A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
Agents that cause clotting.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.

Sequential randomised and double blind trial of promethazine prophylaxis against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom for bothrops snake bites. (1/183)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the H1 antihistamine promethazine against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom. DESIGN: Sequential randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Public hospital in a venom research institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 101 patients requiring antivenom treatment after being bitten by bothrops snakes. INTERVENTION: Intramuscular injection of promethazine (25 mg for adults and 0.5/kg for children) or placebo given 15-20 min before starting intravenous infusion of antivenom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and severity of anaphylactic reactions occurring within 24 hours after antivenom. RESULTS: Reactions occurred in 12 of 49 patients treated with promethazine (24%) and in 13 of 52 given placebo (25%); most were mild or moderate. Continuous sequential analysis indicated that the study could be interrupted at the 22nd untied pair, without preference for promethazine or placebo. CONCLUSION: Prophylaxis with promethazine does not prevent early reactions. Patients should be observed carefully during antivenom infusion and the subsequent few hours.  (+info)

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) homologue from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom. (2/183)

Crystals of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis have been obtained. They diffracted at 2.5 A resolution using a synchrotron radiation source and belong to space group P3(1)21. Preliminary analysis shows that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit.  (+info)

"RKKH" peptides from the snake venom metalloproteinase of Bothrops jararaca bind near the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of the human integrin alpha(2) I-domain. (3/183)

Integrin alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) are the major cellular receptors for collagen, and collagens bind to these integrins at the inserted I-domain in their alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a cyclic peptide derived from the metalloproteinase domain of the snake venom protein jararhagin blocks the collagen-binding function of the alpha(2) I-domain. Here, we have optimized the structure of the peptide and identified the site where the peptide binds to the alpha(2) I-domain. The peptide sequence Arg-Lys-Lys-His is critical for recognition by the I-domain, and five negatively charged residues surrounding the "metal ion-dependent adhesion site" (MIDAS) of the I-domain, when mutated, show significantly impaired binding of the peptide. Removal of helix alphaC, located along one side of the MIDAS and suggested to be involved in collagen-binding in these I-domains, does not affect peptide binding. This study supports the notion that the metalloproteinase initially binds to the alpha(2) I-domain at a location distant from the active site of the protease, thus blocking collagen binding to the adhesion molecule in the vicinity of the MIDAS, while at the same time leaving the active site free to degrade nearby proteins, the closest being the beta(1) subunit of the alpha(2)beta(1) cell-surface integrin itself.  (+info)

Histologic and functional renal alterations caused by Bothrops moojeni snake venom in rats. (4/183)

Acute renal failure (ARF) is the main cause of death following snake bites by Bothrops species. In this study, we investigated the morphologic and functional renal disturbances caused by Bothrops moojeni venom in rats. Renal function was assessed based on creatinine and lithium clearances and on histologic examination of renal tissue 5 hr after the intravenous administration of 0.2 mg of venom/kg and 5 hr, 16 hr, and 48 hr after 0.4 mg of venom/ kg. A venom dose of 0.4 mg/kg produced renal tubule disturbances, including acute impairment of proximal and post-proximal tubule sodium handling associated with acute tubule necrosis. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased significantly and was accompanied by severe morphologic disturbances in the renal glomeruli. These functional and morphologic findings were observed in the absence of any change in mean arterial blood pressure. The decrease in GFR was not related to the presence of fibrin deposits in the glomerular capillary loops. These results suggest an early nephrotoxic action of B. moojeni venom involving significant morphologic and functional changes similar to those observed in snakebite-induced ARF in humans.  (+info)

Two phospholipase A2 inhibitors from the plasma of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani which selectively inhibit two different group-II phospholipase A2 myotoxins from its own venom: isolation, molecular cloning and biological properties. (5/183)

Myotoxic phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s; group II) account for most of the muscle-tissue damage that results from envenomation by viperid snakes. In the venom of the Godman's viper (Cerrophidion godmani, formerly Bothrops godmani), an enzymically active PLA(2) (myotoxin I) and an inactive, Lys-49 variant (myotoxin II) induce extensive muscle damage and oedema. In this study, two distinct myotoxin inhibitor proteins of C. godmani, CgMIP-I and CgMIP-II, were purified directly from blood plasma by selective binding to affinity columns containing either myotoxin I or myotoxin II, respectively. Both proteins are glycosylated, acidic (pI=4) and composed of 20-25-kDa subunits that form oligomers of 110 kDa (CgMIP-I) or 180 kDa (CgMIP-II). In inhibition studies, CgMIP-I specifically neutralized the PLA(2) and the myotoxic, oedema-forming and cytolytic activities of myotoxins I, whereas CgMIP-II selectively inhibited the toxic properties of myotoxin II. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the two inhibitors revealed that CgMIP-I is similar to gamma-type inhibitors, which share a pattern of cysteine residues present in the Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, whereas CgMIP-II shares sequence identity with alpha-type inhibitors that contain carbohydrate-recognition-like domains, also found in C-type lectins and mammalian PLA(2) receptors. N-terminal sequencing of myotoxin I revealed a different primary structure from myotoxin II [De Sousa, Morhy, Arni, Ward, Diaz and Gutierrez (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1384, 204-208], which provides insight into the nature of such pharmacological specificity.  (+info)

