Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

Specific antibodies reactive with the 22-kilodalton major outer surface protein of Borrelia anserina Ni-NL protect chicks from infection. (1/122)

An outer surface lipoprotein of 22 kDa was identified in the avian pathogen Borrelia anserina Ni-NL by using antibody preparations reactive with bacterial surface-exposed proteins. Amino acid sequence analysis of the 22-kDa protein demonstrated 90% identity with VmpA of B. turicatae, suggesting that the protein belongs to the family of 20-kDa outer surface proteins of the genus Borrelia. All of the 60 chicks intramuscularly treated with antibodies specifically reacting with the 22-kDa protein and infected with strain Ni-NL were completely protected from infection, since no spirochetemia was detected, and from death. Control chicks were treated with immune sera raised against apathogenic strain B. anserina Es, which expresses a prominent 20-kDa polypeptide that is also a member of the Vmp family but does not cross-react immunologically with the 22-kDa protein of the Ni-NL strain. These animals, infected with B. anserina Ni-NL, showed a high degree of spirochetemia 10 days after infection, and all died between 14 and 21 days after infection. The results showed that the 22-kDa surface protein of B. anserina Ni-NL is a determinant of the pathogenic potential of the strain and also confirmed that only strain-specific antibodies are protective against B. anserina infection.  (+info)

Comparative analysis and immunological characterization of the Borrelia Bdr protein family. (2/122)

Multiple circular and linear plasmids of Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia spirochetes carry genes for members of the Bdr (Borrelia direct repeat) protein family. To define their common and divergent attributes, we first comprehensively compared the known homologs. Bdr proteins with predicted sizes ranging from 10.7 to 30. 6 kDa formed five homology groups, based on variable numbers of short direct repeats in a central domain and diverse N- and C-terminal domains. In a further characterization, Western blots were probed with rabbit antisera raised against either of two purified recombinant Bdr proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi B31. The results showed that antibodies cross-react and several Bdr paralogs 19.5 to 30.5 kDa in size are expressed by cultured strain B31 in a temperature-independent manner. In situ proteolysis, immunofluorescence, and growth inhibition assays indicated that Bdr proteins are not surface exposed. Distinct patterns of cross-reacting proteins of 17.5 to 33 kDa were also detected in other B. burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii strains as well as in relapsing fever spirochetes Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia turicatae. Last, we examined whether these proteins are antibody targets during Lyme disease. Analysis of 47 Lyme disease patient sera by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that 24 (51%) and 20 (43%), respectively, had detectable antibodies to one or more of the Bdr proteins. Together, these data indicate that Bdr proteins constitute a family of cross-reactive Borrelia proteins which are expressed in the course of Lyme disease and in vitro.  (+info)

Characterization of VspB of Borrelia turicatae, a major outer membrane protein expressed in blood and tissues of mice. (3/122)

Serotypes A and B of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae produce different disease manifestations in infected mice. Whereas serotype B causes more severe arthritis and reaches higher densities in the blood of mice than serotype A, serotype A invades the central nervous system earlier than serotype B during infection. These differences between serotypes A and B in mice are associated with the expression of different surface proteins, VspA and VspB, respectively, in the culture medium. To determine whether these proteins, in particular, VspB, are also expressed in vivo, scid mice infected with B. turicatae were studied. The expression of VspB by spirochetes in the blood was demonstrated in Coomassie blue-stained polyacrylamide gels and Western blots with a specific monoclonal antibody. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase studies confirmed the expression of VspB in the blood and also demonstrated VspB expression in the joints and heart. The gene for VspB was next identified and cloned by using partial amino acid sequencing, reverse transcriptase PCR, and a specific monoclonal antibody. The vspB gene encodes a protein of 216 amino acids that is 68% identical to VspA of B. turicatae and 44 to 56% identical to representative Vsp and OspC lipoproteins of other Borrelia spp. The processed VspB protein was distinguished from 26 other Vsp and OspC proteins by a high predicted isoelectric point at 9.39. The promoter region for vspB was similar to the promoter region for the vsp33 gene of Borrelia hermsii and for the ospC gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, two genes known to be environmentally regulated. These studies established that the virulence-associated VspB protein is expressed by spirochetes in the mouse and that VspB is a novel member of the Vsp-OspC family of proteins.  (+info)

Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. (4/122)

