 Culex sitiens. Beltana Drive had a high catch of 236 mosquitoes and included 141 Culex sitiens. 18/Feb/2009: Piggabeen Road trapped medium (76) mosquito numbers, dominated by 55 Culex sitiens. Beltana Drive had a high ...
Sooty mold is often found on plants infested with sap sucking insects such as aphids, white flies, or scales which produce a sugary secretion called honeydew. This honeydew drips down onto leaves and branches providing a food base on which the sooty mold fungi can grow. Sooty mold may also grow on sap or resin associated with wounds.. We do not recommend control of the mold itself. However, the presence of sooty mold is often an indication of insect activity which has the potential for causing damage. Proper identification of the insect is necessary to determine if chemical control is warranted. Light coverings of the mold will gradually disappear during dry weather when its nutrient source is eliminated. Sooty mold can be physically washed off small plants if desired.. P440S. Revised by Chad Behrendt and Crystal Floyd 1999. ...
Moscato Bianco grapes, PiedmontThe grapes are totally frozen, but not botrytis, collected and processed icy night with a small vertical hydraulic press.
Of all the replies I have read here, everyone seems to be having the same symptoms, all are attributing the symptoms to hay fever, dogs, cats, flowers, dust, pillows, etc. No one has mentioned mold/fungi. Has anyone had their apartment/home tested for the presence of mold or fungus? I have been suffering all the symptoms and others as well, because my apartment is infested with toxic mold and fungus. It has developed into spores (tiny things invisible to the naked eye, smaller than a particle of dust, and mycotoxins have invaded the premises. I had lab tests done for surface mold. air quality test done for air in apartment and air quality outside for comparison. If I leave the apartment for a period of time, the symptoms begin to ease; when the symptoms come back with a vengence within 15 mins to an hour and continue throughout the day and night. Constant exposure is making me very ill. The spores land on everything; my food, my clothing, my furniture, my skin, my hair etc. Management here ...
Of all the replies I have read here, everyone seems to be having the same symptoms, all are attributing the symptoms to hay fever, dogs, cats, flowers, dust, pillows, etc. No one has mentioned mold/fungi. Has anyone had their apartment/home tested for the presence of mold or fungus? I have been suffering all the symptoms and others as well, because my apartment is infested with toxic mold and fungus. It has developed into spores (tiny things invisible to the naked eye, smaller than a particle of dust, and mycotoxins have invaded the premises. I had lab tests done for surface mold. air quality test done for air in apartment and air quality outside for comparison. If I leave the apartment for a period of time, the symptoms begin to ease; when the symptoms come back with a vengence within 15 mins to an hour and continue throughout the day and night. Constant exposure is making me very ill. The spores land on everything; my food, my clothing, my furniture, my skin, my hair etc. Management here ...
Mollisia cinerea, Common Grey Disco ascomycete ungus: identification pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; taxonomy, etymology, synonyms, similar species
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme.. 28/4/2002: Mosquito numbers were low from both sites. 21/4/2002: Mosquito numbers were low from both sites. 14/4/2002: Piggabeen Rd had a medium collection of 53, with 35 Culex sitiens, while numbers were low at Beltana Drive. 7/4/2002: Mosquito numbers were low from both sites. 31/3/2002: Mosquito numbers were low from both sites. 24/3/2002: Both sites had medium numbers. Piggabeen Rd trapped 72 mosquitoes, with 69 Culex sitiens, while Beltana Drive collected 57, including 41 Culex sitiens. . 17/3/2002: Piggabeen Rd had a medium collection of 74, with 64 Culex sitiens, while numbers were low at Beltana Drive. 10/3/2002: Mosquito numbers were low from both sites. 3/3/2002: Mosquito numbers were low from both sites. 24/2/2002: Piggabeen Rd trapped low numbers, while Beltana Drive had a medium collection of 74, with 64 Culex sitiens. 19/2/2002: Piggabeen Road trapped low numbers, while a high ...
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Også kjent som Pataus syndrom. Ved trisomi 13 har personen med diagnose et ekstra kromosom 13. Det medfører en rekke typiske misdannelser. Mest typi
Wood V, Gwilliam R, Rajandream MA, Lyne M, Lyne R, Stewart A, Sgouros J, Peat N, Hayles J, Baker S, Basham D, Bowman S, Brooks K, Brown D, Brown S, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Collins M, Connor R, Cronin A, Davis P, Feltwell T, Fraser A, Gentles S, Goble A, Hamlin N, Harris D, Hidalgo J, Hodgson G, Holroyd S, Hornsby T, Howarth S, Huckle EJ, Hunt S, Jagels K, James K, Jones L, Jones M, Leather S, McDonald S, McLean J, Mooney P, Moule S, Mungall K, Murphy L, Niblett D, Odell C, Oliver K, ONeil S, Pearson D, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Rutherford K, Rutter S, Saunders D, Seeger K, Sharp S, Skelton J, Simmonds M, Squares R, Squares S, Stevens K, Taylor K, Taylor RG, Tivey A, Walsh S, Warren T, Whitehead S, Woodward J, Volckaert G, Aert R, Robben J, Grymonprez B, Weltjens I, Vanstreels E, Rieger M, Schäfer M, Müller-Auer S, Gabel C, Fuchs M, Düsterhöft A, Fritzc C, Holzer E, Moestl D, Hilbert H, Borzym K, Langer I, Beck A, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Pohl TM, Eger P, Zimmermann W, Wedler H, Wambutt ...
Antifungal and Plant Growth Promotion Activities of Recombinant Defensin Proteins from the Seed of Korean Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) - anti-fungal protein;gray mold disease;Raphanus sativus L;
Several new cultivars of cauliflower with green curds have been introduced to growing practice in Poland lately. They yield very well in Polish climatic conditions. These cultivars are a result of crossing between white cauliflower and broccoli cultivars [4]. Optimum storage conditions for white cauliflower are: temperature of 0-1°C and 95-98% RH. Wrapping curds with a stretch plastic film is also recommended [1, 20, 21]. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage offers moderate benefit to white cauliflower cultivars, however the best CA gas composition is 3-5% CO2 + 2-3% O2. Storage of cauliflowers for more than 3-4 weeks is not recommended. Some flavour changes of cauliflowers, when CO2 concentration in the atmosphere exceed 5% was observed [1]. Green cultivars show a better storage ability than the white ones and they store well in CA composed of 5% CO2 + 3% O2, or 3% CO2 + 3% O2 [5, 6]. Green cauliflowers have dif ferent sensory characteristics than the white ones and they content more dry matter ...
Plant disease epidemiology and ecology, studied by modelling and experiment: foliar disease forecasting and dynamics in natural and agricultural ecosystems; spatial pattern and dispersal of pathogens; development of fungicide resistance; host-pathogen adaptation and ecology of ecology of Mycosphaerella graminicola & Botrytis cinerea.. Disperal project simulation (program download .zip format). Simulating dispersal over many scales is problematic. By keeping track of individuals and not empty space, flexible programs can be written which make it possible to examine patterns of populations in space. The program downloadable here implements this approach behind a graphic interface. When you start the program, the space will be empty. As "Go" (or "run" and "redraw") are pressed repeatedly, a population develops through birth, death and dispersal, and it is possible to see patterns developing at many scales - zoom the screen.. Different dispersal patterns characteristic of wind (power-law or cauchy) ...
