Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (1/1047)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (2/1047)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

Detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in UK ticks using polymerase chain reaction. (3/1047)

Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from woodland areas in South Wales, UK, were tested using the polymerase chain reaction for the presence both of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and Borrelia burgdorferi. Twenty-two of 60 (37%) ticks were found positive in the PCR for B. burgdorferi and 4/60 (7%) for the HGE agent. One tick was found positive both for B. burgdorferi and HGE agent. Our findings imply the presence of the HGE agent in UK ticks and the finding of a tick apparently containing both pathogens underlines the potential for concurrent infection with HGE agent and B. burgdorferi to occur after a single tick-bite. Based on our observations, we conclude that there may be a need to consider a range of pathogens both in laboratory investigation and clinical management of suspected tick-borne disease in the UK, particularly where there is a clinical presentation atypical of Lyme borreliosis alone.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (4/1047)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (5/1047)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands. (6/1047)

This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.  (+info)

Rapid and sensitive quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mouse tissues by continuous fluorescent monitoring of PCR. (7/1047)

The quantity of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in tissue samples is an important determinant for infection studies in the mouse model of Lyme disease. This report presents the development of a rapid and sensitive external-standard-based PCR assay for the absolute quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse tissue samples. The assay uses a double-stranded DNA dye to continuously monitor product formation and in less than an hour was able to quantify samples ranging up to 6 log units in concentration. The PCR efficiencies of the sample and the standard were matched by using a standard composed of purified B. burgdorferi chromosome mixed with tissue-matched mouse genome lacking bacterial DNA. Normalization of B. burgdorferi quantities to the mouse nidogen gene allowed comparison of B. burgdorferi numbers in samples isolated from different tissues and strains. PCR analysis of the chromosomal gene recA in cultured B. burgdorferi was consistent with a single recA per bacterium. The parameters defined in this assay should be applicable to quantification of other organisms, even infectious agents for which no ready source of DNA standard is available. In summary, this report presents a rapid external-standard-based PCR method for the quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse DNA samples.  (+info)

Proteome composition and codon usage in spirochaetes: species-specific and DNA strand-specific mutational biases. (8/1047)

The genomes of the spirochaetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum show strong strand-specific skews in nucleotide composition, with the leading strand in replication being richer in G and T than the lagging strand in both species. This mutation bias results in codon usage and amino acid composition patterns that are significantly different between genes encoded on the two strands, in both species. There are also substantial differences between the species, with T.pallidum having a much higher G+C content than B. burgdorferi. These changes in amino acid and codon compositions represent neutral sequence change that has been caused by strong strand- and species-specific mutation pressures. Genes that have been relocated between the leading and lagging strands since B. burgdorferi and T.pallidum diverged from a common ancestor now show codon and amino acid compositions typical of their current locations. There is no evidence that translational selection operates on codon usage in highly expressed genes in these species, and the primary influence on codon usage is whether a gene is transcribed in the same direction as replication, or opposite to it. The dnaA gene in both species has codon usage patterns distinctive of a lagging strand gene, indicating that the origin of replication lies downstream of this gene, possibly within dnaN. Our findings strongly suggest that gene-finding algorithms that ignore variability within the genome may be flawed.  (+info)

The 4 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates obtained from 1. Ricinus ticks collected in the natural foci in Russia and Ukraine, having an unusual RFLP Msel-pattern, were studied using sequencing rrfA-rrlB spacer and rrs gene. The Ir-5215 isolate from the tick collected in southern Ukraine represented recently described genospecies B. spielmanii pathogenic for humans. The three atypical isolates Ir-3519, Ir-4721, and Ir-4812 had 100% identity with the sequence of the atypical European B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains. They constituted a subgroup of the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto on the grounds of Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). These data can be indicative of the genetic heterogeneity of the current group B. burgdorferi sensu stricto.
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Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the organization of multicopy linear- and circular-plasmid- carried open reading frames in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. AU - Carlyon, Jason A.. AU - LaVoie, Crystal. AU - Sung, Shian Ying. AU - Marconi, Richard T.. PY - 1998/3. Y1 - 1998/3. N2 - Plasmid cp8.3 of Borrelia afzelii IP21 carries several open reading frames (ORFs) and a 184-bp inverted repeat (IR) element. It has been speculated that this plasmid may encode factors involved in virulence or infectivity. In this report, we have characterized the distribution, molecular variability, and organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 4 and the IR elements among isolates of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. ORFs 1 and 2 are contained within a segment of cp8.3 that is bordered by the IR elements, while ORF 4 resides just outside of the IR-bordered region. By PCR, ORF 4 was amplified from most isolates while ORFs 1 and 2 were amplified from only some B. afzelii isolates. However, Southern hybridization ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or virus
Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humans and in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3 pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma...
Lyme disease is a multisystem tick-borne disorder with dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic manifestations (3, 26, 29). The disease represents the most common vector-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere and is caused by human-pathogenic members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and the very recently established species B. spielmanii (22, 28). Isolates belonging to the newly delineated genospecies B. spielmanii have hitherto been isolated from patients in The Netherlands, Hungary, Slovenia, and Germany as well as from ticks in France, Germany, Ukraine, and the Czech Republic (6-8, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28). The heterogeneity of borrelial strains is known to impact the variability of Lyme disease manifestations and clearly is a challenge for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines (7). Moreover, minor differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the classical borrelial genospecies known to be ...
In 475 Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (2155 ticks investigated) from southern Germany the most common Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species was B. garinii (34.3%) followed by B. afzelii (25.1%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (22.0%), and B. valaisiana (12.7%). B. spielmanii sp. nov. was detected in 5.9% of the 475 infected ticks. Hints for a focal distribution were found for B. spielmanii sp. nov. and B. garinii OspA type 4. In 242 patient isolates, dominance (66.9%) of B. afzelii for skin could be confirmed, while frequency of B. garinii in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates (51.1%) was comparable to the frequency in nymphal ticks (51.6%). Four patient isolates from southern Germany and two from Slovenia, all isolated from erythema migrans, could be assigned to B. spielmanii sp. nov. Within this new species high sequence identities were found for rrs, fla, and ospA while rrf-rrl, ospC, and dbpA were less conserved: three new ospC and two new dbpA sequence types were found. This genetic ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
Twenty (1.4%) of 1,421 adult Ixodes pacificus ticks and 2 (20%) of 10 adult Ixodes neotomae ticks collected in five counties of northern California were found to contain spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence examination of their tissues with a polyvalent conjugate. Borreliae isolated from the tissues of nine of these ticks (I. pacificus, 8; I. neotomae, 1) were identified as Borrelia burgdorferi with specific monoclonal antibodies and characterized further by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses. The isolate from I. neotomae was the first to be characterized from a tick other than I. pacificus in western North America. All strains were relatively homogeneous with respect to the kind of OspA proteins they produced, whereas they were heterogeneous with regard to their OspB proteins and to several low-molecular-weight proteins in the 21,500-to-24,000 region. Significant phenotypic variation was observed among isolates obtained within and between populations of I.
Author Summary Lyme borreliosis displays multifaceted clinical manifestations caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. If insufficiently treated, infection may proceed to inflammatory complications of chronic infection. Th17-like cytokines, foremost IL-17 and IL-22, are crucial for host defense against extracellular bacteria. IL-17/IL-22 secretion by human leukocytes exposed to live Borreliae has not been analyzed. Here we report that B. burgdorferi-activated PBMC lack immediate IL-17 expression despite being highly activated and robust T cell-dependent production of IL-22 that to a large part is mediated by monocyte-derived IL-1. Early innate immunity may shape dermal infection, thus likely affecting bacterial dissemination. Specifically, insufficient neutrophil recruitment/function, supposedly due to insufficient early IL-17 production along with a lack of opsonizing antibodies, may favor the spread of B. burgdorferi. Indeed, neutrophilic inflammation, indicative of IL-17 bioactivity, is
We developed a PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay in which Ehrlichia, B. burgdorferi, andBartonella species can be detected and differentiated. The assay was specific enough to detect single-base-pair changes with immobilized oligonucleotide probes and enabled us to differentiateEhrlichia variants. The reverse line blot technique is a relatively easy and rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of microorganisms in field samples such as ticks. In its present form we can combine the hybridization of PCR products obtained in separate PCRs. We are now developing a multiplex PCR that will enable us to have an even more convenient method for the screening of samples. These samples could be tick lysates but could also be other material such as blood from patients suffering from a febrile disease with an unknown origin.. In the study presented here we used this method to detect and identifyEhrlichia and B. burgdorferi species in DutchI. ricinus ticks. Analysis of the ...
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a disease for which antibody-based detection assays are often required for diagnosis. The variable surface molecule VlsE and IR6, one of its invariable regions, are commonly targeted by the antibody response in infected individuals. A series of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays was performed to comparatively examine the antibody responses of North American LB patients (n = 37) to VlsE and invariable segments of this molecule. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses to full-length VlsE and to peptides reproducing invariable regions 2, 4, and 6, as well as the invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini of VlsE, were assessed. The proportions and specificities of reactivity to the invariable segments were tested by using cognate peptides as competitors for VlsE binding by patient serum antibodies. IR6 epitopes (by the C6 peptide) were found to dominate the response to invariable segments. IR6 (C6)-specific antibodies were detected in 78% of the serum ...
Each dose of LYMErix (TM) contains 30 ug of lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of LD in North America, adsorbed onto aluminum adjuvant (1). It is indicated for use in persons aged 15-70 years (1). Three doses of the vaccine are administered by intramuscular injection. The initial dose is followed by a second dose 1 month later and a third dose 12 months after the first. Vaccine administration should be timed so the second dose and the third dose are given several weeks before the beginning of the B. burgdorferi transmission season (1), which usually begins in April. In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial involving 10,936 participants living in areas of the northeastern and upper north central United States where LD is endemic, the vaccine efficacy in preventing LD was 50% (95% confidence interval {CI}=14%-71%) after the first two doses and 78% (95% CI=59%-88%) after three doses (1). Efficacy against ...
Nevertheless, in public discourse, LB is often presented in the opposite way, and so-called chronic Lyme disease has become a widely used term in connection with unexplainable clinical conditions potentially leading to disability or even to life-threatening outcomes, even if the aetiological role of infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is not proven [,, ]. Long-lasting and repetitive antibiotic treatment is widely used, despite the risks and lack of efficacy [ ] [6]. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients who have antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato or who report a history of erythema migrans (EM) are more likely to have non-specific symptoms, including musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sensory disorder, and headache. The detection of antibodies in serum and a history of EM were used as a surrogate parameter for previous infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The data of a high number of individuals were statistically analysed.. Previous tick bites were also ...
Blog on anti-ospB antibody product: The BORRELIA BURGDORFERI OUTER SURFACE PROTEIN B P19 ospb (Catalog #MBS211486) is an Antibody produced fr...
Vincent MS, Roessner K, Sellati T, Huston CD, Sigal LH, Behar SM, Radolf JD, Budd RC. Lyme arthritis synovial gamma delta T cells respond to Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and lipidated hexapeptides. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5762-71 ...
Myfocus was on the elderly individuals who never get to access thebasic health care they need. My grandmother is not in a position towalk and the fact that shes not white. The nearest health carestation is two miles away ande the health care itself is veryexpensive and thus cannot afford it. Theseare health issues that are apparent in our state, though measureshave started to be taken on the health care improvement it is stillnot available to the most vulnerable. The sources I have used arecredible and looking at them deeply will insight one with what ishappening on the ground. The process of implementing health reformsshould be fast-tracked to ensure that most of the past healthconcerns are addressed promptly to avoid more deaths.. References. Emanuel,E. J. (2015). ReinventingAmerican health care: How the Affordable Care Act will improve ourterribly complex, blatantly unjust, outrageously expensive, grosslyinefficient, error prone system.. Garcia-DominicO, Lengerich EJ, Camacho F, Gallant NR, ...
