Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
"Bites and stings refer to tissue damage or toxic reactions caused by the teeth, mouthparts, or venomous secretions of animals such as insects, spiders, snakes, and mammals during predatory or defensive attacks."
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term or concept; it is a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those!
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Connecticut" is a state located in the northeastern region of the United States and does not have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
While there isn't a specific medical definition for "North America," I can provide a geographical definition that is often used in public health and medical contexts: North America is the third largest continent by area, encompassing 23 independent states, including the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which are home to diverse populations, cultures, and ecosystems, and share common health-related challenges such as obesity, diabetes, and healthcare access disparities.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Shrews are small, insectivorous mammals belonging to the family Soricidae, characterized by their pointed snouts, tiny eyes, and rapid movements.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
#### Medical Definition of Latvia
Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (1/1047)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (2/1047)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

Detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in UK ticks using polymerase chain reaction. (3/1047)

Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from woodland areas in South Wales, UK, were tested using the polymerase chain reaction for the presence both of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and Borrelia burgdorferi. Twenty-two of 60 (37%) ticks were found positive in the PCR for B. burgdorferi and 4/60 (7%) for the HGE agent. One tick was found positive both for B. burgdorferi and HGE agent. Our findings imply the presence of the HGE agent in UK ticks and the finding of a tick apparently containing both pathogens underlines the potential for concurrent infection with HGE agent and B. burgdorferi to occur after a single tick-bite. Based on our observations, we conclude that there may be a need to consider a range of pathogens both in laboratory investigation and clinical management of suspected tick-borne disease in the UK, particularly where there is a clinical presentation atypical of Lyme borreliosis alone.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (4/1047)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (5/1047)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands. (6/1047)

This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.  (+info)

Rapid and sensitive quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mouse tissues by continuous fluorescent monitoring of PCR. (7/1047)

The quantity of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in tissue samples is an important determinant for infection studies in the mouse model of Lyme disease. This report presents the development of a rapid and sensitive external-standard-based PCR assay for the absolute quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse tissue samples. The assay uses a double-stranded DNA dye to continuously monitor product formation and in less than an hour was able to quantify samples ranging up to 6 log units in concentration. The PCR efficiencies of the sample and the standard were matched by using a standard composed of purified B. burgdorferi chromosome mixed with tissue-matched mouse genome lacking bacterial DNA. Normalization of B. burgdorferi quantities to the mouse nidogen gene allowed comparison of B. burgdorferi numbers in samples isolated from different tissues and strains. PCR analysis of the chromosomal gene recA in cultured B. burgdorferi was consistent with a single recA per bacterium. The parameters defined in this assay should be applicable to quantification of other organisms, even infectious agents for which no ready source of DNA standard is available. In summary, this report presents a rapid external-standard-based PCR method for the quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse DNA samples.  (+info)

Proteome composition and codon usage in spirochaetes: species-specific and DNA strand-specific mutational biases. (8/1047)

The genomes of the spirochaetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum show strong strand-specific skews in nucleotide composition, with the leading strand in replication being richer in G and T than the lagging strand in both species. This mutation bias results in codon usage and amino acid composition patterns that are significantly different between genes encoded on the two strands, in both species. There are also substantial differences between the species, with T.pallidum having a much higher G+C content than B. burgdorferi. These changes in amino acid and codon compositions represent neutral sequence change that has been caused by strong strand- and species-specific mutation pressures. Genes that have been relocated between the leading and lagging strands since B. burgdorferi and T.pallidum diverged from a common ancestor now show codon and amino acid compositions typical of their current locations. There is no evidence that translational selection operates on codon usage in highly expressed genes in these species, and the primary influence on codon usage is whether a gene is transcribed in the same direction as replication, or opposite to it. The dnaA gene in both species has codon usage patterns distinctive of a lagging strand gene, indicating that the origin of replication lies downstream of this gene, possibly within dnaN. Our findings strongly suggest that gene-finding algorithms that ignore variability within the genome may be flawed.  (+info)

The Borrelia burgdorferi group, also known as the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, refers to a genetically related group of spirochetal bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other related diseases worldwide. The group includes several species, with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, and B. garinii being the most common and best studied. These bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast; Ixodes ricinus in Europe).

Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder that can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and heart. Early symptoms typically include a characteristic expanding rash called erythema migrans, fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle and joint pain. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe complications, such as arthritis, neurological problems, and carditis.

Diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, exposure history, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline, amoxicillin, or ceftriaxone, and is generally most effective when initiated early in the course of the illness. Preventive measures, such as using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks, can help reduce the risk of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections.

'Borrelia burgdorferi' is a species of spirochete bacteria that is the primary cause of Lyme disease in humans. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern, midwestern, and eastern parts of the United States; Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast).

The bacterium was first identified and named after Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the spirochete in the mid-1980s. The infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Antibiotic treatment is usually effective in eliminating the bacteria and resolving symptoms, especially when initiated early in the course of the disease. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms even after treatment, a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The exact cause of PTLDS remains unclear, with ongoing research investigating potential factors such as residual bacterial infection, autoimmune responses, or tissue damage.

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

Borrelia infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia. The most common Borrelia infection is Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

The symptoms of Lyme disease can vary, but often include a rash that looks like a bull's-eye, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe symptoms.

Other diseases caused by Borrelia bacteria include relapsing fever, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of lice or ticks, and tick-borne relapsing fever, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of soft ticks. The symptoms of relapsing fever include recurring high fevers, headache, muscle and joint pain, and rash.

Borrelia infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and the prognosis is good with early detection and treatment. However, if left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems. Prevention measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of Borrelia infections.

"Ixodes" is a genus of tick that includes several species known to transmit various diseases to humans and animals. These ticks are often referred to as "hard ticks" because of their hard, shield-like plate on their backs. Ixodes ticks have a complex life cycle involving three stages: larva, nymph, and adult. They feed on the blood of hosts during each stage, and can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, and Powassan virus disease.

The most common Ixodes species in North America is Ixodes scapularis, also known as the black-legged tick or deer tick, which is the primary vector of Lyme disease in this region. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus, or the castor bean tick, is a widespread and important vector of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and several other tick-borne pathogens.

Ixodes ticks are typically found in wooded or grassy areas with high humidity and moderate temperatures. They can be carried by various hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can survive for long periods without feeding, making them efficient disease vectors.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

"Borrelia" is a genus of spirochete bacteria that are known to cause several tick-borne diseases in humans, the most notable being Lyme disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast).

The Borrelia species are gram-negative, helical-shaped bacteria with distinctive endoflagella that allow them to move in a corkscrew-like motion. They are microaerophilic, meaning they require a low oxygen environment for growth. The bacteria can survive in a variety of environments, including the digestive tracts of ticks and mammals, as well as in soil and water.

Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. It typically presents with a characteristic rash called erythema migrans, fever, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, causing arthritis, neurological problems, and cardiac issues.

Other Borrelia species, such as B. afzelii and B. garinii, are responsible for causing Lyme disease in Europe and Asia. Additionally, some Borrelia species have been linked to other tick-borne illnesses, including relapsing fever and tick-borne meningoencephalitis.

Prevention of Borrelia infections involves avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks. If a tick bite is suspected, it's important to seek medical attention and monitor for symptoms of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can help prevent the development of chronic symptoms.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

"Peromyscus" is not a medical term, but a genus of rodents commonly known as "deer mice." They are small mammals that belong to the family Cricetidae and are found in various parts of North America. Peromyscus mice can carry and transmit diseases, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), although they are not typically referred to in a medical context unless discussing potential zoonotic risks.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM) is a type of skin rash that is commonly associated with early Lyme disease. It is usually the first sign of infection after a tick bite and is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The rash typically appears within 3-30 days after the tick bite and starts as a red, flat or slightly raised spot at the site of the bite. Over several days or weeks, the redness expands, forming a circular or oval-shaped rash that can be up to 12 inches in diameter. The center of the rash may clear, giving it a "bull's-eye" appearance.

ECM is usually accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, fever, headache, and muscle and joint pain. It is important to note that not all people with Lyme disease will develop ECM, and its absence does not necessarily mean that the person does not have Lyme disease. If you suspect that you may have been bitten by a tick and are experiencing symptoms of Lyme disease, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

A Lyme disease vaccine is not currently available on the market. However, in the past, there was a vaccine called Lymerix, which was a recombinant OspA (outer surface protein A) vaccine. It was approved by the FDA in 1998 for use in people aged 15 to 70 years to prevent Lyme disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. However, due to low consumer demand and unfounded concerns about potential adverse events, the manufacturer voluntarily withdrew it from the market in 2002.

Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available for Lyme disease. Researchers are continuing to work on developing new vaccines, but none have yet been approved for use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nymph" does not have a medical definition. In general, nymph is a term used in mythology to refer to a minor nature deity typically represented as an attractive maiden or beautiful young woman who animates nature and is often associated with various natural phenomena.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

Relapsing fever is a vector-borne disease caused by spirochetal bacteria of the genus Borrelia. It is characterized by recurring episodes of fever, chills, headache, and muscle and joint pain. The disease is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected soft ticks (Ornithodoros spp.) or lice (Pediculus humanus corporis).

The relapsing fever borreliae are able to evade the host's immune system by changing their surface proteins, which allows them to continue infecting red blood cells and cause recurring symptoms. Each febrile episode is associated with the multiplication of a specific population of spirochetes, followed by an immune response that clears the infection but fails to prevent reinfection due to antigenic variation.