Lyophilized Botrytis cinerea Pers. mycelium was added to three varietal white wines: Sauvignon blanc, French Colombard, and Thompson Seedless. Changes in headspace composition with time were monitored by gas chromatography (GC). Three components (acetaldehyde, l-,l-diethoxyethane, and 2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane) underwent major increases in concentration, while a number of other compounds changed in concentration to lesser extents. Thirty-five headspace constituents were identified by GC-mass spectrometry. Compositional changes were shown to be dependent upon the presence of viable mycelium in the wine samples; heat-inactivated mold caused no corresponding aroma changes.. ...
An improved two-stage system was developed for controlled generation of SO2 in closed containers to retard the spread of decay in packed table grapes from Botrytis cinerea Pers Two sheets of polyethylene-coateded Kraft paper, heat-sealed together, entrapped granular NaHSO3 in 12 rectangular pockets for the second (slow-SO2-generation) stage. A third sheet of uncoated Kraft paper was glued to one side, forming pockets holding additional NaHSO3 for the first (fast-generation) stage. The dose of NaHSO3 per laminated sheet ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 grams for the first stage, and 1.9 to 7.7 grams for the second stage. The sheets were packed, one below and one above the fruit, each backed by an excelsior pad. About 26 pounds of fruit and the pads were enclosed by the water-vapor-barrier liner of the container.. The highest dose combinations provided decay control equal to, or better than, standard weekly SO2 fumigation of vented containers during 2 months of storage for Thompson Seedless and 4½months ...
Recent AWRI staff publications1559 Muhlack, R. Its time to power up. WBM (August): 39-41; 2013.1560 Dry, P. Ask the AWRI: Vines: Is an oldie necessarily a goodie? Aust. N.Z. Grapegrower Winemaker (596): p. 57; 2013.1561 Varela, C., Chambers, P., Johnson, D. Trials turn up new strategies for softening the kick in wine. Aust. N.Z. Grapegrower Winemaker (596): 70-73; 2013.1562 Carew, A.L., Smith, P., Close, D.C., Curtin, C., Dambergs, R.G. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61 (41): 9892-9898; 2013.1563 van Sluyter, S.C., Warnock, N.I., Schmidt, S., Anderson, P., van Kan, J.A.L., Bacic, a., Waters, E.J. Aspartic acid protease from Botrytis cinerea removes haze-formation proteins during white winemaking. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61 (40): 9705-9711; 2013.1564 Pojer, E., Mattivi, F., Johnson, D., Stockley, C.S. The case for anthocyanin consumption to promote human health: A review. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 12 (5): 483-508; 2013.1565 ...
Uno de los problemas más importantes de la post-cosecha en frutilla comercialmente cultivada, lo constituye la enfermedad pudrición gris, causada por el hongo Botrytis cinerea Pers. la que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en más de 200 especies de importancia económica. Desde hace tiempo a Fragaria chiloensis, se le ha conocido por poseer una alta tolerancia a un gran espectro de enfermedades, incluyendo Botritis. Considerando lo anterior, se desarrolló un estudio de diversidad génica en esta especie que consistió en analizar individuos de Fragaria chiloensis provenientes de las zonas de Contulmo (región del Bio Bio), Chillán (región del Bio Bio) y Vilches (región del Maule) y compararlas con la especie comercial Fragaria x ananassa cv. Chandler, usando para ello, partidores ISSRs (inter simple secuense repeat). De las formas estudiadas de Fragaria chiloensis (Contulmo; Chillán y Vilches) la que presentó una mayor similitud fue la accesión de Contulmo (88 al 100%), seguido de ...
Compostos de quaternário de amônio possuem propriedades tensoativas, bactericida e fungicida, que podem atuar sinergicamente no processo de sanitização. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito antibacteriano e antifúngico de cinco compostos quaternário de amôniosobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella Enteritidis in vitro e em superfícies vegetais, e defungos filamentosos Penicillium expansum, Penicillium digitatum e Botrytis cinerea in vitro. Especificamente, os compostos quaternários de amônio foram avaliados na sua capacidade de a) alterar as propriedades termodinâmicas da superfície de frutos de tomate e maçã e de folhas de rúcula, e da adesão de S. Enteritidis e S. aureus, b) atuar como sanitizante de bacterianas aderidas nas superfícies de frutos de tomate e folhas de rúcula, e, c) influenciar nas propriedades físico- químicas e qualidade microbiológica de frutos de tomate sanitizados, durante a vida de prateleira. O efeito bactericida e fungicida in vitrode ...
When used as directed, Pageant provides effective broad spectrum control on key diseases, including anthracnose, downy mildews, powdery mildews, rusts, scabs, blights (botrytis and monilinia) and crown and basal rots (rhizoctonia, fusarium and cylindrocladium). Its formula starts working within minutes of application, inhibiting fungal respiration at two separate sites within the mitochondria of fungal pathogens. In effect, it creates a "double lockdown" on the respiration and energy flow within targeted fungi.. For additional value from a single application, Pageant can be tank mixed with most recommended fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, liquid fertilizers, biological control products, adjuvants and additives. Adjuvants may improve the performance of Pageant under certain conditions, but not all combinations of plants and tank mixes have been tested. Before tank mixing, test the combination on a small portion of the plant to be treated to ensure no phytotoxic response occurs. Generally, if ...
25 Jan - Im bringing this article to your attention again because there has been a useful recent addition below.. My article Esca and friends seemed to generate a great deal of interest. In fact, when looking at the number of clicks on the link to it that I tweeted, I couldnt help noticing that they totalled nearly 1,500, more than three times the comparable number for our guide to coverage of 2011 burgundy, for instance. My friend Andrew Jefford continued the theme in his weekly despatch for Decanter.com yesterday.. Remington Norman, author of several books on wine, wrote to me about a company with which he is associated, Eden Research, which supplied this photograph. Their terpene formulations have significantly increased the vignerons armoury against nematodes, vascular vine diseases (esca, eutypa etc) and their lead product deals effectively with botrytis. The components are non-toxic and may be used pre- or post- harvest, unlike the synthetic alternatives. Eden are currently mired in EU ...
Healthy Harvest offers hydroponics, hydroponics systems, nutrients, growing, gardening, supplies, kits, grow lights & growing systems.
Les vurderingene, reisehistorier og meninger om Carol Bay (Pafos) og andre reisemål i Kypros. Finn en oversikt av alle overnattingssteder som egner seg for din ferie i Carol Bay (Pafos Kypros).
openSUSE 12.3 er blevet udgivet med KDE 4.10, Linux 3.7 og alt det nye og bedste fra FOSS-verdenen. Blandt nyhederne er også at live-imagefilerne nu fylder 1 gb og således ikke kan være på en cd, men kræver en dvd eller en usb-stick, der findes nu også en officiel rescue live-cd/-usb og MariaDB erstatter MySQL som standard. Læs meget mere i den officielle annoncering ...