Both, birds and rodents, are competent reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Nevertheless, this genospecies infects questing ticks less frequently in Central Europe than do B. afzelii- and B. garinii- spirochetes, the other pathogenic spirochetes. Because each of the genospecies is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, a vector with a broad host array, one would expect that B. burgdorferi s.s. is more likely to be transmitted to a competent host than the more host adapted genospecies (Levine et al. 1985, Olsen et al. 1995, and Richter et al. 2000). Similarly a higher rate of double-infections with B. burgdorferi s.s. in ticks would be expected. B. burgdorferi s.s., however, is not the most prevalent genospecies in questing ticks in nature. For each questing nymph collected in the Stadtpark of Göttingen that is infected by B. burgdorferi s.s., more than four ticks are infected by B. afzelii and more than ten by B. garinii. This difference in prevalence of B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) Borrelia garinii strains. The ratio of the mean number of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) nucleotide substitutions per site ...
The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of ...
In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Ticks were collected by dragging a flag over the vegetation and B....
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the ...
Background: With approximately one-third of their genomes consisting of linear and circular plasmids, the Lyme disease agent cluster of species has the most complex genomes among known bacteria. We report here a comparative analysis of plasmids in eleven Borreliella (also known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) species. Results: We sequenced the complete genomes of two B. afzelii, two B. garinii, and individual B. spielmanii, B. bissettiae, B. valaisiana and B. finlandensis isolates. These individual isolates carry between seven and sixteen plasmids, and together harbor 99 plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of these plasmids, along with 70 additional Borreliella plasmids available in the public sequence databases. We identify only one new putative plasmid compatibility type (the 30th) among these 169 plasmid sequences, suggesting that all or nearly all such types have now been discovered. We find that the linear plasmids in the non-B. burgdorferi species have undergone the same ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including humans, when transmitted by ticks.. ...
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by tick-borne spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Bb) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. As in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in Korea using outer surface protein A (OspA) serotyping system. AU - Kee, Sun-Ho. AU - Hwang, K. J.. AU - Oh, H. B.. AU - Park, K. S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Two characteristic strains (935T, 934U) of B. burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein A (OspA). The reactive pattern of strain 934U with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to B. afzelii and that of strain 935T was different from other isolates. Monoclonal antibody (5TEE3) which is specific to strain 935T did not react with any other Western and Japanese isolates. So, it was suggested that there exist at least two groups of B. burgdorferi in Korea. One could be classified as B, afielii and the other is a divergent group from three known ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles of OspA, OspB, and flagellin in protective immunity to Lyme borreliosis in laboratory mice. AU - Fikrig, E.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. AU - Marcantonio, N.. AU - Deponte, K.. AU - Kantor, F. S.. AU - Flavell, R. A.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual serum was still protective. Absorption of OspA and OspB antibodies from anti-B. burgdorferi serum eliminated the protective effect. Therefore, active immunization experiments were performed to determine the roles of OspB and flagellin in protective immunity and to determine whether protective immunity induced by OspA is dose dependent. Active immunization with recombinant OspA ...
FIG 3 Alignment of OspC suggesting the eastern North Dakota isolates are genetically distinct strains of B. burgdorferi. Samples M7 and M9 contain a mixture of clones. The sequences included (approximately) residues 25 to 198. B. burgdorferi B31 (AE000792.1), N40 (DQ437463.1), A (a non-type strain, ABQ42987.1), B (a non-type strain, ABK41066.1), ZS7 (AF500204.1), and JD1 (DQ437462.1), as well as Vsp3, an OspC ortholog found in B. hermsii (relapsing fever; AAA22967.1), were included for comparison. Alignment was performed in ClustalW2, and shading was performed using ExPASys BoxShade (black indicates identical residues, gray indicates residues with biochemical properties similar to those of the majority of the residues in the same position, and white indicates unrelated residues). Symbols: dashes indicate gaps, dots in the consensus line indicate moderate to high conservation, gaps indicate no conservation, and asterisks indicate fully conserved residues. ...
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne bacterial disease in the northern hemisphere. The disease is caused by three genomic groups or genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii. Only B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is known to cause Lyme disease in North America, whereas all three genospecies are responsible for the disease in Europe. Serology is the most useful type of laboratory test that is widely available to support a clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease. Positive serologic test results, however, should not be used by themselves to establish this diagnosis. Laboratory testing of samples from such patients also is not recommended, since testing will result in more false-positive results than true positives. Serum specimens first should be evaluated by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or immunofluorescent assay (IFA). During the first month of infection, both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses should be
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki,...
To the Editor: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tickborne human disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The incidence of the disease in not the same throughout Europe; in southern Europe, the incidence ranges from 43% in Croatia to 1.1% in Greece. Suspected borreliosis cases have been reported in Greece, none were confirmed. Ixodes ricinus, the principal tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe, is found in northern Greece. A low prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies was found in healthy persons in Greece (1,2); a frequency of 7.3% was found in arthritis patients (1), while a frequency of 16.9% was found in patients with neurologic disorders (A. Papa, unpub. data).. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect B. burgdorferi DNA in humans and to determine genospecies (3). Isolates found in the United States have constituted a homogeneous group. In Europe, five different genospecies from the original B. burgdorferi, now called burgdorferi sensu lato complex, have been described: ...
To the Editor: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tickborne human disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The incidence of the disease in not the same throughout Europe; in southern Europe, the incidence ranges from 43% in Croatia to 1.1% in Greece. Suspected borreliosis cases have been reported in Greece, none were confirmed. Ixodes ricinus, the principal tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe, is found in northern Greece. A low prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies was found in healthy persons in Greece (1,2); a frequency of 7.3% was found in arthritis patients (1), while a frequency of 16.9% was found in patients with neurologic disorders (A. Papa, unpub. data).. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect B. burgdorferi DNA in humans and to determine genospecies (3). Isolates found in the United States have constituted a homogeneous group. In Europe, five different genospecies from the original B. burgdorferi, now called burgdorferi sensu lato complex, have been described: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manganese and zinc regulate virulence determinants in borrelia burgdorferi. AU - Troxell, Bryan. AU - Ye, Meiping. AU - Yang, Youyun. AU - Carrasco, Sebastian E.. AU - Lou, Yongliang. AU - Yang, X.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, must adapt to two diverse niches, an arthropod vector and a mammalian host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, plays a central role in spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by governing expression of many genes important for mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi is known to be unique in metal utilization, and little is known of the role of biologically available metals in B. burgdorferi. Here, we identified two transition metal ions, manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), that influenced regulation of RpoS. The intracellular Mn2+ level fluctuated approximately 20-fold under different conditions and inversely correlated with levels of RpoS and the major virulence factor OspC. Furthermore, an ...
Extraction of DNA: Adult deer ticks (I. scapularis) collected in 1994 on Shelter Island, Long Island, New York, were bisected and DNA was extracted as described before (Guttmanet al. 1996).. PCR amplifications: Two genes, ospA and ospC, both encoding outer surface lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi, were studied.. ospA amplification: Procedure for ospA PCR amplification was the same as described previously (Guttmanet al. 1996). This amplification combined both nested and touch-down PCR. The first round of PCR was performed with low stringency and low cycling number using a pair of external primers to generate a heterogeneous population of amplified DNAs. The second round of PCR, using primer pairs internal to the previously amplified DNAs, was started out at very high stringency; as amplification proceeded the stringency was reduced gradually to increase yield.. ospC amplification: On the basis of our previous experience with ospA and preliminary experiments with ospC, the optimal size of the DNA ...
Recent advances in the development of animal models for Lyme borreliosis have provided means of identifying potential targets for the design of a subunit vaccine to prevent this disease. The C3H/HeN mouse model was used to study several Borrelia burgdorferi antigens from a single isolate for their ability to elicit borreliacidal and protective antibodies. The ospA, ospB, ospC, ospD, and 83-kDa genes from a California isolate, SON 188, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins fused to the C-terminal end of maltose-binding protein. Active immunization of mice with these fusion proteins elicited high titers of antibodies that recognized the homologous SON 188 antigens upon immunoblotting. Antibodies generated to the OspA and OspB fusion proteins, but not to the OspC, OspD, and the 83-kDa fusion proteins, demonstrated in vitro borreliacidal activity. Challenge of all actively immunized mice with 10(7) SON 188 spirochetes resulted in infection in all mice receiving the OspD or 83-kDa ...
In this study, more than 3400 short-term B. burgdorferi T cell lines generated from subjects with chronic B. burgdorferi infection were compared with naive B. burgdorferi-reactive T cell lines from normal individuals. Chronic B. burgdorferi infection was associated with high frequencies of B. burgdorferi-reactive T cells secreting high amounts of IFN-γ and IL-10, which was induced by IL-12 secreted by PBMC. T cell secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10 was suppressed in the presence of neutralizing Abs to IL-12. The presence of IFN-γ/IL-10 secretion was observed only in B. burgdorferi- and not in TT-specific T cell lines. These data demonstrate that chronic B. burgdorferi infection causes IL-12 secretion that induces a population of T cells characterized by secretion of both IFN-γ and IL-10.. The significance of the cellular immune response to B. burgdorferi in Lyme disease has been investigated earlier. A strong T cell response to B. burgdorferi was detected early in the course of illness, often ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi Strain B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Vector borne research
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
GORDILLO PEREZ, Ma. Guadalupe y SOLORZANO SANTOS, Fortino. Lyme disease. Experience in Mexican children. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. [online]. 2010, vol.67, n.2, pp.164-176. ISSN 1665-1146.. Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious disease produced by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is a bacteria transmitted to the host organism by the bite of Ixodes ticks. In this report we present the general knowledge about the etiological agent, clinical manifestations of the disease and diagnostic laboratory tests. We offer cumulative information about Lyme disease in Mexican children treated at two childrens hospitals in Mexico City during the last 10 years.. Palabras llave : Borrelia burgdorferi; Erythema migrans; Lyme borreliosis; Neuroborreliosis. ...
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia.. In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne infection caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The infection is associated with several clinical features, of which erythema migrans (EM) and neuroborreliosis (NB) are the most common in Europe. The prognosis after antibiotic therapy is generally good. However, some patients may have residual symptoms post-treatment. The cause of the delayed convalescence is unclear. There are several factors that may affect the clinical outcome of LB, for example, the early interaction between the hosts immune response and B. burgdorferi, the spirochete genotype, antibiotic therapy, as well as the hosts vulnerability.. This thesis aimed to explore the type of early immune response that is generated to B. burgdorferi and its importance for the clinical outcome of LB, and to study the condition of persistent symptoms post-NB from clinical, immunological and diagnostic perspectives. In total, 125 adult patients with different clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a diverse bacterial group with a worldwide distribution of 20 named and 1 unnamed genospecies. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto seen in North America, B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe, are the main genospecies (group 1) that cause Lyme disease. A second group of eight genospecies (B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. kurtenbachii, B. mayonii, B. miyamotoi, B lusitaniae, B spielmanii, B valisiana) have been shown to have a limited disease potential.