Antibody from mice immunized with DNA encoding the carboxyl-disintegrin and cysteine-rich domain (JD9) of the haemorrhagic metalloprotease, Jararhagin, inhibits the main lethal component of viper venom. (6/183)

Envenoming by the Brazilian pit viper, Bothrops jararaca, induces extensive local and systemic haemorrhage in humans. The severe and occasionally lethal outcome of envenoming is prevented only by administration of antivenom which is conventionally prepared by hyperimmunization of large animals with an individual venom or a range of venoms. Since snake venoms typically consist of numerous molecules, only some of which are toxic, antivenoms are antigenically crude preparations whose therapeutic value would theoretically be enhanced by restricting antibody specificity to toxic venom molecules. We report here that high-titre IgG antibody from mice immunized by the GeneGun with DNA encoding the carboxy-terminal JD9 domain of Jararhagin, a haemorrhage-inducing metalloprotease in B. jararaca venom, extensively neutralized the main lethal component of B. jararaca venom. This is to our knowledge the first study to apply DNA-based methods to preparation of antivenom; it represents a novel approach with greater immunological specificity and fewer hazards than conventional systems of antivenom production.  (+info)

Basic residues of human group IIA phospholipase A2 are important for binding to factor Xa and prothrombinase inhibition comparison with other mammalian secreted phospholipases A2. (7/183)

Human secreted group IIA phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) was reported to inhibit prothrombinase activity because of binding to factor Xa. This study further shows that hGIIA and its catalytically inactive H48Q mutant prolong the lag time of thrombin generation in human platelet-rich plasma with similar efficiency, indicating that hGIIA exerts an anticoagulant effect independently of phospholipid hydrolysis under ex vivo conditions. Charge reversal of basic residues on the interfacial binding surface (IBS) of hGIIA leads to decreased ability to inhibit prothrombinase activity, which correlates with a reduced affinity for factor Xa, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Mutation of other surface-exposed basic residues, hydrophobic residues on the IBS, and His48, does not affect the ability of hGIIA to inhibit prothrombinase activity and bind to factor Xa. Other basic, but not neutral or acidic, mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) exert a phospholipid-independent inhibitory effect on prothrombinase activity, suggesting that these basic sPLA2s also bind to factor Xa. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the anticoagulant effect of hGIIA is independent of phospholipid hydrolysis and is based on its interaction with factor Xa, leading to prothrombinase inhibition, even under ex vivo conditions. This study also shows that such an interaction involves basic residues located on the IBS of hGIIA, and suggests that other basic mammalian sPLA2s may also inhibit blood coagulation by a similar mechanism to that described for hGIIA.  (+info)

Local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom: relationship to neurogenic inflammation. (8/183)

We investigated morphological alterations induced by s.c. injection of 2.5 microg of Bothrops jararaca venom in rats. Intense disorganisation of collagen fibres was observed 1 min after the venom injection, particularly at regions near vessels and nerves. Mast cells were degranulated, and erythrocytes were seen leaving venules throughout the endothelial junctions. At this time, damaged endothelial cells were not observed. In rats envenomed as above, but immediately after cardiorespiratory failure induced by deep ether anaesthesia, alterations in the connective tissue structures, as previously described, were not observed. The mediation of this haemorrhage was investigated by injecting the venom into the foot pad of mice and compared to the mediation of oedema. Local haemorrhage was significantly reduced in mice pre-treated with capsaicin or guanethidine or submitted to a surgical section of sciatic and saphenous nerves. In these animals, oedema was not affected. Groups treated with methysergide or morphine showed both haemorrhage and oedema significantly reduced. Indomethacin or dexamethasone pre-treatments significantly reduced the oedema, but not the haemorrhage. Moreover, in animals treated with promethazine or mepyramine, oedema and haemorrhage were not affected. These data suggest that local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom is partially controlled by serotonin and neurohumoral mediators. Furthermore, results indicate that haemorrhage and oedema are mediated by different pharmacological systems.  (+info)

"Bothrops" is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as lancehead vipers, found primarily in Central and South America. The name "Bothrops" comes from the Greek words "bothros," meaning pit, and "ops," meaning face, referring to the deep pits on the sides of their heads that help them detect heat and locate prey. These snakes are known for their aggressive behavior and potent venom, which can cause severe pain, swelling, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects if left untreated.

The genus "Bothrops" includes over 30 species of pit vipers, many of which are considered medically important due to their ability to inflict serious envenomations in humans. Some notable examples include Bothrops asper (the terciopelo or fer-de-lance), Bothrops atrox (the common lancehead), and Bothrops jararaca (the jararaca).

If you encounter a snake of this genus, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately if bitten, as the venom can cause significant harm if not treated promptly.

