A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
Agents that cause clotting.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.
Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.
A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Neurological condition characterized by disturbances in VISUAL PERCEPTION, most often of BODY SCHEMA, TIME PERCEPTION and HALLUCINATIONS. It is associated with MIGRAINE, infections (e.g., INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS), FEVER, EPILEPSY, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A phosphoric diester hydrolase that removes 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated OLIGONUCLEOTIDES. It has low activity towards POLYNUCLEOTIDES and the presence of 3'-phosphate terminus on the substrate may inhibit hydrolysis.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.

Sequential randomised and double blind trial of promethazine prophylaxis against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom for bothrops snake bites. (1/183)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the H1 antihistamine promethazine against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom. DESIGN: Sequential randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Public hospital in a venom research institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 101 patients requiring antivenom treatment after being bitten by bothrops snakes. INTERVENTION: Intramuscular injection of promethazine (25 mg for adults and 0.5/kg for children) or placebo given 15-20 min before starting intravenous infusion of antivenom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and severity of anaphylactic reactions occurring within 24 hours after antivenom. RESULTS: Reactions occurred in 12 of 49 patients treated with promethazine (24%) and in 13 of 52 given placebo (25%); most were mild or moderate. Continuous sequential analysis indicated that the study could be interrupted at the 22nd untied pair, without preference for promethazine or placebo. CONCLUSION: Prophylaxis with promethazine does not prevent early reactions. Patients should be observed carefully during antivenom infusion and the subsequent few hours.  (+info)

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) homologue from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom. (2/183)

Crystals of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) from Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis have been obtained. They diffracted at 2.5 A resolution using a synchrotron radiation source and belong to space group P3(1)21. Preliminary analysis shows that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit.  (+info)

"RKKH" peptides from the snake venom metalloproteinase of Bothrops jararaca bind near the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of the human integrin alpha(2) I-domain. (3/183)

Integrin alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) are the major cellular receptors for collagen, and collagens bind to these integrins at the inserted I-domain in their alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a cyclic peptide derived from the metalloproteinase domain of the snake venom protein jararhagin blocks the collagen-binding function of the alpha(2) I-domain. Here, we have optimized the structure of the peptide and identified the site where the peptide binds to the alpha(2) I-domain. The peptide sequence Arg-Lys-Lys-His is critical for recognition by the I-domain, and five negatively charged residues surrounding the "metal ion-dependent adhesion site" (MIDAS) of the I-domain, when mutated, show significantly impaired binding of the peptide. Removal of helix alphaC, located along one side of the MIDAS and suggested to be involved in collagen-binding in these I-domains, does not affect peptide binding. This study supports the notion that the metalloproteinase initially binds to the alpha(2) I-domain at a location distant from the active site of the protease, thus blocking collagen binding to the adhesion molecule in the vicinity of the MIDAS, while at the same time leaving the active site free to degrade nearby proteins, the closest being the beta(1) subunit of the alpha(2)beta(1) cell-surface integrin itself.  (+info)

Histologic and functional renal alterations caused by Bothrops moojeni snake venom in rats. (4/183)

Acute renal failure (ARF) is the main cause of death following snake bites by Bothrops species. In this study, we investigated the morphologic and functional renal disturbances caused by Bothrops moojeni venom in rats. Renal function was assessed based on creatinine and lithium clearances and on histologic examination of renal tissue 5 hr after the intravenous administration of 0.2 mg of venom/kg and 5 hr, 16 hr, and 48 hr after 0.4 mg of venom/ kg. A venom dose of 0.4 mg/kg produced renal tubule disturbances, including acute impairment of proximal and post-proximal tubule sodium handling associated with acute tubule necrosis. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreased significantly and was accompanied by severe morphologic disturbances in the renal glomeruli. These functional and morphologic findings were observed in the absence of any change in mean arterial blood pressure. The decrease in GFR was not related to the presence of fibrin deposits in the glomerular capillary loops. These results suggest an early nephrotoxic action of B. moojeni venom involving significant morphologic and functional changes similar to those observed in snakebite-induced ARF in humans.  (+info)

Two phospholipase A2 inhibitors from the plasma of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani which selectively inhibit two different group-II phospholipase A2 myotoxins from its own venom: isolation, molecular cloning and biological properties. (5/183)

Myotoxic phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s; group II) account for most of the muscle-tissue damage that results from envenomation by viperid snakes. In the venom of the Godman's viper (Cerrophidion godmani, formerly Bothrops godmani), an enzymically active PLA(2) (myotoxin I) and an inactive, Lys-49 variant (myotoxin II) induce extensive muscle damage and oedema. In this study, two distinct myotoxin inhibitor proteins of C. godmani, CgMIP-I and CgMIP-II, were purified directly from blood plasma by selective binding to affinity columns containing either myotoxin I or myotoxin II, respectively. Both proteins are glycosylated, acidic (pI=4) and composed of 20-25-kDa subunits that form oligomers of 110 kDa (CgMIP-I) or 180 kDa (CgMIP-II). In inhibition studies, CgMIP-I specifically neutralized the PLA(2) and the myotoxic, oedema-forming and cytolytic activities of myotoxins I, whereas CgMIP-II selectively inhibited the toxic properties of myotoxin II. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and sequencing of cDNAs encoding the two inhibitors revealed that CgMIP-I is similar to gamma-type inhibitors, which share a pattern of cysteine residues present in the Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, whereas CgMIP-II shares sequence identity with alpha-type inhibitors that contain carbohydrate-recognition-like domains, also found in C-type lectins and mammalian PLA(2) receptors. N-terminal sequencing of myotoxin I revealed a different primary structure from myotoxin II [De Sousa, Morhy, Arni, Ward, Diaz and Gutierrez (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1384, 204-208], which provides insight into the nature of such pharmacological specificity.  (+info)

Antibody from mice immunized with DNA encoding the carboxyl-disintegrin and cysteine-rich domain (JD9) of the haemorrhagic metalloprotease, Jararhagin, inhibits the main lethal component of viper venom. (6/183)

Envenoming by the Brazilian pit viper, Bothrops jararaca, induces extensive local and systemic haemorrhage in humans. The severe and occasionally lethal outcome of envenoming is prevented only by administration of antivenom which is conventionally prepared by hyperimmunization of large animals with an individual venom or a range of venoms. Since snake venoms typically consist of numerous molecules, only some of which are toxic, antivenoms are antigenically crude preparations whose therapeutic value would theoretically be enhanced by restricting antibody specificity to toxic venom molecules. We report here that high-titre IgG antibody from mice immunized by the GeneGun with DNA encoding the carboxy-terminal JD9 domain of Jararhagin, a haemorrhage-inducing metalloprotease in B. jararaca venom, extensively neutralized the main lethal component of B. jararaca venom. This is to our knowledge the first study to apply DNA-based methods to preparation of antivenom; it represents a novel approach with greater immunological specificity and fewer hazards than conventional systems of antivenom production.  (+info)

Basic residues of human group IIA phospholipase A2 are important for binding to factor Xa and prothrombinase inhibition comparison with other mammalian secreted phospholipases A2. (7/183)

Human secreted group IIA phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) was reported to inhibit prothrombinase activity because of binding to factor Xa. This study further shows that hGIIA and its catalytically inactive H48Q mutant prolong the lag time of thrombin generation in human platelet-rich plasma with similar efficiency, indicating that hGIIA exerts an anticoagulant effect independently of phospholipid hydrolysis under ex vivo conditions. Charge reversal of basic residues on the interfacial binding surface (IBS) of hGIIA leads to decreased ability to inhibit prothrombinase activity, which correlates with a reduced affinity for factor Xa, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Mutation of other surface-exposed basic residues, hydrophobic residues on the IBS, and His48, does not affect the ability of hGIIA to inhibit prothrombinase activity and bind to factor Xa. Other basic, but not neutral or acidic, mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) exert a phospholipid-independent inhibitory effect on prothrombinase activity, suggesting that these basic sPLA2s also bind to factor Xa. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the anticoagulant effect of hGIIA is independent of phospholipid hydrolysis and is based on its interaction with factor Xa, leading to prothrombinase inhibition, even under ex vivo conditions. This study also shows that such an interaction involves basic residues located on the IBS of hGIIA, and suggests that other basic mammalian sPLA2s may also inhibit blood coagulation by a similar mechanism to that described for hGIIA.  (+info)

Local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom: relationship to neurogenic inflammation. (8/183)

We investigated morphological alterations induced by s.c. injection of 2.5 microg of Bothrops jararaca venom in rats. Intense disorganisation of collagen fibres was observed 1 min after the venom injection, particularly at regions near vessels and nerves. Mast cells were degranulated, and erythrocytes were seen leaving venules throughout the endothelial junctions. At this time, damaged endothelial cells were not observed. In rats envenomed as above, but immediately after cardiorespiratory failure induced by deep ether anaesthesia, alterations in the connective tissue structures, as previously described, were not observed. The mediation of this haemorrhage was investigated by injecting the venom into the foot pad of mice and compared to the mediation of oedema. Local haemorrhage was significantly reduced in mice pre-treated with capsaicin or guanethidine or submitted to a surgical section of sciatic and saphenous nerves. In these animals, oedema was not affected. Groups treated with methysergide or morphine showed both haemorrhage and oedema significantly reduced. Indomethacin or dexamethasone pre-treatments significantly reduced the oedema, but not the haemorrhage. Moreover, in animals treated with promethazine or mepyramine, oedema and haemorrhage were not affected. These data suggest that local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom is partially controlled by serotonin and neurohumoral mediators. Furthermore, results indicate that haemorrhage and oedema are mediated by different pharmacological systems.  (+info)