Rapid and accurate retrieval of whole genome sequences of human pathogens from disease vectors or animal reservoirs will enable fine-resolution studies of pathogen epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics. However, next generation sequencing technologies have not yet been fully harnessed for the study of vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens, due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality pathogen sequence data directly from field specimens with a high ratio of host to pathogen DNA. We addressed this challenge by using custom probes for multiplexed hybrid capture to enrich for and sequence 30 Borrelia burgdorferi genomes from field samples of its arthropod vector. Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The proprosed culture-independent method enables efficient whole genome capture and sequencing of pathogens directly from arthropod
Erythema migrans (EM), persistent skin infection, and visceral dissemination can be induced reproducibly in the adult male New Zealand White rabbit by intradermal injection of as few as 10(3) Borrelia burgdorferi. EM was found to persist for 7 +/- 3 d. Skin culture positivity (infection) cleared wit …
Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, IgG & IgM by Western Blot (CSF),ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Bacteria produce only two types of toxins: endotoxins, which are non-secreted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that make up a large part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; and, exotoxins that are secreted by some gram-positive bacteria and a few strains of gram-negative bacteria.. At one time, Borrelia burgdorferi, was thought to possess an endotoxin since a product isolated from B. burgdorferi was reported to be pyrogenic for rabbits, mitogenic for human mononuclear cells and mouse spleen cells, capable of clotting limulus lysate (a diagnostic test for LPS), and cytotoxic for mouse macrophages; these are properties generally ascribed to bacterial LPS (1). However, subsequent studies revealed the absence of lipid A and other chemical structures characteristic of classic gram-negative endotoxins (2). Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune ...
The murine immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is characterized by the development of antibodies reactive with the outer surface protein (Osp) A. It has been demonstrated that passive immunization of mice with at least some Osp A antibodies, including an Osp A mAb (CIII.78) that binds to a conformational epitope in the carboxyl-terminus of Osp A, provides protection against Bb challenge. Active immunization of mice with Osp A also confers protection, making Osp A a candidate for a vaccine Ag. To determine the regions of the Osp A protein that can elicit protective immunity, we immunized boosted mice with overlapping recombinant truncated fragments of Osp A, then challenged them with Bb. All groups of mice developed IgG Osp A antibodies detectable by immunoblotting with sera diluted at least 5000-fold. As expected, vaccination with full-length recombinant Osp A protected mice from challenge infection. In contrast, none of the mice vaccinated with the ...
The lp28-1 plasmid is required for persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutational studies on this plasmid have shown that the vls locus is important for antigenic variation of the VlsE lipoprotein that leads to immune evasion and persistence. However, it is still unknown whether the vls system is the only genetic locus on this plasmid necessary for long-term infection, and thus the potential role of non-vls genes on lp28-1 in virulence and persistence is yet to be fully determined. Despite extensive mutational analyses, two lp28-1 regions containing the ORFs bbf19 - bbf22 and bbf27 - bbf30 have not yet been mutated in their entirety. In this study, we set out to establish if these unstudied regions of lp28-1 play a role in spirochete persistence. Results show that the generated mutants were fully infectious in immunocompetent mice, and were able to persist for 91 days following infection. Following this finding, ospC expression by these mutants was determined, as
The present study examined the influence of various in vivo conditions on the expression of four prototypic surface lipoprotein antigens and showed that the tissue milieus shape the surface antigenic expression of B. burgdorferi, especially in the immune environment. In the absence of immune pressure, B. burgdorferi presented itself in multiple phenotypes depending on the tissues where it resided and the time courses over which infection persisted. For instance, B. burgdorferi increased ospC expression 2.4 times in the heart from 12 days to 4 months postinfection while it reduced ospC expression 8.0-fold in the joints. In contrast, spirochetes increased BBF01 expression 2.8 times in the joints during the same period. The immune response is an overwhelming force that may select for spirochetes with a modified surface antigenic expression in all the tissues, and these alterations may help B. burgdorferi evade immune attack. The study also examined the role of both humoral and cellular immune ...
Lymerix works on the outer surface protein A (Osp-A) of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease. Osp-A causes ... This statement became a rallying point for what advocacy groups call the Lyme disease controversy. In the face of some elements ... Kamradt T, Lengl-Janssen B, Strauss AF, Bansal G, Steere AC (April 1996). "Dominant recognition of a Borrelia burgdorferi outer ... July 1998). "Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. ...
Lyme disease; is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the Deer tick ( ... Ixodes scapularis). Lyme disease is one of a group of diseases which have earned the name the "great imitator" for their ... February 2002). "Higher prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in psychiatric patients than in healthy subjects". The ...
Habálek, Z.; Halouzka, J. (1997-12-01). "Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review". ... Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi B31 Genome Page Borrelia garinii PBi Genome Page Borrelia afzelli PKo Genome Page Schwan TG, ... Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the ... "Expanded diversity among Californian Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ...
"Northern White-Breasted Hedgehogs Erinaceus Roumanicus as Hosts for Ticks Infected with Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato and ... Insectivore Specialist Group (1996). "Erinaceus roumanicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996. Retrieved 2009-04-07. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, and Treponema pallidum. Comparing the sequences, in a 2001 study by Rominus et al., it was determined ... that S. thermophila was most closely related to T. pallidum for this sequence and the sister to those groups was B. ... burgdorferi that was a mesophile. This was an interesting revelation because it was previously assumed that the thermophilic, ...
Ticks and lice form another large group of invertebrate vectors. The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme Disease ... Another large group of vectors are flies. Sandfly species transmit the disease leishmaniasis, by acting as vectors for ...
Most bacterial chromosomes are circular although some examples of linear DNA exist (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi). Usually a ... They have O-acetyl groups on carbon-6 of some muramic acid residues. The matrix substances in the walls of gram-positive ... There do exist, however, specialized groups of bacteria that contain more complex intracellular structures, some of which are ... Intracellular membranes are also found in bacteria belonging to the poorly studied Planctomycetes group, although these ...
... and Borrelia burgdorferi (known for causing Lyme disease). Meningitis may be encountered in cerebral malaria (malaria infecting ... For instance, while N. meningitides groups B and C cause most disease episodes in Europe, group A is found in Asia and ... Meningococcus vaccines exist against groups A, B, C, W135 and Y. In countries where the vaccine for meningococcus group C was ... Inflammation of the meninges may lead to abnormalities of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves arising from the brain stem ...
In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Cat Specialist Group "Ctenocephalides". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, and Helicobacter pylori. As a derivative of ampicillin, amoxicillin is a member of the penicillin family ... It has two ionizable groups in the physiological range (the amino group in alpha-position to the amide carbonyl group and the ... assigned to Beecham Group LTD Geddes, Alasdair M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Rolinson, George N. (December 2007). "Introduction: ... developed by the Beecham Group in the 1960s. It became available in 1972 and was the second aminopenicillin to reach the market ...
... including the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. - and important in natural transmission. Nuttall's ... Her group has also shown that the proteins in saliva differ between individual ticks of the same species and also change over ... One vaccine candidate explored by Nuttall's group is 64TRP, a 15 kDa Rhipicephalus appendiculatus protein from the cement cone ... group has continued to study the phenomenon, and have shown that immunity to tick-borne encephalitis virus does not prevent ...
Borrelia MeSH B03.851.595.193.150 - Borrelia burgdorferi group MeSH B03.851.595.193.150.125 - Borrelia burgdorferi MeSH B03.851 ... Borrelia MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.193.150 - Borrelia burgdorferi group MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.193.150.125 - Borrelia ... Streptococcus milleri group MeSH B03.510.400.800.872.875.475.080 - Streptococcus anginosus MeSH B03.510.400.800.872.875.475.150 ... burgdorferi MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.670 - Serpulina MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.670.400 - Serpulina hyodysenteriae MeSH B03.440. ...
... species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease Synergistetes Tenericutes, alternatively class Mollicutes in ... and those groups were then grouped according to their similarities, and so on, to form a hierarchy. Budd, G.E.; Jensen, S. (May ... as it must display a character unique to a sub-set of the crown group. Furthermore, organisms in the stem group of a phylum can ... a method in which groups are placed on a "family tree" without any formal ranking of group size. A definition of a phylum based ...
McInerney, J. O. (1 September 1998). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". ... In 1999, McInerney returned to Ireland to set up the Bioinformatics Research Group at NUI Maynooth and became the Director of ... career focused on the study of codon usage in a variety of organisms including Trichomonas vaginalis and Borrelia burgdorferi. ... In 2015, the McInerney research group moved to The University of Manchester where McInerney took up a Chair in Evolutionary ...
The best-known culprit is Borrelia burgdorferi, but many different Borrelia species cause Lyme disease worldwide. An Australian ... Tick Alert Group Support, Mona Vale, Sydney, TAGS Inc until 2009 (A community organisation supporting sufferers of tick- ... and may be quite different from Borrelia burgdorferi. Despite clinical case reports, it is still controversial as to whether ... for the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. International Journal Parasitology, 21: 109-11. Hudson, B.J., Barry, R.D ...
Introduction of the Borrelia burgdorferi blyAB locus into Escherichia coli produces a hemolytic phenotype that is dependent on ... The BlyA Holin Family (TC# 1.E.17) is a group of holin proteins that are approximately 55-70 amino acyl residues (aas) in ... Damman, C. J.; Eggers, C. H.; Samuels, D. S.; Oliver, D. B. (2000-12-01). "Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi BlyA and ... from Borrelia burgdorferi". International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM. 298 (5-6): 473-481. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.07 ...
The genomic variations of B. burgdorferi contribute to varying degrees of infection and dissemination. Each genomic group has ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North ... Zückert WR (2007). "Laboratory Maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi". Laboratory maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi. Current ... Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species ...
OspA from Borrelia burgdorferi is an unusual outer surface protein, it has two globular domains which are connected with a ... Members of this group include: PagC, required by Salmonella typhimurium for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice ... Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins play role in persistence within ticks (OspA, OspB, OspD), mammalian host ... OspA OspC is a major surface lipoprotein produced by Borrelia burgdorferi when infected ticks feed. OspC is necessary for tick ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, a bacteria that causes lyme disease, can affect multiple large joints such as the knee. Confirmation of ... Needless to say history taking is not fully reliable and fever is not a constant sign in such an age group. Acute phase ... immunocompromised state Borrelia burgdorferi - ticks, causes lyme disease Spirillum minus, Streptobacillus moniliformis- rat ... In adults vulnerable groups include an artificial joint, prior arthritis, diabetes and poor immune function. Diagnosis is ...
It is a part of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and is a Gram-negative bacterium. B. lusitaniae is tick-borne; ... it is the sole species of the Lyme borreliosis group in southern Portugal. Lizards of the family Lacertidae are believed to be ... 1995). "T cell response to Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains". ... Borrelia lusitaniae is a bacterium of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia, which has a diderm (double-membrane) envelope ...
Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Rickettsia conorii causes ... A canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) is one of "a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused ... viruses are also becoming recognized as another group of transmitted pathogens of both animals and humans. Some canine vector- ...
studied the diversification and epidemiology of endemic bacterial pathogens by using the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex ( ... Moore et al conducted a study in 2014 in which a group of Atlantic Salmon populations which were previously analyzed with ... "Comparative Population Genomics of the Borrelia burgdorferi Species Complex Reveals High Degree of Genetic Isolation among ... They also wished to compare the genetic structure between B. burgdorferi and the closely related species B. garinii and B. ...
Bacterial infections include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira, and beta-hemolytic Streptococci. Exposure ... Group means for each cognitive domain were all within one standard deviation of age norms, demonstrating that, as a group, they ... The VAERS Working Group". Vaccine. 18 (26): 2963-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00111-0. PMID 10825597. Tourbah A, Gout O, Liblau ... Again, all groups means were within one standard deviation of the controls, meaning that while effects were statistically ...
