Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (1/1047)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (2/1047)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

Detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in UK ticks using polymerase chain reaction. (3/1047)

Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from woodland areas in South Wales, UK, were tested using the polymerase chain reaction for the presence both of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and Borrelia burgdorferi. Twenty-two of 60 (37%) ticks were found positive in the PCR for B. burgdorferi and 4/60 (7%) for the HGE agent. One tick was found positive both for B. burgdorferi and HGE agent. Our findings imply the presence of the HGE agent in UK ticks and the finding of a tick apparently containing both pathogens underlines the potential for concurrent infection with HGE agent and B. burgdorferi to occur after a single tick-bite. Based on our observations, we conclude that there may be a need to consider a range of pathogens both in laboratory investigation and clinical management of suspected tick-borne disease in the UK, particularly where there is a clinical presentation atypical of Lyme borreliosis alone.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (4/1047)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (5/1047)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands. (6/1047)

This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.  (+info)

Rapid and sensitive quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mouse tissues by continuous fluorescent monitoring of PCR. (7/1047)

The quantity of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in tissue samples is an important determinant for infection studies in the mouse model of Lyme disease. This report presents the development of a rapid and sensitive external-standard-based PCR assay for the absolute quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse tissue samples. The assay uses a double-stranded DNA dye to continuously monitor product formation and in less than an hour was able to quantify samples ranging up to 6 log units in concentration. The PCR efficiencies of the sample and the standard were matched by using a standard composed of purified B. burgdorferi chromosome mixed with tissue-matched mouse genome lacking bacterial DNA. Normalization of B. burgdorferi quantities to the mouse nidogen gene allowed comparison of B. burgdorferi numbers in samples isolated from different tissues and strains. PCR analysis of the chromosomal gene recA in cultured B. burgdorferi was consistent with a single recA per bacterium. The parameters defined in this assay should be applicable to quantification of other organisms, even infectious agents for which no ready source of DNA standard is available. In summary, this report presents a rapid external-standard-based PCR method for the quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse DNA samples.  (+info)

Proteome composition and codon usage in spirochaetes: species-specific and DNA strand-specific mutational biases. (8/1047)

The genomes of the spirochaetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum show strong strand-specific skews in nucleotide composition, with the leading strand in replication being richer in G and T than the lagging strand in both species. This mutation bias results in codon usage and amino acid composition patterns that are significantly different between genes encoded on the two strands, in both species. There are also substantial differences between the species, with T.pallidum having a much higher G+C content than B. burgdorferi. These changes in amino acid and codon compositions represent neutral sequence change that has been caused by strong strand- and species-specific mutation pressures. Genes that have been relocated between the leading and lagging strands since B. burgdorferi and T.pallidum diverged from a common ancestor now show codon and amino acid compositions typical of their current locations. There is no evidence that translational selection operates on codon usage in highly expressed genes in these species, and the primary influence on codon usage is whether a gene is transcribed in the same direction as replication, or opposite to it. The dnaA gene in both species has codon usage patterns distinctive of a lagging strand gene, indicating that the origin of replication lies downstream of this gene, possibly within dnaN. Our findings strongly suggest that gene-finding algorithms that ignore variability within the genome may be flawed.  (+info)

The 4 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates obtained from 1. Ricinus ticks collected in the natural foci in Russia and Ukraine, having an unusual RFLP Msel-pattern, were studied using sequencing rrfA-rrlB spacer and rrs gene. The Ir-5215 isolate from the tick collected in southern Ukraine represented recently described genospecies B. spielmanii pathogenic for humans. The three atypical isolates Ir-3519, Ir-4721, and Ir-4812 had 100% identity with the sequence of the atypical European B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains. They constituted a subgroup of the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto on the grounds of Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). These data can be indicative of the genetic heterogeneity of the current group B. burgdorferi sensu stricto.