Crotalid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by the members of the Crotalinae subfamily, also known as pit vipers. This group includes rattlesnakes, cottonmouths (or water moccasins), and copperheads, which are native to the Americas, as well as Old World vipers found in Asia and Europe, such as gaboon vipers and saw-scaled vipers.

Crotalid venoms are complex mixtures of various bioactive molecules, including enzymes, proteins, peptides, and other low molecular weight components. They typically contain a variety of pharmacologically active components, such as hemotoxic and neurotoxic agents, which can cause extensive local tissue damage, coagulopathy, cardiovascular dysfunction, and neuromuscular disorders in the victim.

The composition of crotalid venoms can vary significantly between different species and even among individual specimens within the same species. This variability is influenced by factors such as geographic location, age, sex, diet, and environmental conditions. As a result, the clinical manifestations of crotalid envenomation can be highly variable, ranging from mild local reactions to severe systemic effects that may require intensive medical treatment and supportive care.

Crotalid venoms have been the subject of extensive research in recent years due to their potential therapeutic applications. For example, certain components of crotalid venoms have shown promise as drugs for treating various medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, pain, and inflammation. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action of these venom components and to develop safe and effective therapies based on them.

Antivenins, also known as antivenoms, are medications created specifically to counteract venomous bites or stings from various creatures such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine animals. They contain antibodies that bind to and neutralize the toxic proteins present in venom. Antivenins are usually made by immunizing large animals (like horses) with small amounts of venom over time, which prompts the animal's immune system to produce antibodies against the venom. The antibody-rich serum is then collected from the immunized animal and purified for use as an antivenin.

When administered to a victim who has been envenomated, antivenins work by binding to the venom molecules, preventing them from causing further damage to the body's tissues and organs. This helps minimize the severity of symptoms and can save lives in life-threatening situations. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if bitten or stung by a venomous creature, as antivenins should be administered as soon as possible for optimal effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Reptilian Proteins" does not have a specific or established medical or scientific meaning. The term "reptilian" generally refers to characteristics of reptiles, and proteins are complex molecules that perform various functions within all living organisms, including reptiles. However, there isn't a recognized category or classification called "Reptilian Proteins" in the field of medicine or biology. If you have any questions about specific reptile-related proteins or reptile physiology, I would be happy to try and help with those!

A snake bite is a traumatic injury resulting from the puncture or laceration of skin by the fangs of a snake, often accompanied by envenomation. Envenomation occurs when the snake injects venom into the victim's body through its fangs. The severity and type of symptoms depend on various factors such as the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the individual's sensitivity to the venom. Symptoms can range from localized pain, swelling, and redness to systemic effects like coagulopathy, neurotoxicity, or cardiotoxicity, which may lead to severe complications or even death if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by specialized glands in snakes. They primarily consist of proteins and peptides, including enzymes, neurotoxins, hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and cardiotoxins. These toxins can cause a variety of pharmacological effects on the victim's body, such as disruption of the nervous system, blood coagulation, muscle function, and cell membrane integrity, ultimately leading to tissue damage and potentially death. The composition of snake venoms varies widely among different species, making each species' venom unique in its toxicity profile.

Group II Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a class of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. They are classified as one of the several groups of PLA2 based on their structure, function, and calcium dependence.

Group II PLA2s are secreted enzymes that require millimolar concentrations of calcium ions for their activity. They consist of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight ranging from 14 to 18 kDa. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, host defense, and lipid metabolism. Dysregulation of Group II PLA2 activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases.

L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of flavin monooxygenases. It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids into corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction takes place in the presence of molecular oxygen and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) as a cofactor.

LAAO is found in various organisms, including mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, bacteria, and plants. In some species, LAAO plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, while in others, it functions as a part of the immune system or contributes to the development of venoms and toxins.

In humans, LAAO is primarily located in the peroxisomes of liver, kidney, and intestinal cells, where it participates in the catabolism of amino acids. In addition, LAAO has been found to have potential roles in several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, and cancer, due to its ability to generate hydrogen peroxide and induce oxidative stress.

'Eclipta' is a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy family. The most common species is Eclipta prostrata, which is also known as false daisy or yerba de tago. This plant is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world and has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including treating skin diseases, liver disorders, and diabetes. The leaves and roots of the plant are used to make medicinal preparations. However, it's important to note that the use of herbal remedies should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications or have potential side effects.

Batroxobin is a serine protease enzyme that is isolated from the venom of Bothrops atrox, also known as the South American fer-de-lance snake. It has thrombin-like activity and can induce fibrinogen to form fibrin, which is an important step in blood clotting. Batroxobin is used medically as a defibrinating agent to treat conditions such as snake envenomation, cerebral infarction, and arterial thrombosis. It may also be used for research purposes to study hemostasis and coagulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

'Crotalus' is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as rattlesnakes. These snakes are native to the Americas, ranging from southern Canada to Argentina. They are characterized by the distinctive rattle on the end of their tails, which they use to warn potential predators before striking. The venom of Crotalus species is hemotoxic, meaning that it causes damage to blood vessels and tissue.