Other examples are Rickettsia, Buchnera aphidicola, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Small genome size in such species is associated ... Obligate bacterial symbionts or pathogens have the smallest genomes and the fewest pseudogenes of the three groups. The ... there is relatively little variation in genome size when compared with the genome sizes of other major groups of life. Genome ...
Hansen, K; Cruz, M; Link, H (June 1990). "Oligoclonal Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid in ... Six groups of patients are usually separated, based on OCBs: type 1, no bands in CSF and serum; type 2, oligoclonal IgG bands ... After all these bands are localized, OCBs should be assessed in the γ region which normally hosts small group of polyclonal ... Data comparison from a wide patient group". Neurological Sciences and Neurophysiology. 35: 21-28. doi:10.5152/NSN.2018.10247. ...
Wormser GP, Schwartz I (July 2009). "Antibiotic treatment of animals infected with Borrelia burgdorferi". Clin. Microbiol. Rev ... Groups, advocates, and the small number of physicians who support the concept of chronic Lyme disease have organized to lobby ... a known medical disorder caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, or with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, a set of ... A pressure group called the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) says that the persistence of B. ...
Ticks, their hosts, and Borrelia burgdorferi on the outer banks of North Carolina. Pp. 7-8 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and ... Sucking lice (Anoplura) are a diverse group infecting placental mammals. Species found on marsh rice rats include three of the ... Tick-host associations and maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in Virginia. Pp. 8-9 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and Snoddy ... Reservoir competence of rice rat and lizards for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Pp. 11-13 in Apperson, C.S ...
... has recently been found to have excellent activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative ... which incorporates a methyl group from L-methionine onto the alcohol at the 6-position) catalysed by pigF and pigN. This yields ... "Identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi from the NCI compound ...
Genetic remains of the bacterium that cause Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, were discovered in genetic material from Ötzi. ... which indicates that Homo neanderthalensis grew from a group composed of relatively few individuals. DNA sequences suggest that ...
... the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii cause Lyme disease.[2][10] In Europe and Asia, Borrelia afzelii and ... to the Lyme disease group spirochete Borrelia bissettii". The Journal of Parasitology. 92 (4): 691-6. doi:10.1645/GE-738R1.1. ... Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... The Lyme-related Borrelia species are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and show a great deal of genetic ...
Borrelia burgdorferi deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles tick bite ... During most of human prehistory groups of hunter-gatherers were probably very small. Such groups probably made contact with ...
A recent study in British Columbia of 218 deer mice showed 30% (66) were seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi,[7] the agent of ... maniculatus group *North American deer mouse − P. maniculatus. *Oldfield mouse or beach mouse - P. polionotus *P. p. allophrys ... eremicus group *Cactus mouse - P. eremicus. *Angel Island mouse - P. guardia - possibly extinct *P. g. guardia - last seen 1991 ...
Erythema chronicum migrans due to Borrelia burgdorferi. *(A69.8) Other specified spirochaetal infections ... B95.2) Streptococcus, group D, as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B95.0) Streptococcus, group A, as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B95.1) Streptococcus, group B, as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.[12][29] In a model of cecum perforation-induced sepsis, ALOX5 gene ... 4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5S-HpETE).[9] ... These have been recently classified into 5 groups 3 of which are not caused by a classical immune mechanism and are relevant to ...
The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. ... 21 are members of the Lyme disease group, 29 belong to the relapsing fever group, and two are members of a third group.[3] ... Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... Borrelia brasiliensis ♦ Davis 1952. *Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al. 1984 emend. Baranton et al. 1992 (Lyme disease ...
Spirochaetes, notable for compartmentalisation and species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. ... The FCB Group[edit]. Main article: Sphingobacteria. The FCB group (now called Sphingobacteria) includes Bacteroidetes, the ... The PVC Group[edit]. Main article: Planctobacteria. The PVC group (now called Planctobacteria) includes Chlamydiae, ... Termite Group 1 (from a Reticulitermes speratus termite gut, now Elusimicrobia)[33] ...
"Destruction of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi round-body propagules (RBs) by the antibiotic Tigecycline". Proceedings of the ... Margulis, Lynn, and Dorion Sagan (2002). Acquiring Genomes: A Theory of the Origins of Species, Perseus Books Group, ISBN 0-465 ... and Borrelia (the spirochete which causes Lyme disease) only have retained about 20% of the genes they need to live freely ...
... the most important reservoir-competent host for Borrelia burgdorferi in the US.[69][70] ... Both groups feed rapidly, typically biting painfully and drinking their fill within minutes. None of the species sticks to the ...
Borrelia burgdorferi), note also rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari) (for more see[109]). Treponema is converted into treponeme ... Classification is the grouping of organisms into progressively more inclusive groups based on phylogeny and phenotype, while ... In a similar way, the Bacillus species (=phylum Firmicutes) belonging to the "B. cereus group" (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B . ... as would imply multiple groups with the same label and not multiple members of that group (by analogy, in English, chairs and ...
Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes shown by dark-field microscopy. Rails can be infected with this bacterial species, which can ... However, the genus Rallus, the group of long-billed reed bed specialists to which the water rail belongs, arose in the New ... and the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, carried by Ixodes ticks, which is also a human pathogen causing Lyme disease.[63] Three ... "Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Chlamydophila psittaci in throat and cloacal swabs from birds migrating ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema chronicum migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia ...
... including members of the genus Borrelia notably Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease.[14] Though not forming a ... However, complex multicellular organisms evolved only in six eukaryotic groups: animals, fungi, brown algae, red algae, green ... European Bioinformatics Institute, Karyn's Genomes: Borrelia burgdorferi, part of 2can on the EBI-EMBL database. Retrieved 5 ... include the contested Grypania spiralis and the fossils of the black shales of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian Group Fossil ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema chronicum migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia ... 1] This phylum is sometimes grouped with Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadates, Caldithrix, and marine group A to form the ... This bacterial group appears to be enriched in patients suffering from type 1 and type 2 diabetes.[1] Bacteroides spp. in ... Family "Thermonemataceae" Munoz, Rossello-Mora & Amann 2016 [Thermonema group; Bacteroidetes Order III. Incertae sedis; incl. ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia recurrentis ( ... Group. p. 17. ISBN 9781404209060. .. *^ Dormandy, Thomas (2006). The worst of evils: man's fight against pain: a history ( ... "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii Lymphatic filariasis (Elephantiasis) Wuchereria bancrofti and ... Group A streptococcal infection Streptococcus pyogenes Group B streptococcal infection Streptococcus agalactiae ... Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia recurrentis, and other Borrelia species Respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema chronicum migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia ...
Ticks, their hosts, and Borrelia burgdorferi on the outer banks of North Carolina. Pp. 7-8 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and ... Pentastomida is an enigmatic group of parasites that may be related to maxillopod crustaceans.[94] One species, Porocephalus ... Tick-host associations and maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in Virginia. Pp. 8-9 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and Snoddy ... Reservoir competence of rice rat and lizards for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Pp. 11-13 in Apperson, C.S ...
Infection of ticks happen in the larval/nymph stage (after the first blood meal) when they are exposed to borrelia burgdorferi ... Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, ... This group of diseases can further be difficult to distinguish early on in the disease process due to these general symptoms in ... Two groups may fight over remaining natural resources. A community may choose to migrate to find better resources, and encroach ...
"Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder". Biol. Psychiatry. ... by grouping diseases together based on classification of common symptoms. Kraepelin used the term 'manic depressive insanity' ...
2004) Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of Peromyscus leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where ... californicus group: California mouse (P. californicus). *eremicus group: Cactus mouse (P. eremicus) ... Borrelia burgdorferi). Infect Immunol ; 57:3445-3451. *Schwanz LE, Voordouw MJ, Brisson D& Ostfeld RS (2011) Borrelia ... 2001) Effects of acorn production and mouse abundance on abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence of nymphal ...
... huku bakteria kama vile Borrelia burgdorferi, inayosababisha ugonjwa wa lyme,ikiwa na kromosumu moja kwenye laini. Jeni katika ... "Lateral gene transfer and the origins of prokaryotic groups". Annu Rev Genet 37: 283-328. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.37.050503. ... Spirochaete za jenasi Borrelia ni mojawapo wa bakteria ya kipekee katika utaratibu huu, ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, leptospirosis, and Rickettsia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae) ... while most studies on children lack control groups.[25] ...
In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Cat Specialist Group. *^ a b Sue Paterson (16 March 2009). Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. John Wiley & Sons. p. ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...
... duke përfshirë anëtarët e gjinisë Borrelia veçanërisht Borrelia burgdorferi, e cila shkakton sëmundjen Lyme. [12] Megjithëse ... Grypania spiralis të kontestuar dhe fosilet e argjilave të zeza të Formacionit B Fosile B Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian Group ... European Bioinformatics Institute, Karyn's Genomes: Borrelia burgdorferi, part of 2can on the EBI-EMBL database. Retrieved 5 ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks. ... Major parasitic animal groups[53] Phylum. Class/Order. No. of. species. Endo-. paras.. Ecto-. paras.. Invert. def. host. Vert. ... Borrelia, the cause of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, is transmitted by a vector, ticks of the genus Ixodes, from the ... By far the largest group is the parasitoid wasps in the Hymenoptera.[17] The phyla and classes with the largest numbers of ...
usually Borrelia burgdorferi and other Borrelia species. Lymphatic filariasis (Elephantiasis). Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia ... Group A streptococcal infection. Streptococcus pyogenes. Group B streptococcal infection. Streptococcus agalactiae. ... Ionfhabhtú Borrelia. Géineas Borrelia. Botulism (and Infant botulism). Clostridium botulinum; Note: Botulism is not an ...
Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferiBlyA and BlyB Proteins: a Prophage-Encoded Holin-Like System Christopher J. Damman, ... Transduction by φBB-1, a Bacteriophage ofBorrelia burgdorferi Christian H. Eggers, Betsy J. Kimmel, James L. Bono, Abdallah F. ... Altered Stationary-Phase Response in aBorrelia burgdorferi rpoS Mutant Abdallah F. Elias, James L. Bono, James A. Carroll, ... Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis inBorrelia burgdorferi James L. Bono, Abdallah F. Elias, John J. Kupko, Brian Stevenson, Kit ...
... burgdorferi. Group I strains have been identified in both North America and Eurasia, while strains belonging to Borrelia groups ... by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves Borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct phyletic groups.. Welsh J1, ... The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, was first identified by Burgdorfer et al. in 1982 (W. Burgdorfer, A ... These same three groups have also been delineated by Baranton et al. (G. Baranton, D. Postic, I. Saint Girons, P. Boerlin, J.-C ...
"Borrelia burgdorferi Group" by people in this website by year, and whether "Borrelia burgdorferi Group" was a major or minor ... The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These ... "Borrelia burgdorferi Group" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Borrelia burgdorferi Group" by people in Profiles. ...
... and were asked to donate a serum specimen for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... burgdorferi. The disparity between serological reactivity and the clinical evidence of Lyme borreliosis suggests cumulative ... assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and borrelia inhibition assays, and for detection of potentially cross-reactive antibodies. Of ... exposure to a nonpathogenic form of B. burgdorferi. ... burgdorferi and evidence of past disease in a high-risk group. ...