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Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the organization of multicopy linear- and circular-plasmid- carried open reading frames in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. AU - Carlyon, Jason A.. AU - LaVoie, Crystal. AU - Sung, Shian Ying. AU - Marconi, Richard T.. PY - 1998/3. Y1 - 1998/3. N2 - Plasmid cp8.3 of Borrelia afzelii IP21 carries several open reading frames (ORFs) and a 184-bp inverted repeat (IR) element. It has been speculated that this plasmid may encode factors involved in virulence or infectivity. In this report, we have characterized the distribution, molecular variability, and organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 4 and the IR elements among isolates of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. ORFs 1 and 2 are contained within a segment of cp8.3 that is bordered by the IR elements, while ORF 4 resides just outside of the IR-bordered region. By PCR, ORF 4 was amplified from most isolates while ORFs 1 and 2 were amplified from only some B. afzelii isolates. However, Southern hybridization ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or virus
Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humans and in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3 pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma...
Lyme disease is a multisystem tick-borne disorder with dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic manifestations (3, 26, 29). The disease represents the most common vector-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere and is caused by human-pathogenic members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and the very recently established species B. spielmanii (22, 28). Isolates belonging to the newly delineated genospecies B. spielmanii have hitherto been isolated from patients in The Netherlands, Hungary, Slovenia, and Germany as well as from ticks in France, Germany, Ukraine, and the Czech Republic (6-8, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28). The heterogeneity of borrelial strains is known to impact the variability of Lyme disease manifestations and clearly is a challenge for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines (7). Moreover, minor differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the classical borrelial genospecies known to be ...
In 475 Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (2155 ticks investigated) from southern Germany the most common Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species was B. garinii (34.3%) followed by B. afzelii (25.1%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (22.0%), and B. valaisiana (12.7%). B. spielmanii sp. nov. was detected in 5.9% of the 475 infected ticks. Hints for a focal distribution were found for B. spielmanii sp. nov. and B. garinii OspA type 4. In 242 patient isolates, dominance (66.9%) of B. afzelii for skin could be confirmed, while frequency of B. garinii in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates (51.1%) was comparable to the frequency in nymphal ticks (51.6%). Four patient isolates from southern Germany and two from Slovenia, all isolated from erythema migrans, could be assigned to B. spielmanii sp. nov. Within this new species high sequence identities were found for rrs, fla, and ospA while rrf-rrl, ospC, and dbpA were less conserved: three new ospC and two new dbpA sequence types were found. This genetic ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
Twenty (1.4%) of 1,421 adult Ixodes pacificus ticks and 2 (20%) of 10 adult Ixodes neotomae ticks collected in five counties of northern California were found to contain spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence examination of their tissues with a polyvalent conjugate. Borreliae isolated from the tissues of nine of these ticks (I. pacificus, 8; I. neotomae, 1) were identified as Borrelia burgdorferi with specific monoclonal antibodies and characterized further by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses. The isolate from I. neotomae was the first to be characterized from a tick other than I. pacificus in western North America. All strains were relatively homogeneous with respect to the kind of OspA proteins they produced, whereas they were heterogeneous with regard to their OspB proteins and to several low-molecular-weight proteins in the 21,500-to-24,000 region. Significant phenotypic variation was observed among isolates obtained within and between populations of I.