Some examples of species in this genus include the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), and the sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes). It is important to note that all rattlesnakes are potentially dangerous and should be treated with caution. If you encounter a rattlesnake in the wild, it is best to leave it alone and avoid approaching it.

Viperidae is not a term that has a medical definition per se, but it is a term used in the field of biology and zoology. Viperidae is the family name for a group of venomous snakes commonly known as vipers. This family includes various types of pit vipers, adders, and rattlesnakes.

While Viperidae itself may not have direct medical relevance, understanding the biology and behavior of these creatures is important in the context of medical fields such as toxicology and emergency medicine. Knowledge about the venomous properties of viper snakes and their potential to cause harm to humans is crucial for appropriate treatment and management of snakebites.

Coagulants are substances that promote the process of coagulation or clotting. They are often used in medical settings to help control bleeding and promote healing. Coagulants work by encouraging the formation of a clot, which helps to stop the flow of blood from a wound or cut.

There are several different types of coagulants that may be used in medical treatments. Some coagulants are naturally occurring substances, such as vitamin K, which is essential for the production of certain clotting factors in the body. Other coagulants may be synthetic or semi-synthetic compounds, such as recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), which is used to treat bleeding disorders and prevent excessive bleeding during surgery.

Coagulants are often administered through injection or infusion, but they can also be applied topically to wounds or cuts. In some cases, coagulants may be used in combination with other treatments, such as compression or cauterization, to help control bleeding and promote healing.

It is important to note that while coagulants can be helpful in controlling bleeding and promoting healing, they can also increase the risk of blood clots and other complications. As a result, they should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond in glycerophospholipids, releasing free fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, and lysophospholipids. These products are important precursors for the biosynthesis of various signaling molecules, including eicosanoids, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and lipoxins, which play crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, and other cellular processes.

Phospholipases A2 are classified into several groups based on their structure, mechanism of action, and cellular localization. The secreted PLA2s (sPLA2s) are found in extracellular fluids and are characterized by a low molecular weight, while the calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA2s (cPLA2s) are larger proteins that reside within cells.

Abnormal regulation or activity of Phospholipase A2 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the biology and function of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these disorders.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

"Viper venoms" refer to the toxic secretions produced by members of the Viperidae family of snakes, which include pit vipers (such as rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths) and true vipers (like adders, vipers, and gaboon vipers). These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that can cause a wide range of symptoms in prey or predators, including local tissue damage, pain, swelling, bleeding, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as coagulopathy, cardiovascular shock, and respiratory failure.

The composition of viper venoms varies widely between different species and even among individuals within the same species. However, many viper venoms contain a variety of enzymes (such as phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and serine proteases) that can cause tissue damage and disrupt vital physiological processes in the victim. Additionally, some viper venoms contain neurotoxins that can affect the nervous system and cause paralysis or other neurological symptoms.

Understanding the composition and mechanisms of action of viper venoms is important for developing effective treatments for venomous snakebites, as well as for gaining insights into the evolution and ecology of these fascinating and diverse creatures.

Pentacyclic triterpenes are a type of natural compounds that are characterized by their structure, which consists of five cyclic rings made up of 30 carbon atoms. They are formed from squalene through a series of enzymatic reactions and can be found in various plants, as well as some animals and marine organisms.

Pentacyclic triterpenes have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor activities. Some examples of pentacyclic triterpenes include oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and betulinic acid, which are found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and herbs.