Relapsing fever can be effectively treated with antibiotics such as tetracyclines, erythromycin, or penicillin. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications, including myocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological symptoms. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, and promptly removing attached ticks.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a specific neurological manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is characterized by inflammation of the nervous system, particularly the peripheral and central nervous systems.

Involvement of the peripheral nervous system can present as radiculoneuropathy or cranial neuritis, leading to symptoms such as radiating pain, paresthesia, muscle weakness, and/or sensory loss in the affected areas. Involvement of the central nervous system may result in meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord). These manifestations can cause symptoms such as headache, stiff neck, cognitive impairment, memory loss, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and, in rare cases, seizures.

LNB is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests (such as serological analysis or CSF examination), and sometimes supported by imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy, which can be administered either orally or intravenously, depending on the severity and extent of the infection. Early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis for LNB patients.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that are characterized by their unique spiral or corkscrew shape. This shape allows them to move in a flexing, twisting motion, which can be quite rapid. They are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet stain in the Gram staining method, and they have a unique structure with endoflagella (also known as axial filaments) located inside their outer membrane.

The Spirochaetales order includes several families and genera of bacteria, some of which are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic. The parasitic spirochetes can cause various diseases in humans and animals. For example, Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a serious sexually transmitted infection. Another species, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

It's important to note that spirochetes are a diverse group with varying characteristics and pathogenic potential. While some species can cause significant harm, others are not associated with diseases and play essential roles in various ecosystems.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

Infectious arthritis, also known as septic arthritis, is a type of joint inflammation that is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. The infection can enter the joint through the bloodstream or directly into the synovial fluid of the joint, often as a result of a traumatic injury, surgery, or an underlying condition such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.

The most common symptoms of infectious arthritis include sudden onset of severe pain and swelling in the affected joint, fever, chills, and difficulty moving the joint. If left untreated, infectious arthritis can lead to serious complications such as joint damage or destruction, sepsis, and even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with rest, immobilization, and sometimes surgery to drain the infected synovial fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of infectious arthritis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

'Anaplasma phagocytophilum' is a gram-negative bacterium that causes Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease in humans. It infects and survives within granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and chills. In severe cases, it can cause complications like respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in the United States and the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) in Europe. Proper diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are crucial for managing this infection.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Benign migratory glossitis, also known as geographic tongue, is a medical condition characterized by the presence of denuded, irregularly shaped smooth patches on the dorsum of the tongue. These patches are usually red and often have a white or yellow border. The condition is called "benign migratory" because it is not harmful or cancerous, and the lesions can change in size, shape, and location over time.

The exact cause of benign migratory glossitis is unknown, but it has been associated with several factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies (particularly vitamin B deficiency), allergies, and family history. The condition can be asymptomatic or may cause symptoms such as burning sensation, pain, or altered taste.

Treatment of benign migratory glossitis is usually not necessary unless the patient experiences discomfort or other symptoms. In such cases, topical anesthetics, antihistamines, or corticosteroids may be prescribed to alleviate the symptoms. However, if the underlying cause can be identified and addressed (such as nutritional deficiencies), the condition may improve on its own.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with Ehrlichia bacteria. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms of ehrlichiosis can include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If left untreated, ehrlichiosis can cause serious complications, including damage to the central nervous system and other organs. It is important to seek medical attention if you think you may have been exposed to ehrlichiosis and are experiencing symptoms of the disease. A healthcare provider can diagnose ehrlichiosis through laboratory tests and can recommend appropriate treatment, which typically involves antibiotics. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can help reduce the risk of ehrlichiosis and other tick-borne diseases.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

'Babesia microti' is a species of intracellular parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause babesiosis, a type of tick-borne disease. The transmission of this parasite to humans usually occurs through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis).

The life cycle of 'Babesia microti' involves two hosts: the tick and the mammalian host (such as a mouse or human). In the tick, the parasite undergoes development in the midgut, salivary glands, and ovaries. When an infected tick bites a mammalian host, it injects sporozoites into the skin, which then enter the bloodstream and invade red blood cells. Inside the red blood cells, the parasites multiply asexually, leading to their rupture and release of merozoites that infect other red blood cells.

The symptoms of babesiosis can range from mild to severe, depending on the patient's age, immune status, and the presence of other medical conditions. Mild cases may present with flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe cases can lead to complications such as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of parasites, as well as serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can also be used to detect the genetic material of 'Babesia microti' in blood samples.

Treatment of babesiosis usually involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs such as atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and complications. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after outdoor activities.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

"Bites and stings" is a general term used to describe injuries resulting from the teeth or venomous secretions of animals. These can include:

1. Insect bites: The bite marks are usually small, punctate, and may be accompanied by symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and pain. Examples include mosquito, flea, bedbug, and tick bites.

2. Spider bites: Some spiders possess venomous fangs that can cause localized pain, redness, and swelling. In severe cases, systemic symptoms like muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing may occur. The black widow and brown recluse spiders are notorious for their venomous bites.

3. Snake bites: Venomous snakes deliver toxic saliva through their fangs, which can lead to local tissue damage, swelling, pain, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as paralysis, bleeding disorders, and respiratory failure.

4. Mammal bites: Animal bites from mammals like dogs, cats, and wild animals can cause puncture wounds, lacerations, and crush injuries. They may also transmit infectious diseases, such as rabies.

5. Marine animal stings: Stings from jellyfish, sea urchins, stingrays, and other marine creatures can result in localized pain, redness, swelling, and systemic symptoms like difficulty breathing, muscle cramps, and altered heart rhythms. Some marine animals' venoms can cause severe allergic reactions or even death.

Treatment for bites and stings varies depending on the type and severity of the injury. It may include wound care, pain management, antibiotics to prevent infection, and in some cases, antivenom therapy to counteract the effects of venom. Seeking immediate medical attention is crucial in severe cases or when systemic symptoms are present.

Ehrlichia is a genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that infect and replicate within the vacuoles of host cells. These bacteria are transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected arthropods, such as ticks. Infection with Ehrlichia can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Some species of Ehrlichia, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are known to cause human disease, including ehrlichiosis.

Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease that can range in severity from mild to severe and can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis may include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as neurological problems, respiratory failure, or kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you may have been infected with Ehrlichia, as early treatment can help prevent serious complications. Prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and avoiding tick-infested areas, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

The tarsal joints are a series of articulations in the foot that involve the bones of the hindfoot and midfoot. There are three main tarsal joints:

1. Talocrural joint (also known as the ankle joint): This is the joint between the talus bone of the lower leg and the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg, as well as the calcaneus bone of the foot. It allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements of the foot.
2. Subtalar joint: This is the joint between the talus bone and the calcaneus bone. It allows for inversion and eversion movements of the foot.
3. Tarsometatarsal joints (also known as the Lisfranc joint): These are the joints between the tarsal bones of the midfoot and the metatarsal bones of the forefoot. They allow for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements of the foot.

These joints play an important role in the stability and mobility of the foot, allowing for various movements during activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

Acrodermatitis is a term that describes several inflammatory skin conditions characterized by redness, swelling, and blistering that typically affect the hands, feet, and face. The medical definition of acrodermatitis includes various subtypes, each with its own specific causes and symptoms. Here are some of the most common forms of acrodermatitis:

1. Acrodermatitis enteropathica: A rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency in zinc absorption. Symptoms include redness, swelling, blistering, and crusting around the mouth, eyes, and genitals, as well as the hands and feet.
2. Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau: A rare chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects the fingertips and toes. Symptoms include redness, swelling, blistering, and crusting, which can lead to nail deformities and loss.
3. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (acrodermatitis papulosa): A viral exanthem that typically affects children between 6 months and 15 years of age. Symptoms include red, raised bumps on the face, buttocks, and extremities, which can be itchy and painful.
4. Pustular acrodermatitis: A rare skin condition characterized by pustules (pus-filled bumps) that form on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Symptoms may also include fever, chills, and fatigue.
5. Infantile acrodermatitis: A rare inflammatory skin disorder that affects infants and young children. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and blistering around the mouth, eyes, and genitals, as well as the hands and feet.

Treatment for acrodermatitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, topical creams or ointments may be sufficient to manage symptoms, while in others, systemic treatments such as antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs may be necessary.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poland" is not a medical term. It is a country in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Ixodidae is a family of arachnids commonly known as hard ticks. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Ixodidae is a family of tick species, also known as hard ticks, which are obligate ectoparasites of many different terrestrial vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have a hard, shield-like structure on their dorsal surface called the scutum, and a prominent mouthpart called the hypostome, which helps them anchor themselves onto their host's skin during feeding.

Hard ticks are vectors of various bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases that can affect both humans and animals. Some of the diseases transmitted by Ixodidae include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and tularemia.

Ixodidae species have a complex life cycle that involves three developmental stages: larva, nymph, and adult. Each stage requires a blood meal from a host to progress to the next stage or to reproduce. The length of the life cycle varies depending on the species and environmental conditions but can take up to several years to complete.

Proper identification and control of Ixodidae populations are essential for preventing tick-borne diseases and protecting public health.

Aminocoumarins are a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme necessary for DNA replication and transcription. These antibiotics have a coumarin nucleus with an attached amino group. The most well-known aminocoumarin is novobiocin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. However, the use of aminocoumarins has become limited due to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the availability of other more effective antibiotics.