Typhus and other louse-transmitted bacterial infections in Peruvian sierra communities are known to occur but have not recently been assessed. In this study, 194 of 1,280 inhabitants of four villages in Calca Province in the Urubamba Valley were included. Thirty-nine (20%) of the 194 volunteers had antibodies to Rickettsia prowazekii, whereas 24 (12%) had antibodies to Bartonella quintana and 2 against Borrelia recurrentis. There was a significant correlation between the presence of infesting ectoparasites and antibodies to R. prowazekii, as well as between antibodies to R. prowazekii and ectoparasite infestation and fever in the previous 6 months. The proportion of inhabitants infested with ectoparasites was significantly higher in the highest-altitude village than in the other three villages. Two volunteers' antibody levels suggested a recent typhus infection, but only B. quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America.  (+info)

Successful in vitro cultivation of Borrelia duttonii and its comparison with Borrelia recurrentis. (5/122)

Borrelia duttonii, the cause of East African tick-borne relapsing fever, has until now been refractory to growth in laboratory media. This spirochaete has only be propagated in mice or by tissue culture, restricting both yield and purity of cells available for research. The successful isolation of five clinical isolates of B. duttonii from patients in Central Tanzania and their comparison with Borrelia recurrentis is reported. Electron microscopy revealed spirochaetal cells with pointed ends, a mean wavelength of 1.8 microns with an amplitude of 0.8 micron, similar to the findings for B. recurrentis. Cells contained 10 periplasmic flagella inserted at each end of the spirochaete, again comparable with the counts of 8-10 flagella found in B. recurrentis. PFGE revealed a chromosome of approximately 1 Mb, a large plasmid of approximately 200 kb, and a small plasmid of 11 kb in all strains of B. duttonii and in B. recurrentis. B. duttonii possessed a further 7-9 plasmids with sizes ranging from 20 to 90 kb. In two isolates of B. duttonii, the profiles were identical. In contrast, all 18 isolates of B. recurrentis fell into one of five plasmid patterns with 3-4 plasmids ranging from 25 to 61.5 kb in addition to those of 11 and 200 kb described above. Analysis of the SDS-PAGE profiles of B. duttonii strains revealed a high-molecular-mass band of 33.4-34.2 kDa in four strains (variable large protein, VLP) and a low-molecular-mass band of 22.3 kDa in the remaining strain (variable small protein, VSP). This resembles the protein profiles found in B. recurrentis. The G + C ratio of B. duttonii was 27.6 mol%. Nucleotide sequence of the rrs gene (16S rRNA) from four B. duttonii isolates revealed 100% identity among these strains and 99.7% homology with three strains deposited by others in GenBank. The rrs gene of eight representative clinical isolates of B. recurrentis confirmed their close similarity with B. duttonii.  (+info)

Borrelia isolates in Northern Colorado identified as Borrelia bissettii. (6/122)

Previous work described Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group DN127 as a new genospecies, Borrelia bissettii, and prompted the present study to identify the Borrelia spp. that exist in northern Colorado. To determine the genospecies present, we analyzed two specific intergenic spacer regions located between the 5S and 23S and the 16S and 23S ribosomal genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the derived sequences clearly demonstrated that these isolates, originating from rodents captured in the foothills of northern Colorado, diverged from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto by 5 to 5.5% and were members of the new genospecies B. bissettii.  (+info)

Serodiagnosis of Louse-Borne relapsing fever with glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) from Borrelia recurrentis. (7/122)

Human louse-borne relapsing fever occurs in sporadic outbreaks in central and eastern Africa that are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. Isolates of the causative agent, Borrelia recurrentis, were obtained from the blood of four patients during a recent epidemic of the disease in southern Sudan. The glpQ gene, encoding glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, from these isolates was sequenced and compared with the glpQ sequences obtained from other relapsing-fever spirochetes. Previously we showed that GlpQ of Borrelia hermsii is an immunogenic protein with utility as a serological test antigen for discriminating tick-borne relapsing fever from Lyme disease. In the present work, we cloned and expressed the glpQ gene from B. recurrentis and used recombinant GlpQ in serological tests. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples obtained from 42 patients with louse-borne relapsing fever were tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that used whole cells of B. recurrentis and with immunoblotting to whole-cell lysates of the spirochete and Escherichia coli producing recombinant GlpQ. The geometric mean titers of the acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples measured by IFA were 1:83 and 1:575, respectively. The immunoblot analysis identified a high level of reactivity and seroconversion to GlpQ, and the assay was more sensitive than the whole-cell IFA and ELISA using purified, recombinant histidine-tagged GlpQ. Serum antibodies to GlpQ and other antigens persisted for 27 years in one patient. We conclude that assessment of anti-GlpQ antibodies will allow serological confirmation of louse-borne relapsing fever and determination of disease prevalence.  (+info)