Envenomation by Bothrops species results, among other symptoms, in hemostatic disturbances. These changes can be ascribed to the presence of enzymes, primarily serine proteinases some of which are structurally similar to thrombin and specifically cleave fibrinogen releasing fibrinopeptides. A rapid, three-step, chromatographic procedure was developed to routinely purify serine proteinases from the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni. The serine proteinase from B. alternatus displays an apparent molecular mass of similar to 32 kDa whereas the two closely related serine proteinases from B. moojeni display apparent molecular masses of similar to 32 kDa and similar to 35 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels. The partial sequences indicated that these enzymes share high identity with serine proteinases from the venoms of other Bothrops species. These proteins coagulate plasma and possess fibrinogenolytic activity but lack fibrinolytic activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
The ability of pre-existing antibodies to neutralize locally-acting toxins of Bothrops asper snake venom was investigated. Hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and edema were markedly reduced in actively immunized mice, although none of these effects was completely abolished. In mice passively immunized with equine antivenom, hemorrhage was prevented completely, while myonecrosis and edema were partially reduced. Pre-existing antibodies did not modify the early stage ( , 3 hr) of venom-induced edema, but significantly accelerated the normalization of this effect within 24 hr. Passive administration of antivenom either 5 or 120 min before venom injection gave similar results, suggesting that the presence of antibodies in the intravascular compartment may fully neutralize locally acting toxins, in this experimental animal model. Overall, the homologous or heterologous origin of antibodies was not a significant factor influencing their in uit,o neutralizing efficiency against local venom effects. Antibody ...
Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are important components of Bothrops snake venoms, that can induce several effects on envenomations such as myotoxicity, inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation and edema. It is known that venomous and non-venomous snakes present PLA(2) inhibitory proteins (PLIs) in their blood plasma. An inhibitory protein that neutralizes the enzymatic and toxic activities of several PLA2s from Bothrops venoms was isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake plasma by affinity chromatography using the immobilized myotoxin BthTX-I on CNBr-activated Sepharose. Biochemical characterization of this inhibitory protein, denominated alpha BaltMIP, showed it to be a glycoprotein with Mr of similar to 24,000 for the monomeric subunit. CD spectra of the PLA(2)/inhibitor complexes are considerably different from those corresponding to the individual proteins and data deconvolution suggests that the complexes had a relative gain of helical structure elements in comparison to the individual ...
Order Recombinant Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 03015123706 at Gentaur Bothrops jararaca Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2[Thrombin-like TL-BJ 2]
BOTHROPS JARARACUSSU PDF - Snake bites by the jararacucu (Bothrops jararacussu): Clinicopathological studies of 29 proven cases in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Article (PDF. Genus:
Presented by M di-T. BOTHROPS LANCEOLATUS.. B. lanceolatus, Wagler-Dumeril; synonyms, Coluber glaucus, Linn. Vipera c rulescens, Laurent; Coluber megara, Shaw; Cophias lanceolatus, Merrem; Craspedocephalus lanceolatus, Gray (Trigonocephale jaune, Cuvier; Vipera jaune; Fer-de-lance).. An Ophidian of the family Crotalid , found in the Island of Martinique.. Authority. Dr. Ch. Ozanam, LArt. M d., 19, 116 (A collection of cases (15) and general observations on the effect of the bite, quoted from Dr. Rufz, Enqu te sur le serpent de la Martinique.). MIND. ► Consecutive and long-lasting hypochondria. ► Ideas confused. ► Coma, becoming deeper until death ensues.. HEAD. ► Vertigo. ► Frequent dizziness. ► Hemicrania.. EYE. ► Amaurosis (sometimes immediately after the bite). ► Persistent amaurosis. ► Amaurosis, without perceptible dilatation of the pupil. ► Hemeralopic amaurosis; can scarcely see her way, especially after sunrise. [10.] ► Pupil a little dilated.. FACE. ► Altered ...
Angiogenesis and wound repair are mediated by several growth factors that are strictly released. Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a disintegrin-like protein from the venom of Bothrops alternatus induces in vivo angiogenesis as well as the cyclic peptide derived from its primary structure, with the ECD motif (ALT-C PEP). This study investigated the effects of ALT-C and ALT-C PEP on angiogenesis and expression of growth factors in a model of wounded rat skin. The rats were anaesthetized; one cutaneous excision (4 mm diameter) was made on the back of each animal, close to the cervical area. Animals were then divided into 7 groups (five rats/group): control (treated with vehicle); locally treated with 10, 60 and 100 ng ALT-C or 10, 20 and 100 ng ALT-C PEP ALT-C PEP for 1, 3, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of experiments animals were killed, the skin was removed; the cranial portion was used for histological analysis and from the caudal portion; protein were extracted, separated by SDS-PAGE and VEGF, ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Marcelo L Santoro, Tais S Vaquero, Adriana F Paes Leme, Solange M T Serrano].
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
The local and systemic pathophysiological alterations induced by BjussuSP-I, a thrombin-like serine proteinase from the venom of the snake Bothrops jararacussu, were assessed in mice. BjussuSP-I induced a mild edema but no local myonecrosis or hemorrhage. It did not induce any microvascular alteration in the cremaster muscle. Intramuscular injection of BjussuSP-I promoted an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but it did not induce the activation of proMMP-2 or proMMP-9 synthesized in muscle tissue injected with a myotoxic phospholipase A2 homolog. BjussuSP-I induced defibrin(ogen)ation upon intravenous and intramuscular injections, with reduction in plasma fibrinogen concentration and increments in the levels of fibrin degradation products and D-dimer. When compared with animals having normal coagulation, mice defibrin(ogen)ated by BjussuSP-I developed a slightly larger hemorrhagic lesion in the skin when injected with metalloproteinase BaP1. Intravenous injection of sublethal doses of ...
Abstract in English:. Bothrops jararacussu venom and its major toxin bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I) possess myotoxic and neurotoxic properties. The efficacy of a rabbit antivenom raised against B. jararacussu venom in the neutralization of physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes induced by the venom and its major toxin BthTX-I was studied in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) preparations. The times required for 50% neuromuscular blockade in PND and EDL preparations for venom were 70+11.5 (S.E.M., n=5) min and 58+8 (n=16) (50 mu g/mL), and for BthTX-I 31+6 (n=3) min and 30+3 (n=5) min (20 mu g/mL), respectively. After 120 min incubation, creatine kinase (CK) concentrations in solution containing the EDL preparations were 3464+346 U/L after exposure to venom (50 mu g/mL, n=5) and 3422+135 U/L to BthTX-I (20mu g/mL, n=4), respectively. Rabbit antivenom dose-dependently neutralized venom and toxin-induced neuromuscular blockade in both ...
A myotoxic phospholipase has been isolated from Bothrops asper venom by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. The toxin is a basic polypeptide with an estimated molecular weight of 10,700. It has both phospholipase A and indirect hemolytic activities, but is devoid of proteolytic, direct hemolytic and hemorrhagic effects. When injected i.m. into mice the toxin induces a rapid increase in plasma creatine kinase levels and a series of degenerative events in skeletal muscle which lead to myonecrosis. The toxin induces an increase in intracellular calcium levels and is able to hydrolyze muscle phospholipids in vivo. Pretreatment with the calcium antagonist verapamil failed to prevent the myotoxic activity. It is proposed that B. asper myotoxin causes cell injury by disrupting the integrity of skeletal muscle plasma membrane and that myotoxicity is at least partially due to the phospholipase A activity of the toxin ...
Introdução: Neste estudo foi avaliada a eficácia do soro antibotrópico (SAB) em camundongos prenhes submetidos ao veneno bruto da serpente Bothrops jararaca (Bj). Para tanto, o veneno foi administrado em camundongos no 7,5º dia de prenhez (dp), data importante, onde, de acordo com a literatura, alterações teratogênicas podem ocorrer. Métodos: Na manhã do 7,5ºdp, um grupo de animais (VBj+SAB) recebeu, por via intramuscular, 0,24mg de veneno de Bj/kg de peso de animal e, após 3h foi tratado, por via endovenosa, com o SAB. Foram utilizados dois grupos controles onde os animais receberam salina estéril e foram submetidos ao soro, após 3h (Sal+SAB) e outro grupo onde os animais receberam o veneno de Bj e não foram tratados com soro (VBj). Após 24h dos tratamentos, foi avaliada a morfologia do útero (mais especificamente a interface materno-fetal, na região antimesometrial) e foi feita a avaliação hemostática (dosagem de fibrinogênio - Fg), em todos os animais pertencentes ao ...
Common names: fer-de-lance, terciopelo, Bothrops asper is a highly venomous pit viper species ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. Sometimes referred to as the ultimate pit viper, these snakes are found in a wide range of lowland habitats, often near human habitations. Its proximity to human habitations and temperament are likely the reasons why it is considered more dangerous to humans than others. This species is the main cause of snakebite incidents within its range. No subspecies are currently recognized. The generic name, Bothrops, comes from the Greek words bothros and ops, which mean pit and face (or eye), respectively. This is a reference to these snakes highly sensitive heat-detecting pit organs. The specific epithet, asper, which is a Latin word meaning rough or harsh, may allude to the species keeled dorsal scales. Some of the common names applied to this snake are terciopelo, fer-de-lance, Mapepire balsain (Trinidad), barba amarilla (Guatemala, ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Isabel C O Morais, Gustavo J S Pereira, M Orzáez, Roberta J B Jorge, Claudia Bincoletto, Marcos H Toyama, Helena S A Monteiro, Soraya S Smaili, Enrique Pérez-Payá, Alice M C Martins].
Bothrops jararacussu snake venom produces myonecrosis and nerve degeneration. In this work, we investigated whether nerve lesions or impaired muscle regeneration contributed to the permanent loss of muscle mass, a long-term sequela of envenoming. The right soleus muscle of adult male mice was injected with B. jararacussu venom (80 mug) while the left muscle received only saline (control). The mice were killed after 2 and 3 months and the muscles were removed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The nerve fibers, Schwann cells and neuromuscular junctions had regenerated in venom-treated muscle. The total number of muscle fibers was significantly lower (p , 0.05) than in the control (617 +/- 48 versus 1235 +/- 97, respectively; mean +/- SEM, n = 10). These results show that the loss of muscle mass was most likely related to a decrease in the ability of the muscle to regenerate rather than to nerve lesions. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
An enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for the quantitation of antibodies against myotoxins present in the venoms of Bothrops asper (Costa Rica), B. atrox (Colombia) and B. moojeni (Brazil), was developed. This EIA was utilized for the evaluation of four antivenoms produced in Mexico (Laboratorios Myn; MYN), Costa Rica (Instituto Clodomiro Picado; ICP), Colombia (Instituto Nacional de Salud; INS) and Brazil (Instituto Butantan; IB). Antivenoms ICP, IB and INS showed a higher titer of antibodies against the three myotoxins tested, with only slight differences between them, depending on the antigen utilized. In contrast, MYN antivenom had very low levels of antibodies to the three myotoxins. Seventeen batches of ICP antivenom were analyzed by EIA, using B. asper myotoxin II as antigen. Although all batches had high anti-myotoxin titers, these varied significantly. Batches produced after 1988 had, in general, higher titers than older (1986-1987) ones. Antivenom stored for one year at 37 degrees C had a ...
Numerous plants are used as snakebite antidotes in Brazilian folk medicine, including Casearia sylvestris Swartz, popularly known as guaçatonga. In this study, we examined the action of a hydroalcoholic extract from C. sylvestris on the neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu venom, in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations. Aqueous (8 and 12 mg/ml, n=4 and 5, respectively) and hydroalcoholic (12 mg/ml, n=12) extracts of the leaves of C. sylvestris caused facilitation in PND preparations followed by partial neuromuscular blockade. BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4) caused 50% paralysis after 65±15 min (mean ± S.E.M). Preincubation (30 min at 37° C) of BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4) with a ...
J. C. Cogo, J. Prado-Franceschi, M. A. Cruz-Hofling, A. P. Corrado and L. Rodrigues-Simioni. Effect of Bothrops insularis venom on the mouse and chick nerve-muscle preparation. Toxicon 31, 1237-1247, 1993.-The effects of Bothrops insularis venom were examined in vivo in mice and chicks and in vitro using the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm and chick biventer cervicis muscle preparations. Incubation of the indirectly or directly stimulated mouse preparation with B. insularis venom (20-80 μg/ml) produced an initial increase in twitch tension followed by irreversible blockade. With direct stimulation in the presence of d-tubocurarine, no increase in twitch tension was observed prior to the onset of blockade. A venom-induced effect on presynaptic activity was suggested by the marked increase in the frequency of the mepps recorded in vitro 5-15 min after venom addition. A direct muscular effect was shown by the dose- and time-dependent reduction in the resting membrane potential of the diaphragm. ...
Myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. A new myotoxic acidic Asp49 PLA2 (BaCol PLA2) was isolated from Colombian Bothrops asper venom using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). BaCol PLA2 had a molecular mass of 14,180.69 Da (by mass spectrometry) and an isoelectric point of 4.4. The complete amino acid sequence was obtained by cDNA cloning (GenBank accession No. MF319968) and revealed a mature product of 124 amino acids with Asp at position 49. BaCol PLA2 showed structural homology with other acidic PLA2 isolated from Bothrops venoms, including a non-myotoxic PLA2 from Costa Rican B. asper. In vitro studies showed cell membrane damage without exposure of phosphatidylserine, an early apoptosis hallmark. BaCol PLA2 had high indirect hemolytic activity and moderate anticoagulant action. In mice, BaCol PLA2 caused marked edema and myotoxicity, the latter seen as an increase in plasma creatine kinase
Thrombin-like enzyme that shows clotting activity upon human plasma. Shows specific fibrinogenolytic activity for Aalpha chain (FGA). Hydrolyzes fibrin, BAPNA and TAME, as well as chromogenic artificial substrates of the blood coagulation cascasde: S-27654 for factor X (F10), S-2302 for kallikrein (KLK), factor XIa (F11), and XIIa (F12), and S-2266 for kallikrein and factor XIa (F11). Subcutaneous injection into mice induces a mild edema. Intravenous and intramuscular injection reduce plasma fibrinogen concentration and increase the levels of fibrin(ogen) degradation products. Intramuscular injection also promotes an increase in the expression of proMMP-9, but is unable to activate it.
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Two myotoxins isolated from B. asper (myotoxin II) and B. nummifer (myotoxin I) snake venoms have been crystallized and their diffraction properties are described. These myotoxins are phospholipase A2 variants which lack enzymatic activity; B. asper myotoxin II is a lysine-49 phospholipase. Crystals were obtained at room temperature by standard hanging-drop vapour diffusion methods. Crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 and 2.3 A, respectively ...
OLIVEIRA, Eduardo Fontana de; GUERREIRO, Juliano R.; SILVA, Carlos A.; et al. Enhancement of the citrulline-nitric oxide cycle in astroglioma cells by the proline-rich peptide-10c from Bothrops jararaca venom. Brain Research, Amsterdam, v. 1363, n. 1, p. 11-19, 2010. Disponível em: < http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.09.067 > DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.09.067 ...
Loss of venom from the venom gland after biting or manual extraction leads to morphological changes in venom secreting cells and the start of a cycle of production of new venom. We have previously shown that stimulation of both (alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in the secretory cells of the venom gland is essential for the onset of the venom production cycle in Bothrops jararaca. We investigated the signaling pathway by which the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor initiates the venom production cycle. Our results show that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype is present in venom gland of the snake. in quiescent cells, stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor with phenylephrine increased the total inositol phosphate concentration, and this effect was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122. Phenylephrine mobilized Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive stores and increased protein kinase C activity. in addition, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation increased the activity of ERK 1/2, partially via protein kinase C. ...
We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed of 121 and 122 amino acids determined by automated sequencing of the native proteins and peptides produced by digestion with trypsin. They contain fourteen cysteines with pIs of 9.05 and 8.18 for BlK- and BlD-PLA2s, and show a high degree of sequence similarity to homologous snake venom PLA2s, but may display different biological effects. Molecular masses of 13,689.220 (Lys49) and 13,978.386 (Asp49) were determined by mass spectrometry. DENV causes a prevalent arboviral disease in humans, and no clinically approved antiviral therapy is currently available to treat DENV infections. The maximum non-toxic concentration of the proteins to LLC-MK2 cells determined by MTT assay was 40 µg/mL for Bl-PLA2s (pool) and 20 µg/mL for each isoform. Antiviral effects of Bl-PLA2s were
Bothrops marajoensis is found in the savannah of Marajo Island in the State of Par S and regions of Amapa State, Brazil. The aim of the work was to study the renal and cardiovascular effects of the B. marajoensis venom and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). The venom was fractionated by Protein Pack 5PW. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of sPLA(2) showed amino acid identity with other lysine K49sPLA(2)s of snake venom. B. marajoensis venom (30 mu g/mL) decreased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate and sodium tubular transport. PLA(2) did not change the renal parameters. The perfusion pressure of the mesenteric bed did not change after infusion of venom. In isolated heart, the venom decreased the force of contraction and increased PP but did not change coronary flow. In the arterial pressure, the venom and PLA(2) decreased mean arterial pressure and cardiac frequency. The presence of atrial flutter and late hyperpolarisation reversed, indicating ...
A placenta da égua epiteliocorial, impede a passagem de macromoléculas como as imunoglobulinas IgGs para o feto, fazendo com que o recém-nascido venha ao mundo extremamente susceptível aos microrganismos exógenos, dependendo exclusivamente do colostro, rico em imunoglobulinas da mãe, que lhe dará proteção passivamente durante as primeiras horas de vida. Esse trabalho objetivou a avaliação da transferência de imunoglobulinas especificas do gênero Bothrops de éguas hiperimunizadas durante o sexto mês de gestação para o neonato, mediante a utilização do teste de ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno sorbent), verificando a correlação da concentração de imunoglobulina específica do soro materno para o neonato. Para isso foram utilizadas cinco éguas e cinco neonatos. A primeira amostra de sangue foi coletada das éguas sete dias antes de parirem. Os partos foram acompanhados e as amostras dos neonatos seguiram os seguintes tempos: T0 antes da ingestão do colostro, T1 após 24 horas ...
フォン・ビルブランド因子のモジュレータータンパク質であるボトロセチンの立体構造と機能 [in Japanese] 3-D Structure of Botrocetin, a von Willebrand Factor Modulator Protein from Snake Venom of Bothrops jararaca [in Japanese] ...
The genus Bothrops is distributed over all Latin America, From Mexico to Argentina, and comprises nearly 31 species of snake. In most of these countries, Bothrops spp. cause the majority of snake bit envenomations, which ...
Together with several colleagues from Argentina and Peru (main investigator is Paola Carrasco (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba), but also Gustavo Scrocchi (CONICET and Instituto de Herpetología, San Miguel de Tucuman), Pablo Venegas (Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad (CORBIDI), Lima), Juan Chaparro (Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Cusco)), we started a collaboration on the phylogeny of bothropoid pitvipers (Bothrops, Bothrocophias), with the aim to solve systematic conflicts within the Bothrops-complex (~50 species) using a phylogenetic analysis combining a large number of morphological and molecular data. Until recently, most phylogenetic analyses of the South American pitviper genus Bothrops used exclusively mitochondrial DNA sequences, whereas few of them have included morphological traits. Moreover, the systematic affinities of some species remain unclear. As part of this project we are currently working on a systematic revision of the Bothrops-complex in Peru (11 + ...
A bradykinin-potentiating factor (bpf) present in the venom of bothrops jararaca. Continuous prepositively buy viraday online india visual snow started in these patients 2 weeks to 15 years after the first episode? You should see improvement within 2 to 3 weeks, but it may take more than 6 weeks before you see definite beneficial effects. I have suffered so much memory loss, even simple things and alot of memories. He suggested the boys be buried in one coffin, nizoral shampoo reviews uk ironically according to multiple witnesses! Strains that were tet(B)- or tet(A)-positive carried the genes for P fimbriae and aerobactin, respectively, more often than susceptible strains? The products are sourced from various countries as well as those listed above! Increased risk of death in elderly people with dementia-related psychosis. Not only does the report cover a holistic view of the industry from a global standpoint, kamagra oral jelly kaufen per paypal but it also covers individual regions and their ...
