Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Borrelia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Lyme Disease Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Relapsing Fever: An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.Mice, Inbred C3HTick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Glossitis, Benign Migratory: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Bites and StingsEhrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Acrodermatitis: Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.PolandRodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Aminocoumarins: COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).ConnecticutJoints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.North AmericaSynovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.ShrewsDecorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.LatviaEhrlichia canis: Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Mice, Inbred BALB CAnimals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes induce mast cell activation and cytokine release. (1/1047)

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is introduced into human hosts via tick bites. Among the cell types present in the skin which may initially contact spirochetes are mast cells. Since spirochetes are known to activate a variety of cell types in vitro, we tested whether B. burgdorferi spirochetes could activate mast cells. We report here that freshly isolated rat peritoneal mast cells or mouse MC/9 mast cells cultured in vitro with live or freeze-thawed B. burgdorferi spirochetes undergo low but detectable degranulation, as measured by [5-3H] hydroxytryptamine release, and they synthesize and secrete the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast to findings in previous studies, where B. burgdorferi-associated activity was shown to be dependent upon protein lipidation, mast cell TNF-alpha release was not induced by either lipidated or unlipidated recombinant OspA. This activity was additionally shown to be protease sensitive and surface expressed. Finally, comparisons of TNF-alpha-inducing activity in known low-, intermediate-, and high-passage B. burgdorferi B31 isolates demonstrated passage-dependent loss of activity, indicating that the activity is probably plasmid encoded. These findings document the presence in low-passage B. burgdorferi spirochetes of a novel lipidation-independent activity capable of inducing cytokine release from host cells.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (2/1047)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

Detection of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in UK ticks using polymerase chain reaction. (3/1047)

Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from woodland areas in South Wales, UK, were tested using the polymerase chain reaction for the presence both of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and Borrelia burgdorferi. Twenty-two of 60 (37%) ticks were found positive in the PCR for B. burgdorferi and 4/60 (7%) for the HGE agent. One tick was found positive both for B. burgdorferi and HGE agent. Our findings imply the presence of the HGE agent in UK ticks and the finding of a tick apparently containing both pathogens underlines the potential for concurrent infection with HGE agent and B. burgdorferi to occur after a single tick-bite. Based on our observations, we conclude that there may be a need to consider a range of pathogens both in laboratory investigation and clinical management of suspected tick-borne disease in the UK, particularly where there is a clinical presentation atypical of Lyme borreliosis alone.  (+info)

Esterases in serum-containing growth media counteract chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in vitro. (4/1047)

The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi was unexpectedly found to be as susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol, the product of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, as it was to chloramphenicol itself. The susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, as well as that of B. burgdorferi, to diacetyl chloramphenicol were then assayed in different media. All three species were susceptible to diacetyl chloramphenicol when growth media were supplemented with rabbit serum or, to a lesser extent, human serum. Susceptibility of E. coli and B. subtilis to diacetyl chloramphenicol was not observed in the absence of serum, when horse serum was used, or when the rabbit or human serum was heated first. In the presence of 10% rabbit serum, a strain of E. coli bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene had a fourfold-lower resistance to chloramphenicol than in the absence of serum. A plate bioassay for chloramphenicol activity showed the conversion by rabbit, mouse, and human sera but not bacterial cell extracts or heated serum of diacetyl chloramphenicol to an inhibitory compound. Deacetylation of acetyl chloramphenicol by serum components was demonstrated by using fluorescent substrates and thin-layer chromatography. These studies indicate that esterases of serum can convert diacetyl chloramphenicol back to an active antibiotic, and thus, in vitro findings may not accurately reflect the level of chloramphenicol resistance by cat-bearing bacteria in vivo.  (+info)

Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. (5/1047)

BACKGROUND: Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.  (+info)

Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands. (6/1047)

This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.  (+info)

Rapid and sensitive quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mouse tissues by continuous fluorescent monitoring of PCR. (7/1047)

The quantity of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in tissue samples is an important determinant for infection studies in the mouse model of Lyme disease. This report presents the development of a rapid and sensitive external-standard-based PCR assay for the absolute quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse tissue samples. The assay uses a double-stranded DNA dye to continuously monitor product formation and in less than an hour was able to quantify samples ranging up to 6 log units in concentration. The PCR efficiencies of the sample and the standard were matched by using a standard composed of purified B. burgdorferi chromosome mixed with tissue-matched mouse genome lacking bacterial DNA. Normalization of B. burgdorferi quantities to the mouse nidogen gene allowed comparison of B. burgdorferi numbers in samples isolated from different tissues and strains. PCR analysis of the chromosomal gene recA in cultured B. burgdorferi was consistent with a single recA per bacterium. The parameters defined in this assay should be applicable to quantification of other organisms, even infectious agents for which no ready source of DNA standard is available. In summary, this report presents a rapid external-standard-based PCR method for the quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse DNA samples.  (+info)