Complement Factor H is a protein involved in the regulation of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to clear pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Specifically, Complement Factor H helps to regulate the activation and deactivation of the complement component C3b, preventing excessive or unwanted activation of the complement system and protecting host tissues from damage.

Complement Factor H is a crucial protein in maintaining the balance between the protective effects of the complement system and the potential for harm to the body's own cells and tissues. Deficiencies or mutations in Complement Factor H have been associated with several diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and C3 glomerulopathy.

I believe you are looking for a medical definition or association with the name "Connecticut." However, I couldn't find any specific medical condition or term named after Connecticut. Connecticut is one of the 50 states in the United States and has no direct relation to medical terminology. If you have more context or information, please let me know so I can provide a more accurate response.

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide support and stability to the body during motion. Joints can be classified in several ways, including structure, function, and the type of tissue that forms them. The three main types of joints based on structure are fibrous (or fixed), cartilaginous, and synovial (or diarthrosis). Fibrous joints do not have a cavity and have limited movement, while cartilaginous joints allow for some movement and are connected by cartilage. Synovial joints, the most common and most movable type, have a space between the articular surfaces containing synovial fluid, which reduces friction and wear. Examples of synovial joints include hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, saddle, and condyloid joints.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Complement C3b inactivator proteins, also known as complement regulators or decay-accelerating factor (DAF), are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the complement system. The complement system is a part of the immune system that helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body.

The complement C3b inactivator proteins include two main types: complement receptor 1 (CR1) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF). These proteins work by regulating the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), a protein structure that forms pores in the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis.

Complement C3b inactivator proteins bind to C3b and C4b components of the complement system, preventing them from forming the MAC. By doing so, they help to prevent excessive activation of the complement system, which can damage healthy cells and tissues.

Deficiencies or dysfunction of complement C3b inactivator proteins have been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the role of these proteins in regulating the complement system is essential for developing new therapies to treat these conditions.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Forestry" is not a medical term. Forestry is the science and practice of managing forests, plantations, and associated resources for timber, wildlife, recreation, conservation, and other benefits. It involves the application of ecological principles, silvicultural techniques, and management strategies to ensure the sustainability and health of forest ecosystems.

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Ceftriaxone has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Ceftriaxone is available in injectable form and is commonly used to treat serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. It is also used to prevent infections after surgery or trauma. The drug is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious side effects such as anaphylaxis, kidney damage, and seizures.

It's important to note that Ceftriaxone should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and that it is not recommended for use in individuals with a history of allergic reactions to cephalosporins or penicillins. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, it should be taken as directed and for the full duration of the prescribed course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the treatment is finished.

Sigmodontinae is a subfamily of rodents, more specifically within the family Cricetidae. This group is commonly known as the New World rats and mice, and it includes over 300 species that are primarily found in North, Central, and South America. The members of Sigmodontinae vary greatly in size and habits, with some being arboreal while others live on the ground or burrow. Some species have specialized diets, such as eating insects or seeds, while others are more generalist feeders. This subfamily is also notable for its high degree of speciation and diversity, making it an interesting subject for evolutionary biologists and ecologists.

Bacterial adhesins are proteins or structures on the surface of bacterial cells that allow them to attach to other cells or surfaces. This ability to adhere to host tissues is an important first step in the process of bacterial infection and colonization. Adhesins can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, such as proteins or sugars, enabling the bacteria to establish a close relationship with the host and evade immune responses.

There are several types of bacterial adhesins, including fimbriae, pili, and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbriae and pili are thin, hair-like structures that extend from the bacterial surface and can bind to a variety of host cell receptors. Non-fimbrial adhesins are proteins that are directly embedded in the bacterial cell wall and can also mediate attachment to host cells.

Bacterial adhesins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

Dermacentor is a genus of ticks that includes several species known to transmit diseases to humans and animals. Some of the notable species in this genus are:

1. Dermacentor andersoni (Rocky Mountain wood tick): This species is widely distributed across western North America and can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and tularemia.
2. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick): Found throughout the United States, this tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and human ehrlichiosis.
3. Dermacentor reticulatus (Ornate cow tick or Marsh tick): This species is distributed in Europe and parts of Asia and can transmit diseases like tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, and babesiosis.
4. Dermacentor marginatus (Marginated tick): Found primarily in Europe, this tick transmits various pathogens causing diseases such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and rickettsialpox.
5. Dermacentor nitens (Brazilian pampas tick): This species is native to South America and can transmit Rickettsia rickettsii, the bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Dermacentor ticks are known for their hard, shield-like structures called scutums on their backs and their long mouthparts called hypostomes, which they use to feed on the blood of their hosts. They typically prefer large mammals as hosts but will also feed on humans and other animals if necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Slovakia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Muridae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically it is a family of rodents that includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, and many other species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those.

Antigenic variation is a mechanism used by some microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, to evade the immune system and establish persistent infections. This occurs when these pathogens change or modify their surface antigens, which are molecules that can be recognized by the host's immune system and trigger an immune response.

The changes in the surface antigens can occur due to various mechanisms, such as gene mutation, gene rearrangement, or gene transfer. These changes can result in the production of new variants of the microorganism that are different enough from the original strain to avoid recognition by the host's immune system.

Antigenic variation is a significant challenge in developing effective vaccines against certain infectious diseases, such as malaria and influenza, because the constantly changing surface antigens make it difficult for the immune system to mount an effective response. Therefore, researchers are working on developing vaccines that target conserved regions of the microorganism that do not undergo antigenic variation or using a combination of antigens to increase the likelihood of recognition by the immune system.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. It belongs to the tetracycline class of antibiotics. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the production of proteins that bacteria need to survive and multiply.

Doxycycline is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and severe acne. It is also used to prevent malaria in travelers who are visiting areas where malaria is common.

Like all antibiotics, doxycycline should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare professional. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections harder to treat in the future.

It's important to note that doxycycline can cause photosensitivity, so it is recommended to avoid prolonged sun exposure and use sun protection while taking this medication. Additionally, doxycycline should not be taken during pregnancy or by children under the age of 8 due to potential dental and bone development issues.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

RNA polymerase sigma 54 (σ^54) is not a medical term, but rather a molecular biology concept. It's a type of sigma factor that associates with the core RNA polymerase to form the holoenzyme in bacteria. Sigma factors are subunits of RNA polymerase that recognize and bind to specific promoter sequences on DNA, thereby initiating transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA).

σ^54 is unique because it requires additional energy to melt the DNA strands at the promoter site for transcription initiation. This energy comes from ATP hydrolysis, which is facilitated by a group of proteins called bacterial enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs). The σ^54-dependent promoters typically contain two conserved sequence elements: an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and a downstream core promoter element (DPE).

In summary, RNA polymerase sigma 54 is a type of sigma factor that plays a crucial role in the initiation of transcription in bacteria. It specifically recognizes and binds to certain promoter sequences on DNA, and its activity requires ATP hydrolysis facilitated by bEBPs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the third largest continent in the world, which includes countries such as the United States, Canada, and Mexico, among others. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

Synovial fluid is a viscous, clear, and straw-colored fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the inner surface of the capsule surrounding these structures.

The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between articulating surfaces, providing lubrication for smooth and painless movement. It also acts as a shock absorber, protecting the joints from external forces during physical activities. Synovial fluid contains nutrients that nourish the articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid, which provides its viscoelastic properties, and lubricin, a protein responsible for boundary lubrication.

Abnormalities in synovial fluid composition or volume can indicate joint-related disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infection, or trauma. Analysis of synovial fluid is often used diagnostically to determine the underlying cause of joint pain, inflammation, or dysfunction.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

23S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of rRNA that is a component of the large ribosomal subunit in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit contains 50S, which consists of 23S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and around 33 proteins. The 23S rRNA plays a crucial role in the decoding of mRNA during protein synthesis and also participates in the formation of the peptidyl transferase center, where peptide bonds are formed between amino acids.

The 23S rRNA is a long RNA molecule that contains both coding and non-coding regions. It has a complex secondary structure, which includes several domains and subdomains, as well as numerous stem-loop structures. These structures are important for the proper functioning of the ribosome during protein synthesis.

In addition to its role in protein synthesis, 23S rRNA has been used as a target for antibiotics that inhibit bacterial growth. For example, certain antibiotics bind to specific regions of the 23S rRNA and interfere with the function of the ribosome, thereby preventing bacterial protein synthesis and growth. However, because eukaryotic cells do not have a 23S rRNA equivalent, these antibiotics are generally not toxic to human cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Slovenia" is not a medical term. It is actually a country located in Central Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Xenodiagnosis is a medical diagnostic technique whereby a parasite or other infectious agent is detected in an alternative host species that has been exposed to a patient's sample. This method is particularly useful in identifying the causative agents of certain diseases, especially those with obscure or unknown etiology, when traditional diagnostic methods have failed.

For example, in the case of Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted mainly through triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"), xenodiagnosis involves allowing uninfected bugs to feed on a patient's blood. After an incubation period, the bugs are examined for the presence of T. cruzi in their gut, which would confirm the patient's infection.

It is important to note that xenodiagnosis has limited use in modern medicine due to the development of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, such as PCR and serological tests. However, it can still be a valuable tool in certain research and clinical settings where traditional diagnostics may not be feasible or conclusive.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A sigma factor is a type of protein in bacteria that plays an essential role in the initiation of transcription, which is the first step of gene expression. Sigma factors recognize and bind to specific sequences on DNA, known as promoters, enabling the attachment of RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing RNA.