The story of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors started approximately 50 years ago, when it was discovered that human plasma incubated with the venom of the Brazilian viper,Bothrops Jararaca, generated a hypotensive compound. This discovery quickly led to the characterisation of the active principle of the venom by Fereira and Greene as a family of peptides, which were named bradykinin potentiating factors as they selectively improved the biological effects of bradykinin. The observation was then made by Vane that these peptides could also block the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II via the angiotensin converting enzyme. The active peptides were isolated and teprotide became the first ACE inhibitor to be evaluated clinically. The search for an orally active compound that was sufficiently potent to be developed as an antihypertensive drug resulted in the design and development of captopril, which entered first phase clinical studies in 1977.. ACE has a key role in two ...
This drug is slightly more popular than comparable drugs? If it will help reduce wrinkles and brown spots it will make getting older easier? Present in the venom of Bothrops jararaca, list of usa online casinos a South American pit viper, in 1965? Astonishingly, Asprey says even if it were to turn out that Provigil could shorten his life he wouldnt give it up and neither would the lobbyist or brain researcher who take it? Asbestos: cialis uk over the counter meltingly Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, and Health Effects? Consistent with Title VII, list of usa online casinos Indian tribes and tribally-owned businesses may prefer indigenous people in hiring. An independent judiciary and an independent and active bar are dedicated to the ideal and reality of fair trials and appellate procedures. Climestra libido pills enhance sexual vitality, list of usa online casinos intensity, interest and excitement! Viagra® demonstrou melhora estatisticamente significativa comparada com placebo em todos os 21 ...
Sérgio Henrique Ferreira (October 4, 1934 - July 17, 2016) was a Brazilian physician and pharmacologist noted for the discovery of the bradykinin potentiating factor, which led to new and widely used anti-hypertension drugs - the ACE inhibitors. Ferreira received his M.D. from the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo (USP) and soon became staff member of the same school, where he is a member of the Department of Pharmacology. His research training in pharmacology initiated in this Department with Prof. Maurício Rocha e Silva, the discoverer of bradykinin. While working on this subject, he discovered a family of peptides present in the venom of a Brazilian snake, Bothrops jararaca, which inhibited kininase activity and strongly potentiated the effects of bradykinin in vivo and in vitro. This factor was named bradykinin potentiating factor, BPF. In 1968, with the collaboration of Dr. Lewis Joel Greene, from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S., he isolated ...
Itanhaem_SP, Brazil. Ilha de Queimada Grande e uma ilha localizada em Itanhaem, Sao Paulo, possui grande quantidade de cobras, especialmente a Jararaca-ilhoa (Bothrops insularis), especie endemica da ilha e, segundo alguns cientistas, a cobra venenosa com a peconha mais potente do mundo. Ilha de Queimada Grande is an island located in Itanhaem, Sao Paulo, has lot of snakes, especially Golden lancehead (Bothrops insularisIlha), endemic species of the island and according to some scientists a poisonous snake with venom more potent in the world. Foto: JOAO MARCOS ROSA /NITRO
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Vilca-Quispe, A.; Ponce-Soto, L. A.; Winck, F. V.; Marangoni, S.: Isolation and characterization of a new serine protease with thrombin-like activity (TLBm) from the venom of the snake Bothrops marajoensis. Toxicon 55 (4), S. 745 - 753 (2010 ...
A renewed interest in the phenomenon of inter- and intra-species resistance towards the toxicity of snake venoms, coupled with the search for new strategies for treatment of snake envenomations, has prompted the discovery of proteins which neutralize the major toxic components of these venoms. Among …
Fig. 3. BthTX-II inhibits cellular adhesion, migration, invasion and 3D growth of MDA-MB-231cells (A) Interference of BthTX-II in adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells, which were pre-incubated with BthTX-II (50, 25, 10, 5, 2.5 μg/mL) for 30 min and after treatment were seeded over collagen-, fibronectin-, matrigel-coated and uncoated wells. (B). BthTX-II at 10 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL significantly inhibited the 24-hour cell migration in the wound healing assay compared to cells incubated only medium (control). Using ImageJ we quantified the filled nude area for a 24-hour period in comparison to the control, a result represented by the scratch wound coverage. (C). Cell migration was determined by Transwell assay, representative images of the (stained with hematoxylin-panotic) migrated cells were counted under a microscope showing almost 100% inhibition of migration at 50 μg/mL, selected from three independent experiments. ***p b 0.001 compared with the control. (D). using the Matrigel-transwell assay we ...
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The great legendary Bill Haast, pioneer of venom production for venom research since 1946, was founder and director of the world renowned Miami Serpentarium Laboratories
L-amino acid oxidases isolated from snake venoms (SV-LAAOs) are enzymes that have great therapeutic potential and are currently being investigated as tools for developing new strategies to treat various diseases, including cancer and bacterial infections. The main objective of this study was to make a brief evaluation of the enzymatic stability of two Bothrops LAAOs, one isolated from Bothrops jararacussu (BjussuLAAO-II) and the other from Bothrops moojeni (BmooLAAO-I) venoms. The enzymatic activity and stability of both LAAOs were evaluated by microplate colorimetric assays, for which BjussuLAAO-II and BmooLAAO-I were incubated with different L-amino acid substrates, in the presence of different ions, and at different pH ranges and temperatures. BjussuLAAO-II and BmooLAAO-I demonstrated higher affinity for hydrophobic amino acids, such as Phe and Leu. The two enzymes showed high enzymatic activity in a wide temperature range, from 25 to 75 °C, and presented optimum pH around 7.0. Additionally, Zn2+,
Introduction. Bothrops pirajai snake is an endemic species from the South region of Bahia state, Brazil, and it belongs nowadays to a national list of Brazilian fauna species threatened of extinction (Martins & Molina, 2008). Its venom is rich in proteins such as phospholipases A2, desintegrins, metalloproteases, serinoproteases, L-amino acid oxidases and others (Rodrigues et al., 2009). L-amino acid oxidases (LAAO, EC 1.4.3.2) are enantioselective flavoenzymes catalyzing the oxidative deamination of a wide range of L-amino acids (Stábeli et al., 2007). During the reductive half-reaction, the amino acid substrate is oxidized to the imino acid with concomitant reduction of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor. The imino acid product of oxidation undergoes a non-enzymatic hydrolysis to give the respective α-keto acid and ammonia. An oxidative half-reaction completes the catalytic cycle re-oxidizing the FAD with molecular oxygen and producing hydrogen peroxide (Moustafa et al., ...
Nine of the 17 venoms here tested were found capable of coagulating citrated blood or plasma. As has been believed by most workers in the field, 7 of these 9 coagulant venoms convert fibrinogen to an insoluble modification resembling fibrin (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops nummifera, Crotalus adamanteus, Crotalus horridus, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus, Crotalus terrificus terrificus). The optimum pH for this coagulation was determined for 3 of these, and was found in each case to be approximately pH 6.5, the same as that for the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. Unlike thrombin, however, the fibrinogen-coagulating activity of the venoms was unaffected by the antithrombin elaborated in the course of anaphylactic shock.. In addition to coagulating fibrinogen directly, 3 of these venoms (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops jararaca, and to a less extent, Crotalus terrificus basiliscus) acted on prothrombin to convert it to thrombin, without the necessary intervention of either calcium or ...
Bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I) is a Lys49-phospholipase A2 from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu which demonstrates both myotoxic and Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activities. The structural determinants of these activities are poorly defined, therefore site-directed mutagenesis has been used to substitute all cationic and aromatic residues between positions 115 and 129 in the C-terminal loop region of the protein. Substitution of lysine and arginine residues with alanine in the region 117-122 resulted in a significant reduction of myotoxic activity of the recombinant BthTx-I. With the exception of Lys122, these same substitutions did not significantly alter the Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity. In contrast, substitution of the positively-charged residues at positions 115, 116 and 122 resulted in reduced Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity but, with the exception of Lys122, had no effect on myotoxicity. These results indicate that the two activities are independent and are ...
Bothrops punctatus is an endangered, semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose venom is poorly characterized. In the present work, the protein composition of this venom was profiled using the snake venomics analytical strategy. Decomplexation of the crude venom by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, followed by tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic digests, showed that it consists of proteins assigned to at least nine snake toxin families. Metalloproteinases are predominant in this secretion (41.5% of the total proteins), followed by C-type lectin/lectin-like proteins (16.7%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (10.7%), phospholipases A2 (93%), serine proteinases (5.4%), disintegrins (38%), L-amino acid oxidases (3.1%), vascular endothelial growth factors (17%), and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (1.2%). Altogether, 6.6% of the proteins were not identified. In vitro, the venom exhibited proteolytic, phospholipase A2, and L-amino acid oxidase activities, as well as angiotensin
Fer-de-lance Bothrops atrox or Bothrops lanceolatus The Fer-de-lance (also known as Lancehead) are several closely related species in this group. All are very considered to be very aggressive and dangerous to man and one of the most feared snakes on the planet. Description: Lancehead or Fer-de-lance snakes have highly variable ...
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Hebleen Brenes, Gilbert D. Loría, Bruno LomonteAbstractSecreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) molecules are small, calcium-dependent enzymes involved in many biological processes. Viperid venoms possess gIIA sPLA2s and sPLA2-like proteins, both having homology to human gIIA sPLA2, an innate immunity enzyme. We evalu...
Atlantic Forest Virginia Morrell Mark Moffett biology conservation Rain Forest in Rio s Backyard Adriano Chiarello snakes sloths muriquis tamarins porcupine plants green amphibian species environmentalists destruction habitat rare unique animals human sprawl HotSpot Catholic University of Minas Gerais S o Louren o Municipal Park Mata Atl ntica Bothrops jararaca Ann Williams
[Purification and isolation of isoenzymes of L-amino acid oxidase from the venom of Bothrops asper].: L-amino acid oxidase (E.C. 1.4.3.2) was purified from the
Garden Buddies Ok….not quite buddies, but we could call them co-workers. The Fer-de-Lance or Terciopelo, is one of the most dangerous snakes south of Texas. The name means velvet in Spanish and is the common name used in Costa Rica. Its scientific name is the Bothrops asper. This snake is…. Continue reading. ...
Garden Buddies Ok….not quite buddies, but we could call them co-workers. The Fer-de-Lance or Terciopelo, is one of the most dangerous snakes south of Texas. The name means velvet in Spanish and is the common name used in Costa Rica. Its scientific name is the Bothrops asper. This snake is…. Continue reading. ...