Disparity Between Serological Reactivity toBorrelia burgdorferiand Evidence of Past Disease in a High-Risk Group. ... burgdorferi.The disparity between serological reactivity and the clinical evidence of Lyme borreliosis suggests cumulative ... and borrelia inhibition assays, and for detection of potentially cross-reactive antibodies. Of 302 individuals, 77 (25%) had ...
Space Group: P 21 21 21. Unit Cell:. Length ( Å ). Angle ( ˚ ). ... Borreliella burgdorferi B31. Mutation(s): 4 Gene Names: ospA, BB_A15. Find proteins for P0CL66 (Borrelia burgdorferi (strain ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF OUTER SURFACE PROTEIN A OF BORRELIA BURGDORFERI COMPLEXED WITH A MURINE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY FAB. *DOI: ... OspA (outer surface protein A) is an abundant immunogenic lipoprotein of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The ...
Space Group: P 1. Unit Cell:. Length ( Å ). Angle ( ˚ ). a = 127.206. α = 84.04. ... Borreliella burgdorferi B31. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ospC, BB_B19. Find proteins for Q07337 (Borrelia burgdorferi (strain ... Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it ... Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it ...
To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples ... Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above. ... Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011 Hendrik Wilking. , Volker Fingerle, ... Stratified seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato IgG detected by combined ELISA and line blot testing in adults and ...
1992 Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and Group VS461 associated with Lyme ... 1995 Simultaneous detection and genotyping of three genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ... The alleles of ospC of B. burgdorferi form "major sequence groups" (Wanget al. 1999). Sequences between major groups are ≥10% ... 1997 Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. (Borrelia Genomic Groups VS116 and M19). Int. J. Syst. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi. EM was found to persist for 7 +/- 3 d. Skin culture positivity (infection) cleared wit … ... Borrelia burgdorferi Group / immunology * Borrelia burgdorferi Group / pathogenicity* * Erythema Chronicum Migrans* / ... Rabbit model of Lyme borreliosis: erythema migrans, infection-derived immunity, and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi ... Borrelia burgdorferi. EM was found to persist for 7 +/- 3 d. Skin culture positivity (infection) cleared within a mean of 6.7 ...
... were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies that recognize Borrelia burgdorferi antigens, using the currently recommended ... Borrelia burgdorferi Group / growth & development * Borrelia burgdorferi Group / immunology* * Cross Reactions / immunology* ... Cross-reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi proteins in serum samples from residents of a tropical country nonendemic for Lyme ... were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies that recognize Borrelia burgdorferi antigens, using the currently recommended ...
... and IgG3 reactivities to each peptide were significantly increased in the Lyme disease patient group (p , 0.0001, p , 0.01, and ... Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme ... Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme ... Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme ...
Lyme Disease Vaccine Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:209-215. ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in ... Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Sherwood R. ... Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Sherwood R. ... Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Sherwood R. ...
1997) Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 13:951-957. ... Borrelia garinii,Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana,Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia andersonii,Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia ... Expanded diversity among Californian Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ... 1995) Simultaneous detection and genotyping of three genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ...
The purpose of this study was to document the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected in southeastern Missouri and ... burgdorferi. These results confirm that B. burgdorferi is present in questing D. variabilis and A. americanum ticks in areas of ... Spirochetes were detected and identified as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests using the monoclonal ... burgdorferi-specific primers followed by Southern blotting. The DNA sequences of amplified 371-basepair PCR products from two ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the primary causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochetal bacterium that can adopt different inactive ... In Vitro Effectiveness of Samento and Banderol Herbal Extracts on the Different Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi. by ... 4. Brorson Ø, Brorson SH, Scythes J, MacAllister J, Wier A, Margulis L. Destruction of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi round- ... A tick-borne, multisystemic disease, Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has grown into a major ...
B burgdorferi is a tick-borne spirochete that is found in the temperate regions of much of the northern hemisphere. Endemic ... Mark S Slabinski, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Vice President, EMP Medical Group. Mark S Slabinski, MD, FACEP, FAAEM is a member of the ... B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)?) and What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi (B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)? ... What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi (B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)?. Updated: Jul 16, 2019 ...
Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis ... Diagnostic value of proteins of three Borrelia species (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and implications for development and ... is a multiorgan infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. A subspecies, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto ... Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban recreational areas of Helsinki. J. Clin. Microbiol.37:1361- ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210™ Designation: B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector ... Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AE000783 Borrelia burgdorferi B31, complete genome. Nucleotide (GenBank) : AE001115 Borrelia burgdorferi ... Borrelia burgdorferi small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence. Nucleotide (GenBank) : U76405 Borrelia burgdorferi vmp-like vlsE ( ...
Borrelia burgdorferi.- Antibody detection.- Brucella species.- Antibody detection.- Campylobacter species.- Antigen detection ... Spotted Fever bio-group and Typhus Fever bio-group.- Antibody detection.- Rotavirus.- Antigen detection.- Antibody detection.- ... group D).- Antigen detection.- Epstein-Barr virus.- Epstein-Barr virus.- Antibody detection.- Epstein-Barr virus (EA).- ... Encephalitis bio-group: EEEV, WEEV, SLEV and CEV.- Antibody detection.- Flaviviruses: Dengue fever virus.- Antibody detection ...
We demonstrate that B. burgdorferi N40 needle-infected C57BL/6 MBL deficient mice harbored significantly higher B. burgdorferi ... burgdorferi. Here we set out to investigate the role of MBL in the immune response against B. burgdorferi in more detail. ... burgdorferi. To conclude, we show a protective role of MBL in the early stages of B. burgdorferi infection, yet the underlying ... In contrast, B. burgdorferi loads in distant tissue such as heart, joints or bladder at later time points were similar for both ...
1992) Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme ... Borrelia valaisiana (formerly genomic group VS116 [39]), and Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genomic group PotiB2 [18]) have not ... 1995) Simultaneous detection and genotyping of three genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ... 1997) Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. (Borrelia genomic groups VS116 and M19). Int. J. Syst. ...
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete. ... "Borrelia burgdorferi" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Borrelia burgdorferi" was a major or minor ... "Borrelia burgdorferi" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Induction of Interleukin 10 by Borrelia burgdorferi Is Regulated by the Action of CD14-Dependent p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein ...
Persister Formation in Borrelia burgdorferi B. Sharma, A. Brown, K. Lewis; Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA Lyme disease, caused ... HHS Working Group on Lyme and Other Tickborne Diseases Webinar - May 22, 2014 Archive The HHS Working Group on Lyme and Other ... Identification of novel activity against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters using an FDA approved drug library Jie Feng1, Ting ... BACKGROUND: Various genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) have been identified from patients and animals ...
In all mixed infected nymphs, B. burgdorferi s.s. with OspA type 4 was present. These data strongly suggest that B. burgdorferi ... burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii OspA type 4, while in adults a broad variety of B. burgdorferi s.l. types was found. Mixed ... Regional prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied between 8% and 22.5%. The most frequent species were B. garinii (45.4%) and, ... The method enables differentiation of both single and multiple infections with B. burgdorferi s.s. (OspA type 1), B. afzelii ( ...
Animals , Borrelia burgdorferi Group , Genetics , China , DNA, Bacterial , Genotype , Lyme Disease , Phylogeny , Polymerase ... p,,b,OBJECTIVE,/b,To understand the coinfection status of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B.b.s.l) and spotted fever group ... Study on the coinfection status of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group Rickettsia in ticks from Hunchun, ... Borrelia burgdorferi Group / China / Polymerase Chain Reaction / Genetics Country/Region as subject: Asia Language: Chinese ...
The genomic variations of B. burgdorferi contribute to varying degrees of infection and dissemination. Each genomic group has ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North ... Zückert WR (2007). "Laboratory Maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi". Laboratory maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi. Current ... Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species ...
In Kosovo nine ticks were positive for RNA of CCHFV and seven for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested ... as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean- ... B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the ... burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and ...
  • The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, was first identified by Burgdorfer et al. (nih.gov)
  • Our study infers the evolutionary history and population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi , the agent of Lyme disease, and its main tick vector, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), from a comparative analysis of biogeographic patterns of the two species along the East Coast of the United States. (genetics.org)
  • Most immunogenic proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, are known or expected to contain multiple B cell epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. (asm.org)
  • In 1982 the etiological agent of Lyme disease was identified as a spirochete ( 2 ) which was later named Borrelia burgdorferi ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi, the primary causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochetal bacterium that can adopt different inactive forms, such as cystic and granular forms (round bodies), as well as colonylike aggregates both in vivo and in vitro, in the presence of unfavorable conditions such as exposure to the antibiotics commonly used for treating Lyme borreliosis. (townsendletter.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is tick transmitted and has a wide range of mammalian reservoirs in nature, including both wild and domestic animals. (aaem.pl)
  • The murine immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is characterized by the development of antibodies reactive with the outer surface protein (Osp) A. It has been demonstrated that passive immunization of mice with at least some Osp A antibodies, including an Osp A mAb (CIII.78) that binds to a conformational epitope in the carboxyl-terminus of Osp A, provides protection against Bb challenge. (jimmunol.org)
  • Synthesis and antigenicity of BBGL-2 glycolipids of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. (openrepository.com)
  • Consenting individuals (n = 302) were administered a questionnaire eliciting demographic and occupational data and a clinical history, and were asked to donate a serum specimen for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and borrelia inhibition assays, and for detection of potentially cross-reactive antibodies. (prohealth.com)
  • Eighty-six human serum samples from Papua New Guinea (nonendemic for Lyme disease) were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies that recognize Borrelia burgdorferi antigens, using the currently recommended two-tiered system of analysis (sensitive ELISA with Western blot). (nih.gov)
  • The mainstay of laboratory diagnosis for LB has been serologic assays of antibodies against B. burgdorferi , although their performance in different laboratories is highly variable ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • MBL deficiency has been linked to a more severe course of several infectious diseases and humans with detectable antibodies against B. burgdorferi are significantly more often MBL deficient compared to humans without antibodies against B. burgdorferi . (nature.com)
  • In line with these findings they also developed higher anti- B. burgdorferi IgG serum antibodies compared to WT controls. (nature.com)
  • T-Helper 17 Cell Cytokine Responses in Lyme Disease Correlate With Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies During Early Infection and With Autoantibodies Late in the Illness in Patients With Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study, a total of 2,758 serum samples from sheep and goats in 21 provinces located in 40 different districts of China were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (aaem.pl)
  • Seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs and horses in Turkey. (aaem.pl)
  • Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in urban and high risk areas. (aaem.pl)
  • Seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in sheep and goats from mountainous areas of Slovakia. (aaem.pl)
  • The advantage of the antibodies used in the invention is that they react with the antigens from geographically diverse strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, but do not react with antigens from related Borrelia spirochetes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. Purified antibodies or antigen-binding fragments of said antibodies raised against purified extracellular membrane vesicles exported from Borrelia burgdorferi. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to novel antigens associated with Borrelia burgdorferi, antibodies that are raised against the antigens and the use of the antibodies to diagnose Lyme disease and for immune capture and cultivation of microorganisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • All groups of mice developed IgG Osp A antibodies detectable by immunoblotting with sera diluted at least 5000-fold. (jimmunol.org)
  • Group 1: Confirmed neuroborreliosis (NB), patients with elevated Borrelia-specific antibody index or Borrelia-specific antibodies in CSF and pleocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • Group 3: Possible early NB, patients with CSF pleocytosis but no detectable Borrelia-specific antibodies in CSF. (nih.gov)