In bacteria, RNA polymerase is made up of several subunits, including a core enzyme and a sigma factor. The sigma factor confers specificity to the RNA polymerase by recognizing and binding to the promoter region of the DNA, allowing transcription to begin. Once transcription starts, the sigma factor is released from the RNA polymerase, which then continues to synthesize RNA until it reaches the end of the gene.

Bacteria have multiple sigma factors that allow them to respond to different environmental conditions and stresses by regulating the expression of specific sets of genes. For example, some sigma factors are involved in the regulation of genes required for growth and metabolism under normal conditions, while others are involved in the response to heat shock, starvation, or other stressors.

Overall, sigma factors play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in bacteria, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions and maintain cellular homeostasis.

'Animal structures' is a broad term that refers to the various physical parts and organs that make up animals. These structures can include everything from the external features, such as skin, hair, and scales, to the internal organs and systems, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and digestive system.

Animal structures are designed to perform specific functions that enable the animal to survive, grow, and reproduce. For example, the heart pumps blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells, while the lungs facilitate gas exchange between the animal and its environment. The brain serves as the control center of the nervous system, processing sensory information and coordinating motor responses.

Animal structures can be categorized into different systems based on their function, such as the circulatory system, respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, and reproductive system. Each system is made up of various structures that work together to perform a specific function.

Understanding animal structures and how they function is essential for understanding animal biology and behavior. It also has important implications for human health, as many animals serve as models for studying human disease and developing new treatments.

SCID mice is an acronym for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice. These are genetically modified mice that lack a functional immune system due to the mutation or knockout of several key genes required for immunity. This makes them ideal for studying the human immune system, infectious diseases, and cancer, as well as testing new therapies and treatments in a controlled environment without the risk of interference from the mouse's own immune system. SCID mice are often used in xenotransplantation studies, where human cells or tissues are transplanted into the mouse to study their behavior and interactions with the human immune system.

Blood bactericidal activity refers to the ability of an individual's blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is an important aspect of the body's immune system, as it helps to prevent infection and maintain overall health. The bactericidal activity of blood can be influenced by various factors, including the presence of antibodies, white blood cells (such as neutrophils), and complement proteins.

In medical terms, the term "bactericidal" specifically refers to an agent or substance that is capable of killing bacteria. Therefore, when we talk about blood bactericidal activity, we are referring to the collective ability of various components in the blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is often measured in laboratory tests as a way to assess a person's immune function and their susceptibility to infection.

It's worth noting that not all substances in the blood are bactericidal; some may simply inhibit the growth of bacteria without killing them. These substances are referred to as bacteriostatic. Both bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents play important roles in maintaining the body's defense against infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "shrews" is not a medical term. It is a common name used in zoology to refer to small mammals that are part of the family Soricidae and the suborder Soricomorpha. Shrews are insectivores, distantly related to moles and hedgehogs. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Decorin is a small proteoglycan, a type of protein with a attached sugar chain, that is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the body. It is composed of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, specifically dermatan sulfate. Decorin plays important roles in the organization and biomechanical properties of collagen fibrils, regulation of cell proliferation and migration, and modulation of growth factor activity. It has been studied for its potential role in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, fibrosis, and cancer.

Ornithodoros is a genus of hard-bodied ticks that belong to the family Argasidae, also known as soft ticks. These ticks are characterized by their lack of a distinct rear end or capitulum, and they have a leathery cuticle that appears smooth and shiny when they are engorged with blood.

Ornithodoros ticks are known to be vectors of various diseases, including relapsing fever caused by Borrelia spp. They can transmit these pathogens through their saliva during feeding, which typically occurs at night. Ornithodoros ticks are also capable of surviving for long periods without food, making them efficient carriers and transmitters of disease-causing agents.

These ticks are often found in the nests or burrows of animals such as birds, reptiles, and mammals, where they feed on the host's blood. Some species of Ornithodoros ticks can also bite humans, causing skin irritation and other symptoms. It is important to take precautions when entering areas where these ticks may be present, such as wearing protective clothing and using insect repellent.

Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They form water-filled channels, or pores, that allow small molecules such as ions, nutrients, and waste products to pass through the otherwise impermeable outer membrane. Porins are important for the survival of gram-negative bacteria, as they enable the selective transport of essential molecules while providing a barrier against harmful substances.

There are different types of porins, classified based on their structure and function. Some examples include:

1. General porins (also known as nonspecific porins): These are the most common type of porins and form large, water-filled channels that allow passive diffusion of small molecules up to 600-700 Da in size. They typically have a trimeric structure, with three identical or similar subunits forming a pore in the membrane.
2. Specific porins: These porins are more selective in the molecules they allow to pass through and often have smaller pores than general porins. They can be involved in the active transport of specific molecules or ions, requiring energy from the cell.
3. Autotransporters: While not strictly considered porins, autotransporter proteins share some structural similarities with porins and are involved in the transport of protein domains across the outer membrane. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal translocator domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane through which the passenger domain is transported.

Porins have attracted interest as potential targets for antibiotic development, as they play crucial roles in bacterial survival and virulence. Inhibiting porin function or blocking the pores could disrupt essential processes in gram-negative bacteria, providing a new approach to treating infections caused by these organisms.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These small mammals are characterized by their short legs, rounded bodies, and short tails. They are primarily found in the northern hemisphere, with the majority of species living in North America and Eurasia.

Arvicolines are known for their high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, tundra, and wetlands. They have a unique set of teeth called hypsodont teeth, which continue to grow throughout their lives. This adaptation allows them to wear down their teeth as they gnaw on tough plant material.

Many arvicoline species are important prey animals for larger predators, such as hawks, owls, and foxes. Some species, like the muskrat, are also hunted by humans for their fur or meat. In recent years, some arvicoline populations have experienced dramatic fluctuations in size due to changes in their habitats and food supplies, leading to concerns about their conservation status.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Sciuridae" is not a medical term. It is a scientific name in the field of biology, specifically for the family of animals that include squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, and prairie dogs, among others. These are rodents known for their agility in climbing trees and their ability to store food.

5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a type of ribosomal RNA molecule that is a component of the large subunit of the ribosome, a complex molecular machine found in the cells of all living organisms. The "5S" refers to its sedimentation coefficient, a measure of its rate of sedimentation in an ultracentrifuge, which is 5S.

In prokaryotic cells, there are typically one or two copies of 5S rRNA molecules per ribosome, while in eukaryotic cells, there are three to four copies per ribosome. The 5S rRNA plays a structural role in the ribosome and is also involved in the process of protein synthesis, working together with other ribosomal components to translate messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

The 5S rRNA molecule is relatively small, ranging from 100 to 150 nucleotides in length, and has a characteristic secondary structure that includes several stem-loop structures. The sequence and structure of the 5S rRNA are highly conserved across different species, making it a useful tool for studying evolutionary relationships between organisms.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, which is the middle layer of the heart wall. The myocardium is composed of cardiac muscle cells and is responsible for the heart's pumping function. Myocarditis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and drugs.

In myocarditis, the inflammation can damage the cardiac muscle cells, leading to decreased heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms), and in severe cases, heart failure or even sudden death. Symptoms of myocarditis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen.

The diagnosis of myocarditis is often based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications to support heart function, reduce inflammation, control arrhythmias, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Latvia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Northern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

'Ehrlichia canis' is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that belongs to the family Anaplasmataceae. It is the etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), which is a tick-borne disease in dogs. The bacteria are transmitted to dogs through the bite of infected brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).

The infection can cause a variety of clinical signs, including fever, lethargy, anorexia, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhages. In severe cases, the infection may lead to serious complications such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), neurological disorders, and even death.

Diagnosis of CME is typically made through detection of Ehrlichia canis antibodies in the dog's serum or by PCR-based methods to detect the bacterial DNA. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which has been shown to be effective against Ehrlichia canis.

It is important to note that 'Ehrlichia canis' can also infect humans, causing a similar disease known as human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). However, this is rare and usually occurs in individuals who are immunocompromised or have been exposed to infected dogs or ticks.

"Treponema pallidum" is a species of spiral-shaped bacteria (a spirochete) that is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection. The bacterium is very thin and difficult to culture in the laboratory, which has made it challenging for researchers to study its biology and develop new treatments for syphilis.

The bacterium can infect various tissues and organs in the body, leading to a wide range of symptoms that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, bones, joints, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. The infection can be transmitted through sexual contact, from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

Syphilis is a serious disease that can have long-term health consequences if left untreated. However, it is also curable with appropriate antibiotic therapy, such as penicillin. It is important to diagnose and treat syphilis early to prevent the spread of the infection and avoid potential complications.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Anaplasmataceae is a family of gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that includes several human pathogens. These bacteria are known to infect and parasitize the white blood cells (such as granulocytes, monocytes, or erythrocytes) of various mammals, including humans. The bacterial genus within Anaplasmataceae include Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Orientia.