My laboratory, in collaboration with my colleague Dr. Jon Bjarnason, was one of the first to identify and characterize the metalloproteinases present in numerous snake venoms. These Snake Venom Metalloproteinases; SVMPs are responsible for many of the pathologies associated with snake envenoming. Our research has elucidated the structures of these toxins and identified the biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which the toxins function to give rise to their noted pathologies. Specifically my research interests have been centered on metalloproteinases and extracellular matrix and the processes they regulate in normal and pathological circumstances. Our recent focus has expanded to include the interaction of host and tumor in carcinogenesis and metastasis and the role of stromal microenvironment, inflammation in cancer metastasis and invasion. We are also carrying out research on the discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with normal and chronic wound healing. Our longstanding interest ...
Stock Photo of Queensland Groper Epinephelus lanceolatus. High Quality Queensland Groper Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Stock Photo of Queensland Groper Epinephelus lanceolatus. High Quality Queensland Groper Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
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additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details] ...
Flowers: pink streaked with dark red, 6-parted, 3/8 long, star to tubular shape, petal-like tepals separate and turning upward only near the tip; inflorescence only 1 flower above the nodes along the stem; blooms June- ...
Bothrops lojanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T174144A54445329. Downloaded on 19 July 2019. McDiarmid RW, ... ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume). "Bothrops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 3 ...
ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume). "Bothrops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 3 ... Bothrops microphthalmus colombianus, p. 15.) v t e. ...
The Saint Lucia lancehead or Saint Lucia pit viper (Bothrops caribbaeus) is a Endangered species of venomous snake from the ... www.iccs.org.uk/wp-content/thesis/consci/2009/Breach.docx Bothrops caribbaeus at the Reptile Database v t e. ... "Clinical and immunological aspects of envenomations by Bothrops snakes". Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including ... Bothrops caribbaeus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T50956889A50956898. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK. ...
Paulson, D. R. (2009). "Erpetogomphus bothrops". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T165051A5975649. doi:10.2305/IUCN ... 1859 Erpetogomphus bothrops Garrison, 1994 - one-striped ringtail Erpetogomphus compositus Hagen in Selys, 1858 - white-belted ...
"Bothrops andiana sp. nov.", pp. 103-105). Bothrocophias andianus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 12 August 2008. ...
Bothrops rowleyi, new species). Heimes P (2016). Snakes of Mexico: Herpetofauna Mexicana Vol. I. Frankfurt, Germany: Chimaira. ... ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Bothriechis rowleyi, p. 228). Bogert CM (1968). "A New Arboreal Pit Viper of the Genus Bothrops from ...
Bothrops tzotzilorum, new species). Heimes P (2016). Snakes of Mexico: Herpetofauna Mexicana Vol I. Frankfurt am Main, Germany ... Campbell JA (1985). "A New Species of Highland Pitviper of the Genus Bothrops from Southern Mexico". Journal of Herpetology 19 ...
"Bothrops nasutus n. sp.", p. 202.) Porthidium nasutum at Honduras Silvestre. Accessed 12 February 2008.. ... Descriptions de quelques Crotaliens nouveaux appartenant au genre Bothrops, recueillis dans le Guatémala. Annales des sciences ...
Reptiles: Atractus carrioni Parker, 1930; Bothrops lojanus Parker, 1930; Stenocercus carrioni Parker, 1934. Arthropods: ...
The chicken snake (Spilotes pullatus) is the enemy of the fer-de-lance (Bothrops caribbaeus) in St. Lucia, and in their ... In Brazil, serum prepared with the venom of lanceheads (Bothrops spp.) is without action on rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) venom. ... Bothrops spp.); and the African adders (Bitis spp.), night adders (Causus spp.), and horned vipers (Cerastes spp.), cause fatal ...
Bothrops pulchra - Amaral, 1923, and Bothrops pulcher - J.Peters & Orejas-Miranda, 1970. Campbell and Lamar (1992) considered ... Bothrops campbelli, new species). (in Spanish). Bothrocophias campbelli at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 27 ... Schätti and Kramer (1993) argued that Bothrops campbelli (Freire-Lascano, 1991) was a nomen invalidum and suggested a new name ... de altura [4,900-6,600 feet]". In previous accounts, Bothrocophias campbelli has often been included in Bothrops pulcher (W. ...
"Bothrops ophryomegas n. sp.") Porthidium ophryomegas at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 6 August 2008.. ... Descriptions de quelques Crotaliens nouveaux appartenant au genre Bothrops, recueillis dans le Guatémala. Annales des sciences ...
Lanceheads (Bothrops). *Bushmasters (Lachesis). *Other pit vipers (Bothriechis schlegelii, Bothriopsis, Porthidium)[188] ...
Bothrops] philippensis - Maslin, 1942. *Tropidolaemus wagleri - Hoge & Romano-Hoge, 1981. *Tropidolaemus philippinensis - David ...
"On some Hondurian and Guatemalan snakes with the description of a new arboreal pit viper of the genus Bothrops ". Bulletin of ... the Antivenin Institute of America 3: 1-3. (Bothrops nigroviridis marchi, new subspecies).. ...
Bothrops flavoviridis, pp. 492-493.) Protobothrops flavoviridis at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 25 July 2007.. ...
... and Bothrops lutzi, a venomous snake. For his work on tropical diseases, Lutz received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in ...
Bothrops microphthalmus, new species, pp. 182-183). v t e. ...
"Bothrops Hageni", new species, pp. 53-54). Sanders KL, Malhotra A, Thorpe RS (2002). "A contribution to the systematics of two ...
Andrews RK, Booth WJ, Gorman JJ, Castaldi PA, Berndt MC (1989). "Purification of botrocetin from Bothrops jararaca venom. ...
Gutiérrez JM, Lomonte B (November 1995). "Phospholipase A2 myotoxins from Bothrops snake venoms". Toxicon. 33 (11): 1405-24. ... a lysine-49 phospholipase A2 of Bothrops asper snake venom". Toxicon. 32 (11): 1359-69. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(94)90408-1. PMID ...
For example, botrocetin, found in the venom of Bothrops jararaca, activates von Willebrand factor (vWF) by inducing it to bind ... In contrast, cerastocytin and cerastotin (from the venom of Cerastes cerastes), as well as thrombocytin (from Bothrops atrox) ... 74(3):1031-5 Niewiarowski S, Kirby EP, Brudzynski TM, Stocker K. (1979) Thrombocytin, a serine protease from Bothrops atrox ... 74(3):1031-5 Bothrops atrox venom. 2. Interaction with platelets and plasma-clotting factors. Biochemistry. 18(16):3570-7. ...
Stocker K, Barlow GH (1976). "The coagulant enzyme from Bothrops atrox venom (batroxobin)". Methods in Enzymology. 45: 214-23. ...
1990). "Purification of botrocetin from Bothrops jararaca venom. Analysis of the botrocetin-mediated interaction between von ...
Bothrops spp.), including the fer-de-lance (B. lanceolatus) and the terciopelo (B. asper) Bushmasters (Lachesis spp.) ...
... is nonapeptide which has been isolated from the snake Bothrops jararaca. It is an angiotensin converting enzyme ... Ferreira, Sergio (February 1965). "A bradykinin-potentiating factor (bpf) present in the venom of bothrops jararaca". British ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of structure, and ... "Isolation of bradykinin-potentiating peptides from Bothrops jararaca venom". Biochemistry. 9 (13): 2583-2593. doi:10.1021/ ...
Philodryas does not cause the coagulopathy that Bothrops does. Only one fatality has been reported, and that in a child. The ... Patients complaining of snakebite may be given an antivenom for Bothrops snake venom, which is inappropriate for the treatment ... higher than Bothrops jararaca, in addition to containing neurotoxic properties, In mice, doses such as 5.6 µg / 20g result in ... equivalent to the lethality of Bothrops asper. However, due to the anatomy of their inoculating teeth located in the posterior ...
Of these, Bothrops asper is the most important species, partly because it is abundant in lowland areas and partly because it is ... Hardy, D. L. (1994). "Bothrops asper (Viperidae) snakebite and field researchers in Middle America". Biotropica. 26 (2): 198- ... "Complications of Bothrops, Porthidium, and Bothriechis snakebites in Colombia. A clinical and epidemiological study of 39 cases ...
Notes on Bothrops nummifera, mano de piedra or timbo. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America. 2(3): 58. Müller JW von. ... Phylogenetic relationships of Central and South American pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (sensu lato): cladistic analyses of ...
Bothrops hesperis) Porthidium hespere at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 15 September 2007.. ... A New Terrestrial Pit Viper of the Genus Bothrops (Reptilia, Serpentes, Crotalidae) from western Mexico. Journal of Herpetology ...
Bothrops is a genus of highly venomous pit vipers endemic to Central and South America. The generic name, Bothrops, is derived ... Many species of Bothrops exhibit tail vibration behavior when disturbed. Members of this genus are responsible for more ... This species, unlike most Bothrops, preys primarily on birds, due to the absence of native mammal species on Queimada Grande. ... Found in northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas) southward through Central and South America to Argentina, Bothrops species also occur ...
"Pharmacological evidence for a presynaptic action of venoms from Bothrops insularis (jararaca ilhoa) and Bothrops neuwiedi ( ... Sexually mature Bothrops insularis mate during August and September, and have been known to mate both in the trees and on the ... Bothrops insularis can usually be found either in the trees hunting for its prey, or seeking shelter among leaf litter or in ... Adult Bothrops insularis are the only animals on the island of Queimada Grande that have been reported to eat birds. There are ...
Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bothrops_ammodytoides&oldid=2817808" ...
Greene L.J., Stewart J.M., Ferreira S.H. (1970) Bradykinin-Potentiating Peptides from the Venom of Bothrops Jararaca. In: ... In this communication we describe the isolation of nine biologically active peptides from Bothrops jararaca venom, present the ...
Bothrops species Bothrops brazili Name. Synonyms. Bothrops neglectus Amaral, 1923. Homonyms. Bothrops brazili Amaral, 1923. ... Bothrops brazili Amaral, 1923 Dataset GBIF Backbone Taxonomy Rank SPECIES Classification. kingdom Animalia phylum Chordata ... Hoge,A.R. (1954) A new Bothrops from Brazil - Bothrops brazili, sp. nov.: Mem. Inst. Butantan 25: 15-21 [1953] ... Bothrops brazili Hoge, 1954. Common names. Brazils Lancehead in English. Bibliographic References. * Amaral,A. do (1923) New ...
"Characterization of aspercetin, a platelet aggregating component from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper which induces ... "Characterization of aspercetin, a platelet aggregating component from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper which induces ... "Characterization of aspercetin, a platelet aggregating component from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper which induces ... sp,P0DJC9,SLB_BOTAS Snaclec aspercetin subunit beta (Fragment) OS=Bothrops asper OX=8722 PE=1 SV=1 ...
"Peptidomics of three Bothrops snake venoms: insights into the molecular diversification of proteomes and peptidomes.". Tashima ... "Peptidomics of three Bothrops snake venoms: insights into the molecular diversification of proteomes and peptidomes.". Tashima ... "Peptidomics of three Bothrops snake venoms: insights into the molecular diversification of proteomes and peptidomes.". Tashima ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ...