Author Summary Lyme borreliosis displays multifaceted clinical manifestations caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. If insufficiently treated, infection may proceed to inflammatory complications of chronic infection. Th17-like cytokines, foremost IL-17 and IL-22, are crucial for host defense against extracellular bacteria. IL-17/IL-22 secretion by human leukocytes exposed to live Borreliae has not been analyzed. Here we report that B. burgdorferi-activated PBMC lack immediate IL-17 expression despite being highly activated and robust T cell-dependent production of IL-22 that to a large part is mediated by monocyte-derived IL-1. Early innate immunity may shape dermal infection, thus likely affecting bacterial dissemination. Specifically, insufficient neutrophil recruitment/function, supposedly due to insufficient early IL-17 production along with a lack of opsonizing antibodies, may favor the spread of B. burgdorferi. Indeed, neutrophilic inflammation, indicative of IL-17 bioactivity, is
We developed a PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay in which Ehrlichia, B. burgdorferi, andBartonella species can be detected and differentiated. The assay was specific enough to detect single-base-pair changes with immobilized oligonucleotide probes and enabled us to differentiateEhrlichia variants. The reverse line blot technique is a relatively easy and rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of microorganisms in field samples such as ticks. In its present form we can combine the hybridization of PCR products obtained in separate PCRs. We are now developing a multiplex PCR that will enable us to have an even more convenient method for the screening of samples. These samples could be tick lysates but could also be other material such as blood from patients suffering from a febrile disease with an unknown origin.. In the study presented here we used this method to detect and identifyEhrlichia and B. burgdorferi species in DutchI. ricinus ticks. Analysis of the ...
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a disease for which antibody-based detection assays are often required for diagnosis. The variable surface molecule VlsE and IR6, one of its invariable regions, are commonly targeted by the antibody response in infected individuals. A series of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays was performed to comparatively examine the antibody responses of North American LB patients (n = 37) to VlsE and invariable segments of this molecule. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses to full-length VlsE and to peptides reproducing invariable regions 2, 4, and 6, as well as the invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini of VlsE, were assessed. The proportions and specificities of reactivity to the invariable segments were tested by using cognate peptides as competitors for VlsE binding by patient serum antibodies. IR6 epitopes (by the C6 peptide) were found to dominate the response to invariable segments. IR6 (C6)-specific antibodies were detected in 78% of the serum ...
Each dose of LYMErix (TM) contains 30 ug of lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of LD in North America, adsorbed onto aluminum adjuvant (1). It is indicated for use in persons aged 15-70 years (1). Three doses of the vaccine are administered by intramuscular injection. The initial dose is followed by a second dose 1 month later and a third dose 12 months after the first. Vaccine administration should be timed so the second dose and the third dose are given several weeks before the beginning of the B. burgdorferi transmission season (1), which usually begins in April. In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial involving 10,936 participants living in areas of the northeastern and upper north central United States where LD is endemic, the vaccine efficacy in preventing LD was 50% (95% confidence interval {CI}=14%-71%) after the first two doses and 78% (95% CI=59%-88%) after three doses (1). Efficacy against ...
Nevertheless, in public discourse, LB is often presented in the opposite way, and so-called chronic Lyme disease has become a widely used term in connection with unexplainable clinical conditions potentially leading to disability or even to life-threatening outcomes, even if the aetiological role of infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is not proven [,, ]. Long-lasting and repetitive antibiotic treatment is widely used, despite the risks and lack of efficacy [ ] [6]. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients who have antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato or who report a history of erythema migrans (EM) are more likely to have non-specific symptoms, including musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sensory disorder, and headache. The detection of antibodies in serum and a history of EM were used as a surrogate parameter for previous infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The data of a high number of individuals were statistically analysed.. Previous tick bites were also ...
Blog on anti-ospB antibody product: The BORRELIA BURGDORFERI OUTER SURFACE PROTEIN B P19 ospb (Catalog #MBS211486) is an Antibody produced fr...
Vincent MS, Roessner K, Sellati T, Huston CD, Sigal LH, Behar SM, Radolf JD, Budd RC. Lyme arthritis synovial gamma delta T cells respond to Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and lipidated hexapeptides. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5762-71 ...
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Myfocus was on the elderly individuals who never get to access thebasic health care they need. My grandmother is not in a position towalk and the fact that shes not white. The nearest health carestation is two miles away ande the health care itself is veryexpensive and thus cannot afford it. Theseare health issues that are apparent in our state, though measureshave started to be taken on the health care improvement it is stillnot available to the most vulnerable. The sources I have used arecredible and looking at them deeply will insight one with what ishappening on the ground. The process of implementing health reformsshould be fast-tracked to ensure that most of the past healthconcerns are addressed promptly to avoid more deaths.. References. Emanuel,E. J. (2015). ReinventingAmerican health care: How the Affordable Care Act will improve ourterribly complex, blatantly unjust, outrageously expensive, grosslyinefficient, error prone system.. Garcia-DominicO, Lengerich EJ, Camacho F, Gallant NR, ...