Some notable human pathogens in this family are:

1. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Causes Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), which is transmitted primarily through the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus).
2. Ehrlichia chaffeensis - Causes Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME), which is transmitted mainly by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
3. Ehrlichia ewingii - Associated with Human Ewingii Ehrlichiosis, primarily transmitted through the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum).
4. Neorickettsia sennetsu - Causes Sennetsu fever, which is a rare infectious disease in humans and is usually found in Japan and Southeast Asia. It's transmitted by the swallow bug or through the consumption of raw fish.
5. Orientia tsutsugamushi - Causes Scrub typhus, a widespread mite-borne disease in the Asia-Pacific region.

These bacterial infections can lead to flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, they may cause complications like respiratory failure, organ damage, or even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

The ear is the sensory organ responsible for hearing and maintaining balance. It can be divided into three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna (the visible part of the ear) and the external auditory canal, which directs sound waves toward the eardrum. The middle ear contains three small bones called ossicles that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The inner ear contains the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain, and the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

Erythema is a term used in medicine to describe redness of the skin, which occurs as a result of increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries. This redness can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, trauma, or exposure to heat, cold, or ultraviolet radiation. In some cases, erythema may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as swelling, warmth, pain, or itching. It is a common finding in many medical conditions and can vary in severity from mild to severe.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

The Czech Republic is a country located in Central Europe. It is not a medical term or concept, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, like any other country, the Czech Republic has its own healthcare system and medical facilities that provide various health services to its population. The Czech Republic is known for its high-quality healthcare and medical education, with many institutions being recognized worldwide.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