... Reinaldo J. da Silva,1 Márcia G. da Silva,2 ... "Cytokine profile of Ehrlich ascites tumor treated with Bothrops jararaca venom," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 11, no. 4, pp ...
... Luis Roberto C. Gonçalves1 and ... We investigated morphological alterations induced by s.c. injection of 2.5 μg of Bothrops jararaca venom in rats. Intense ... These data suggest that local haemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom is partially controlled by serotonin and ...
Rafael de Fraga, William E. Magnusson, Carlos R. Abrahão, Tania Sanaiotti, and Albertina P. Lima "Habitat Selection by Bothrops ... Habitat Selection by Bothrops atrox (Serpentes: Viperidae) in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Rafael de Fraga, William E. Magnusson, ... Rafael de Fraga, William E. Magnusson, Carlos R. Abrahão, Tania Sanaiotti, Albertina P. Lima "Habitat Selection by Bothrops ... Bothrops atrox). We estimated densities and probabilities of detection of snakes in riparian and upland plots in Reserva Ducke ...
Bothrops, Bothrocophias), with the aim to solve systematic conflicts within the Bothrops-complex (~50 species) using a ... Bothrops diporus shall serve as a model species for studying possible influences of environmental factors on the phenotypical ... As part of this project we are currently working on a systematic revision of the Bothrops-complex in Peru (11 + 2 new species ... Startseite , Forschung , Projekte , Phylogenie der Gattung Bothrops , Menu position router , Menu position router ...
Increments in serum cytokine and nitric oxide levels in mice injected with Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. ... Associations of Bothrops with chemical compounds. *Heparin binds to phospholipase A2 myotoxins from Bothrops asper snake venom ... Biological context of Bothrops. *A 1.8-kb cDNA clone was isolated from a Bothrops jararaca venom gland cDNA library that ... High impact information on Bothrops. *Cloning and sequence analysis of a Bothrops jararaca cDNA encoding a precursor of seven ...
Darkinal information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Llorente, Darkinal indications, usages and related health products lists
Jararhagin is a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, which has been extensively studied. These ... Jararhagin is a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, which has been extensively studied. These ...
Genus: Bothrops. Species. Bothrops jararaca. Common name. Jararaca. Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits. Maximum longevity. ... AnAge entry for Bothrops jararaca Classification (HAGRID: 03244). Taxonomy. Kingdom: Animalia. Phylum: Chordata. Class: ...
Morfologia dos fotorreceptores e genética dos pigmentos visuais de Bothrops jararaca e Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes ... Bothrops jararaca e Crotalus durissus terrificus. Três indivíduos de cada espécie foram obtidos junto ao laboratório de ... Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus. Three subjects of each species were collected at the Butantan Institute. ...
Se ha purificado y caracterizado parcialmente la L-aminoácido oxidasa de la serpiente Bothrops brazili. El aislamiento se ... Purificación y caracterización de la l-amino ácido oxidasa del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops brazili jergón shushupe * ... Se ha purificado y caracterizado parcialmente la L-aminoácido oxidasa de la serpiente Bothrops brazili. El aislamiento se ...
L-Aminoacid Oxidase from Bothrops leucurus Venom Induces Nephrotoxicity via Apoptosis and Necrosis.. [Isabel C O Morais, ... Acute renal failure is a common complication caused by Bothrops viper envenomation. In this study, the nefrotoxicity of a main ...
Bothrops venom. Crude venom was obtained from adult Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) snakes (Serpentarium of the Nature Study ... In vivo myotoxic effects and in vitro irreversible neuromuscular blockade effects of crude venom from the snake Bothrops ... Rodrigues-Simioni L, Borgese N, Ceccarelli B. The effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom and its components on frog nerve-muscle ... Neutralization of the neuromuscular activity of bothropstoxin-I, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, by a ...
... isoladas de Bothrops asper (VBa) e CB2, de Crotalus durissus terrificus (VCdt) e os venenos brutos, sobre a expressão de ... Efeitos de toxinas com estrutura de fosfolipase A2, isoladas do veneno de Bothrops asper e Crotalus durissus terrificus, e dos ... A ação de fosfolipases A2 (FLA2s): miotoxinas (MTs) ?II e III, isoladas de Bothrops asper (VBa) e CB2, de Crotalus durissus ... Action of the phospholipase A2 (PLA22): myotoxins (MTs) -II and -III, from Bothrops asper (BaV) and CB2, from Crotalus durissus ...
Bothrops iglesiasi - RODRIGUES 2003. Bothrops lutzi - SILVA in CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004. Bothrops lutzi - JANSEN 2008. Bothrops ... Bothrops iglesiasi - PETERS et al. 1970: 46. Bothrops neuwiedi lutzi - PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 50. Bothrops iglesiasi - ... Bothrops neuwiedi lutzi - AMARAL 1929: 238. Bothrops neuwiedi lutzi HOGE 1966 [1965]: 128. Bothrops neuwiedi piauhyensis HOGE ... Bothrops iglesiasi AMARAL 1923: 97. Bothrops neuwiedi bahiensis AMARAL 1925: 57. Bothrops neuwiedi piauhyensis AMARAL 1925: 58 ...
Bothrops diporus - SILVA in CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004. Bothrops diporus - TRUTNAU 2008. Bothrops diporus - DA SILVA & RODRIGUES ... Bothrops neuwiedi diporus PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 50. Bothrops neuwiedi diporus - CEI 1993. Bothrops neuwiedi diporus - ... Bothrops neuwiedi meridionalis AMARAL 1930: 66 (preoccupied). Bothrops neuwiedi diporus - COCHRAN 1961: 151. Bothrops neuwiedi ... Bothrops diporus COPE 1862: 347. Bothrops diporus - BOULENGER 1886: 438. Lachesis neuwiedi BOULENGER 1896 (part.). Lachesis ...
Here we describe for the first time the isolation and functional characterization of a soluble phosphodiesterase from Bothrops ... NPP-BJ, a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, inhibits platelet aggregation.. [ ...
A new myotoxic acidic Asp49 PLA2 (BaCol PLA2) was isolated from Colombian Bothrops asper venom using reverse-phase high ... BaCol PLA2 showed structural homology with other acidic PLA2 isolated from Bothrops venoms, including a non-myotoxic PLA2 from ... are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. ... Keywords: acidic myotoxic phospholipase A2; Bothrops asper; edema; myotoxicity; snake venom acidic myotoxic phospholipase A2; ...
... Braz J Med ... defibrinating and myotoxic activities induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia). The following ...
Biological characterization of Bothrops marajoensis snake venom. Walter LG Cavalcante †,¥ , Saraguaci Hernandez-Oliveira †, ... This study describe s the effects of Bothrops marajoensis venom (Marajó lancehead) on isolated neuromuscular preparations of ...
... and wild forms have previously been shown to inhibit some toxic activities of Bothrops asper snake venom if preincubated before ... Extracts of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) MAAS Protect against Lethality and Systemic Hemorrhage Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: ... Extracts of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) MAAS Protect against Lethality and Systemic Hemorrhage Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: ... "Extracts of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) MAAS Protect against Lethality and Systemic Hemorrhage Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: ...
MONOMERIC LYS-49 PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 HOMOLOGUE ISOLATED FROM THE VENOM OF CERROPHIDION (BOTHROPS) GODMANI. ...
Crystal structure of an acidic phospholipase A2 (BthA-I) from Bothrops jararacussu venom complexed with p-bromophenacyl bromide ... The crystal structure of an acidic phospholipase A(2) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom (BthA-I) chemically modified ... The crystal structure of an acidic phospholipase A(2) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom (BthA-I) chemically modified ...
The patient, a 46-year-old man, was bitten on the right thumb by Bothrops lanceolatus. Treatment with a specific equine ... f OCCIPITAL INFARCTION REVEALED BY QUADRANOPSIA FOLLOWING SNAKEBITE BY BOTHROPS LANCEOLATUS * HAROLD MERLE1,*, ANGÉLIQUE DONNIO ... Multiple cerebral infarctions following a snakebite by Bothrops caribbaeus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 : 287-288. ... The patient, a 46-year-old man, was bitten on the right thumb by Bothrops lanceolatus. Treatment with a specific equine ...
  • Bothrops is a genus of highly venomous pit vipers endemic to Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species is named for the light yellowish-brown color of its underside and for its head shape that is characteristic of the genus Bothrops. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "lancehead" refers to the distinctive head shape of all snakes in the genus Bothrops, which is somewhat elongated and comes to a point at the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical analysis of the venom of B. insularis suggests that it is five times as potent as that of B. jararaca and is the fastest acting venom in the genus Bothrops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the genus Bothrops, the closest living relative of the golden lancehead is B. jararaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP (1999) MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). (gbif.org)
  • Until recently, most phylogenetic analyses of the South American pitviper genus Bothrops used exclusively mitochondrial DNA sequences, whereas few of them have included morphological traits. (zfmk.de)
  • Bothrops diporus shall serve as a model species for studying possible influences of environmental factors on the phenotypical diversity of species in the genus Bothrops. (zfmk.de)
  • In Brazil, the genus Bothrops is a major group of snakes that commonly cause envenomation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Snakebites from this genus, which includes those of Bothrops jararacussu , are characterized by local and systemic effects, such as inflammation at the bite site, ecchymosis, bleeding, and skin infection with abscess. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Bothrops is widespread throughout Central and South America and is the principal cause of snakebite in these regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Bothrops is responsible for most cases of snakebite throughout Latin America [ 21 ] and in Brazil accounts for 80-90% of bites by venomous snakes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genus: Bothrops. (argentinamotoadventure.com)
  • Although there have been studies that demonstrate the application of photobiomodulation in the treatment of local adverse events due to snakebites from snakes of the genus Bothrops , its role in the activation of leukocytes , particularly macrophages , has not been evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several crystal structures of Lys49 PLA2s from genus Bothrops have already been solved, revealing very similar fold patterns. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Fer-de-lance' meaning 'spear head, is a common name given to the variety of snakes from the genus Bothrops, a group of snakes also known as pit vipers. (ypte.org.uk)