Both, birds and rodents, are competent reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Nevertheless, this genospecies infects questing ticks less frequently in Central Europe than do B. afzelii- and B. garinii- spirochetes, the other pathogenic spirochetes. Because each of the genospecies is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, a vector with a broad host array, one would expect that B. burgdorferi s.s. is more likely to be transmitted to a competent host than the more host adapted genospecies (Levine et al. 1985, Olsen et al. 1995, and Richter et al. 2000). Similarly a higher rate of double-infections with B. burgdorferi s.s. in ticks would be expected. B. burgdorferi s.s., however, is not the most prevalent genospecies in questing ticks in nature. For each questing nymph collected in the Stadtpark of Göttingen that is infected by B. burgdorferi s.s., more than four ticks are infected by B. afzelii and more than ten by B. garinii. This difference in prevalence of B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) Borrelia garinii strains. The ratio of the mean number of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) nucleotide substitutions per site ...
The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of ...
In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Ticks were collected by dragging a flag over the vegetation and B....
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the ...
Background: With approximately one-third of their genomes consisting of linear and circular plasmids, the Lyme disease agent cluster of species has the most complex genomes among known bacteria. We report here a comparative analysis of plasmids in eleven Borreliella (also known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) species. Results: We sequenced the complete genomes of two B. afzelii, two B. garinii, and individual B. spielmanii, B. bissettiae, B. valaisiana and B. finlandensis isolates. These individual isolates carry between seven and sixteen plasmids, and together harbor 99 plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of these plasmids, along with 70 additional Borreliella plasmids available in the public sequence databases. We identify only one new putative plasmid compatibility type (the 30th) among these 169 plasmid sequences, suggesting that all or nearly all such types have now been discovered. We find that the linear plasmids in the non-B. burgdorferi species have undergone the same ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including humans, when transmitted by ticks.. ...
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by tick-borne spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Bb) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. As in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in Korea using outer surface protein A (OspA) serotyping system. AU - Kee, Sun-Ho. AU - Hwang, K. J.. AU - Oh, H. B.. AU - Park, K. S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Two characteristic strains (935T, 934U) of B. burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein A (OspA). The reactive pattern of strain 934U with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to B. afzelii and that of strain 935T was different from other isolates. Monoclonal antibody (5TEE3) which is specific to strain 935T did not react with any other Western and Japanese isolates. So, it was suggested that there exist at least two groups of B. burgdorferi in Korea. One could be classified as B, afielii and the other is a divergent group from three known ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles of OspA, OspB, and flagellin in protective immunity to Lyme borreliosis in laboratory mice. AU - Fikrig, E.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. AU - Marcantonio, N.. AU - Deponte, K.. AU - Kantor, F. S.. AU - Flavell, R. A.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual serum was still protective. Absorption of OspA and OspB antibodies from anti-B. burgdorferi serum eliminated the protective effect. Therefore, active immunization experiments were performed to determine the roles of OspB and flagellin in protective immunity and to determine whether protective immunity induced by OspA is dose dependent. Active immunization with recombinant OspA ...
FIG 3 Alignment of OspC suggesting the eastern North Dakota isolates are genetically distinct strains of B. burgdorferi. Samples M7 and M9 contain a mixture of clones. The sequences included (approximately) residues 25 to 198. B. burgdorferi B31 (AE000792.1), N40 (DQ437463.1), A (a non-type strain, ABQ42987.1), B (a non-type strain, ABK41066.1), ZS7 (AF500204.1), and JD1 (DQ437462.1), as well as Vsp3, an OspC ortholog found in B. hermsii (relapsing fever; AAA22967.1), were included for comparison. Alignment was performed in ClustalW2, and shading was performed using ExPASys BoxShade (black indicates identical residues, gray indicates residues with biochemical properties similar to those of the majority of the residues in the same position, and white indicates unrelated residues). Symbols: dashes indicate gaps, dots in the consensus line indicate moderate to high conservation, gaps indicate no conservation, and asterisks indicate fully conserved residues. ...