BMC Neuroscience. 9: 101, 2008. Maixnerová J., Hlaváček J., Blokešová D., Kowalczyk W., Elbert T., Šanda M., Blechová M., Železná B., Slaninová J., Maletínská L. ...
Zde naleznete recept na segedínský guláš, oblíbený guláš maďarského původu z kysaného zelí a vepřového masa podávaný s kynutým knedlíkem.
av seg selv, men hos noen blir plagene kroniske. Det finnes symptomlindrende behandlinger. Hva er øresus? Øresus kalles også tinnitus. Øresus kan defineres som en opplevelse av støy som ikke skyldes et lydsignal utenfor det indre øret. Lydene kommer…. ...
SimPad PLUS er en styringsenhet som brukes til å kontrollere Laerdal -treningsdukker og simulatorer. Den kan også brukes sammen med ferdighetstrenere og standariserte pasienter. SimPad PLUS hjelper instruktøren, ny eller erfaren, å levere svært effektiv simuleringsbasert opplæring. ...
SimPad PLUS er en styringsenhet som brukes til å kontrollere Laerdal -treningsdukker og simulatorer. Den kan også brukes sammen med ferdighetstrenere og standariserte pasienter. SimPad PLUS hjelper instruktøren, ny eller erfaren, å levere svært effektiv simuleringsbasert opplæring. ...
阿昔洛韋 阿昔洛韦|kinesisk|中文,norsk|那威文|forklare|Snakke|stave|發音|oversette|意思|betydning/Aciklovir (også stavet acyclovir), antiviral stoffet|Norwegian|翻譯|解釋|定義|definisjon
Det sies en god barndom varer livet ut, og det er mye sant i de ordene. Det som også er sant, er at en tøff barndom kan ha langvarige konsekvenser. Økt risiko for psykisk og fysisk sykdom, lavere forventet levealder og generelt dårligere livskvalitet1⁠, for å nevne noe. Selv om man er blitt voksen og…
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn) for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C) was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg) while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C) showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg). Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was
Description from Flora of China. Conyza cinerea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 862. 1753; Blumea chinensis (Linnaeus) Candolle (1836), not Walpers (1843), nor Hooker & Arnott (1837); B. esquirolii H. Léveillé & Vaniot; Cacalia cinerea (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Conyza chinensis Linnaeus; Cyanthillium cinereum (Linnaeus) H. Robinson; Seneciodes cinerea (Linnaeus) Kuntze; Serratula cinerea (Linnaeus) Roxburgh; Vernonia abbreviata Candolle; V. cinerea var. parviflora (Reinwardt) Candolle; V. exilis Miquel; V. parviflora Reinwardt ex Blume.. Herbs, annual or perennial, to 100 cm tall. Root vertical, ± woody, branched, with fibrous rootlets. Stems erect, usually branched above, or rarely from base, striate, gray adpressed puberulent with T-shaped hairs, glandular. Lower and middle leaves: petiole 10-20 mm, leaf blade rhombic-ovate, rhombic-oblong, or ovate, 3-6.5 × 1.5-3 cm, abaxially gray-white or yellowish puberulent, especially along veins, both surfaces glandular, adaxially green, sparsely puberulent, lateral ...
Leather rot - can infect fruit at any stage. On green fruit, infected areas turn a dark-brown and develop a rough leathery appearance. On fully mature (red) fruit little or no color change may occur on infected fruit however, fruit will have an unpleasant smell and taste. The pathogen (Phytophthora cactorum) overwinters in the soil in low-lying spots and becomes active during wet weather. Conditions that favor leather rot development also favor grey mold (Botrytis) development. However, fungicides for Grey mold control are not effective for leather rot control. Applications of a FRAC group 4 fungicide, such as Ridomil Gold SL (mefenoxam) at 1.0 pt/A 4SL or MetaStar (metalaxyl), or phosphite fungicide (FRAC code 33 fungicide), such as K-Phite, Rampart, or ProPhyt, prior to or at harvesting will help suppress leather rot. For more information on controlling leather rot and other important diseases of strawberry please see the 2015 New Jersey Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations ...
Results] Recombinant Ppα-DOX protein catalyzed the conversion of fatty acids into 2-hydroperoxy derivatives with a substrate preference for α-linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Ppα-DOX is expressed during development in tips of young protonemal filaments with maximum expression levels in mitotically active undifferentiated apical cells. In leafy gametophores, Ppα-DOX is expressed in auxin producing tissues, including rhizoid and axillary hairs. Ppα-DOX transcript levels and Ppα-DOX activity increased in moss tissues infected with Botrytis cinerea or treated with Pectobacterium carotovorum elicitors. In B. cinerea infected leaves, Ppα-DOX-GUS proteins accumulated in cells surrounding infected cells, suggesting a protective mechanism. Targeted disruption of Ppα-DOX did not cause a visible developmental alteration and did not compromise the defense response. However, overexpressing Ppα-DOX, or incubating wild-type tissues with Ppα-DOX-derived oxylipins, principally the aldehyde ...
Citation: Neher, O.T., and Strausbaugh, C.A. 2010. Evaluation of fungicides as root dips for the control of root rot in storage, 2009. Plant Disease Management Reports (online). Report 4:FC075 DOI:10.1094/PDMR04. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN. Available: http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/trial/pdmr/reports/2010/FC075.pdf Interpretive Summary: Sugar beet roots held in long term storage at above freezing temperatures are subject to fungal root rots. These storage root rots can lead to considerable sucrose losses in storage and adversely affect factory processing as well. The use of fungicide treatments applied as root dips prior to storage were investigated to determine if they could reduce storage rots caused by Botrytis sp., Penicillium sp., and Athelia sp. In comparison to the non-treated check, all fungicide treatments were effective in reducing the development of Botrytis sp. and Athelia sp. with USF2019A ranking first. There was very little Penicillium growth ...
Chemicals causing musty smells are mostly produced by Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Cyanobacteria and other bacteria, fungi and algae. Examples of compounds responsible for musty odor are Geosmin (muddy, resembling damp soil, produced by Streptomyces), trichloroanisole (TCA, smelling like damp cellar, usually produced from chlorinated phenolic compounds by Aspergillus, Penicillium, Actinomycetes, Botrytis cinerea, Rhizobium, or Streptomyces), tribromoanisole (TBA, produced from brominated phenolic compounds by the same bacteria), dimethylmethoxypyrazine (obnoxious musty odor that might be caused by Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria), 2-methylisobomeol (earthy, peat-like), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol, cis-3-octenal, nonanal, decanal. ...
Our work lies within the framework of "value-adding" to the most abundant essential oils in Morocco, such as Cedrus atlantica. This oil is made up mainly (75%) of bicyclic sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, among which is found the compound, β-himachalene (Joseph & Dev, 1968; Plattier & Teisseire, 1974). The reactivity of this sesquiterpene and its derivatives has been studied extensively by our team in order to prepare new products having biological properties (Lassaba et al., 1998; Chekroun et al., 2000; El Jamili et al., 2002; Sbai et al., 2002; Dakir et al., 2004). Indeed, these compounds were tested, using the food poisoning technique, for their potential anti-fungal activity against phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea (Daoubi et al., 2004). Thus the action of one equivalent of dichlorocarbene, generated in situ from chloroform in the presence of sodium hydroxide as base and n-benzyltriethylammonium chloride as catalyst, on β-himachalene produces only ...