  • The PLA 2 isoforms are divided into two categories: neurotoxic (family Elapidae - genus micrurus ) and non-neurotoxic (family Viperidae - genera Crotalus and Bothrops ) [ 23 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isoforms isolated from snakes belonging to the genus Bothrops are the main venom components that account for cell damage mediated by hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids [ 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first study that characterizes genetic variability for this important species of the Bothrops genus , and our data are of significant importance in terms of classifying populations in relation to their conservational value and management strategies. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Effects of toxins with phospholipase A2 structure isolated from Bothrops asper and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms and the respective crude venoms on expression of cyclooxygenases and biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (usp.br)
  • Action of the phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 2): myotoxins (MTs) -II and -III, from Bothrops asper (BaV) and CB2, from Crotalus durissus terrificus (CdtV) and these venoms on cyclooxygenases (COXs) and synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) E 2 and D 2 were studied in vivo and in vitro. (usp.br)
  • BaCol PLA 2 showed structural homology with other acidic PLA 2 isolated from Bothrops venoms, including a non-myotoxic PLA 2 from Costa Rican B. asper . (mdpi.com)
  • The mature svVEGF appears to be ubiquitously distributed throughout snake venoms and was also confirmed by Northern blot studies of other related Viperidae species and by cDNA cloning of svVEGF from Bothrops jararaca pit viper. (reliatech.de)
  • Bothrops alternatus venom gland contains the major toxin classes described for other Bothrops venoms based on trancriptomic and proteomic studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A rapid, three-step, chromatographic procedure was developed to routinely purify serine proteinases from the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni. (unesp.br)
  • The partial sequences indicated that these enzymes share high identity with serine proteinases from the venoms of other Bothrops species. (unesp.br)
  • Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are important components of Bothrops snake venoms, that can induce several effects on envenomations such as myotoxicity, inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation and edema. (unesp.br)
  • An inhibitory protein that neutralizes the enzymatic and toxic activities of several PLA2s from Bothrops venoms was isolated from Bothrops alternatus snake plasma by affinity chromatography using the immobilized myotoxin BthTX-I on CNBr-activated Sepharose. (unesp.br)
  • 1993). Crystallization and preliminary diffraction data of two myotoxins isolated from the venoms of Bothrops asper (Terciopelo) and Bothrops nummifer (jumping viper). (core.ac.uk)
  • 1995). Phospholipase a(2), myotoxins from bothrops snake-venoms. (core.ac.uk)
  • 2015). Bothrops snake venoms and their isolated toxins, an L-amino acid oxidase and a serine protease, modulate human complement system pathways. (ke-i.org)
  • Secretory phospholipases A2 isolated from Bothrops asper and from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms induce distinct mechanisms for biosynthesis of prostaglandins E2 and D2 and expression of cyclooxygenases by: Moreira, Vanessa, et al. (csuca.org)
  • Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms trigger microbicidal functions of peritoneal leukocytes in vivo by: Zamunér, Stella Regina, et al. (csuca.org)
  • The venoms of Bothrops (Rhinocerophis) alternatus (B.a.) from different regions of Argentina have shown biochemical, toxicological and immunological variations. (elsevier.com)
  • Acute renal failure is a common complication caused by Bothrops viper envenomation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Myotoxic phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 ) are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. (mdpi.com)
  • Effect of light emitting diode photobiomodulation on murine macrophage function after Bothrops envenomation. (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, this study showed that LED treatment has the potential to be used in combination with conventional serum therapy to prevent or minimize the progression of local to severe symptoms after Bothrops envenomation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The mechanism of consumption coagulopathy observed in cases of human envenomation by Bothrops jararaca is well established. (bvsalud.org)
  • Envenomation by Bothrops species results, among other symptoms, in hemostatic disturbances. (unesp.br)
  • Experimental Bothrops jararaca (Bj) envenomation can provoke marked morphological alterations in the antimesometrial (AM) region of uterus in pregnant mice which can culminate in the end of gestation. (unifesp.br)
  • This investigation aimed to verify whether Bothrops antivenom (BAV) could restore the normal morphology of murine uterus, after Bj envenomation. (unifesp.br)
  • Envenomation by Bothrops snakes cause local damage as well as systemic, hemostatic and cardiovascular effects. (butantan.gov.br)
  • Found in northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas) southward through Central and South America to Argentina, Bothrops species also occur on the islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique in the Lesser Antilles, as well as on Ilha da Queimada Grande off the coast of Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species, unlike most Bothrops, preys primarily on birds, due to the absence of native mammal species on Queimada Grande. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species of Bothrops exhibit tail vibration behavior when disturbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bothrops insularis, commonly known as the golden lancehead, is a highly venomous pit viper species endemic to Ilha da Queimada Grande, off the coast of São Paulo state, in Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferrarezzi, H. & Freire, E.M.X. (2001) New species of Bothrops Wagler, 1824 from the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae). (gbif.org)
  • As part of this project we are currently working on a systematic revision of the Bothrops-complex in Peru (11 + 2 new species). (zfmk.de)
  • Additionally, the morphological variability in the Bothrops neuwiedii species group will be examined, with special respect to the widely distributed B. diporus. (zfmk.de)
  • Synonymy: Note that Amaral described Bothrops iglesiasi as a new species in two independent papers, published in 1923 and 1926. (reptarium.cz)
  • Origin and phylogenetic position of the Lesser Antillean species of Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae): biogeographical and medical implications. (ajtmh.org)
  • Proteolytic activity of the venom on renal glomeruli could then contribute to the onset of acute renal failure, and would explain the clinical manifestations of renal injury after bites by this and other Bothrops species. (ajtmh.org)
  • 7 ], has inspired other studies with other species of Bothrops . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bothrops punctatus is an endangered, semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose venom is poorly characterized. (peerj.com)
  • In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to examine the venom gland genes of Bothrops alternatus , a clinically important species found in southeastern and southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lack of basic PLA 2 agrees with the lower myotoxicity of this venom compared to other Bothrops species with these toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detailed transcriptomic studies of snake venom glands began with the report of Junqueira-de-Azevedo and Ho [ 13 ] who analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the venom gland of the Brazilian pitviper Bothrops insularis , a species endemic to the island of Queimada Grande off the coast of the State of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of the three main Brazilian polyspecific antivenoms on venom clearance was assessed in 118 moderately envenomed victims of bites by Bothrops species (mainly B. jararaca) in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, many scientists now restrict the name 'fer-de-lance' to the Martinican species, Bothrops lanceolatus. (ypte.org.uk)
  • Like other pit vipers Bothrops species have two indentations or 'pits' behind and above the nostrils which can detect a rise or drop in temperature of just 0.001°C, allowing it to detect warm-blooded mammals. (ypte.org.uk)
  • Bothrops species are able to climb and swim. (ypte.org.uk)
  • Three horse-derived antivenoms were tested for their ability to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, defibrinating and myotoxic activities induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia). (scielo.br)
  • The batroxobin from the snake Bothrops atrox is patented as Reptilase and used as a hemostatic drug. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la histología de las glándulas cefálicas de la víbora de la cruz ( Bothrops alternatus), identificar los tipos celulares y caracterizar histoquimicamente el producto de secreción. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alternagin-C (ALT-C), a disintegrin-like protein from the venom of Bothrops alternatus induces in vivo angiogenesis as well as the cyclic peptide derived from its primary structure, with the ECD motif (ALT-C PEP). (ufscar.br)
  • Bothrops moojeni snake venom-induced renal glomeruli changes in rat. (ajtmh.org)
  • Herein, we isolated and characterized Moojase, a potent coagulant enzyme from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. (bioinfor.com)
  • Here we addressed whether MjTX-I, a phospholipase A 2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, affects the viability of imatinib mesylate-resistant Bcr-Abl + cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The MjTX-I isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom ( B. moojeni myotoxin I) is genotoxic to human lymphocyte DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we performed genetic analysis of the opsin genes and morphological analysis of the photoreceptors of two snakes from the Viperidae family, Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus. (usp.br)
  • In order to monitor and investigate the high number of atretic eggs released by captive Bothrops snakes, we investigated possible apoptotic cell death studing cell cycle as a molecular approaches. (who.int)
  • Different cell cycle phases were identified in the embryos of captive Bothrops snakes. (who.int)
  • Hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation and cardiovascular shock are effects commonly observed in victims bitten by Bothrops snakes. (ke-i.org)
  • RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON (2009) Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). (gbif.org)
  • Neste trabalho foi realizada a análise dos genes de fotopigmentos visuais e da morfologia dos fotorreceptores de duas espécies de serpentes da família Viperidae, Bothrops jararaca e Crotalus durissus terrificus. (usp.br)
  • Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias Serpentes: If no motor vehicle jaarracussu boat is available, the patient can be carried on a stretcher or hurdle, on the pillion or crossbar of a bicycle or on someone's back. (argentinamotoadventure.com)
  • A new myotoxic acidic Asp49 PLA 2 (BaCol PLA 2 ) was isolated from Colombian Bothrops asper venom using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). (mdpi.com)
  • Bothrops asper venom-induced hyperalgesia was blocked by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 and attenuated by dexamethasone, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Pathogenesis of the myonecrotic, hemorrhagic and edema-forming effects in white mice inoculated with Bothrops asper venom was studied at different time intervals by means of light microscopy, determination of serum levels of the enzyme creatinephosphokinase (CPK), and evaluation of edema. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the capability of Casearia gossypiosperma hydroalcoholic extract to neutralize the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom. (scielo.br)