Proteome composition and codon usage in spirochaetes: species-specific and DNA strand-specific mutational biases. (8/1047)

The genomes of the spirochaetes Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum show strong strand-specific skews in nucleotide composition, with the leading strand in replication being richer in G and T than the lagging strand in both species. This mutation bias results in codon usage and amino acid composition patterns that are significantly different between genes encoded on the two strands, in both species. There are also substantial differences between the species, with T.pallidum having a much higher G+C content than B. burgdorferi. These changes in amino acid and codon compositions represent neutral sequence change that has been caused by strong strand- and species-specific mutation pressures. Genes that have been relocated between the leading and lagging strands since B. burgdorferi and T.pallidum diverged from a common ancestor now show codon and amino acid compositions typical of their current locations. There is no evidence that translational selection operates on codon usage in highly expressed genes in these species, and the primary influence on codon usage is whether a gene is transcribed in the same direction as replication, or opposite to it. The dnaA gene in both species has codon usage patterns distinctive of a lagging strand gene, indicating that the origin of replication lies downstream of this gene, possibly within dnaN. Our findings strongly suggest that gene-finding algorithms that ignore variability within the genome may be flawed.  (+info)

The 4 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates obtained from 1. Ricinus ticks collected in the natural foci in Russia and Ukraine, having an unusual RFLP Msel-pattern, were studied using sequencing rrfA-rrlB spacer and rrs gene. The Ir-5215 isolate from the tick collected in southern Ukraine represented recently described genospecies B. spielmanii pathogenic for humans. The three atypical isolates Ir-3519, Ir-4721, and Ir-4812 had 100% identity with the sequence of the atypical European B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains. They constituted a subgroup of the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto on the grounds of Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). These data can be indicative of the genetic heterogeneity of the current group B. burgdorferi sensu stricto.
Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or virus
Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humans and in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3 pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma...
Lyme disease is a multisystem tick-borne disorder with dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic manifestations (3, 26, 29). The disease represents the most common vector-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere and is caused by human-pathogenic members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and the very recently established species B. spielmanii (22, 28). Isolates belonging to the newly delineated genospecies B. spielmanii have hitherto been isolated from patients in The Netherlands, Hungary, Slovenia, and Germany as well as from ticks in France, Germany, Ukraine, and the Czech Republic (6-8, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28). The heterogeneity of borrelial strains is known to impact the variability of Lyme disease manifestations and clearly is a challenge for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines (7). Moreover, minor differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the classical borrelial genospecies known to be ...
In 475 Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (2155 ticks investigated) from southern Germany the most common Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species was B. garinii (34.3%) followed by B. afzelii (25.1%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (22.0%), and B. valaisiana (12.7%). B. spielmanii sp. nov. was detected in 5.9% of the 475 infected ticks. Hints for a focal distribution were found for B. spielmanii sp. nov. and B. garinii OspA type 4. In 242 patient isolates, dominance (66.9%) of B. afzelii for skin could be confirmed, while frequency of B. garinii in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates (51.1%) was comparable to the frequency in nymphal ticks (51.6%). Four patient isolates from southern Germany and two from Slovenia, all isolated from erythema migrans, could be assigned to B. spielmanii sp. nov. Within this new species high sequence identities were found for rrs, fla, and ospA while rrf-rrl, ospC, and dbpA were less conserved: three new ospC and two new dbpA sequence types were found. This genetic ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
Twenty (1.4%) of 1,421 adult Ixodes pacificus ticks and 2 (20%) of 10 adult Ixodes neotomae ticks collected in five counties of northern California were found to contain spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence examination of their tissues with a polyvalent conjugate. Borreliae isolated from the tissues of nine of these ticks (I. pacificus, 8; I. neotomae, 1) were identified as Borrelia burgdorferi with specific monoclonal antibodies and characterized further by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses. The isolate from I. neotomae was the first to be characterized from a tick other than I. pacificus in western North America. All strains were relatively homogeneous with respect to the kind of OspA proteins they produced, whereas they were heterogeneous with regard to their OspB proteins and to several low-molecular-weight proteins in the 21,500-to-24,000 region. Significant phenotypic variation was observed among isolates obtained within and between populations of I.
Author Summary Lyme borreliosis displays multifaceted clinical manifestations caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. If insufficiently treated, infection may proceed to inflammatory complications of chronic infection. Th17-like cytokines, foremost IL-17 and IL-22, are crucial for host defense against extracellular bacteria. IL-17/IL-22 secretion by human leukocytes exposed to live Borreliae has not been analyzed. Here we report that B. burgdorferi-activated PBMC lack immediate IL-17 expression despite being highly activated and robust T cell-dependent production of IL-22 that to a large part is mediated by monocyte-derived IL-1. Early innate immunity may shape dermal infection, thus likely affecting bacterial dissemination. Specifically, insufficient neutrophil recruitment/function, supposedly due to insufficient early IL-17 production along with a lack of opsonizing antibodies, may favor the spread of B. burgdorferi. Indeed, neutrophilic inflammation, indicative of IL-17 bioactivity, is