SUSSEL, A.A.B.; POZZA, E.A.; CASTRO, H.A. and LASMAR, E.B.C. Gray mold incidence and severity under different temperature, wetness period and conidial concentration. Summa phytopathol. [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.30-34. ISSN 0100-5405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-54052011000100005.. The effect of temperature (15, 20, 25 and 28 ºC), wetness period (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours) and conidia concentration (0, 1x102, 1x103, 1x104, 1x105 and 1x106 conidia/mL-1) on the incidence and severity of gray mold caused by Amphobotrys ricini in castor bean (Ricinus communis) bunches were evaluated. The conidia concentration effect was evaluated fixing the temperature at 25ºC and the wetness duration at 48 hour. The temperature and wetness duration were evaluated fixing the conidial concentration at 1x105 conidia mL-1. The plants were evaluated as to the incidence of fruit wiht symptons and severity in each bunch. The area under incidence progress curve (AUIPC) and under severity progress curve ...
WPA is often asked for guidance about mould that can sometimes affect preservative treated wood held in stock by a merchant or by a manufacturing business. No one likes to see mould on the surface of treated wood. Its unsightly and reduces the customer appeal of the product. The important thing to remember though is that moulds affect the look of the surface only - it is not a sign of the premature onset of decay and does not affect the structural strength or durability performance of the component. This Blog sets out WPA guidance about surface mould, its causes and how to reduce the risk of treated wood held in store being affected.. What are mould growths on treated wood products?. Mould fungi can grow in the water layer on wet and damp timber surfaces. The growth is often fluffy and may be white, green, black or coloured, depending on the species and presence of spores. Moulds feed on free sugars and starches naturally present in the sapwood of timber and on deposits or detritus that collect ...
According to Aubert, 2012 had been a vintage of constant change. It was warm in March but then became cold and rainy in April, making it very difficult to work in the vineyards. The vines flowered in the cold weather leading to millerandage. The weather became warm again in June but a heat wave therein caused the loss of some berries. The weather became better in July but then August brought storms. The berries experienced rapid sugar gains in the August- September period. There was no sign of botrytis so they waited to harvest and eventually began on September 21st. It rained for two days during harvest and remained cold. The berry skins were thick, however, and, in addition, the soil did not transfer water to the berries. The final 2012 crop was one-half to one-third the size of a healthy crop ...
The species was considered by Parker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 450-478, to be a junior synonym of Pleurodema cinerea. Resurrected by Gallardo, 1968, Physis, Buenos Aires, 28: 137. McLister, Lougheed, and Bogart, 1991, Canad. J. Zool., 69: 2397-2403, found no conclusive evidence that Pleurodema borellii and Pleurodema cinerea were distinct species. De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 44, discussed the problem of species distinctiveness of Pleurodema cinerea and Pleurodema borellii, but tentatively continued recognition of Pleurodema borellii. Ferraro and Casagranda, 2009, Zootaxa, 2024: 33-55, provided a detailed discussion of distribution within Argentina.. ...
This recovery strategy has been prepared in cooperation with the jurisdictions responsible for the butternut. Environment Canada has reviewed and accepts this document as its recovery strategy for the butternut, as required under the Species at Risk Act (SARA). This recovery strategy also constitutes advice to other jurisdictions and organizations that may be involved in recovering the species.
VQ Orthocare Propel Rigit Top Liner Kit - Get the lowest price on VQ Orthocare Propel Rigit Top Liner Kit, online at AllegroMedical.com.
Scenarier baseret på den amerikanske hjerteforenings pensum i avanceret pædiatrisk livredning hjælper eleverne med at forberede sig på de kritiske situationer, som afspejler de kritiske hændelser i det virkelige liv, før de skal reagere på en faktisk nødsituation. Laerdal kan også hjælpe med at udvikle scenarier, som er skræddersyet til dine specifikke behov. Sammen med dine eksperter i klinisk fagindhold kan vores uddannelseseksperter udvikle scenarier, der understøtter standardiseret indhold og bidrager til bedre resultater af læringen og klinisk effektivitet. Vi hjælper også din institution med implementeringen af disse løsninger.. ...
Fedme er et stort og voksende helseproblem, og en rekke tiltak er iverksatt for å forebygge og behandle den. Der slik behandling bedrer helsen til individer og befolkningen, er det et gode, men slik behandling gir også en ...
Hallie Jeg må vist erklære mig nogenlunde enig med Caroline. Synes hælen er for lav på Biancos, til at de får der samme fede look. Men kan segfvøllelig også være vinklen på kameraet?? Men ku godt tænke mig at se hvordan den så ud på en fod. 2016-04-28 14:39:45 ...
... med økologiske ingredienser er lavet efter en speciel recept, så de også dækker grå hår.
WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52, from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic Pseudomonas syringe pathogen and the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea. In addition,
Citation: Narciso, J.A., Baldwin, E.A., Plotto, A., Ference, C.M. 2007. Disinfection of immature fruit extends shelf-life in Florida strawberries. National Meeting of Institute of Food Technologists/Food Expo. Presentation No. 100-19. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Fresh market Florida strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are field packed and shipped without further processing. Keeping the fruit cool (~0 C (32 F)) helps maintain the quality of the strawberries but controlled temperatures are not always accessible. Organisms such as Botrytis cinerea (grey mold), Rhizopus stolonifer (leak) and various yeasts and bacteria acquired on the fruit surface in the field, in transit or while in the packaging container, flourish on the ripe fruit and reduce shelf-life. Our goal was to reduce the numbers of destructive microorganisms associated with the strawberries before they were picked by spraying immature fruit with peroxyacetic acid (PAA, 100 ppm), 3, 2, and 1 day (s) before picking. Even by ...
Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents.
Bursaphelenchus luxuriosae n. sp. is described and figured. Specimens were collected from a 2-week-old culture on Botrytis cinerea. The new species is characterised by a body length of 897 (710-1159) μm in the female and 745 (621-887) μm in the male, relatively robust body (a = 33-39 in the female and 27-30 in the male), stylet ca 14 (11-16) μm long, four lines in the lateral field, the large (27-30 μm) arcuate spicule with a terminal cucullus, seven (2 + 1 + 2 + 2) male caudal papillae, the long, well developed vulval flap and the shape of the female tail which is long, tapered, and ventrally bent when killed by heat with an irregular or roughened dorsal contour near the tip and an irregular terminus. The new species is considered to belong to the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus group of the genus Bursaphelenchus and is most closely related to B. conicaudatus and B. fraudulentus in spicule shape, vulval flap and 'a' values of males and females. It is easily distinguished from these two species