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne bacterial disease in the northern hemisphere. The disease is caused by three genomic groups or genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii. Only B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is known to cause Lyme disease in North America, whereas all three genospecies are responsible for the disease in Europe. Serology is the most useful type of laboratory test that is widely available to support a clinical diagnosis of Lyme disease. Positive serologic test results, however, should not be used by themselves to establish this diagnosis. Laboratory testing of samples from such patients also is not recommended, since testing will result in more false-positive results than true positives. Serum specimens first should be evaluated by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or immunofluorescent assay (IFA). During the first month of infection, both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses should be
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki,...
To the Editor: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tickborne human disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The incidence of the disease in not the same throughout Europe; in southern Europe, the incidence ranges from 43% in Croatia to 1.1% in Greece. Suspected borreliosis cases have been reported in Greece, none were confirmed. Ixodes ricinus, the principal tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe, is found in northern Greece. A low prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies was found in healthy persons in Greece (1,2); a frequency of 7.3% was found in arthritis patients (1), while a frequency of 16.9% was found in patients with neurologic disorders (A. Papa, unpub. data).. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect B. burgdorferi DNA in humans and to determine genospecies (3). Isolates found in the United States have constituted a homogeneous group. In Europe, five different genospecies from the original B. burgdorferi, now called burgdorferi sensu lato complex, have been described: ...
To the Editor: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tickborne human disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The incidence of the disease in not the same throughout Europe; in southern Europe, the incidence ranges from 43% in Croatia to 1.1% in Greece. Suspected borreliosis cases have been reported in Greece, none were confirmed. Ixodes ricinus, the principal tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe, is found in northern Greece. A low prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies was found in healthy persons in Greece (1,2); a frequency of 7.3% was found in arthritis patients (1), while a frequency of 16.9% was found in patients with neurologic disorders (A. Papa, unpub. data).. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect B. burgdorferi DNA in humans and to determine genospecies (3). Isolates found in the United States have constituted a homogeneous group. In Europe, five different genospecies from the original B. burgdorferi, now called burgdorferi sensu lato complex, have been described: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manganese and zinc regulate virulence determinants in borrelia burgdorferi. AU - Troxell, Bryan. AU - Ye, Meiping. AU - Yang, Youyun. AU - Carrasco, Sebastian E.. AU - Lou, Yongliang. AU - Yang, X.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, must adapt to two diverse niches, an arthropod vector and a mammalian host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, plays a central role in spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by governing expression of many genes important for mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi is known to be unique in metal utilization, and little is known of the role of biologically available metals in B. burgdorferi. Here, we identified two transition metal ions, manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), that influenced regulation of RpoS. The intracellular Mn2+ level fluctuated approximately 20-fold under different conditions and inversely correlated with levels of RpoS and the major virulence factor OspC. Furthermore, an ...
Extraction of DNA: Adult deer ticks (I. scapularis) collected in 1994 on Shelter Island, Long Island, New York, were bisected and DNA was extracted as described before (Guttmanet al. 1996).. PCR amplifications: Two genes, ospA and ospC, both encoding outer surface lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi, were studied.. ospA amplification: Procedure for ospA PCR amplification was the same as described previously (Guttmanet al. 1996). This amplification combined both nested and touch-down PCR. The first round of PCR was performed with low stringency and low cycling number using a pair of external primers to generate a heterogeneous population of amplified DNAs. The second round of PCR, using primer pairs internal to the previously amplified DNAs, was started out at very high stringency; as amplification proceeded the stringency was reduced gradually to increase yield.. ospC amplification: On the basis of our previous experience with ospA and preliminary experiments with ospC, the optimal size of the DNA ...