  • Group 4: Non-NB, patients without pleocytosis and no detectable Borrelia-specific antibodies in CSF. (nih.gov)
  • Many patients with Lyme-like symptoms are misdiagnosed because: (1) The current serological tests cannot detect antibodies to all the different strains of B. burgdorferi (2) For TBRF Borrelia, only two serological tests, an IFA test for B. hermsii and a serological test that detects only B. miyamotoi GlpQ protein, are available. (news-medical.net)
  • Although IGeneX Lyme Western blot prepared from Borrelia burgdorferi strains B31 and 297 is one of the most sensitive tests, it does not detect antibodies to all the B. burgdorferi sensu lato antigens. (news-medical.net)
  • The TBRF ImmunoBlot is designed to detect antibodies to specific antigens of TBRF Borrelia in human serum. (news-medical.net)
  • Based on in-house studies these blots detect antibodies to North American, European and Australian strains of TBRF Borrelia in patient serum samples. (news-medical.net)
  • 1. Detects specific T-cell responses soon after B. burgdorferi infection, when antibodies to the organisms are not detectable or late in the disease, when the levels of antibodies are very low. (news-medical.net)
  • Role of IL-17, transforming growth factor-beta, and IL-6 in the development of arthritis and production of anti-outer surface protein A borreliacidal antibodies in Borrelia-vaccinated and -challenged mice. (aaem.pl)
  • In what is one of the shortest abstracts I've seen, a group from NIH reports on Lack of serum antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in children with autism . (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • In this study, antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi were assessed in autistic (n = 104), developmentally delayed (n = 24), and healthy control (n = 55) children. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • As recommended for serologic confirmation of clinical sparse regarding B. burgdorferi s.l. infection rates and risk cases, serum samples were tested for the presence of Bor- factors ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Erythema migrans (EM), persistent skin infection, and visceral dissemination can be induced reproducibly in the adult male New Zealand White rabbit by intradermal injection of as few as 10(3) Borrelia burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • Infection prevalences of 75% in I. ricinus ticks and 7% in H. marginatum ticks were detected by a nested PCR that targets the rrf (5S)- rrl (23S) spacer of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (asm.org)
  • Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multiorgan infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that B. burgdorferi N40 needle-infected C57BL/6 MBL deficient mice harbored significantly higher B. burgdorferi numbers in skin tissue during the early course of infection. (nature.com)
  • To conclude, we show a protective role of MBL in the early stages of B. burgdorferi infection, yet the underlying mechanism warrants further investigation. (nature.com)
  • Infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. can lead to erythema migrans (EM) at the tick bite site after which dissemination to other skin sites or to the heart, joint or the central nervous system can occur 4 . (nature.com)
  • In this study, 746 questing Ixodes (I.) ricinus ticks from eastern Slovakia and 187 ticks from southern Poland were investigated for infection with Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato and different outer surface protein A (OspA) types by an improved restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ospA gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Active immunization with Escherichia coli -expressed recombinant outer surface protein C (OspC) of Borrelia burgdorferi has been demonstrated to confer protection against a tick-transmitted infection on laboratory animals. (asm.org)
  • The disease is caused by an infection with the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi , which is transmitted to humans by way of the bite of infected ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Other B. burgdorferi proteins have been shown to elicit some protective immunity against borrelia infection in laboratory animals. (asm.org)
  • The hypothesis that B. burgdorferi plasmids carry infection-associated genes is supported by the fact that prolonged serial in vitro cultivation of infectious nonclonal isolates changes the plasmid and protein profiles of the organism and results in the loss of infectivity ( 9 , 21 , 22 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • The results of this survey indicated that the overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection ranges from 5.3 to 63.5 % (mean: 26.3%), and the infection was found in all provinces investigated. (aaem.pl)
  • Helmy N. Seasonal abundance of Ornithodoros (O.) savignyi and prevalence of infection with Borrelia spirochetes in Egypt. (aaem.pl)
  • 3 At the site of infection, an important APC appears to be the DC, which ingests B. burgdorferi by coiling phagocytosis and subsequently can present spirochetal antigens to conventional αβ T cells ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This study demonstrates the effect of only simultaneous infection by B. burgdorferi and B. microti on each pathogen, immune response and on disease manifestations with respect to infection by the spirochete and the parasite. (medworm.com)
  • I agree, of course, that patients who have no documented or likely borrelia infection should not receive prolonged antibiotic treatment, nor should they receive short-term treatment. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • When considering that approximately 90 % of the patients also suffered from arthralgia or other musculoskeletal symptoms that normally result in a reliable IgG response, it is obvious that the investigators ought not to be «certain that the person had an active borrelia infection as the reason for their chronic symptoms,» as claimed by Eikeland ( 3 ). (tidsskriftet.no)
  • We are studying post-infectious LA in which the initial triggering cause, Borrelia burgdorferi , is known with certainty as a human model to better understand how infection may trigger immune dysregulation and autoimmunity affecting joints in these diseases. (massgeneral.org)
  • In LA, risk factors for this untoward outcome include infection with certain highly inflammatory strains of B. burgdorferi , excessive joint inflammation characterized by high levels of IFNγ and inadequate IL-10, host genetic factors including a TLR1 polymorphism and certain HLA-DR alleles, and immune dysregulation of the CD4+eff/reg ratio, leading to pathogenic autoimmunity. (massgeneral.org)
  • Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency results in impaired antibody responses and septic shock during Borrelia hermsii infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Gelderblom H, Londoño D, Bai Y, Cabral ES, Quandt J, Hornung R, Martin R, Marques A, Cadavid D. High production of CXCL13 in blood and brain during persistent infection with the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae. (umassmed.edu)
  • To test whether a model more faithful to human LNB could be elicited in nonhuman primates (NHPs), we injected rhesus macaques with infectious Borrelia burgdorferi and evaluated the course of the infection. (neurology.org)
  • Mice were treated with ceftriaxone or saline solution for 1 month, commencing during the early (3 weeks) or chronic (4 months) stages of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem disorder that arises from tick-transmitted infection with Borrelia burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • When infection is left untreated, B. burgdorferi can effectively evade host immune clearance, resulting in persistent infection that may or may not be manifested as clinical disease. (asm.org)
  • Serosurvey of Borrelia burgdorferi infection among U.S. military personnel: a low risk of infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • A serosurvey of 9,673 United States military personnel was conducted to estimate infection rates with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is the cause of Lyme disease in the United States. (ajtmh.org)
  • B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii or B. garinii , in the multiplicity of infection 10:1. (aaem.pl)
  • It has been proposed that Borrelia burgdorferi infection is present in ∼25% of children with autism spectrum disorders. (leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk)
  • Lyme disease is an infection caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium. (vetstreet.com)
  • Dr. Sapi concluded with the hypothesis that the B. burgdorferi biofilm likely provides a refuge for chronic Lyme infection, and offers an additional avenue of attack for potential treatments for Lyme disease. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne illness in the United States, is a multisystem illness usually caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (see the image below) and the body's immune response to the infection. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, a randomized double-blind phase I/II trial was performed to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a novel multivalent OspA vaccine in healthy adults who were either seronegative or seropositive for previous B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection. (asm.org)
  • Nymphal burden was positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l. in hosts, which was again positively correlated with the average number of larvae that got infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. while feeding on a host. (wur.nl)
  • We originally thought of Lyme disease as primarily an infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (townsendletter.com)
  • Using genomic fingerprinting by an arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction, we resolved into three groups a collection of Eurasian and North American isolates of spirochetes that are generally categorized as B. burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. (cdc.gov)
  • Most genetic studies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato are based on data derived from isolated spirochetes. (asm.org)
  • Spirochetes were detected and identified as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests using the monoclonal antibody H5332 in 1.9% of Amblyomma americanum and 2.0% of Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected. (ajtmh.org)
  • In this study, two herbal extracts, Samento and Banderol, as well as doxycycline (one of the primary antibiotics for Lyme disease treatment) were tested for their in vitro effectiveness on several of the different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi (spirochetes, round bodies, and biofilmlike colonies) using fluorescent, darkfield microscopic, and BacLight viability staining methods. (townsendletter.com)
  • The causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, have developed several ways to protect themselves against killing by the host complement system. (nature.com)
  • The causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB), spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, are transmitted by Ixodes ticks 1 . (nature.com)
  • B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia spirochetes have developed strate gies to evade the mammalian host immune system. (medworm.com)
  • To evade the complement, spirochetes bind soluble complement regulators factor H (FH), factor H‐like protein, and C4bp to their outer surfaces.B. burgdorferi spirochetes can inhibit the classical pathway of complement by the outer surface protein (Osp) BBK32, which blocks the activation of the C1 complex, composed of C1q, C1r, and C1s. (medworm.com)
  • Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Spirochetes are a group of poorly studied medically significant bacteria. (usda.gov)
  • These bacterial motility is crucial forvirulence by all pathogenic spirochetes studied to-date including Borrelia burgdorferi. (usda.gov)
  • Moreover, to extend the relevance of B. burgdorferi periplasmic collar studies,we propose to determine if these novel flagellar proteins or their function is conserved in other spirochetes.Aim 1 is expected to be accomplished by using bioinformatics, genetics, various biochemical assays and cryo-electron tomography. (usda.gov)
  • The knowledgegained from this project is fundamental to understand the biosynthesis, assembly, and function of the novelflagellar proteins not only in B. burgdorferi and Leptospira but also in other medically significant yetuncultivable spirochetes such as Treponema pallidum. (usda.gov)
  • Three morphological forms of B. burgdorferi (spirochetes, round bodies, and biofilm-like colonies) were generated using novel culture methods. (dovepress.com)
  • The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. (umassmed.edu)
  • B. garinii , B. afzelii , and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto are associated with disease in humans ( 32 ), while the pathogenic potential of the remaining genospecies is unknown. (asm.org)
  • The identity of the predicted amino acid sequences was 43 to 62% among Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii , and B. garinii . (asm.org)
  • In Europe, however, three different borrelial subspecies, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii , and B. garinii , are known etiologic agents of LB ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. (atcc.org)
  • In the USA, B. burgdorferi is the predominant prevalent agent for LB, whereas in Europe B. afzelii and B. garinii are the main causative agents of LB 2 , 3 . (nature.com)
  • Although 19% of the rodents harbored B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and/or B. garinii in internal organs, only B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was transmitted to xenodiagnostic tick larvae (it was transmitted to 1% of the larvae). (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii , and Borrelia afzelii are causative agents of Lyme disease in humans ( 38 ), while the pathogenic potentials of Borrelia japonica , Borrelia valaisiana (formerly genomic group VS116 [ 39 ]), and Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genomic group PotiB2 [ 18 ]) have not yet been demonstrated. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, strains of B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalent in the United Kingdom (known to be variants of B. garinii , B. afzelii , B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana ) have been found to be unusually difficult to isolate and culture from ticks and hosts by standard techniques ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Borrelia garinii Baranton et al. (atcc.org)
  • B. garinii and B. afzelii are Lyme disease causing strains that inhabit Eurasia, while B. burgdorferi typically inhabits North America. (kenyon.edu)
  • Previous work including the genome analysis of B. burgdorferi B31 and B. garinii PBi suggested a highly variable plasmid part. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi stimulates macrophages to secrete higher levels of cytokines and chemokines than Borrelia afzelii or Borrelia garinii. (aaem.pl)
  • B. lusitaniae is commonly found in lizards, B. garinii and B. turdii are associated with birds, while B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi are detected mainly in rodents [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B . afzelii , whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens. (plos.org)
  • Four species, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto , Borrelia afzelii , Borrelia garinii , and Borrelia bavariensis cause the majority of human disease in Europe, whereas only a single species, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto , causes LB in the United States ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • There are several genospecies within the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex, among which B. afzelii , B. bavariensis , B. garinii , B. lusitaniae , B. spielmanii , and B. valaisiana are found in questing ticks and patients in the Netherlands. (wur.nl)