Le Trichoderma atroviride MUCL45632 est un champignon qui exerce son action principalement dans la rhizosphère : amélioration de levée des graines, amélioration de croissance, assainissement des sols et supports de culture et réduction de limpact des infections (antagonisme vis-à-vis de champignons pathogènes du sol: Armillaria, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Fusarium, Phytophtora, Botrytis). Le champignon permet aussi de protéger les blessures de coupe et de taille en les colonisant temporairement. La souche sélectionnée se distingue par sa stabilité dans le sol et les supports de culture, sa grande adaptabilité à lenvironnement et sa reproductibilité élevée. Le tout se traduit par une action plus rapide et plus efficace ainsi que par une plus grande persistance, grâce à sa capacité à vivre en occupant la rhizosphère et en colonisant le cortex radiculaire des plantes herbacées ou ligneuses ...
Strawberry fields in Finland are plagued by grey mold, a fungus that quickly transforms scarlet berries into shaggy grey blobs, wrecking 20 percent of the countrys annual crop, on average. But Finlands organic fruit farmers have a swarm of new allies in the battle against grey mold. Dr. Heikki Hokkanen, a researcher at the University of Helsinki, has enlisted bees to carry biological treatments from flower to flower, warding off disease as they pollinate.
Apart from solid wood, wood-based panels (WBP) are currently used in building as insulating and construction materials and as such they are exposed to factors creating conditions favourable for growth of wood attacking fungi. Classical tests of WBP resistance to fungi activity usually cover determination of mass loss caused by Basidiomycotina fungi or growth rate of mould fungi. Changes of WBP strength have been determined in research in addition to the above-mentioned indicators of WBP resistance to fungi. The mass loss of WBP caused by rotting activity of fungi was compared with mass loss of solid Scots pine sapwood. The aim of the investigation was to establish resistance to fungi activity of nowadays manufactured domestic WBP according to currently used modified method of resistance evaluation. The following wood based panels (WBP) were tested for the action of Basidiomycotina fungi or Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina fungi causing wood moulding: OSB with various glues (MUF, PMDIsocyanate), ...
... (5 comments): What kills mold & fungus on walls? Bleach! So I soaked my toe in straight bleach and...
Blood test profiles for mold exposure in the human body, Mold Diseases,Diseases caused by Mold and the symptoms of exposure to mold
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location ...
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The study investigated the effect of a Bacillus globisporus strain and produced supernatants on growth of selected plant pathogens, i.e. Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Verticillium dahliae. The highest fungistatic activity of bacterial cultures was found against R. solani, S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea and T. roseum, whereas in case of the supernatant, it was found against R. solani and S. sclerotiorum. At identical concentrations, the fungistatic activity of B. globisporus culture appeared stronger than that of the supernatant. No significant effect of bacterial culture concentration in the medium was observed. Growth of Cladosporium spp., V. dahliae, T. viride, and A. alternata was found both after seven and 10 days of the experiment. In case of the supernatant, this situation was observed only for F. oxysporum, after seven days.
Jørgensen ME, Olsen CE, Geiger D, Mirza O, Halkier BA, Nour-Eldin HH (2015) A functional EXXEK motif is essential for proton coupling and active glucosinolate transport by NPF2.11 . Plant Cell Physiol 56: 2340-2350.. Soltis NE, Kliebenstein DJ (2015) Natural variation of plant metabolism: genetic mechanisms, interpretive caveats, and evolutionary and mechanistic insights. Plant Physiol 169: 1456-1468.. Cacho NI, Kliebenstein DJ, Strauss SY (2015) Macroevolutionary patterns of glucosinolate defense and tests of defense-escalation and resource availability hypotheses. New Phytol 208: 915-927.. Madsen SR, Kunert G, Reichelt M, Gershenzon J, Halkier BA (2015) Feeding on leaves of the glucosinolate transporter mutant gtr1gtr2 reduces fitness of Myzus persicae. J Chem Ecol 41: 975-984.. Zhang Y, Huai D, Yang Q, Cheng Y, Ma M, Kliebenstein DJ, Zhou Y (2015) Overexpression of three glucosinolate biosynthesis genes in Brassica napus identifies enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis ...
0065] Albugo spp. (white rust) on ornamentals, vegetables (e.g. A. candida) and sunflowers (e.g. A. tragopogonis); Alternaria spp. (Alternaria leaf spot) on vegetables, rape (A. brassicola or brassicae), sugar beets (A. tenuis), fruits, rice, soybeans, potatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata), tomatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata) and wheat; Aphanomyces spp. on sugar beets and vegetables; Ascochyta spp. on cereals and vegetables, e.g. A. tritici(anthracnose) on wheat and A. hordei on barley; Bipolaris and Drechslera spp. (teleomorph: Cochliobolus spp.), e.g. Southern leaf blight (D. maydis) or Northern leaf blight (B. zeicola) on corn, e.g. spot blotch (B. sorokiniana) on cereals and e.g. B. oryzae on rice and turfs; Blumeria (formerly Erysiphe) graminis (powdery mildew) on cereals (e.g. on wheat or barley); Botrytis cinerea (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana: grey mold) on fruits and berries (e.g. strawberries), vegetables (e.g. lettuce, carrots, celery and cabbages), rape, flowers, ...
byso: bosy, boys, bsoy, bsyo, byos, byso, obsy, obys, osby, osyb, oybs, oysb, sboy, sbyo, soby, soyb, sybo, syob, ybos, ybso, yobs, yosb, ysbo, ysob, busybody, busybodied, bellicosity, possibility, obesity, insobriety, presbyopia, doubtlessly, subnormality, snobbery, astrobiology, ambystoma, sowbelly, observatory, lazybones, byelorussia, biochemistry, biophysics, biopsy, biosynthesis, bloody-mindedness, bobby-soxer, bawdyhouse, busywork, bygones, shipboy, somebody, botrytis, comprehensibility, schoolboy, salmonberry, obscurity, obscenity, symbol, combustibility, sociability, compressibility, mooseberry, hybridisation, responsibility, decomposability, dissolubility, solubility, questionability, trolleybus, psilocybin, gibbosity, symbolism, nebulosity, hylobates, globosity, gloubosity, carboxylmethyltransferase, gooseberry, haemocytoblast, hemocytoblast, cryptobranchus, hobbyhorse, hobby-horse, stableboy, hyperbolism, incomprehensibility, impossibility, impressionability, doughboys, obsequy, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of changes in water status and photosynthetic parameters in wild type and abscisic acid-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) exposed to sublethal and lethal salt stress. AU - Poór, Péter. AU - Borbély, Péter. AU - Czékus, Zalán. AU - Takács, Zoltán. AU - Ördög, Attila. AU - Popović, Boris. AU - Tari, I.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many salt stress-related processes of plants such as water balance, osmotic stress tolerance and photosynthesis. In this study we investigated the responses of wild type (WT) and the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) to sublethal and lethal salt stress elicited by 100 mM and 250 mM NaCl, respectively. Sitiens mutants displayed much higher decrease in water potential, stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation rate under high salinity, especially at lethal salt stress, than the WT. However, ABA deficiency ...