Recent advances in the development of animal models for Lyme borreliosis have provided means of identifying potential targets for the design of a subunit vaccine to prevent this disease. The C3H/HeN mouse model was used to study several Borrelia burgdorferi antigens from a single isolate for their ability to elicit borreliacidal and protective antibodies. The ospA, ospB, ospC, ospD, and 83-kDa genes from a California isolate, SON 188, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins fused to the C-terminal end of maltose-binding protein. Active immunization of mice with these fusion proteins elicited high titers of antibodies that recognized the homologous SON 188 antigens upon immunoblotting. Antibodies generated to the OspA and OspB fusion proteins, but not to the OspC, OspD, and the 83-kDa fusion proteins, demonstrated in vitro borreliacidal activity. Challenge of all actively immunized mice with 10(7) SON 188 spirochetes resulted in infection in all mice receiving the OspD or 83-kDa ...
In this study, more than 3400 short-term B. burgdorferi T cell lines generated from subjects with chronic B. burgdorferi infection were compared with naive B. burgdorferi-reactive T cell lines from normal individuals. Chronic B. burgdorferi infection was associated with high frequencies of B. burgdorferi-reactive T cells secreting high amounts of IFN-γ and IL-10, which was induced by IL-12 secreted by PBMC. T cell secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10 was suppressed in the presence of neutralizing Abs to IL-12. The presence of IFN-γ/IL-10 secretion was observed only in B. burgdorferi- and not in TT-specific T cell lines. These data demonstrate that chronic B. burgdorferi infection causes IL-12 secretion that induces a population of T cells characterized by secretion of both IFN-γ and IL-10.. The significance of the cellular immune response to B. burgdorferi in Lyme disease has been investigated earlier. A strong T cell response to B. burgdorferi was detected early in the course of illness, often ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi Strain B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Vector borne research
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
GORDILLO PEREZ, Ma. Guadalupe y SOLORZANO SANTOS, Fortino. Lyme disease. Experience in Mexican children. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. [online]. 2010, vol.67, n.2, pp.164-176. ISSN 1665-1146.. Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious disease produced by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is a bacteria transmitted to the host organism by the bite of Ixodes ticks. In this report we present the general knowledge about the etiological agent, clinical manifestations of the disease and diagnostic laboratory tests. We offer cumulative information about Lyme disease in Mexican children treated at two childrens hospitals in Mexico City during the last 10 years.. Palabras llave : Borrelia burgdorferi; Erythema migrans; Lyme borreliosis; Neuroborreliosis. ...
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures ...
Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in Norway and Europe. Borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato that can be transmitted by tick bites.
Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia.. In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne infection caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The infection is associated with several clinical features, of which erythema migrans (EM) and neuroborreliosis (NB) are the most common in Europe. The prognosis after antibiotic therapy is generally good. However, some patients may have residual symptoms post-treatment. The cause of the delayed convalescence is unclear. There are several factors that may affect the clinical outcome of LB, for example, the early interaction between the hosts immune response and B. burgdorferi, the spirochete genotype, antibiotic therapy, as well as the hosts vulnerability.. This thesis aimed to explore the type of early immune response that is generated to B. burgdorferi and its importance for the clinical outcome of LB, and to study the condition of persistent symptoms post-NB from clinical, immunological and diagnostic perspectives. In total, 125 adult patients with different clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a diverse bacterial group with a worldwide distribution of 20 named and 1 unnamed genospecies. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto seen in North America, B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe, are the main genospecies (group 1) that cause Lyme disease. A second group of eight genospecies (B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. kurtenbachii, B. mayonii, B. miyamotoi, B lusitaniae, B spielmanii, B valisiana) have been shown to have a limited disease potential.