Lone star tick-infecting borreliae are most closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis. (8/122)

Although Borrelia theileri, the agent of bovine borreliosis, was described at the turn of the century (in 1903), its relationship with borreliae causing Lyme disease or relapsing fever remains undescribed. We tested the previously published hypothesis that spirochetes infecting Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) may comprise B. theileri by analyzing the 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and flagellin genes of these spirochetes. B. theileri, the Amblyomma agent, and B. miyamotoi formed a natural group or clade distinct from but most closely related to that of the relapsing fever spirochetes. B. theileri and the Amblyomma agent were 97 and 98% similar at the nucleotide level within the analyzed portions of the 16S rDNA and the flagellin gene respectively, suggesting a recent divergence. The agent of bovine borreliosis might be explored as a surrogate antigen for the as-yet-uncultivatable Amblyomma agent in studies designed to explore the etiology of a Lyme disease-like infection associated with Lone Star ticks.  (+info)

Borrelia infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia. The most common Borrelia infection is Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

The symptoms of Lyme disease can vary, but often include a rash that looks like a bull's-eye, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe symptoms.

Other diseases caused by Borrelia bacteria include relapsing fever, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of lice or ticks, and tick-borne relapsing fever, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of soft ticks. The symptoms of relapsing fever include recurring high fevers, headache, muscle and joint pain, and rash.

Borrelia infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and the prognosis is good with early detection and treatment. However, if left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems. Prevention measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of Borrelia infections.

'Borrelia burgdorferi' is a species of spirochete bacteria that is the primary cause of Lyme disease in humans. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern, midwestern, and eastern parts of the United States; Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast).

The bacterium was first identified and named after Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the spirochete in the mid-1980s. The infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Antibiotic treatment is usually effective in eliminating the bacteria and resolving symptoms, especially when initiated early in the course of the disease. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms even after treatment, a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The exact cause of PTLDS remains unclear, with ongoing research investigating potential factors such as residual bacterial infection, autoimmune responses, or tissue damage.

"Borrelia" is a genus of spirochete bacteria that are known to cause several tick-borne diseases in humans, the most notable being Lyme disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast).

The Borrelia species are gram-negative, helical-shaped bacteria with distinctive endoflagella that allow them to move in a corkscrew-like motion. They are microaerophilic, meaning they require a low oxygen environment for growth. The bacteria can survive in a variety of environments, including the digestive tracts of ticks and mammals, as well as in soil and water.

Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. It typically presents with a characteristic rash called erythema migrans, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, causing arthritis, neurological problems, and cardiac issues.

Other Borrelia species, such as B. afzelii and B. garinii, are responsible for causing Lyme disease in Europe and Asia. Additionally, some Borrelia species have been linked to other tick-borne illnesses, including relapsing fever and tick-borne meningoencephalitis.

Prevention of Borrelia infections involves avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks. If a tick bite is suspected, it's important to seek medical attention and monitor for symptoms of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can help prevent the development of chronic symptoms.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

Relapsing fever is a vector-borne disease caused by spirochetal bacteria of the genus Borrelia. It is characterized by recurring episodes of fever, chills, headache, and muscle and joint pain. The disease is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected soft ticks (Ornithodoros spp.) or lice (Pediculus humanus corporis).

The relapsing fever borreliae are able to evade the host's immune system by changing their surface proteins, which allows them to continue infecting red blood cells and cause recurring symptoms. Each febrile episode is associated with the multiplication of a specific population of spirochetes, followed by an immune response that clears the infection but fails to prevent reinfection due to antigenic variation.

Relapsing fever can be effectively treated with antibiotics such as tetracyclines, erythromycin, or penicillin. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological symptoms. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, and promptly removing attached ticks.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

A Lyme disease vaccine is not currently available on the market. However, in the past, there was a vaccine called Lymerix, which was a recombinant OspA (outer surface protein A) vaccine. It was approved by the FDA in 1998 for use in people aged 15 to 70 years to prevent Lyme disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. However, due to low consumer demand and unfounded concerns about potential adverse events, the manufacturer voluntarily withdrew it from the market in 2002.

Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available for Lyme disease. Researchers are continuing to work on developing new vaccines, but none have yet been approved for use.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM) is a type of skin rash that is commonly associated with early Lyme disease. It is usually the first sign of infection after a tick bite and is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The rash typically appears within 3-30 days after the tick bite and starts as a red, flat or slightly raised spot at the site of the bite. Over several days or weeks, the redness expands, forming a circular or oval-shaped rash that can be up to 12 inches in diameter. The center of the rash may clear, giving it a "bull's-eye" appearance.

ECM is usually accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, fever, headache, and muscle and joint pain. It is important to note that not all people with Lyme disease will develop ECM, and its absence does not necessarily mean that the person does not have Lyme disease. If you suspect that you may have been bitten by a tick and are experiencing symptoms of Lyme disease, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

"Peromyscus" is not a medical term, but a genus of rodents commonly known as "deer mice." They are small mammals that belong to the family Cricetidae and are found in various parts of North America. Peromyscus mice can carry and transmit diseases, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), although they are not typically referred to in a medical context unless discussing potential zoonotic risks.

Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a specific neurological manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is characterized by inflammation of the nervous system, particularly the peripheral and central nervous systems.

Involvement of the peripheral nervous system can present as radiculoneuropathy or cranial neuritis, leading to symptoms such as radiating pain, paresthesia, muscle weakness, and/or sensory loss in the affected areas. Involvement of the central nervous system may result in meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord). These manifestations can cause symptoms such as headache, stiff neck, cognitive impairment, memory loss, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and, in rare cases, seizures.

LNB is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests (such as serological analysis or CSF examination), and sometimes supported by imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy, which can be administered either orally or intravenously, depending on the severity and extent of the infection. Early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis for LNB patients.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that are characterized by their unique spiral or corkscrew shape. This shape allows them to move in a flexing, twisting motion, which can be quite rapid. They are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet stain in the Gram staining method, and they have a unique structure with endoflagella (also known as axial filaments) located inside their outer membrane.

The Spirochaetales order includes several families and genera of bacteria, some of which are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic. The parasitic spirochetes can cause various diseases in humans and animals. For example, Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a serious sexually transmitted infection. Another species, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

It's important to note that spirochetes are a diverse group with varying characteristics and pathogenic potential. While some species can cause significant harm, others are not associated with diseases and play essential roles in various ecosystems.

Ornithodoros is a genus of hard-bodied ticks that belong to the family Argasidae, also known as soft ticks. These ticks are characterized by their lack of a distinct rear end or capitulum, and they have a leathery cuticle that appears smooth and shiny when they are engorged with blood.

Ornithodoros ticks are known to be vectors of various diseases, including relapsing fever caused by Borrelia spp. They can transmit these pathogens through their saliva during feeding, which typically occurs at night. Ornithodoros ticks are also capable of surviving for long periods without food, making them efficient carriers and transmitters of disease-causing agents.

These ticks are often found in the nests or burrows of animals such as birds, reptiles, and mammals, where they feed on the host's blood. Some species of Ornithodoros ticks can also bite humans, causing skin irritation and other symptoms. It is important to take precautions when entering areas where these ticks may be present, such as wearing protective clothing and using insect repellent.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Biotechnology is defined in the medical field as a branch of technology that utilizes biological processes, organisms, or systems to create products that are technologically useful. This can include various methods and techniques such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, and others. The goal of biotechnology is to harness the power of biology to produce drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, biofuels, and other industrial products, as well as to advance our understanding of living systems for medical and scientific research.