  • The genetic structure of the Lyme disease spirochete ( Borrelia burgdorferi ) and its main tick vector ( Ixodes scapularis ) was studied concurrently and comparatively by sampling natural populations of I. scapularis ticks along the East Coast from 1996 to 1998. (genetics.org)
  • To date Borrelia lusitaniae is the only genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Portugal and Tunisia. (asm.org)
  • Which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from southern Poland. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detection of three genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in different regions of Poland. (semanticscholar.org)
  • B. burgdorferi circulates between Ixodes ticks and a vertebrate host in an enzootic cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are also common tick-borne pathogens carried by the Ixodes tick that infect humans similarly to Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genotyping some Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Russia and Ukraine. (prohealth.com)
  • Ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex transmit the causative spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by inoculation into the dermis. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is caused by species within the Borrelia genus, spread by the Ixodes ticks. (springer.com)
  • Des Vignes F, Piesman J, Heffernan R, Schulze TL, Stafford KC 3rd, Fish D. Effect of tick removal on transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila by Ixodes scapularis nymphs. (springer.com)
  • Ixodes ricinus ticks are commonly encountered in either natural or urban areas, contributing to Lyme disease agents Borreliella [( Borrelia burgdorferi ( sensu lato )] spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Erythema chronicum migrans is a circular erythema caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi , which is transmitted by various ticks of the Ixodes genus. (cmaj.ca)
  • Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. (umassmed.edu)
  • The B31 sequence showed that B. burgdorferi has many more replicons (DNA molecules) than other bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Besides its 910-kbp linear chromosome, strain B31 has been shown to have 12 linear and 10 circular plasmids ( 5 ), expanding observations ( 2 , 10 ) indicating that Borrelia bacteria universally harbor numerous plasmids, many essential for survival of the bacteria in mice and/or ticks ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • 1-4 Unfortunately, when B. burgdorferi is in these inactive forms, conventional antibiotic therapy will not destroy the bacteria. (townsendletter.com)
  • Culturing B. burgdorferi from clinical samples other than erythema migrans lesions is difficult ( 43 ), and the PCR-based methods seem to be too insensitive for routine laboratory testing for LB ( 29 , 37 ), probably because of the scarcity of bacteria in clinical samples ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete. (harvard.edu)
  • Wild type or Kit Wsh −/− mice were infected intradermally with Borrelia burgdorferi 297 strain (10 3 bacteria/100 μl) by syringe inoculation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lyme disease is caused by a cork-screw-shaped bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi. (newstimes.com)
  • The black-legged tick - also known as the deer tick - ingests the bacteria when it feeds on deer, white-footed mice and small rodents, which act as sort of moveable reservoirs of Borrelia. (newstimes.com)
  • Lyme disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (kenyon.edu)
  • Since the bacteria has a number of hybrid strains that also cause Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is used to refer to all Lyme disease causing strains. (kenyon.edu)
  • In California, western black-legged ticks can carry bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi . (independent.com)
  • When bitten, they actually kill the B. burgdorferi bacteria in the ticks. (independent.com)
  • A digitally colorized scanning electron micrograph of a grouping of numerous Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. (accessscience.com)
  • For these reasons, in present paper we will use Borreliella for LD-causative bacteria and Borrelia when referring to RF-causative agents, including Borrelia miyamotoi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Borrelia are extremely small and cannot readily be distinguished from some other spirochaetes (spiral shaped bacteria of the same family) without the additional use of PCR (see below). (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • BTW, Mycoplasma of course should not be confused with Mycobacterium, which is a different group of bacteria entirely and includes the infectious cause of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis). (dailystrength.org)
  • We have come to realize that the symptoms which we once described as 'Lyme disease' frequently involve other bacteria, such as Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, or Mycoplasma, or rarer species such as the Rickettsia group or tularemia. (townsendletter.com)
  • Demographically, both Borrelia and I. scapularis populations in the Northeast show the characteristics of a species that has recently expanded from a population bottleneck. (genetics.org)
  • The antigenic potential of decorin binding protein A (DbpA) was evaluated in serodiagnosis of human Lyme borreliosis (LB). The dbpA was cloned and sequenced from the three pathogenic Borrelia species common in Europe. (asm.org)
  • One factor causing difficulties in serologic tests is the existence of three different pathogenic species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato causing LB in Europe ( 23 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Surface exposure and species specificity of an immunoreactive domain of a 66-kilodalton outer membrane protein (P66) of the Borrelia spp. (atcc.org)
  • Enterococcus species (Streptococcus beta-haemolytic, group D).- Antigen detection. (worldcat.org)
  • Since 1981 multiple Borrelia species have been identified as the causative agents of LB and are being referred to as B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. (nature.com)
  • The data indicate that different genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato can be maintained in nature by distinct transmission cycles involving the same vector tick species but different vertebrate host species. (asm.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia species are considered gram-negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia species is the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in Europe. (aaem.pl)
  • Borreliosis (Lyme disease) is a spirochetal disease caused by the species complex ofBorrelia burgdorferi transmitted byIxodes spp. (medworm.com)
  • At least three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) cause tick-borne Lyme disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This makes it very likely that these plasmids are relatively stable and share common ancestors before the diversification of Borrelia species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similar albeit extended losses in B. afzelii PKo support the hypothesis that infectivity of Borrelia species depends heavily on the evasion from the host response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infections with Borrelia species cause thousands of human disease cases per year [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stanek G . Lyme borreliosis, ticks and Borrelia species. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The role of Th17 cytokines seems to differ depending on the clinical stage of Lyme borreliosis and on the B. burgdorferi species. (aaem.pl)
  • Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study. (springer.com)
  • B. burgdorferi is a known pleomorphic species, able to adopt alternative, defensive morphologies to evade the immune response and perhaps to increase antibiotic resistance. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • LB is caused by a number of bacterial species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. (asm.org)
  • For screening, we used an ELI- ever, surveillance data and prospective studies in Europe SA based on B. afzelii extract antigen enriched with recom- and the United States suggest that children and the elderly binant VlsE (an outer-surface protein) from B. burgdorferi are particularly at risk ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Borrelia afzelii was not detected in any of the samples. (asm.org)
  • There are multiple variants of B. burgdorferi ( 1 , 7 , 15 , 20 , 21 ), the causative agent, but questions remain about how their variation correlates with different clinical manifestations. (asm.org)
  • Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease of humans in temperate climates of the northern hemisphere, whose causative agent, a spirochete belonging to the genus Borrelia , was described and named Borrelia burgdorferi in 1984 ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Lyme arthritis synovial fluid contains a large proportion of γδ T cells that proliferates upon stimulation with the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi . (jimmunol.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi ( sensu lato ) spirochaetes are a complex of Lyme disease (LD) causative agents transmitted by ticks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These pathogens include Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Borrelia miyamotoi , the causative agent of acute febrile illness and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, the causative agent of neoehrlichiosis. (wur.nl)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. burgdorferi is a microaerobic, motile spirochete with seven to 11 bundled perisplasmic flagella set at each end that allow the bacterium to move in low- and high-viscosity media alike, which is related to its high virulence factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme borreliosis, or Lyme disease, is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder transmitted by the bites of ticks infected with the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato ( 13 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. (pnas.org)
  • Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogenic bacterium that causes diverse infections ranging in severity from relatively mild pharyngitis to life-threatening toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The agent of the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the US, the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, exemplifies this common hurdle to genomic study for many VBZ systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OspA (outer surface protein A) is an abundant immunogenic lipoprotein of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (rcsb.org)
  • Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it is being transmitted to humans. (rcsb.org)
  • A tick-borne, multisystemic disease, Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has grown into a major public health problem during the last 10 years. (townsendletter.com)
  • Absence of lipopolysaccharide in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (atcc.org)
  • A bacterial genome in flux: the twelve linear and nine circular extrachromosomal DNAs in an infectious isolate of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (atcc.org)
  • Lyme disease, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi , accounts for more than 95% of the reported vector-borne illness in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], unpublished data, 1998). (aappublications.org)
  • Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi . (dovepress.com)
  • Concentrations were measured of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in the supernatant of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) culture stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato ( B. burgdorferi ). (aaem.pl)
  • Two isolates are distinct from all of the other strains in our collection but are clearly members of the genus Borrelia. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic relationships inferred from the comparison of these sequences with those of other genus Rickettsiae indicated that JL-95, IRS3 and IRS4 constituted a new rickettsial genotype and formed a separate cluster among the spotted fever group Rickettsiae. (bvsalud.org)
  • Positive serum samples failed to inhibit the growth of B. burgdorferi in culture and did not yield positive reactions in the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test. (nih.gov)
  • A previous study in this laboratory showed that OspC antibody raised against a denatured immunogen isolated from B. burgdorferi cells failed to provide protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • ELISA testing of sera revealed strong antibody reactivity to B burgdorferi antigens, and Western blotting showed that 16-, 22-, 31-, 34-, and 41-kd proteins of the spirochete were major antigens recognized by antibody. (neurology.org)
  • Group I strains have been identified in both North America and Eurasia, while strains belonging to Borrelia groups II and III have been found only in Eurasia. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common genospecies in northeastern North America, appears to be comparatively rare in Europe and virtually absent in central and east Asia ( 7 , 24 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and until 2016 was the only known cause of Lyme disease in North America (Borrelia mayonii, found in the midwestern US, is also known to cause the disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using serum from rabbits fully immune to reinfection, we defined a set of B. burgdorferi proteins present in virulent B31, but absent in the avirulent American Type Culture Collection B31 strain, termed "va" for virulent strain associated. (nih.gov)
  • The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. (asm.org)
  • Correlation of plasmids with infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto type strain B31. (atcc.org)
  • This report describes results of tick bite challenges to groups of mice actively immunized with strain B31-derived recombinant OspC that had been treated by various denaturation procedures. (asm.org)
  • Previous reports indicated a correlation between loss of plasmids and decreased infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31, suggesting that plasmids may encode proteins that are required for pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Using the B. burgdorferi genomic sequence, we designed primers specific for each plasmid, and by using PCR we catalogued 11 linear and 2 circular plasmids from 49 clonal isolates of a mid-passage B. burgdorferi strain B31, initially derived from infected mouse skin, and 20 clones obtained from mouse skin infected with a low-passage isolate of B. burgdorferi strain B31. (asm.org)
  • Among the 69 clones analyzed, nine distinct genotypes were identified relative to wild-type B. burgdorferi strain B31. (asm.org)
  • We compared the infectivity of the wild-type strain, containing all known B. burgdorferi plasmids, with those of single mutants lacking either lp28-1, lp28-4, or lp25 and a double mutant missing both cp9 and lp28-1. (asm.org)
  • The infectivity data indicated that B. burgdorferi strain B31 cells lacking lp28-4 were modestly attenuated in all tissues analyzed, whereas samples missing lp25 were completely attenuated in all tissues, even at the highest inoculum tested. (asm.org)
  • Article abstract-We injected rhesus macaques with a highly infective strain of Borrelia burgdorferi to assess whether experimentally inoculated nonhuman primates (NHPs) could serve as models of human Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). (neurology.org)