Rapid and accurate retrieval of whole genome sequences of human pathogens from disease vectors or animal reservoirs will enable fine-resolution studies of pathogen epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics. However, next generation sequencing technologies have not yet been fully harnessed for the study of vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens, due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality pathogen sequence data directly from field specimens with a high ratio of host to pathogen DNA. We addressed this challenge by using custom probes for multiplexed hybrid capture to enrich for and sequence 30 Borrelia burgdorferi genomes from field samples of its arthropod vector. Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The proprosed culture-independent method enables efficient whole genome capture and sequencing of pathogens directly from arthropod
Erythema migrans (EM), persistent skin infection, and visceral dissemination can be induced reproducibly in the adult male New Zealand White rabbit by intradermal injection of as few as 10(3) Borrelia burgdorferi. EM was found to persist for 7 +/- 3 d. Skin culture positivity (infection) cleared wit …
Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, IgG & IgM by Western Blot (CSF),ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Bacteria produce only two types of toxins: endotoxins, which are non-secreted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that make up a large part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; and, exotoxins that are secreted by some gram-positive bacteria and a few strains of gram-negative bacteria.. At one time, Borrelia burgdorferi, was thought to possess an endotoxin since a product isolated from B. burgdorferi was reported to be pyrogenic for rabbits, mitogenic for human mononuclear cells and mouse spleen cells, capable of clotting limulus lysate (a diagnostic test for LPS), and cytotoxic for mouse macrophages; these are properties generally ascribed to bacterial LPS (1). However, subsequent studies revealed the absence of lipid A and other chemical structures characteristic of classic gram-negative endotoxins (2). Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune ...
The murine immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is characterized by the development of antibodies reactive with the outer surface protein (Osp) A. It has been demonstrated that passive immunization of mice with at least some Osp A antibodies, including an Osp A mAb (CIII.78) that binds to a conformational epitope in the carboxyl-terminus of Osp A, provides protection against Bb challenge. Active immunization of mice with Osp A also confers protection, making Osp A a candidate for a vaccine Ag. To determine the regions of the Osp A protein that can elicit protective immunity, we immunized boosted mice with overlapping recombinant truncated fragments of Osp A, then challenged them with Bb. All groups of mice developed IgG Osp A antibodies detectable by immunoblotting with sera diluted at least 5000-fold. As expected, vaccination with full-length recombinant Osp A protected mice from challenge infection. In contrast, none of the mice vaccinated with the ...
The lp28-1 plasmid is required for persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutational studies on this plasmid have shown that the vls locus is important for antigenic variation of the VlsE lipoprotein that leads to immune evasion and persistence. However, it is still unknown whether the vls system is the only genetic locus on this plasmid necessary for long-term infection, and thus the potential role of non-vls genes on lp28-1 in virulence and persistence is yet to be fully determined. Despite extensive mutational analyses, two lp28-1 regions containing the ORFs bbf19 - bbf22 and bbf27 - bbf30 have not yet been mutated in their entirety. In this study, we set out to establish if these unstudied regions of lp28-1 play a role in spirochete persistence. Results show that the generated mutants were fully infectious in immunocompetent mice, and were able to persist for 91 days following infection. Following this finding, ospC expression by these mutants was determined, as
The present study examined the influence of various in vivo conditions on the expression of four prototypic surface lipoprotein antigens and showed that the tissue milieus shape the surface antigenic expression of B. burgdorferi, especially in the immune environment. In the absence of immune pressure, B. burgdorferi presented itself in multiple phenotypes depending on the tissues where it resided and the time courses over which infection persisted. For instance, B. burgdorferi increased ospC expression 2.4 times in the heart from 12 days to 4 months postinfection while it reduced ospC expression 8.0-fold in the joints. In contrast, spirochetes increased BBF01 expression 2.8 times in the joints during the same period. The immune response is an overwhelming force that may select for spirochetes with a modified surface antigenic expression in all the tissues, and these alterations may help B. burgdorferi evade immune attack. The study also examined the role of both humoral and cellular immune ...

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