It's worth noting that while there is a growing body of research on the potential health benefits of pentacyclic triterpenes, more studies are needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Bothrops is a genus of highly venomous pit vipers endemic to the Neotropics. The generic name, Bothrops, is derived from the ... Many species of Bothrops exhibit tail vibration behavior when disturbed. Members of this genus are responsible for more ... Bothrops species are found in northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas) southward through Central and South America to Argentina. They ... This species, unlike most Bothrops, preys primarily on birds, due to the absence of native mammal species on Queimada Grande. ...
However, sex-based variation of Bothrops atrox snake venom using siblings is poorly investigated. Bothrops atrox is responsible ... However, sex-based variation of Bothrops atrox snake venom using siblings is poorly investigated. Bothrops atrox is responsible ... Thus, in the current study, venom samples of Bothrops atrox male and female siblings were analyzed in order to compare their ... Differences in the venom composition of Bothrops genus have been linked to several factors such as ontogeny, geographical ...
Bothrops jararaca lancehead snake .css-kff9ir{text-transform:capitalize;}. animal body part animal eye animal skin animal ...
View The Reptile Database record for Bothrops alternatus*View all photos in CalPhotos of Bothrops alternatus *Check Google ... Bothrops alternatus. Urutu Cruzeiro Photographer: Michel de Aguiar Passos. ID: 0000 0000 0511 0090 (2011-05-02). Copyright © ... The photographers identification Bothrops alternatus has not been reviewed. Click here to review or comment on the ...
Luckily, Bothrops saved his life.. Bothrops is a remedy that is not well known to us. It has not had a proper proving and has ... Towards Lachesis, let me say that many of the common symptoms of Lachesis may also be found in Bothrops. However, Bothrops ... If the symptoms match, Bothrops may be given at this time. Bothrops comas are serious comas; it is possible that without ... Here, the Bothrops patient wants to say something, but can not say it. They have the clear image of what they want to say but ...
... caracterizar o influxo leucocitário induzido pelo veneno de Bothrops insularis (VBi); ii) avaliar a liberação de PGD2 e PGE2, ... In this study the effects of Bothrops insularis venom (BiV) on the leukocyte influx, on the circulating leukocyte numbers and ... Este estudo teve por objetivos: i) caracterizar o influxo leucocitário induzido pelo veneno de Bothrops insularis (VBi); ii) ... Caracterização da reação inflamatória induzida pelo veneno da serpente Bothrops insularis: Influxo leucocitário, liberação de ...
Bothrops alcatraz - CARRASCO et al. 2012. Bothropoides alcatraz - WALLACH et al. 2014: 113. Bothrops alcatraz - NOGUEIRA et al ... A new insular species of pitviper from Brazil, with comments on evolutionary biology and conservation of the Bothrops jararaca ... Speciation Process on Brazilian Continental Islands, with the Description of A New Insular Lancehead of the Genus Bothrops ( ... Bothrops alcatraz MARQUES, MARTINS & SAZIMA 2002. Bothropoides alcatraz - FENWICK et al. 2009. ...
Palabras clave : Coagulant enzyme; venom; snake; Bothrops bilineatus; bilineatobin. · resumen en Español · texto en Español · ... a clotting enzyme isolated from the venom of the arboreal peruvian snake Bothrops bilineatus (loro machaco). Rev. Soc. Quím. ... A clotting enzyme was purified from Bothrops bilineatus arboreal snake venom, called bilineatobin, using Sephadex G-100 ...
Bothrops leucurus caudal luring. Herpetological Review 42(3), June 2011 436.. First record of Bothrops taeniatus Wagler, 1824 ( ... Below are five of submissions detailing information about Bothrops pirajai, B. jararaca, B. leucrurus, B. muriciensis and B. ... Biology and conservation status of Pirahas Lancehead Snake Bothrops pirajai Amaral, 1923 (Reptilia: Viperidae), Brazil. ... Notes on the conservation status, geographic distribution and ecology of Bothrops muriciensis Ferrarezzi & Freire, 2001 ( ...
Fer de lance commun, Trigonocéphale, Grage commun (Linnaeus, 1758) - Bothrops_atrox_Fer_de_lance.JPG
Bothrops barnetti (Barnetts lancehead) (taxid:1051630). Venom composition. Figure 1: Composition of B.barnetti venom, studied ... Bothrops barnetti (Barnetts lancehead) (Trimeresurus barnetti). VM1B1_BOTBA Zinc metalloproteinase barnettlysin-1 (EC 3.4.24 ... Bothrops barnetti is an endemic venomous pit viper native to the Pacific coast of northern Peru and the south east of Ecuador. ...
Is the venom related to diet and tail color during Bothrops moojeni ontogeny?. en. ...
Bothrops_asper_(Panama)_coiled. September 10, 2017. September 10, 2017. CR Leave a comment ...
Here you see a Common Lance Head (Bothrops atrox) resting on top of a log on one of the hiking trails in Kabalebo. This snake ...
BOTHROPS INSULARIS on VICE Video: Documentaries, Films, News Videos ...
Symptoms for Willmar Schwabe Bothrops Lanceolatus Bothrops Lanceolatus acts well in complaint of thrombosis, inability to ... Eyes Bothrops Lanceolatus checks blindness from haemorrhage into retina. It is well indicated for a complaint of day blindness ... Dosage and rules while taking Willmar Schwabe Bothrops Lanceolatus Take 5 drops in half cup of water three times a day. You can ... Bothrops Lanceolatus is indicated for Broken-down, hemorrhagic constitutions; septic states. Great lassitude and sluggishness; ...
... and evaluation of Bothrops venom serine protease peptidic inhibitors. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical ... snakebite envenomation is mainly caused by Bothrops spp. snakes, whose venoms feature significant biochemical richness, ... Design, synthesis, and evaluation of Bothrops venom serine protease peptidic inhibitors Full text ... Moreover, one promising peptide (pepC) was identified that can be explored in the search for improving Bothrops spp. ...