  • If the patient has been in Europe, where different strains of Borrelia are more common, a C6 peptide ELISA is a more accurate confirmatory test than the Western blots, which have been developed to B burgdorferi , which is the most common strain found in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • These observations imply that the dynamic nature of the B. burgdorferi genome may provide the genetic heterogeneity necessary for survival in the diverse milieus that this pathogen occupies in nature and may contribute to tropism in certain mammalian host tissues. (asm.org)
  • The B. burgdorferi pathogen is responsible for causing Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans by way of a tick bite. (accessscience.com)
  • Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are 300 different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi internationally and 100 in the United States. (newstimes.com)
  • Lin B, Short SA, Eskildsen M, Klempner MS, Hu LT. Functional testing of putative oligopeptide permease (Opp) proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi: a complementation model in opp(-) Escherichia coli. (umassmed.edu)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi B31, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • The invention relates to novel antigens associated with Borrelia burgdorferi which are exported (or shed) in vivo and whose detection is a means of diagnosing Lyme disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • c. detecting the presence of said termary immune complexes as a means of detecting Borrelia brugdorferi or Borrelia burgdorferi antigens. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Lyme IGXSpot is an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assay that detects human T cells reactive to B. burgdorferi specific antigens in vitro. (news-medical.net)
  • Genomic fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves Borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct phyletic groups. (nih.gov)
  • This suggests that the genospecies diversity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato decreases toward the southwestern margin of its Old World subtropical range. (asm.org)
  • It is now widely accepted that these strains form a complex, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, which consists of 10 named genospecies and several yet to be named genomic groups. (asm.org)
  • On the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness and other molecular criteria, B. burgdorferi sensu lato is now considered to comprise at least nine genospecies and genomic groups ( 1 , 30 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • it has been postulated that genospecies are associated with particular groups of vertebrate hosts, such as birds or rodents ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • This suggestion appears to conflict with the observation that different genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato may coexist in individual vertebrate hosts ( 7 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • While the transmission behavior of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto has been studied in detail with both laboratory and natural rodent hosts ( 5 , 16 , 22 ), the relative transmissibilities of other genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents and other hosts have not been investigated previously. (asm.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Various genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) have been identified from patients and animals worldwide. (canlyme.com)
  • One possible explanation for this is that B. burgdorferi become resistant to antibiotic treatment, by converting from their vegetative spirochete form into different round bodies and/or into biofilmlike colonies. (townsendletter.com)
  • addressed various mechanisms associated with Borrelia burgdorferi that may help it to survive despite antibiotic treatment. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Porin activity of the native and recombinant outer membrane protein Oms28 of Borrelia burgdorferi. (atcc.org)
  • Inability of truncated recombinant Osp A proteins to elicit protective immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi in mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Vaccination against lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. (jhsph.edu)
  • 60 years of We estimated B. burgdorferi s.l. seroprevalence among age. (cdc.gov)
  • To understand the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants will add value to the risk analysis of Lyme disease. (aaem.pl)
  • Ticks can transmit B. burgdorferi to humans, but humans are dead-end hosts, unlikely to continue the life cycle of the spirochete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato diversity and its influence on pathogenicity in humans. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to document the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected in southeastern Missouri and around the city of St. Louis. (ajtmh.org)
  • A newly designed reverse line blotting (RLB) assay shows that up to 10 Borrelia clones can infect a single tick. (genetics.org)
  • The high genetic diversity within Borrelia populations and the disparity in the genetic structure between Borrelia and its tick vector are likely consequences of strong balancing selection on local Borrelia clones. (genetics.org)
  • B burgdorferi is a tick-borne spirochete that is found in the temperate regions of much of the northern hemisphere. (medscape.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated the role of the lectin pathway in the immune response against B. burgdorferi by the identification and characterisation of the tick salivary gland protein Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor (TSLPI) 12 . (nature.com)
  • Seasonal Patterns in the Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • B. burgdorferi living in a tick cannot be passed to its offspring: it is acquired through blood meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a tick is infected, it will then transmit B. burgdorferi by feeding on another vertebrate to complete the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infected nymphal tick transmits B. burgdorferi via its saliva to the human during its blood meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus , but also in D. marginatus , in the north of the Kosovo. (frontiersin.org)
  • Following seroconversion to OspC, the animals were challenged with an infectious dose of B. burgdorferi B31 by tick bite. (asm.org)
  • Once attached to the host, the tick must remain there for 36-48 hours to transmit B. burgdorferi to the host. (kenyon.edu)
  • Borreliosis is caused by two groups of Borrelia, B. burgdorferi group and the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) Borrelia group. (news-medical.net)
  • Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme Disease. (nih.gov)
  • C-terminal epitope) of the VlsE protein from B. burgdorferi B31. (nih.gov)
  • Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), a borrelial outer surface protein, is one of the key proteins in B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato based on sequence information from the hbb gene, coding for a histone-like protein. (atcc.org)
  • Induction of Interleukin 10 by Borrelia burgdorferi Is Regulated by the Action of CD14-Dependent p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and cAMP-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling. (harvard.edu)
  • The Borrelia hermsii factor H binding protein FhbA is not required for infectivity in mice or for resistance to human complement in vitro. (canlyme.com)
  • FbaA is an FHL-1 and FH binding protein expressed on the surface of group A streptococcus (GAS), a common agent of pharyngeal, skin, and soft tissue infections. (asm.org)
  • Isoforskolin and Cucurbitacin IIa promote the expression of anti-inflammatory regulatory factor SIGIRR in human macrophages stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A. (medworm.com)
  • Mice lack group I CD1 molecules and have two group II Cd1 genes termed Cd1d1 and Cd1d2 , from which only Cd1d1 seems to encode for a functional protein ( 19 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • An EIA using a synthetic version of the C6 peptide - part of the Borrelia membrane protein VlsE. (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • Soon after treatment, relapse is observed, most likely because the B. burgdorferi can revert to the spirochetal form. (townsendletter.com)
  • Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of five antimicrobial agents (doxycycline, amoxicillin, tigecycline, metronidazole, and tinidazole) against spirochetal forms of B. burgdorferi were evaluated using the standard published microdilution technique. (dovepress.com)
  • Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. (asm.org)
  • Human genome encodes for five CD1 molecules that-based on the amino acid sequence-can be assigned to either group I (CD1a, -b, -c, and -e) or group II (CD1d) ( 18 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the speB gene from 200 group A Streptococcus isolates collected worldwide identified three main mature SpeB (mSpeB) variants. (pnas.org)
  • The 4 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates obtained from 1. (prohealth.com)
  • The three atypical isolates Ir-3519, Ir-4721, and Ir-4812 had 100% identity with the sequence of the atypical European B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains. (prohealth.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a linear plasmid of Borrelia burdorferi reveals similarities to those of circular plasmids of other prokaryotes. (atcc.org)
  • We also found additional groups of plasmids, which share large parts of their sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Czech Republic. (aaem.pl)
  • The results from three serological assays and the lack of reactivity to potentially cross-reactive infectious agents indicate that serological reactivity was due to exposure to B. burgdorferi. (prohealth.com)
  • The infectious B31strain of B. burgdorferi used in this study, obtained from American Type Tissue Collection(ATCC# 35210), was culturedin 5% CO2 at 34 oC, in Barbour-Stoener-Kelly H (BSK H) medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum (Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri) to midlogarithmic stage (2 × 107 cells/ml). (townsendletter.com)
  • Since the demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi as the infectious agent of Lyme borreliosis (Burdorfer, W. et at. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A subspecies, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, causes human LB infections in the United States ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • WB does not seem to discriminate between true- and false-positive test results or between active and previous B. burgdorferi infections ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • The method enables differentiation of both single and multiple infections with B. burgdorferi s.s. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Likewise, persisting B. burgdorferi infections in the ligamentous tissue ( 21 ), synovium ( 47 ), and skin ( 25 , 45 ) of human patients following treatment with antibiotics have been documented. (asm.org)
  • Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing ticks from a recreational coniferous forest of East Saxony, Germany. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Microbial pathogens as diverse as Borrelia burgdorferi , Yersinia spp. (pnas.org)
  • Borrelia valaisiana. (asm.org)
  • Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp. (aaem.pl)
  • Wormser GP, O'Connell S, Pachner AR, Schwartz I, Shapiro ED, Stanek G, Strle F. Critical analysis of a doxycycline treatment trial of rhesus macaques infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • Hubalek Z, Halouzka J. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review. (aaem.pl)
  • Borrelia genomic groups VS116 and M19). (aaem.pl)
  • The Lyme disease vaccine helps prevent disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease organism. (vetstreet.com)
  • Several tests can identify the Borrelia burgdorferi organism in blood or tissues. (vetstreet.com)
  • Sequence analysis and characterization of a 40-kilodalton Borrelia hermsii glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase homolog. (atcc.org)
  • Conversion of a linear to a circular plasmid in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. (atcc.org)
  • Mehra R, Londoño D, Sondey M, Lawson C, Cadavid D. Structure-function investigation of vsp serotypes of the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. (umassmed.edu)
  • These characteristics, together with atypical Western blot antigen recognition patterns and the absence of known vectors, provide evidence that seropositive results for these persons are not the result of exposure to B. burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • M90084 Borrelia burgdorferi 22 kD antigen. (atcc.org)
  • Ab response to B. burgdorferi (whole-cell lysate), full-length VlsE, and individual VlsE epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • Since Borrelia is highly clonal, the ospC alleles can be used to define clones. (genetics.org)
  • The difference in this group, however, was that they had been immunized with OspC from B. burgdorferi B31 cells purified under denaturing conditions. (asm.org)
  • The disparity between serological reactivity and the clinical evidence of Lyme borreliosis suggests cumulative exposure to a nonpathogenic form of B. burgdorferi. (prohealth.com)
  • 8 One possible explanation for this clinical observation is the presence of different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi, which mayprotect it from the antibacterial therapy. (townsendletter.com)
  • Cerar T, Strle F, Stupica D, Ruzic-Sabljic E, McHugh G, Steere AC, Strle K. Differences in Genotype, Clinical Features, and Inflammatory Potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Strains from Europe and the United States. (harvard.edu)
  • Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Culturing Borrelia is commonly considered the "gold standard" for detection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (asm.org)
  • This was confirmed using lipidated vs nonlipidated hexapeptides of Borrelia outer surface proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • This project was stimulated by the initial finding of genotypes of B. burgdorferi associated with invasiveness/dissemination ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • During transmission and dissemination, B. burgdorferi s.l. has developed several ways to evade and modulate the host's innate and adaptive immune responses 5 . (nature.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi genotype predicts the capacity for hematogenous dissemination during early Lyme disease. (springer.com)
  • One female monkey (designated "E") was rendered marginally immunocompromised 1 week prior to inoculation by intramuscular injection with 2 mg/kg/d dexamethasone, which was continued for 1 week after B burgdorferi inoculation. (neurology.org)
  • nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis. (atcc.org)
  • The genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was assessed in a focus of Lyme borreliosis in southern Britain dominated by game birds. (asm.org)
  • In the upper Midwest, this group of diseases consists primarily of tularemia, borreliosis (Lyme disease), ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. (ndsu.edu)
  • Laboratory support for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: a position paper of ESGBOR, the ESCMID study group for Lyme borreliosis. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The study group consisted of 13 patients with early disseminated and late Lyme borreliosis and a control group of 7 healthy persons. (aaem.pl)
  • IL-17 was elevated in CSF in 49% of the patients with confirmed NB, but was not detectable in the other groups. (nih.gov)
  • The identity of IFA-positive organisms was verified by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with two different sets of B. burgdorferi -specific primers followed by Southern blotting. (ajtmh.org)