The genomic variations of B. burgdorferi contribute to varying degrees of infection and dissemination. Each genomic group has ... Scholia has a topic profile for Borrelia burgdorferi. NCBI Borrelia Taxonomy Browser Borrelia burgdoferi B31 Genome Page (CS1: ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class in the genus Borrelia, and is one of the causative agents ... Borrelia species are Gram-negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the ...
Lymerix works on the outer surface protein A (Osp-A) of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Osp-A causes ... This statement became a rallying point for what advocacy groups call the Lyme disease controversy. In the face of some elements ... Kamradt T, Lengl-Janssen B, Strauss AF, Bansal G, Steere AC (April 1996). "Dominant recognition of a Borrelia burgdorferi outer ... July 1998). "Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. ...
Lyme disease; is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the Deer tick ( ... Ixodes scapularis). Lyme disease is one of a group of diseases which have earned the name the "great imitator" for their ... February 2002). "Higher prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in psychiatric patients than in healthy subjects". The ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, and Treponema pallidum. Comparing the sequences, in a 2001 study by Rominus et al., it was determined ... that S. thermophila was most closely related to T. pallidum for this sequence and the sister to those groups was B. ... burgdorferi that was a mesophile. This was an interesting revelation because it was previously assumed that the thermophilic, ...
Ticks and lice form another large group of invertebrate vectors. The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme Disease ... Another large group of vectors are flies. Sandfly species transmit the disease leishmaniasis, by acting as vectors for ...
Habálek, Z.; Halouzka, J. (1997-12-01). "Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review". ... Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi B31 Genome Page Borrelia garinii PBi Genome Page Borrelia afzelli PKo Genome Page Schwan TG, ... Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the ... "Expanded diversity among Californian Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ...
Most bacterial chromosomes are circular although some examples of linear DNA exist (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi). Usually a ... They have O-acetyl groups on carbon-6 of some muramic acid residues. The matrix substances in the walls of gram-positive ... There do exist, however, specialized groups of bacteria that contain more complex intracellular structures, some of which are ... Intracellular membranes are also found in bacteria belonging to the poorly studied Planctomycetota group, although these ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, and Helicobacter pylori. As a derivative of ampicillin, amoxicillin is a member of the penicillin family ... It has two ionizable groups in the physiological range (the amino group in alpha-position to the amide carbonyl group and the ... developed by the Beecham Group in the 1960s. It was invented by Anthony Alfred Walter Long and John Herbert Charles Nayler, two ... assigned to Beecham Group LTD Geddes AM, Klugman KP, Rolinson GN (December 2007). "Introduction: historical perspective and ...
... mostly in people without any evidence of infection with Borrelia Burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Groups of ... The IDSA was formed from two different groups. Jay P. Sanford and a group that included members of the American Federation for ... Such groups have been critical of the IDSA guidelines on Lyme disease. In 2006, Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal ... "Drug Companies, Health Groups Back IDSA Proposal" (Press release). Infectious Diseases Society of America. April 12, 2012. ...
... and Borrelia burgdorferi (known for causing Lyme disease), and may also result from cerebral malaria (malaria infecting the ... For instance, while N. meningitides groups B and C cause most disease episodes in Europe, group A is found in Asia and ... Meningococcus vaccines exist against groups A, B, C, W135 and Y. In countries where the vaccine for meningococcus group C was ... Inflammation of the meninges may lead to abnormalities of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves arising from the brain stem ...
... including the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. - and important in natural transmission. Nuttall's ... Her group has also shown that the proteins in saliva differ between individual ticks of the same species and also change over ... One vaccine candidate explored by Nuttall's group is 64TRP, a 15 kDa Rhipicephalus appendiculatus protein from the cement cone ... group has continued to study the phenomenon, and have shown that immunity to tick-borne encephalitis virus does not prevent ...
Borrelia MeSH B03.851.595.193.150 - Borrelia burgdorferi group MeSH B03.851.595.193.150.125 - Borrelia burgdorferi MeSH B03.851 ... Borrelia MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.193.150 - Borrelia burgdorferi group MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.193.150.125 - Borrelia ... Streptococcus milleri group MeSH B03.510.400.800.872.875.475.080 - Streptococcus anginosus MeSH B03.510.400.800.872.875.475.150 ... burgdorferi MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.670 - Serpulina MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.670.400 - Serpulina hyodysenteriae MeSH B03.440. ...
... species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease Synergistota Thermodesulfobacteriota Thermomicrobiota ... and those groups were then grouped according to their similarities, and so on, to form a hierarchy. Budd, G. E.; Jensen, S. ( ... as it must display a character unique to a sub-set of the crown group. Furthermore, organisms in the stem group of a phylum can ... classified plants into five groups named divisions, a term that remains in use today for groups of plants, algae and fungi. The ...
A mutant strain of rrp1 has been found to cause growth deficits with Borrelia burgdorferi. In Escherichia coli, the chb operon ... Chitobioses are a group of related disaccharides of β-1,4-linked glucosamine units. The term chitobiose is sometimes used to ... Chitobiose is utilized by Borrelia burgdorferi to produce N-acetylglucosamine, a component of the bacterial cell wall, and is ... of the response regulator Rrp1 reveals its regulatory role in chitobiose utilization and virulence of Borrelia burgdorferi". ...
McInerney, J. O. (1 September 1998). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". ... In 1999, McInerney returned to Ireland to set up the Bioinformatics Research Group at NUI Maynooth and became the Director of ... career focused on the study of codon usage in a variety of organisms including Trichomonas vaginalis and Borrelia burgdorferi. ... In 2015, the McInerney research group moved to The University of Manchester where McInerney took up a Chair in Evolutionary ...
The best-known culprit is Borrelia burgdorferi, but many different Borrelia species cause Lyme disease worldwide. An Australian ... Tick Alert Group Support, Mona Vale, Sydney, TAGS Inc until 2009 (A community organisation supporting sufferers of tick- ... and may be quite different from Borrelia burgdorferi. Despite clinical case reports, it is still controversial as to whether ... for the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. International Journal Parasitology, 21: 109-11. Hudson, B.J., Barry, R.D ...
Introduction of the Borrelia burgdorferi blyAB locus into Escherichia coli produces a hemolytic phenotype that is dependent on ... The BlyA Holin Family (TC# 1.E.17) is a group of holin proteins that are approximately 55-70 amino acyl residues (aas) in ... Damman, C. J.; Eggers, C. H.; Samuels, D. S.; Oliver, D. B. (2000-12-01). "Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi BlyA and ... from Borrelia burgdorferi". International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 298 (5-6): 473-481. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.07.014. ...
"Expanded diversity among Californian borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ... Wolcott KA, Margos G, Fingerle V, Becker NS (June 2021). "Host association of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: A review". Ticks ... NCBI Taxonomy Browser - Borrelia "Borrelia bissettii" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Borrelia bissettii at BacDive ... "Whole-genome sequences of Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia spielmanii". Journal of Bacteriology. 194 (2): ...
OspA from Borrelia burgdorferi is an unusual outer surface protein, it has two globular domains which are connected with a ... Members of this group include: PagC, required by Salmonella typhimurium for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice ... Borrelia burgdorferi (responsible for Lyme disease) outer surface proteins play a role in persistence within ticks (OspA, OspB ... OspA OspC is a major surface lipoprotein produced by Borrelia burgdorferi when infected ticks feed. OspC is necessary for tick ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, a bacterium that causes lyme disease, can affect multiple large joints such as the knee. Confirmation of ... In adults vulnerable groups include an artificial joint, prior arthritis, diabetes and poor immune function. Diagnosis is ... immunocompromised state Borrelia burgdorferi - ticks, causes lyme disease Spirillum minus, Streptobacillus moniliformis - rat ... Synovial fluid PCR analysis is useful in finding less common organisms such as Borrelia species. However, measuring protein and ...
It is a part of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and is a Gram-negative bacterium. B. lusitaniae is tick-borne; ... it is the sole species of the Lyme borreliosis group in southern Portugal. Lizards of the family Lacertidae are believed to be ... 1995). "T cell response to Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains". ... Borrelia lusitaniae is a bacterium of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia, which has a diderm (double-membrane) envelope ...
The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. All species ... Of the 52 known species of Borrelia, 20 belong to the Lyme disease group and are transmitted by ticks. Eight are known to cause ... 2020 Borrelia mazzottii ♦ Davis 1956 "Borrelia merionesi" Hougen 1974 "Borrelia microti" (Rafyi 1946) Davis 1948 "Ca. Borrelia ... containing the members of the Lyme disease Borrelia (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex)". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 105 (6 ...
Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Rickettsia conorii causes ... A canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) is one of "a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused ... viruses are also becoming recognized as another group of transmitted pathogens of both animals and humans. Some canine vector- ...
Abundance and Infection Prevalence With Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae)". Environmental Entomology. ... The Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group lists it among its "Least Wanted". Japanese barberry is prohibited ... "PCA Alien Plant Working Group - Japanese Barberry (Berberis thunbergii)". Archived from the original on 23 October 2004. " ...
Bacterial infections include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira, and beta-hemolytic Streptococci. Exposure ... Group means for each cognitive domain were all within one standard deviation of age norms, demonstrating that, as a group, they ... Again, all groups means were within one standard deviation of the controls, meaning that while effects were statistically ... The VAERS Working Group". Vaccine. 18 (26): 2963-69. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00111-0. PMID 10825597. Tourbah A, Gout O, ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae Fungal: Aspergillus Parasitic: Ascaris, Echinococcus ... For this high-risk group, incidence of myocarditis has been reported to be more than 1 case per 10,000. Electric shock ...
studied the diversification and epidemiology of endemic bacterial pathogens by using the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex ( ... Moore et al conducted a study in 2014 in which a group of Atlantic Salmon populations which were previously analyzed with ... "Comparative Population Genomics of the Borrelia burgdorferi Species Complex Reveals High Degree of Genetic Isolation among ... They also wished to compare the genetic structure between B. burgdorferi and the closely related species B. garinii and B. ...
In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Cat Specialist Group "Ctenocephalides". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...
In 1997, TIGR determined the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi (which causes Lyme Disease) . In 1998, TIGR sequenced the genome of ... Venter will continue to lead a separate nonprofit research group, also known as the J. Craig Venter Institute. Artificial cell ... Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-586. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..580F. doi:10.1038/37551. PMID 9403685. S2CID 4388492 ...
Other examples are Rickettsia, Buchnera aphidicola, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Small genome size in such species is associated ... Obligate bacterial symbionts or pathogens have the smallest genomes and the fewest pseudogenes of the three groups. The ... there is relatively little variation in genome size when compared with the genome sizes of other major groups of life. Genome ...
Steere AC, Sikand VK, Meurice F, Parenti DL, Fikrig E, Schoen RT, et al.; Lyme Disease Vaccine Study Group. Vaccination against ... van Beek J, Sajanti E, Helve O, Ollgren J, Virtanen MJ, Rissanen H, et al. Population-based Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato ... Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:107-10. DOI ... Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Belgian forestry workers and associated risk factors. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:277. ...
Since B. burgdorferi first infects skin, the possible protective effect of skin … ... Borrelia burgdorferi, can be recovered long after initial infection, even from antibiotic-treated patients, indicating that it ... Borrelia burgdorferi Group / drug effects* * Borrelia burgdorferi Group / growth & development * Borrelia burgdorferi* ... Fibroblasts protect the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from ceftriaxone in vitro J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2): ...
The genomic variations of B. burgdorferi contribute to varying degrees of infection and dissemination. Each genomic group has ... Scholia has a topic profile for Borrelia burgdorferi. NCBI Borrelia Taxonomy Browser Borrelia burgdoferi B31 Genome Page (CS1: ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class in the genus Borrelia, and is one of the causative agents ... Borrelia species are Gram-negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the ...
... including Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, and deer tick virus (Powassan virus, lineage II). ... The tick vector that transmits A. phagocytophilum also transmits other pathogens, and coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi or ... De Martino SJ, Carlyon JA, Fikrig E. Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. N ... Simultaneous infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22:91-2. ...
Categories: Borrelia burgdorferi Group Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
The vaccine is called Borrelia Burgdorferi Bacterin. The product, called LymeShield, includes a device or "station" that holds ... In its announcement, Memphis-based US Biologic said field trials by several groups showed a real-world impact and that the ... has conditionally licensed an oral vaccine designed to limit the spread of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme ... It added that it will work closely with federal and state health agencies, pest control management groups, and partners ...