Fungicide Resistance Among Botrytis cinerea Isolates from California Strawberry FieldsFungicide Resistance Among Botrytis cinerea Isolates from California Strawberry Fields

A major cause of fruit decay in the field and postharvest is Botrytis rot caused by Botrytis cinerea. Infection usually occurs ... Botrytis rot of strawberry, also known as gray mold, is normally managed by field applications of fungicides. During the 1980s ... Botrytis cinerea isolations were made from infected strawberries collected in four fields in southern California s Oxnard ... Sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea from Connecticut greenhouses to benzimidazole and dicarboximide fungicides. Plant Dis. 81:729- ...
more infohttps://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/2010/strawberry/

DSpace Biblioteca Universidad de Talca (v1.5.2): Identificacion de genes expresados en Fragaria chiloensis en respuesta a...DSpace Biblioteca Universidad de Talca (v1.5.2): Identificacion de genes expresados en Fragaria chiloensis en respuesta a...

Paralelamente se realizaron ensayos de infección con Botrytis cinerea, observando que los poblaciones de Fragaria chiloensis ... Identificacion de genes expresados en Fragaria chiloensis en respuesta a Botrytis cinerea. ... siendo este más homogéneo genéticamente y mostrando una mayor tolerancia a Botrytis cinerea. En base a esto, se realizó una ... causada por el hongo Botrytis cinerea Pers. la que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en más de 200 especies de importancia ...
more infohttp://dspace.utalca.cl/handle/1950/8305