Acidente Ofídico em Equino Causado por Bothrops sp. 2019. 67 f. TCC (Graduação) - Curso Medicina Veterinária, Universidade ... case of snake accident in horses caused by Bothrops sp. ... Acidente Ofídico em Equino Causado por Bothrops sp.. Keywords: ...
... ... H. Loxtoxre, E, Moatnvo y J . M. GurtEsaez . Detation of proteins antigenically rdated to Bothrops riper myotoxin in crotaline ... H. Loxtoxre, E, Moatnvo and J . M. GurtEsaez . Detation of proteins antigenically rdated to Bothrops riper myotoxin in ...
Two-lined Forest Pit Viper (Bothrops bilineata) Standard Vivarium Label. Regular price $5.00 ...
Bothrops jararacussu is the largest species within the genus Bothrops and one of which has the venom more toxic to humans. Its ... Research [10] › Projects [5] › Use of the environment, activity and food ecology of Bothrops jararacussu (Serpentes: Viperidae ... The general objective of this research is to describe aspects of the ecology of Bothrops jararacussu from populations close to ... Use of the environment, activity and food ecology of Bothrops jararacussu (Lacerda, 1884): a telemetry study in the Boa Nova ...
Bothrops Asper, Bothrie Schlegelii, Bothrops Atrox, Crotalus Durissus, Bothriopsis Bilineata Any Snake Antivenin ... Bothrops Atrox, Crotalus Durissus, Bothriopsis Bilineata - 2023 Red Cross Antivenin Online Shop Snake-Antivenin.com - Snake ... Bothrops Asper. Bothrie Schlegelii. Bothrops Atrox. Crotalus Durissus. Bothriopsis Bilineata. I live very near the Trato river ... Home » Blog » RED CROSS ANTIVENOM » Snake Antivenom Lachesis Acrochorda, Bothrops Asper, Bothrie Schlegelii, Bothrops Atrox, ...
New insights into immunopathology associated to Bothrops lanceolatus snake envenomation: focus on PLA2 toxin. Int J Mol Sci. ... Among the clinical conditions in which the formation of thrombi dictates the patients prognosis, envenomation by Bothrops ... New insights into immunopathology associated to Bothrops lanceolatus snake envenomation_ focus on PLA2 toxin.pdf. Description: ... New insights into immunopathology associated to Bothrops lanceolatus snake envenomation: focus on PLA2 toxin. ...
In Northeastern Brazil, the endemic species is Bothrops erythromelas, locally known as jararaca-da-seca. Bothrops venoms induce ... METHODS: Bothrops erythromelas venom was submitted to electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet, following ... Antigens of Bothrops erythromelas venom that react with patient antibodies were analyzed by western blotting, following Towbin ... It is important to highlight that this could serve as a marker for Bothrops erythormelas envenomation, since this protein is ...
SDS‑induced hexameric oligomerization of myotoxin‑II from Bothrops asper assessed by sedimentation velocity and nuclear ... and structural details of myotoxin-II purified from the venom of Bothrops asper in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl ...
The Bj-PDE partial sequence identified by mass spectrometry was very similar to the sequence of BATXPDE1 from Bothrops atrox, ... Isolation and characterization of the first phosphodiesterase (Bj-PDE) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu snake. 0 ... "Isolation and characterization of the first phosphodiesterase (Bj-PDE) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu snake." ... we described here the isolation of the first phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararacussu, which we named Bj-PDE. A five-step ...
Bothrops fonsecai snake venom activities and cross-reactivity with commercial bothropic venom. / Collaço, Rita de Cássia O.; ... Bothrops fonsecai snake venom activities and cross-reactivity with commercial bothropic venom. In: Comparative Biochemistry and ... Bothrops fonsecai snake venom activities and cross-reactivity with commercial bothropic venom. Comparative Biochemistry and ... N2 - In this work, we examined some biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops fonsecai venom, a pitviper endemic to ...
Inhibitory effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and vitamin B-complex on the biological activities induced by Bothrops venom. ... and vitamin B-complex on the biological activities induced by Bothrops venom. Pharmaceutical Biology, [S.l.], v. 54, n. 5, p. ... the vitamins analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms, suggesting ... and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by Bothrops moojeni (Viperidae), B. jararacussu, and B. alternatus snake venoms, and ...
  • However, sex-based variation of Bothrops atrox snake venom using siblings is poorly investigated. (mendeley.com)
  • Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. (mendeley.com)
  • Thus, in the current study, venom samples of Bothrops atrox male and female siblings were analyzed in order to compare their biochemical and biological characteristics. (mendeley.com)
  • Here you see a Common Lance Head (Bothrops atrox) resting on top of a log on one of the hiking trails in Kabalebo. (nature-myview.com)
  • The Bj-PDE partial sequence identified by mass spectrometry was very similar to the sequence of BATXPDE1 from Bothrops atrox , which was evolutionarily close to this new PDE. (bioinfor.com)
  • Here, we assess the efficacy of polyspecific anti-Bothrops serum (α-BS) produced in the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Peru) and at the Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED, Brazil), to neutralize the main toxic activities induced by five medically-relevant venoms of: Bothrops atrox, B. barnetti, and B. pictus from Peru, and the Brazilian B. jararaca and B. leucurus, all of them inhabiting different geographical locations. (edu.pe)
  • Thus, our data indicate that both α-BS are equally effective to treat snake bite victims inflicted by Bothrops snakes particularly B. atrox, responsible for the largest numbers of human envenomations in the Amazon regions of some South American countries including Peru and Brazil. (edu.pe)