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.. *B. burgdorferi is a large group of related bacteria, some of ... Spirochaetes and Borrelia. Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The genus Borrelia is a member of the ... or by lice in the case of Borrelia recurrentis. However, since the 1980s there has been much interest in Borrelia burgdorferi, ... Clinical appearance of erythema migrans caused by Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii- effect of the patients sex. Wien Klin ...
Rego does research on the Lyme disease pathogen complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. He is interested in understanding host ... Last summer he hosted Belen Molina in his group-Belen has appeared on Thursday Thesis twice in the past. ... scientist from the Institute of Parasitology in the Czech Republic who hosts UA undergraduate students in his research group ...
Comparing B. burgdorferi s.l. infections in Hanoverian I. ricinus ticks in 2010 with data from 2005, a statistically ... B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. bissettii, B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae were also identified. Significant ... Overall, 22.7% (476/2,100) of collected ticks were tested positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. infections. Adult ticks showed an ... In the latter year, coinfections with Borrelia and Rickettsiales were detected in a total of 7.8% (163/2,100) of collected ...
Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) may lead to a false-positive FTA-ABS test result, but it does not cause a ... One American group [10] contends that the profound thinker had an underlying sphenoid wing meningioma, whereas a European group ... The Seattle group [52] stresses that compared with the CSF-VDRL, the CSF-RPR has a high false-negative (BFN) rate, which ... This treatment group includes patients with late latent disease (,1 y) and those in whom the CSF was not examined in latency. ...
... of the likely-to-highly-likely group also recalling tick-bite encounters (compared to 20% of the lowest scoring). Approximately ... Borrelia burgdorferi-causal agent of Lyme borreliosis (Lyme Disease). Powassan virus-causal agent of Powassan encephalitis. ... Spotted fever group Rickettsia, causal agents of human rickettsiosis. Theileria equi-causal agent of equine piroplasmosis ... Borrelia lonestari-causal agent of Southern Tick Associated Rash Infection. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii-causal agents ...
Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection caused by bacteria in the Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato group. ... "Its doctors admitting they havent got there yet, youre in the unlucky group of people that have to suffer until science ...
Genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi and detection of B. bissettii-like DNA in serum of north-coastal California residents ... Digitally colorized scanning electron microscope image depicting a grouping of numerous, Gram-negative anaerobic Borrelia ... Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in southern Kettle Moraine State Forest, Wisconsin, and ... High frequency of false positive IgM immunoblots for Borrelia burgdorferi in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18( ...
Fatty acids of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins. J Bacteriol 1994;176:2151-7. ... They also contain all survey design variables and sample weights for these age groups. The phlebotomy file includes auxiliary ...
T cell responses to OspA were significantly increased in patients with early LB compared with both control groups whereas in ... Cellular immune reactivity to recombinant OspA and flagellin from Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme borreliosis. ... Cellular immune reactivity to recombinant OspA and flagellin from Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme borreliosis. ... usually develop a vigorous T cell response against the causative pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, but little is known about the ...
Borrelia burgdorferi IgG Kit von Bios bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Bakteriologie finden Sie hier. ... Nordic BioSite Group gibt Übernahme von LubioScience & Namensänderung in Europa Biosite bekannt. Die Nordic BioSite wurde 1997 ...
However, multiple genetically diverse Borrelia species encompassing the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) complex and the ... US group calling for congressional investigation of the US Center for Disease Control, IDSA, and NIH.. ByTeam May 19, 2013. ... Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss) is considered the primary agent of Lyme disease in North America. ... Lyme Disease: Diversity of Borrelia Species in California and Mexico Detected Using a Novel Immunoblot Assay. ByCanLyme Team ...
Humans appear to develop strain specific immunity to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. ... His group is also investigating whether becoming infected and generating an immune reaction against one strain could offer ... the infected person may receive antibiotics from a physician but generally will not know what strain of Borrelia burgdorferi ... But a 2012 study by Wormsers group, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reported on 17 patients who had been ...
are detected more frequently in patients with cataract compared to the control group. This could indicate a possible role of ... Sera from patients and the control group were subjected to serological tests to search specific antibodies to the bacteria. ... Serological studies have shown that infections caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. were detected in 34.8% ... Specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. ...
Group Products & Hospital Networks Show Group Products & Hospital Networks submenu * Carrier Networks & Product Offerings ... Borrelia Burgdorferi (Lyme disease) Antibody Level. CPT Code 86618 A blood test that determines if Lyme disease bacteria is ... antibodies for borrelia burgdorferi).. Show Related Procedures Related Procedures. Related procedures are health care services ... 2022 Small Group Comparison Tool * Carrier Quality & Customer Service Show Carrier Quality & Customer Service submenu * Carrier ...
Borrelia burgdorferi Group. Title. DELINEATING THE MECHANISM OF AGGREGATE OR BIOFILM FORMATION IN THE LYME DISEASE SPIROCHETE ... Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete causing Lyme disease, is transmitted to a vertebrate host by the bite of an infected ... In B. burgdorferi, SpoVG acted as a nucleic acid binding protein, and our results also suggest that SpoVG binds to a cyclic-di- ... However, nothing is known about the factors involved in B. burgdorferi biofilm or aggregate formation. To begin to understand ...
... and Borrelia burgdorferi. ... Others include group A Streptococcus, Neisseria meningitidis in ...
... are particularly concerned about ticks transmitting bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex-a group of ... Hikers in wooded areas must check themselves carefully for attached ticks, as Borrelia burgdorferi-carrying ticks transmit Lyme ... burgdorferi. OspA is widely conserved among the bacteria in the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which makes it a great ... vectored intranasal vaccine for Lyme disease provides long-lasting protection against tick transmitted Borrelia burgdorferi in ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and SFG Rickettsia) and molecular assays to assess for exposure to, or infection with, ... Group I) and from 69 sick dogs suspected to have one or more canine vector-borne diseases (Groups II-IV), were tested in ... otherwise disclose your personal data outside the ResearchGate or the Springer Nature group of companies unless we have your ... Among all dogs tested (Groups I-IV), the molecular prevalences for individual CVBD pathogens ranged between 23.3 and 39.1%. ...
Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ligamentous tissue from a patient with chronic Lyme borreliosis. Häupl, T., Hahn, G., ... The genetic control of virulence in group A streptococci. II. Trigger effect by plasmids on anti-phagocytic activity, opacity ... The genetic control of virulence in group A streptococci. II. Trigger effect by plasmids on anti-phagocytic activity, opacity ... Unilateral cases of either type of epicondylitis (n = 283) were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups according ...
No differences (P , 0.05) were found among the age groups of over six months old. Ticks were found and collected from 71 (35.68 ... Soroprevalência de Borrelia burgdorferi latu sensu associada à presença de carrapatos em cães de áreas rurais do Estado do Rio ... Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi latu sensu associated with dog ticks in rural areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil ... Pesquisou-se a presença de anticorpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi latu sensu em cães de áreas rurais de sete municípios do ...
It is caused by a bacterium belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, which includes at least 5 species that are ... Find out more about the Ticks and tick-borne diseases group in which ANSES researchers are taking part. (in French) ... for Borrelia, as well as the French Ministry of Solidarity and Health. The application can be downloaded from the AppStore and ...
... the ospC-B group consists of genotypes distinct to each continent, indicating geographic isolation. We conclude that the ospC-A ... Borrelia burgdorferi, an emerging bacterial pathogen, is maintained in nature by transmission from one vertebrate host to ... 2008). Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America. 14(7). Qiu, Wei-Gang et al ... Antigens, Bacterial Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins Borrelia Burgdorferi Genetic Drift Humans Lyme Disease Phylogeny Sequence ...
  • B. burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease and is why this bacteria is so important and being studied. (
  • B. burgdorfer i is a large group of related bacteria, some of which cause disease. (
  • Knowledge of Borrelia is expanding as better tools to analyse the bacteria are becoming more widely used. (
  • The genus Borrelia is a member of the larger family of bacteria called Spirochaetes which were originally thought to be spiral shaped. (
  • Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection caused by bacteria in the Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato group. (
  • Digitally colorized scanning electron microscope image depicting a grouping of numerous, Gram-negative anaerobic Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria derived from a pure culture. (
  • Therefore, T cell reactivities against whole bacteria, recombinant 31-kD (outer surface protein A, [OspA]), and 41-kD proteins (flagellin) from B. burgdorferi were studied in patients with LB, non-LB patients, and healthy donors. (
  • Humans appear to develop strain specific immunity to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. (
  • Sera from patients and the control group were subjected to serological tests to search specific antibodies to the bacteria. (
  • A blood test that determines if Lyme disease bacteria is present (antibodies for borrelia burgdorferi). (
  • Scientists are particularly concerned about ticks transmitting bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex-a group of spirochetes that includes the originally discovered species, B. burgdorferi . (
  • OspA is widely conserved among the bacteria in the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which makes it a great target. (
  • Caused by infection with the spirochetal (helical) bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, Lyme disease is primarily transmitted to humans , as well as dogs , horses and other domesticated animals, by the bite of infected ticks . (
  • Lyme disease is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia , which has well over 300 known genomic strains. (
  • One of the most striking features of B. burgdorferi as compared with other bacteria is its unusual genome, which is far more complex than that of its spirochetal cousin Treponema pallidum, the agent of syphilis. (
  • It's caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. (
  • Lyme disease in humans is caused by infection with the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that is transmitted by tick bite. (
  • It demonstrated activity in vitro against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A), and other Streptococcal species, Haemophilus influenza and poronfluenzar Moraxella catarrhalis, anaerobes including Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia col Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis. (
  • Wilking H , Fingerle V , Klier C , Thamm M , Stark K . Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011. (
  • Specific antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. (
  • The prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi latu sensu was investigated in dogs from rural areas of seven towns of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Amblyomma cajennense was found in 38.7% and R. sanguineus in 22.6% of the dogs with B. burgdorferi antibodies, although no positive correlation between the ticks parasitism and positive serology was found. (
  • The odds of dogs having B. burgdorferi antibodies were higher when multiple ticks were collected on an animal. (
  • Results: Antibodies to B. burgdorferi were detected in 3 patients and B. burgdorferi DNA was demonstrated in 5 patients. (
  • Wang Y , Li S , Wang Z , Zhang L , Cai Y , Liu Q . Prevalence and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in ticks from Northeastern China. (
  • Along with a few similar genospecies, some of which also cause Lyme disease, it makes up the species complex of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (
  • However, over the following decades improved scientific techniques have made clear that the genetic diversity of this species was greater than expected and it is now usually referred to as B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) (ie B. burgdorferi in the broad sense) and consists of several different genospecies. (
  • B. burgdorferi can be divided into about 20 genospecies of which only some are pathogenic - known to cause disease[1]. (
  • There is considerable evidence resulting from PCR and serological data and from isolation from patients, that the division of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) into genospecies on genetic grounds also has clinical relevance - ie that they may each cause a slightly different disease. (
  • The present study investigated the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Hanover, Northern Germany, in 2010. (
  • In North America, the vast majority of Lyme disease is caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, 1 although other presumably pathogenic genospecies have been isolated. (
  • Additional B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies are suspected of causing illness, but are not confirmed by culture. (
  • Apart from this group of closely related genospecies, additional Borrelia species of interest include B. lonestari, a spirochete recently detected in the Amblyomma americanum tick (Lone Star tick) in the U.S. [7] B. lonestari is suspected of causing STARI (Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness), also known as Masters disease in honor of its discoverer. (
  • Eisen L . Vector competence studies with hard ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes: A review. (
  • B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. (
  • Lyme disease, known commonly outside the U.S. as Lyme borreliosis, is caused by infection with tick-borne spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. (