MICROPROPAGATION OF OLD PEAR CULTIVARS | International Society for Horticultural ScienceMICROPROPAGATION OF OLD PEAR CULTIVARS | International Society for Horticultural Science

BOTRYTIS) * 961_56 THE PRODUCTION OF CAULIFLOWER MICROSHOOTS USING CURD MERISTEMATIC TISSUES AND HYPOCOTYL-DERIVED CALLUS ...
more infohttps://www.ishs.org/ishs-article/961_62

botrytis fruit rot | Ohiolinebotrytis fruit rot | Ohioline

botrytis fruit rot. Title (Click to Sort) Fact Sheet Number. Tags Botrytis Fruit Rot "Gray Mold" of Strawberry, Raspberry, and ...
more infohttps://ohioline.osu.edu/tags/botrytis-fruit-rot?order=field_ol_unique_id&

Botrytis -- Discover LifeBotrytis -- Discover Life

Botrytis. Life Fungi Ascomycota Sclerotiniaceae © Copyright source/photographer · 5. Botrytis cinerea, gray mold. Click on map ... Botrytis cinerea, Gray Mold ghost halo. © Copyright source/photographer · 5. Botrytis cinerea, gray mold. ... identification and distribution of Botrytis -- Discover Life ...
more infohttp://www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Botrytis

Botrytis aclada on onionBotrytis aclada on onion

Instructions to Copy. For PC, position your mouse cursor on the featured image, click the right mouse button, and choose Save Picture As... or Save this Image as... whichever is the case. For Mac, click the only mouse button and follow the same steps. Users may want to set up a specific directory and file naming scheme for storing images; otherwise, they will be saved using your system defaults. Images may be used in any software application that supports JPEG file format or viewed in an Internet browser as local files.. ...
more infohttp://www.apsnet.org/publications/imageresources/Pages/Oct_88-10-3.aspx

CAES NEWSWIRE | Botrytis Blight in LandscapeCAES NEWSWIRE | Botrytis Blight in Landscape

Botrytis blight is caused by a fungus, Botrytis cinerea, she said. Commonly known as gray mold, its the most common pathogen ... Botrytis attacks these old flowers and leaves and other weak tissues first, she said. Then it spreads into healthy tissue. On ... Controlling Botrytis in the landscape takes a little cleaning up, using a fungicide and maybe changing a few things around your ... If Botrytis is a problem, dont use overhead irrigation, she said.. Because the fungal spores spread around so easily, ...
more infohttp://www.caes.uga.edu/newswire/story.html?storyid=452&story=Botrytis-Blight-in-Landscape

KEGG PATHWAY: Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Botrytis cinereaKEGG PATHWAY: Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Botrytis cinerea

Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Botrytis cinerea [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?bfu00010+BC1G_13687

KEGG PATHWAY: Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Botrytis cinereaKEGG PATHWAY: Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Botrytis cinerea

Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Botrytis cinerea [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?bfu00010+BC1G_06362

Botrytis Bunch Rot & BlightBotrytis Bunch Rot & Blight

Botrytis bunch rot is especially severe in grape cultivars with tight, closely packed clusters of fruit. Botrytis is also ... Botrytis bunch rot and blight of leaves, shoots and blossom clusters, also called gray mold, occurs throughout the viticultural ... In addition to its crop loss potential, Botrytis infection of ripe fruit of certain cultivars, combined with precise climatic ...
more infohttps://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43080

Cauliflower  Brassica oleracea var. botrytis White CoronaCauliflower Brassica oleracea var. botrytis 'White Corona'

botrytis) White Corona supplied by member gardeners in the PlantFiles database at Daves Garden... ...
more infohttps://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/249477

Botrytis - WikipediaBotrytis - Wikipedia

Botrytis may refer to: Botrytis, the anamorphs of fungi of the genus Botryotinia Botrytis cinerea, a mold important in wine ... making Botrytis, the cauliflower cultivar group of Brassica oleracea. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botrytis

Botryotinia fuckeliana (strain B05.10) (Noble rot fungus) (Botrytis cinerea)Botryotinia fuckeliana (strain B05.10) (Noble rot fungus) (Botrytis cinerea)

Taxonomy - Botryotinia fuckeliana (strain B05.10) (Noble rot fungus) (Botrytis cinerea) Basket 0 ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/332648

Enjoy the Botrytis Affected Optima | Quails GateEnjoy the Botrytis Affected Optima | Quails' Gate

The fruit was whole cluster pressed slowly to extract all the sugars and flavours the botrytis developed in the grapes. The ... Gate Estate vineyards where the proximity to the lake encourages a micro flora known as Botrytis Cinerea or Noble Rot to grow ...
more infohttps://www.quailsgate.com/wine/botrytis-affected-optima/

Botrytis fabae - WikipediaBotrytis fabae - Wikipedia

Botrytis fabae is a plant pathogen, a fungus that causes chocolate spot disease of broad or fava bean plants, Vicia faba. It ... Chocolate spot disease caused by Botrytis fabae manifests itself as small red-brown spots on leaves, stems and flowers of broad ... 1974). "Botrytis fabae". CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. 432. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botrytis_fabae

Arabidopsis BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 protein
     Summary Report | CureHunterArabidopsis BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 protein Summary Report | CureHunter

The BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 gene encodes an R2R3MYB transcription factor protein that is required for biotic and abiotic stress ... Arabidopsis BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Arabidopsis BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 protein ... The BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 gene encodes an R2R3MYB transcription factor protein that is required for biotic and abiotic stress ... BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 protein, Arabidopsis; At3g06490 protein, Arabidopsis; AtMYB108 protein, Arabidopsis; BOS1 protein, ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC482738-Arabidopsis-BOTRYTIS-SUSCEPTIBLE1-protein.do

Studies on the biology of Botrytis allii on Allium cep A | SpringerLinkStudies on the biology of Botrytis allii on Allium cep A | SpringerLink

Botrytis alliiMunn is capable of attacking young onion plants without impeding the growth of the plants, provided conditions ... Studies on the biology ofBotrytis allii onAllium cep A. Waarnemingen betreffende de biologie van Botrytis alliiop allium cepa. ... Botrytis allii Munn is capable of attacking young onion plants without impeding the growth of the plants, provided conditions ... Botrytis allii is in staat om onder voor infectie gunstige omstandigheden jonge uieplanten aan te tasten. Geïnfecteerde jonge ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02000455

The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in TomatoThe Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

... Qinggui Lian, Jing Zhang, Liang Gan, ... "The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato," BioMed Research International, vol. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/9486794/cta/

Brassica oleracea (Botrytis Group)  - Plant FinderBrassica oleracea (Botrytis Group) - Plant Finder

I grow a spring and fall crop here in SW IL. Plant the spring crop with purchased transplants around the end of March and grow my own fall transplants from seeds sown in mid June. Harvest the main head from both crops and then leave the plants for an extended harvest from the side florets. Rabbits, aphids and cabbage loopers a constant battle ...
more infohttp://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderComments.aspx?taxonid=261913&isprofile=0&chr=19