  • The fer-de-lance ( Bothrops atrox ) is a pit viper with venom deadly to humans. (livescience.com)
  • la BATROXOBINA de Bothrops atrox y la crotalasa de Crotalus adamanteus (crótalo adamantino). (bvsalud.org)
  • Venom complexity of Bothrops atro. (mendeley.com)
  • Differences in the venom composition of Bothrops genus have been linked to several factors such as ontogeny, geographical distribution, prey preferences and sex. (mendeley.com)
  • In this study the effects of Bothrops insularis venom (BiV) on the leukocyte influx, on the circulating leukocyte numbers and release of mediators, such as PGD2, PGE2, TXA2, LTB4, MCP-1 and KC into the local of its injection. (usp.br)
  • A clotting enzyme was purified from Bothrops bilineatus arboreal snake venom, called bilineatobin, using Sephadex G-100 followed by CM Sephadex C-50, in both two cases with 0,05 M amonium acetate buffer pH 6,0. (scielo.org.pe)
  • Acervo Digital: Is the venom related to diet and tail color during Bothrops moojeni ontogeny? (unesp.br)
  • Methods: In order to search for tools to improve the antivenom's, 6-mer peptides were designed based on a specific substrate for Bothrops jararaca venom serine proteases, and then synthesized, with the intention to selectively inhibit these enzymes. (fapesp.br)
  • Bothrops jararacussu is the largest species within the genus Bothrops and one of which has the venom more toxic to humans. (leibniz-lib.de)
  • Bothrops erythromelas venom was submitted to electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet, following incubation with patients' sera. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Antigens of Bothrops erythromelas venom that react with patient antibodies were analyzed by western blotting, following Towbin et al 6 . (rsbmt.org.br)
  • This IgM production was previously observed using Bothrops jararaca venom with patients bitten by this snake 7 . (rsbmt.org.br)
  • We report the solution behavior, oligomerization state, and structural details of myotoxin-II purified from the venom of Bothrops asper in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and multiple lipids, as examined by analytical ultracentrifugation and nuclear magnetic resonance. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • In this work, we examined some biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops fonsecai venom, a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, and assessed their neutralization by commercial bothropic antivenom (CAv). (okstate.edu)
  • Bothrops fonsecai venom had PLA 2 , proteolytic and esterase activities that were neutralized to varying extents by venom:antivenom ratios of 5:1 and 5:2 (PLA 2 and esterase activities) or not significantly by either venom:antivenom ratio (proteolytic activity). (okstate.edu)
  • Bothrops fonsecai venom had PLA2, proteolytic and esterase activities that were neutralized to varying extents by venom:antivenom ratios of 5:1 and 5:2 (PLA2 and esterase activities) or not significantly by either venom:antivenom ratio (proteolytic activity). (okstate.edu)
  • Venom production in long-term primary culture of secretory cells of the Bothrops jararaca venom gland. (nature.com)
  • Detation of proteins antigenically rdated to Bothrops riper myotoxin in crotaline snake venoms. (una.ac.cr)
  • Bothrops venoms induce local and systemic hemorrhaging, coagulopathy, edema, local necrosis and can lead to death and/or permanent disabilities 3-5 . (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Material and methods: the effect of vitamins was evaluated on the phospholipase, proteolytic, coagulant, and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by Bothrops moojeni (Viperidae), B. jararacussu, and B. alternatus snake venoms, and the hemagglutinating activity induced by B. jararacussu venom. (ufla.br)
  • Discussion and conclusion: the vitamins analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms, suggesting their interaction with toxins belonging to the phospholipase A2, protease, and lectin classes. (ufla.br)
  • Despite the fact that different antigen mixtures were used for immunization during antivenom production, our data showed high toxin-neutralizing activity of α-BS raised against Bothrops venoms. (edu.pe)
  • Bothrops venoms are composed by several protein fractions. (scielo.br)
  • Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil. (reptarium.cz)
  • 2022. Isolated by dry lands: integrative analyses unveil the existence of a new species and a previously unknown evolutionary lineage of Brazilian Lanceheads (Serpentes: Viperidae: Bothrops) from a Caatinga moist-forest enclave. (reptarium.cz)
  • Speciation Process on Brazilian Continental Islands, with the Description of A New Insular Lancehead of the Genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae). (reptarium.cz)
  • Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). (reptarium.cz)
  • A new insular species of pitviper from Brazil, with comments on evolutionary biology and conservation of the Bothrops jararaca group (Serpentes, Viperidae). (reptarium.cz)
  • Bothrops Lanceolatus acts well in complaint of thrombosis, inability to articulate. (homeomall.com)
  • black spots indicates Bothrops Lanceolatus. (homeomall.com)
  • Nervous trembling, Pain in right big toe is well relieved by Bothrops Lanceolatus. (homeomall.com)
  • Bothrops Lanceolatus checks blindness from haemorrhage into retina. (homeomall.com)
  • Swollen and puffy, Besotted expression indicates Bothrops Lanceolatus. (homeomall.com)
  • swallowing difficult, cannot pass liquids is relieved by Bothrops Lanceolatus. (homeomall.com)
  • Epigastric distress, Black vomiting can be well checked by Bothrops Lanceolatus. (homeomall.com)