The use of biotechnology has led to significant advances in medicine, including the development of new treatments for genetic diseases, improved methods for diagnosing illnesses, and the creation of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, it also raises ethical and societal concerns related to issues such as genetic modification of organisms, cloning, and biosecurity.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD), a hard tick-borne relapsing fever, is an emerging infection due to a relapsing fever Borrelia ... Borrelia miyamotoi infection. Subscriber Sign In Feedback Select Language Share Search for a symptom, medication, or diagnosis ... Borrelia miyamotoi infection Print Images (1) Contributors: Mukesh Patel MD, Ricardo M. La Hoz MD. Other Resources UpToDate ... Many other infections and noninfectious diseases may present with similar symptoms.. Infections:. *Rocky Mountain spotted fever ...
... TOPICS:DiseaseEpidemiologyInfectionTicksYale University ... Reference: "Human Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in the United States" 17 January 2013, New England Journal of Medicine.. DOI: ... Similar to Lyme disease, a new tick-borne infection known as Borrelia miyamotoi has been discovered in people in the United ... Be the first to comment on "Tick-Borne Infection Borrelia Miyamotoi Discovered in the United States". ...
This is because of the paucity or absence of organisms in most specimens, even during active infection. In our opinion, assays ... Antigens for Borrelia Infection Diagnosis and Prevention. Tech ID: 18751 / UC Case 2007-408-0 ... This is because of the paucity or absence of organisms in most specimens, even during active infection. In our opinion, assays ... The invention comprises novel Borrelia antigents to detect and monitor Lyme disease. Further, these antigens can be used for ...
Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers - assessed with an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA), PCR and correlated ... The clinical data suggested past symptomatic infection (ECM), or even more often, asymptomatic infection with B. burgdorferi. ... Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. and Leptospira interrogans s. l. in Cats in district of Brno ... Despite finding IgM antibodies in 10 persons tested, which would indicate their recent infection, no DNA of B. burgdorferi s.l ...
Analysis of Borrelia in Lipotena cervi (Deer Keds) as a Model of Infection in the White Tailed Deer Population of New York ... Borrelia Flagellin B Abstract. Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in America. The ... Of 40 ked flies tested, 8 were positive for the flaB gene, yielding an infection rate (20%) that is very similar to that found ... It is possible that the strain of Borrelia cycling in ked flies may be different from that in regional deer tick populations. ...
"Hemorrhagic Diathesis in Borrelia recurrentis Infection Imported to Germany" 22, no. 5 (2016). Keller, Christian et al. " ... "Hemorrhagic Diathesis in Borrelia recurrentis Infection Imported to Germany" vol. 22, no. 5, 2016. Export RIS Citation ... 2016). Hemorrhagic Diathesis in Borrelia recurrentis Infection Imported to Germany. 22(5). Keller, Christian et al. " ... Title : Hemorrhagic Diathesis in Borrelia recurrentis Infection Imported to Germany Personal Author(s) : Keller, Christian; ...
Nymph and larvae infection rates were found to be 20.3% (344/1,697) and 25.8% (8/31), respectively. Species identification was ... Comparing infection rates of Hanoverian ticks between years, a significant increase (P = 0.002) could be observed for larvae ... Overall, 22.7% (476/2,100) of collected ticks were tested positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. infections. Adult ticks showed an ... In the latter year, coinfections with Borrelia and Rickettsiales were detected in a total of 7.8% (163/2,100) of collected ...
Borrelia burgdorferi infection abundance and prevalence in tick vectors). Our results suggest that the increase in Lyme disease ... Infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi B. burgdorferi s.s. infection of ticks was detected at 11 sites (44% of the ... Emergence pattern of infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi The signature of the early emergence of B. burgdorferi s.s ... Borrelia burgdorferi infection abundance and prevalence in tick vectors). Our results suggest that the increase in Lyme disease ...
2007). Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico. 13(10). Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe et al. "Borrelia ... "Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico" vol. 13, no. 10, 2007. Export RIS Citation Information.. ... Title : Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico Personal Author(s) : Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe;Torres ... Adult Blotting, Western Borrelia Burgdorferi Group Child Endemic Diseases Erythema Chronicum Migrans Humans Lyme Disease Middle ...
Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia infection. All Indications , Category: Bacterium, bacterial infection, Brain and ...
Human Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in North America Title. Human Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in North America. ... Borrelia miyamotoi, Emerging infection, epidemiology, human, relapsing fever, ticks. Abstract. Borrelia miyamotoi is an ... B. miyamotoi infection is widespread in Ixodes ticks in the northeastern, northern Midwestern, and far western United States ... Antibiotics are effective in clearing infection and are the same as those used for Lyme disease, including doxycycline, ...
... ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a ... Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection. ... Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection. ... ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a ...
Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi erp genes during infection of non-human primates. / Miller, Jennifer C.; Narayan, Kavitha; ... Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi erp genes during infection of non-human primates. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2005 Jul;39(1-2): ... Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi erp genes during infection of non-human primates. In: Microbial Pathogenesis. 2005 ; Vol. 39 ... Miller, JC, Narayan, K, Stevenson, B & Pachner, AR 2005, Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi erp genes during infection of non- ...
Positive results for second-tier tests are confirmatory for the presence of Borrelia infection. Spirochetes can also be seen ... The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. All species ... 2020 Borrelia mazzottii ♦ Davis 1956 "Borrelia merionesi" Hougen 1974 "Borrelia microti" (Rafyi 1946) Davis 1948 "Ca. Borrelia ... Borrelia africana" Ehounoud et al. 2016 "Ca. Borrelia algerica" Fotso et al. 2015 "Ca. Borrelia aligera" Norte et al. 2020 ...
Borrelia burgdorferi infection, see Lyme disease. *Borreliosis, Lyme, see Lyme disease. *BOS, see Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome ...
Co-infections with other tick borne diseases (TBD) may contribute to the severity of the disease. On Long Island, NY, 3-5% of ... The aim of this study was to perform a chart review in all patients diagnosed with B. miyamotoi infection in Stony Brook ... In conclusion, B. miyamotoi infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis for flu-like syndromes during the ... Borrelia miyamotoi, which is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits Lyme disease and causes a relapsing fever-like ...
Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis infection). Epidemiol Infect. 2019 Jan. 147:e106. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Acute Parvovirus B19 infection can manifest with fever, arthralgias, rash, fatigue with fever being one of the most common ... Tick-borne relapsing fever ( Borrelia hermsii, B parkeri, B duttonii; fever lasting 1-3 days followed by up to 2 weeks without ... Expert Insights on Clinical Considerations in Bartonella Infection 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits ...
There were no eligible studies for evaluation of tick-borne co-infections or for persistent LB after antibiotic treatment. ... as well as tick-borne co-infections and persistent LB in spite of recommended standard antibiotic treatment.Methods: We ... as well as tick-borne co-infections and persistent LB in spite of recommended standard antibiotic treatment. Methods: We ... and categorized potentially relevant references according to the predefined infections and study design. An expert group ...
Borrelia burgdorferi infection; Diseases; Babesiosis; Viral infections; Exposure levels; Risk factors; Workers; Work ...
DNA Imaging Confirmation of Borrelia Infection in Seronegative Lyme Patients. Alan B. MacDonald, MD, Dr. Paul H. Duray Research ... Microbiological Challenges of Tick-Borne Infections. Holly Ahern, Associate Professor of Microbiology, SUNY Adirondack ...
Virulence and survival mechanisms in Borrelia and Klebsiella infections - a structural bioinformatics perspective  Åstrand, ... Bacteria use a wide variety of mechanisms to establish an infection in their host and to compete with other microorganisms for ...
Chromosome Sequence of Borrelia miyamotoi, an Uncultivable Tick-Borne Agent of Human Infection.. ByTeam September 15, 2013. ... Read More Chromosome Sequence of Borrelia miyamotoi, an Uncultivable Tick-Borne Agent of Human Infection.. ... Part 10 in series on the Global Lyme Disease Discussion Borrelia burgdorferi cultivated from the brains of patients suffering ... Profiling disease burden and Borrelia seroprevalence in Canadians with complex and chronic illness ...
Categories: Borrelia Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
by infection with the spiral-shaped bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi.. *The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of an ... Rashes and skin that is hot to the touch can sometimes indicate a skin infection or a harmful insect bite. Contact a medical ... when the body has an extreme reaction to an infection.. *It presents as a continuum of symptom severity in someone with ... by an inflammatory reaction when the body starts to attack its own tissues, often after infection with group A Streptococcus ...
Rickettsial infections, borrelia, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Hepatomegaly Malaria, typhoid, dengue, viral hepatitis, ... Severe respiratory infections from novel viral infections (eg COVID-19, H5N1) highlight the needs for vigilance and the role of ... Common childhood infections contracted whilst away (Consider seasonal variations) *Infection contracted whilst visiting an ... Infection contracted due to a regional outbreak The keys to establishing a differential diagnosis and deciding on appropriate ...
K. Eisendle, T. Grabner, and B. Zelger, "Morphoea: a manifestation of infection with Borrelia species?" British Journal of ... Preceding trauma has been observed as initial event in pediatric population [10, 11]. Previous infection, particularly due to ... associated with facial atrophy in a patient seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi: a true case of molecular mimicry?" Pediatric ... Borrelia burgdorferi, has been implicated in Europe and Japan, but not confirmed in the United States [12, 13]. Genetics ...

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