The endopolygalacturonase gene Bcpg1 is required for full virulence of Botrytis cinerea.  - PubMed - NCBIThe endopolygalacturonase gene Bcpg1 is required for full virulence of Botrytis cinerea. - PubMed - NCBI

The endopolygalacturonase gene Bcpg1 is required for full virulence of Botrytis cinerea.. ten Have A1, Mulder W, Visser J, van ... Botrytis cinerea, a fungus that causes diseases in over 200 plant species, secretes a number of endopolygalacturonases that ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9768518?dopt=Abstract

The intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea | PNASThe intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea | PNAS

The intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. D. Cantu, A. R. Vicente ... For analysis of the NS sugar compositions of the AIR or isolated wall polymers prepared from healthy and Botrytis-inoculated ... The intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea ... The intersection between cell wall disassembly, ripening, and fruit susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/105/3/859?ijkey=c6cc49ea4a1931c562f0174338e5dd77d86f7952&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Complex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea | GeneticsComplex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea | Genetics

Complex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Heather C. Rowe and Daniel J ... Complex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Heather C. Rowe and Daniel J ... Complex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Heather C. Rowe and Daniel J ... Complex Genetics Control Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Botrytis cinerea ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/180/4/2237.abstract

Beneficial bacteria prime local and systemic immunity against Botrytis cinerea in grapevine.Beneficial bacteria prime local and systemic immunity against Botrytis cinerea in grapevine.

Use of Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 to control Botrytis cinerea? Author(s): Muzammil, S. Saria, R. Yu, Z. Graillon, C ... Ecology and function of grape-associated microorganisms with a special focus on biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea. Author(s): ... DOPE-FISH, a tool to visualize beneficial bacteria systemically controlling Botrytis cinerea? Author(s): Compant, S. Muzammil, ... Beneficial bacteria prime local and systemic immunity against Botrytis cinerea in grapevine.. This chapter presents the results ...
more infohttps://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20163105579

Cloning and Expression of the Cutinase A Gene of Botrytis cinereaCloning and Expression of the Cutinase A Gene of Botrytis cinerea

... C. J. B. van der Vlugt-Bergmans , C. A. M. Wagemakers , J. ... Cloning and Expression of the Cutinase A Gene of Botrytis cinerea. January 1997 , Volume 10 , Number 1. Pages 21 - 29. Authors ... Cutinase of Botrytis cinerea has been suggested to play an important role in penetration of host tissues. A protein fraction ...
more infohttps://www.apsnet.org/publications/mpmi/1997/January/Pages/10_1_21.aspx

Cauliflower All The Year Round (Brassica Oleracea Botrytis) Seeds at Homebase.co.ukCauliflower All The Year Round (Brassica Oleracea Botrytis) Seeds at Homebase.co.uk

Brassica Oleracea Botrytis) Seeds at Homebase. Visit your local store for the widest range of garden products. ... Cauliflower All The Year Round (Brassica oleracea botrytis) is great tasting and reliable variety with large white quality ...
more infohttps://www.homebase.co.uk/cauliflower-all-the-year-round-brassica-oleracea-botrytis-seeds_p155125
  • This widespread occurrence of resistance to single site mode of action fungicides suggests that their effectiveness to control Botrytis rot might become impaired. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • During the 1980s and 1990s, the control of Botrytis rot in the United States relied on fungicides such as iprodione, thiram, captan, and benomyl (1,12). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • At this time, we know little about the occurrence of resistance to the more recently registered products used for controlling Botrytis rot. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • In addition to captan and thiophanate-methyl, which are still available for Botrytis rot management, several newer active ingredients are now being used extensively because of their efficacy in protecting flowers and fruit (13,16). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • By conducting experiments with out-of-phase light:dark cycles, we confirm that indeed, it is the fungal clock that plays the main role in defining the outcome of the Arabidopsis - Botrytis interaction, providing to our knowledge the first evidence of a microbial clock modulating pathogenic traits at specific times of the day. (pnas.org)
  • Controlling Botrytis in the landscape takes a little cleaning up, using a fungicide and maybe changing a few things around your plants. (uga.edu)
  • Although Botran 75-W is registered to control Botrytis on tomato seedlings, this fungicide should be used with caution due to concern regarding occasional sensitivity of the plant stem. (msu.edu)
  • In addition to its crop loss potential, Botrytis infection of ripe fruit of certain cultivars, combined with precise climatic conditions, results in a condition called "noble rot" and is the prized ingredient in the Auslese, Beerenauslese, and Trockenbeerenauslese wines of Germany, the Sauternes wines of France, and the Tokay wines of Hungary. (cornell.edu)
  • Botrytis allii Munn is capable of attacking young onion plants without impeding the growth of the plants, provided conditions for infection are favourable. (springer.com)
  • Botrytis is also responsible for storage losses of grapes picked for fresh market. (cornell.edu)
  • The fruit was whole cluster pressed slowly to extract all the sugars and flavours the botrytis developed in the grapes. (quailsgate.com)
  • This is the same Botrytis that infects a wide range of floriculture crops producing gray masses of powdery spores. (msu.edu)
  • Development of Botrytis aclada on a germinating onion seed. (apsnet.org)
  • The recent overcast and humid conditions are very favorable for Botrytis development on vegetable transplants being held in the greenhouse. (msu.edu)
  • Also, Exotherm Termil will provide protection against Botrytis and can be used for tomatoes (Note: Other forms of chlorothalonil such as Daconil are not registered for use in the greenhouse on vegetable transplants. (msu.edu)
  • Botrytis bunch rot is especially severe in grape cultivars with tight, closely packed clusters of fruit. (cornell.edu)
  • In addition to captan and thiophanate-methyl, which are still available for Botrytis rot management, several newer active ingredients are now being used extensively because of their efficacy in protecting flowers and fruit (13,16). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Botrytis is always a problem for any flowering plant,' Williams-Woodward said. (uga.edu)
  • Pick up a plant with Botrytis sometime and gently flick the infected plant part,' she said. (uga.edu)
  • The later part of the 2010 ripening period provided perfect conditions for the natural onset of Botrytis. (thedrinkshop.com)