  • Among the clinical conditions in which the formation of thrombi dictates the patient's prognosis, envenomation by Bothrops lanceolatus should be emphasized, as it can evolve to stroke, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. (butantan.gov.br)
  • In São Paulo City, Brazil, 121 patients with moderately severe envenoming by Bothrops snakes (principally B. jararaca) were randomized for treatment with Brazilian polyspecific Bothrops antivenoms: Instituto Butantan (39 patients), Instituto Vital Brazil (41), Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED) (41). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Randomized comparative trial of three antivenoms in the treatment of envenoming by lance-headed vipers (Bothrops jararaca) in São Paulo, Brazil. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The American Naturalist 188.4 (2016): 475-483 Bothrops at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bothrops species are found in northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas) southward through Central and South America to Argentina. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species, unlike most Bothrops, preys primarily on birds, due to the absence of native mammal species on Queimada Grande. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species of Bothrops exhibit tail vibration behavior when disturbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • T) Type species Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bothrops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marcio Antonio de Freitas has contributed to several studies in the past few years to present data about the biology, natural history and conservation status of species within genus Bothrops in Brazil. (oriannesociety.org)
  • In Northeastern Brazil, the endemic species is Bothrops erythromelas , locally known as jararaca-da-seca . (rsbmt.org.br)
  • It is important to highlight that this could serve as a marker for Bothrops erythormelas envenomation, since this protein is not well neutralized by the commercial antivenom used in Brazil, perhaps because the antivenom pool does not include the Bothrops erythromelas species. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • During 18 months, we collected data on growth rates in juveniles from a litter of a species ( Bothrops fonsecai ) with a female-biased sexual size dimorphism under a controlled feeding regime. (bioone.org)
  • Bothrops schlegelii supraciliaris TAYLOR 154 has been removed from the synonymy of B. schlegeli and revalidated and elevated to full species status. (reptarium.cz)
  • La mitxoxina es un componente abundante en el veneno de B. aspen adulto. (una.ac.cr)
  • O veneno de Bothrops erythromelas foi submetido a eletroforese e transferido para nitrocelulose, seguindo incubação com soro de pacientes. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Neste trabalho foi descrito um método rápido para o isolamento da fração miotóxica do veneno de Bothrops neuwiedi (jararaca pintada), utilizando-se uma etapa única de purificação por Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE). (scielo.br)
  • Bothrops is a genus of highly venomous pit vipers endemic to the Neotropics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bothrops barnetti is an endemic venomous pit viper native to the Pacific coast of northern Peru and the south east of Ecuador. (expasy.org)
  • The general objective of this research is to describe aspects of the ecology of Bothrops jararacussu from populations close to the Boa Nova National Park, the only known conservation unit in the Planalto Sul-Bahiano, using telemetry through subcultaneous implantation of a radio transmitter. (leibniz-lib.de)
  • After more than one decade without any advance in the study of Bothropic phosphodiesterases, we described here the isolation of the first phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararacussu , which we named Bj-PDE. (bioinfor.com)
  • Abstract Background: In Central and South America, snakebite envenomation is mainly caused by Bothrops spp. (fapesp.br)
  • The IgM production of patients bitten by Bothrops erythromelas snake was analyzed to identify the effectiveness of treatment in this type of envenomation. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Furthermore, we have evaluated the efficacy of both α-BS to neutralize key toxic compounds belonging to the predominant protein families of Bothrops snakes. (edu.pe)
  • Fatal attack of a pit viper, Bothrops jararaca , on an infant buffy-tufted ear marmoset ( Callithrix aurita ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Os resultados sugerem que essa proteína poderia ser utilizada como marcador para indivíduos envenenados pela serpente Bothrops erythromelas . (rsbmt.org.br)
  • The photographer's identification Bothrops alternatus has not been reviewed. (berkeley.edu)
  • Bothrops is a remedy that is not well known to us. (nesh.com)
  • By studying a number of my own patients that benefited greatly from using Bothrops , as well as from a handful of cases that I consulted with colleagues about, I was able to find common ideas, which lead to a Cycle of the remedy. (nesh.com)
  • It should be emphasized that despite serum therapy, the antibody response to Bothrops erythromelas followed a humoral immune response which is classic for many diseases: primary IgM production. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Moreover, one promising peptide (pepC) was identified that can be explored in the search for improving Bothrops spp. (fapesp.br)
  • The Bothrops genus is responsible for 90.6% of the reported envenomings 2 . (rsbmt.org.br)
  • I have seen this tendency in many of my Bothrops patients. (nesh.com)
  • Interestingly, the emotions often show this closed, shut down tendency in Bothrops patients as well. (nesh.com)
  • Bothrops patients, may feel quite strongly about their opinions. (nesh.com)
  • Design, synthesis, and evaluation of Bothrops veno. (fapesp.br)

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