  • The crystal structure of an acidic phospholipase A(2) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom (BthA-I) chemically modified with p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) has been determined at 1.85 Angstroms resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf's ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several sesquiterpene lactone were synthesized and their inhibitive activities on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Bothrops jararacussu venom were evaluated. (unicamp.br)
  • A ação de fosfolipases A 2 (FLA 2 s): miotoxinas (MTs) ?II e III, isoladas de Bothrops asper (VBa) e CB2, de Crotalus durissus terrificus (VCdt) e os venenos brutos, sobre a expressão de ciclooxigenases (COXs) e síntese de prostaglandina (PG) E 2 e PGD 2 foi avaliada. (usp.br)
  • The neotropical pitvipers Crotalus durissus and Bothrops jararaca show a sazonal reproductive cycle with an active stage of follicular development (vitellogenesis Type II) in late austral autumn and winter. (openthesis.org)
  • Males of Bothrops and Crotalus show two elongated testes which communicate bilaterally with the cloaca through the coiled deferent ducts. (openthesis.org)
  • Effects of polyspecific Bthrops antivenom were not impressive, and it has been suggested that anti-Bothrops and anti-Crotalus antivenoms should be given in combination. (argentinamotoadventure.com)
  • These are Crotalus Horridus and Bothrops. (hubpages.com)
  • Recent studies on site directed mutagenesis of the recombinant Lys49 myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu revealed the participation of important amino acid residues in the membrane damaging and myotoxic activities. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The binding of Bothrops asper myotoxin to mouse skeletal muscle was studied at both the light and electron microscope levels using the peroxidase anti-peroxidase technique. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • This study evaluated the influence of molecular weight on the ability of fucoidan to prevent muscle necrosis when rapidly administered after injection of a purified myotoxin or crude venom of Bothrops asper, in a mouse model. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo myotoxic effects and in vitro irreversible neuromuscular blockade effects of crude venom from the snake Bothrops jararacussu are well known pharmacological methods used to study drugs showing antivenom properties (29, 30). (scielo.br)
  • Prevention of thromboses in human patients with Bothrops lanceolatus envenoming in Martinique: failure of anticoagulants and efficacy of a monospecific antivenom. (ajtmh.org)
  • Rutin, a flavonoid, may complement antivenom as an effective co-treatment for envenoming from Bothrops jaraca. (eurekalert.org)
  • No subspecies of Bothrops insularis are currently recognized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexually mature Bothrops insularis mate during August and September, and have been known to mate both in the trees and on the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bothrops insularis can usually be found either in the trees hunting for its prey, or seeking shelter among leaf litter or in rock crevices, especially during unfavorable weather or after having just ingested its prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • The svVEGF-F was identified during the generation of abundant expressed sequence tags from the Viperidae snake Bothrops insularis venom glands. (reliatech.de)
  • The present paper reports this condition in an 18-year-old captive golden lancehead ( Bothrops insularis ) from Brazil. (usp.br)
  • Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Bothrops insularis bacterial and fungal microbiota. (usp.br)
  • During the generation of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from the venom glands of the Viperidae snake Bothrops insularis, we identified a cDNA coding for a putative Ca 2+ binding protein with four EF-hand motifs, named here calglandulin. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinical indicators of envenoming and serum levels of venom antigens in patients bitten by Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique. (ajtmh.org)
  • Prognostic significance of clinical grading of patients envenomed by Bothrops lanceolatus in Martinique. (ajtmh.org)
  • Bothrops lanceolatus snake venom causes systemic thrombotic syndrome but also local inflammation involving extensive oedema, pain, and haemorrhage. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Neuromuscular Action Of Bothrops Lanceolatus (fer De Lance) Venom And A Caseinolytic Fraction. (unicamp.br)
  • A protein capable of inducing neuromuscular blockade in avian preparations and of depolarizing mouse diaphragm muscle was isolated from Bothrops lanceolatus venom using gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. (unicamp.br)
  • Se ha aislado una enzima proteolítica del veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops brazili, por cromatografía en Sephadex G-100 y CM-Sephadex C-50, con buffer acetato de amonio 0,05M pH 7,0. (wroc.pl)
  • 2015. Bothrops diporus (southern pitviper) diet / ophiophagy. (reptarium.cz)
  • The Chocoan forest lancehead, Bothrops punctatus , known in Colombia as 'rabo de chucha', is a large semi-arboreal pitviper, ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 m in length. (peerj.com)
  • Snakebite envenoming by Bothrops caribbaeus, an endemic viperid from the Lesser Antillean island of Saint Lucia, is clinically characterized by local tissue damage and systemic thrombosis that can lead to cerebral, myocardial or pulmonary infarctions and venous thromboses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Bothrops moojeni is an abundant venomous snake responsible for most of the snakebite cases in the Central region of Brazil and as a result of the anthropogenic habitat disturbance, such as the increase in extensive farming, the range of B. moojeni has been greatly fragmented. (geneticsmr.com)
  • We evaluated the antiviral action of Mt-I (catalytically-active sPLA2) and Mt-II (catalytically-inactive variant) isolated from the venom of Bothrops asper, against a diverse group of viruses. (medworm.com)
  • The medicine Defibrase is the trade name given to batroxobin and is isolated from the venom of Bothrops moojeni. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • The ability of the P-I metalloproteinase BaP1, isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper, to induce systemic bleeding, thrombocytopenia and defibrinogenation was assessed in an experimental mouse model. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Hoge,A.R. (1954) A new Bothrops from Brazil - Bothrops brazili, sp. (gbif.org)
  • The pharmacological activity of C. gossypiosperma (Cg) hydroalcoholic extract was assayed by a traditional in vitro test, which involved irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (60 µ g/mL) in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. (scielo.br)
  • These extracts were evaluated against the myotoxicity (58%) and the irreversible in vitro neuromuscular blockade of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (40µg/ml) in a mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation, by using light-microscopy and conventional myographic techniques. (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • The crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) is known to induce muscular paralysis in vitro. (bvs-vet.org.br)
  • Venenos do gênero Bothrops causam, além de efeitos locais, efeitos sistêmicos sobre os sistemas hemostático e cardiovascular. (butantan.gov.br)
  • Here we describe for the first time the isolation and functional characterization of a soluble phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararaca venom, which shows amino acid sequence similarity to mammalian nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (NPP3), and inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Relative abundance of the major toxin families in Bothrops venom gland transcriptomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moderate and severe envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper provoke systemic alterations, such as systemic bleeding, coagulopathy, hypovolemia, hemodynamic instability and shock, and acute renal failure. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Systemic effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops caribbaeus in a murine model. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The American Naturalist 188.4 (2016): 475-483 Bothrops at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of enzymatic activity in muscle damage and cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops asper Asp49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins: are there additional effector mechanisms involved? (peerj.com)
  • Mora-Obando D, Díaz C, Angulo Y, Gutiérrez JM, Lomonte B. ( 2014 ) Role of enzymatic activity in muscle damage and cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops asper Asp49 phospholipase A 2 myotoxins: are there additional effector mechanisms involved? (peerj.com)
  • The neutralization of two myotoxic phospholipases A2 from the venom of Bothrops asper, myotoxins I and II, by two murine monoclonal antibodies is reported. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Se ha purificado y caracterizado parcialmente la L-aminoácido oxidasa de la serpiente Bothrops brazili. (doaj.org)
  • A proteolitic enzyme was purified from Bothrops brazili peruvian snake venom using Sephadex G-100 followed by CM-Sephadex C-50, in both two cases with 0.05M ammonium acetate pH 7,0. (wroc.pl)
  • Snake bites by the jararacucu (Bothrops jararacussu): Clinicopathological studies of 29 proven cases in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (argentinamotoadventure.com)
  • Belonging to the Viperidae family, Bothrops moojeni are widely distributed in South America, tropical savanna ecoregion (Cerrado) of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay with medical importance in Brazil. (jvenomres.co.uk)
  • Bothrops marajoensis is found in the savannah of Marajo Island in the State of Par S and regions of Amapa State, Brazil. (unesp.br)
  • This study describe s the effects of Bothrops marajoensis venom (Marajó lancehead) on isolated neuromuscular preparations of chick biventer cervicis (CBC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND). (libpubmedia.co.uk)
  • Jararhagin, a hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MP-III 4R PLA2 was purified from the venom of Bothrops pirajai venom (Bahia's jararacussu) after three chromatographic steps which started with RP-HPLC. (eurekamag.com)
  • The complete amino acid sequence of MP-III 4R PLA2 from Bothrops pirajai was determined by amino acid sequencing of reduced and carboxymethylated MP-III 4R and the isolated peptides from clostripain and protease V8 digestion. (eurekamag.com)
  • 1966). In this communication we describe the isolation of nine biologically active peptides from Bothrops jararaca venom, present the amino acid sequence determination of the smallest of the active peptides, PCA-Lys-Trp-Ala-Pro, and describe the synthesis of this peptide by the solid phase method. (springer.com)
  • NPP-BJ, a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, inhibits platelet aggregation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In Central America, the majority of human envenomations due to snakebites are inflicted by Bothrops aspe r, commonly known as "ter-ciopelo" or "barba amarilla" ( Gutiérrez 1995, 2002 ). (scielo.sa.cr)
  • 2014). Interaction of Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases with protein inhibitors. (ke-i.org)
  • From the crude snake venom of Bothrops moojeni, a homodimeric lectin was purified by affinity chromatography in lactose and was named BMooL. (unicamp.br)