  • The results of the study show that-with or without antibiotics-both groups had persistent Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes one year after infection, with a wide variety of biomarkers and degree of infection. (
  • Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. (
  • Interpretation criteria for standardized Western blot for the predominant species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in China. (
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class in the genus Borrelia, and is one of the causative agents of Lyme disease in humans. (
  • Borrelia species are Gram-negative. (
  • In the genus Borrelia, approximately 20 species are associated with relapsing fevers and transmitted by soft ticks ( Ornithodoros or Argas ) or by lice in the case of Borrelia recurrentis . (
  • When B. burgdorferi was originally described it was believed to be the only species responsible for Lyme disease. (
  • In addition, B. miyamotoi , one of the relapsing fever Borrelia species has been identified in Europe [3] and is known to be present in UK ticks [4]. (
  • Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study. (
  • It is caused by a bacterium belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, which includes at least 5 species that are pathogenic to humans, and is present in France. (
  • The Borrelia species known to cause Lyme disease are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and have been found to have greater strain diversity than previously estimated. (
  • At present, diagnostic tests are based only on B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (the only species present in the United States), B. afzelii, and B. garinii. (
  • The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conditionally licensed an oral vaccine designed to limit the spread of Borrelia burgdorferi , the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. (
  • They discussed two of Dr. Embers' published research projects where she demonstrates that Borrelia burgdorferi-the bacterium that causes Lyme disease-is able to survive a 28-day course of antibiotics when treatment is begun four months after infection. (
  • Those are the words--and the multiple exclamation points--of Tara Moriarty, proprietor of the Moriarty Lab , an infectious diseases research lab that studies primarily Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. (
  • Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . (
  • In their latest study, Matthew Pine and Norbert Pardi from the University of Pennsylvania developed an OspA-based mRNA vaccine that prevents the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi from infecting mice. (
  • Lyme disease is usually caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and rarely, Borrelia mayonii. (
  • The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can be recovered long after initial infection, even from antibiotic-treated patients, indicating that it resists eradication by host defense mechanisms and antibiotics. (
  • In parts of eastern and central North America, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis , are the primary vector for the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereafter referred to as B. burgdorferi ), which is the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD) ( 3 ). (
  • Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne illness in the United States, is a multisystem illness caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (see the image below) and the body's immune response to the infection. (
  • B. burgdorferi sensu stricto exists in North America and Eurasia and until 2016 was the only known cause of Lyme disease in North America. (
  • Thus, B. burgdorferi s.s. is most often associated with arthritis, particularly in North America where it is the only known cause of Lyme disease, B . garinii is associated with neurological symptoms and B. afzelii with the chronic skin condition, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA). (
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss) is considered the primary agent of Lyme disease in North America. (
  • Title : Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America Personal Author(s) : Qiu, Wei-Gang;Bruno, John F.;McCaig, William D.;Xu, Yun;Livey, Ian;Schriefer, Martin E.;Luft, Benjamin J. (
  • B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (predominant in North America, but also in Europe), B. afzelii, and B. garinii (both predominant in Eurasia). (
  • Clinical data have shown that tick-borne diseases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Bartonella spp. (
  • Serological studies have shown that infections caused by B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Bartonella sp. (
  • This article explains what may be behind the cause of lyme disease's purported resistance to antibiotics . (
  • De reiste begge til Tyskland, og her viste lab-testing av datteren at hun hadde infeksjon med borrelia, bartonella, babesia og klamydia. (
  • B. burgdorferi circulates between Ixodes ticks and a vertebrate host in an enzootic cycle. (
  • However, since the 1980s there has been much interest in Borrelia burgdorferi , the agent of Lyme borreliosis (LB), which is transmitted by hard ticks of the genus Ixodes . (
  • Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England. (
  • Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete causing Lyme disease, is transmitted to a vertebrate host by the bite of an infected Ixodes scapularis tick. (
  • Dr. Rego does research on the Lyme disease pathogen complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (
  • 2-5 Pathogen diversity is greater in Europe, where B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii , B. garinii , B. bavariensis , and B. spielmanii are established contributors to the burden of human disease. (
  • Patients with Lyme borreliosis (LB) usually develop a vigorous T cell response against the causative pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, but little is known about the antigens recognized in the cellular response. (
  • 23 Also, Project Acari, by working with thousands of citizen scientists, discovered novel microbe associations in ticks colonized with the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi , and that almost 2/3 of ticks in the Northwestern United States are colonized with this pathogen. (
  • Bacterial transformation has been utilized by researchers in order to isolate specific pathogenic genes among the Borrelia burgdorferi. (
  • In Europe there is evidence that the EM caused by B. afzelii infections is more often ring-like, with clearing in the centre, whereas the rash caused by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi s.s. was found to be often smaller and without the central clearing. (
  • Overall, 22.7% (476/2,100) of collected ticks were tested positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. infections. (
  • Comparing B. burgdorferi s.l . infections in Hanoverian I. ricinus ticks in 2010 with data from 2005, a statistically significant increase of infected larvae was noted, whereas the other stages revealed no statistically significant differences. (
  • B. burgdorferi strains appear to be highly insufficient for use in bacterial transformation due to the large amount of DNA needed for transformation, the time it takes to produce reliable transformants, and the influence of restriction modification systems. (
  • If the patient has been in Europe, where different strains of Borrelia are more common, a C6 peptide ELISA is a more accurate confirmatory test than the Western blots, which have been developed to B burgdorferi, which is the strain found in the United States. (
  • Borrelia burgdorferi Haemophilus ducrey Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. (
  • Clinical appearance of erythema migrans caused by Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii- effect of the patient's sex. (
  • Population-based Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato seroprevalence and associated risk factors in Finland. (
  • The same held true no matter if the calculations assumed it was equally likely that a patient would be infected with any strain of B. burgdorferi , or if the 'die' was weighted based on the prevalence of each strain in New York state. (
  • The vaccine is called Borrelia Burgdorferi Bacterin. (
  • Pine and his colleagues, including Weissman who along with Katalin Karikó was awarded the 2023 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on mRNA vaccines, developed a lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine that encodes the outer surface protein A (OspA) from B. burgdorferi . (
  • Blacklegged ticks collected from these host animals were tested by PCR for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum , and Babesia microti . (
  • Serum samples from persons with disseminated or late-stage LD almost always have a strong IgG response to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens. (
  • [9] The genome of B. burgdorferi includes a linear chromosome approximately one megabase in size, and 21 plasmids (12 linear and 9 circular)-the largest number of plasmids (double-stranded DNA molecules separate from the chromosomal DNA ) found in any known bacterium [10] . (
  • Conclusions: The amplification of DNA with PCR analysis seems to open new prospects for the detection of Borrelia genome in tissues. (
  • When someone notices the telltale bull's-eye rash that can signal Lyme disease, the infected person may receive antibiotics from a physician but generally will not know what strain of Borrelia burgdorferi caused the infection. (
  • But a 2012 study by Wormser's group, published in the New England Journal of Medicine , reported on 17 patients who had been infected multiple times with Lyme disease and had the strain of each infection cultured and identified. (
  • The apparent molecular mass of OspC is dependent on the strain of B. burgdorferi being tested. (
  • dn127, borrelia burgdorferi strain dn127, borrelia bissettii str. (
  • dn127, borrelia bissettii strain dn127, borrelia sp. (
  • A brand-new research study released in the journal Global Ecology as well as Biogeography utilized device discovering to recognize bird varieties with the possible to transfer the Lyme illness germs ( Borrelia burgdorferi ) to feeding ticks. (
  • The group created a design that recognized birds recognized to spread out Lyme illness with 80% precision as well as flagged 21 brand-new varieties that need to be focused on for security. (
  • Ticks can transmit B. burgdorferi to humans, but humans are dead-end hosts, unlikely to continue the life cycle of the spirochete. (
  • Hikers in wooded areas must check themselves carefully for attached ticks, as Borrelia burgdorferi -carrying ticks transmit Lyme disease to humans through biting. (
  • In fact, infectivity of B. burgdorferi often requires the gene pncA, which is present on a bacterial plasmid that contains the gene bbe02 that is highly selected against during transformation. (
  • Since these genes are often paired together, infectivity is selected against in transformation, counteracting research to pinpoint particular genes that function in pathogenicity of Borrelia burgdorferi. (
  • Cellular immune reactivity to recombinant OspA and flagellin from Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme borreliosis. (
  • T cell responses to OspA were significantly increased in patients with early LB compared with both control groups whereas in late-stage disease responses only exceeded those of non-LB patients and were not different from normal donors. (
  • Once a tick is infected, it will then transmit B. burgdorferi by feeding on another vertebrate to complete the cycle. (
  • Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. (
  • Before 1975, elements of Borrelia infection were also known as Tickborne meningopolyneuritis, Garin-Bujadoux syndrome, Bannwarth syndrome, or sheep tick fever. (
  • Instead they offer mindful meditation, group therapy and other methodology's that are not based in science and have no place in treating an active bacterial infection. (
  • Half of the group (the controls) received no treatment, while the other half received a "standard" course of antibiotics. (
  • Methods and analysis Children (3 months to 18 years) will be randomised 1:1 with the experimental group receiving high-dose oral antibiotics and the control group receiving intravenous antibiotics with a shift in both groups to standard oral antibiotics after clinical and paraclinical improvement. (
  • B. burgdorferi is a microaerobic, motile spirochete with seven to 11 bundled perisplasmic flagella set at each end that allow the bacterium to move in low- and high-viscosity media alike, which is related to its high virulence factor. (
  • In total, 1,774 cats were infested with ticks and 22.6 and 2.7% of these animals were bitten by at least one tick infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum , respectively. (
  • For the 10,773 tick infested dogs, 18.4% were exposed to B. burgdorferi positive ticks while 1.9% of infested dogs were exposed to ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum . (
  • Traveling outside of the province of Quebec prior to tick collection was significantly associated with exposure to at least one positive tick for B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum and B. microti . (
  • In conclusion, our study demonstrates that cats and dogs throughout Quebec are exposed to blacklegged ticks infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum , and veterinarians across the province need to be aware of this potential threat to the health of pets and their owners. (
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. (
  • 2 mo), Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of septic arthritis (SA), but Escherichia coli, group B streptococci, and other gram-negative bacilli also cause the disease. (
  • All members of this group have four pairs of legs as adults and have no antennae. (
  • Conference recommendations were grouped into four categories: 1) serologic test performance and interpretation, 2) quality-assurance practices, 3) new test evaluation and clearance, and 4) communication of developments in Lyme disease (LD) testing. (
  • Aim: We looked for the evidence of Borrelia infection in patients with morphea by serologic means and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of skin biopsy samples. (
  • Patients and Methods: The study group included 16 patients with primary cutaneous follicular center-cell lymphoma (PCFCCL), eight with primary cutaneous immunocytoma (PCI), and five with primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma presenting on the legs (PCLBCL of the leg). (
  • In Europe, several reservoir hosts for Lyme disease-associated Borrelia spp. (
  • Previous infection, particularly due to Borrelia burgdorferi , has been implicated in Europe and Japan, but not confirmed in the United States [ 12 , 13 ]. (
  • Although the disease was initially identified in Europe, it was named after the town where the first group of US cases was described. (
  • The group knew that after being infected with B. burgdorferi in the hind paw, their mice developed arthritis in the nearest ankle joint, mediated by the innate immune system. (
  • [11] Long-term culture of B. burgdorferi results in a loss of some plasmids and changes in expressed proteins. (
  • Cellular immune reactivities to flagellin were significantly higher only in early LB compared with both control groups. (
  • These data demonstrate the complexity of the humoral and the cellular immune responses to components of B. burgdorferi. (
  • In B. burgdorferi, SpoVG acted as a nucleic acid binding protein, and our results also suggest that SpoVG binds to a cyclic-di-GMP binding protein, PlzA. (
  • Nymphs molt into adult ticks, which usually feed on larger mammals that are not able to support the survival of B. burgdorferi. (

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