We developed a PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay in which Ehrlichia, B. burgdorferi, andBartonella species can be detected and differentiated. The assay was specific enough to detect single-base-pair changes with immobilized oligonucleotide probes and enabled us to differentiateEhrlichia variants. The reverse line blot technique is a relatively easy and rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of microorganisms in field samples such as ticks. In its present form we can combine the hybridization of PCR products obtained in separate PCRs. We are now developing a multiplex PCR that will enable us to have an even more convenient method for the screening of samples. These samples could be tick lysates but could also be other material such as blood from patients suffering from a febrile disease with an unknown origin.. In the study presented here we used this method to detect and identifyEhrlichia and B. burgdorferi species in DutchI. ricinus ticks. Analysis of the ...
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a disease for which antibody-based detection assays are often required for diagnosis. The variable surface molecule VlsE and IR6, one of its invariable regions, are commonly targeted by the antibody response in infected individuals. A series of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays was performed to comparatively examine the antibody responses of North American LB patients (n = 37) to VlsE and invariable segments of this molecule. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses to full-length VlsE and to peptides reproducing invariable regions 2, 4, and 6, as well as the invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini of VlsE, were assessed. The proportions and specificities of reactivity to the invariable segments were tested by using cognate peptides as competitors for VlsE binding by patient serum antibodies. IR6 epitopes (by the C6 peptide) were found to dominate the response to invariable segments. IR6 (C6)-specific antibodies were detected in 78% of the serum ...
Each dose of LYMErix (TM) contains 30 ug of lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of LD in North America, adsorbed onto aluminum adjuvant (1). It is indicated for use in persons aged 15-70 years (1). Three doses of the vaccine are administered by intramuscular injection. The initial dose is followed by a second dose 1 month later and a third dose 12 months after the first. Vaccine administration should be timed so the second dose and the third dose are given several weeks before the beginning of the B. burgdorferi transmission season (1), which usually begins in April. In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial involving 10,936 participants living in areas of the northeastern and upper north central United States where LD is endemic, the vaccine efficacy in preventing LD was 50% (95% confidence interval {CI}=14%-71%) after the first two doses and 78% (95% CI=59%-88%) after three doses (1). Efficacy against ...
Nevertheless, in public discourse, LB is often presented in the opposite way, and so-called chronic Lyme disease has become a widely used term in connection with unexplainable clinical conditions potentially leading to disability or even to life-threatening outcomes, even if the aetiological role of infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is not proven [,, ]. Long-lasting and repetitive antibiotic treatment is widely used, despite the risks and lack of efficacy [ ] [6]. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients who have antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato or who report a history of erythema migrans (EM) are more likely to have non-specific symptoms, including musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sensory disorder, and headache. The detection of antibodies in serum and a history of EM were used as a surrogate parameter for previous infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The data of a high number of individuals were statistically analysed.. Previous tick bites were also ...
Blog on anti-ospB antibody product: The BORRELIA BURGDORFERI OUTER SURFACE PROTEIN B P19 ospb (Catalog #MBS211486) is an Antibody produced fr...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) Borrelia garinii strains. The ratio of the mean number of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) nucleotide substitutions per site ...
The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of ...
In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Ticks were collected by dragging a flag over the vegetation and B....
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including humans, when transmitted by ticks.. ...
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by tick-borne spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Bb) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. As in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in Korea using outer surface protein A (OspA) serotyping system. AU - Kee, Sun-Ho. AU - Hwang, K. J.. AU - Oh, H. B.. AU - Park, K. S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Two characteristic strains (935T, 934U) of B. burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein A (OspA). The reactive pattern of strain 934U with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to B. afzelii and that of strain 935T was different from other isolates. Monoclonal antibody (5TEE3) which is specific to strain 935T did not react with any other Western and Japanese isolates. So, it was suggested that there exist at least two groups of B. burgdorferi in Korea. One could be classified as B, afielii and the other is a divergent group from three known ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Roles of OspA, OspB, and flagellin in protective immunity to Lyme borreliosis in laboratory mice. AU - Fikrig, E.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. AU - Marcantonio, N.. AU - Deponte, K.. AU - Kantor, F. S.. AU - Flavell, R. A.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual serum was still protective. Absorption of OspA and OspB antibodies from anti-B. burgdorferi serum eliminated the protective effect. Therefore, active immunization experiments were performed to determine the roles of OspB and flagellin in protective immunity and to determine whether protective immunity induced by OspA is dose dependent. Active immunization with recombinant OspA ...
FIG 3 Alignment of OspC suggesting the eastern North Dakota isolates are genetically distinct strains of B. burgdorferi. Samples M7 and M9 contain a mixture of clones. The sequences included (approximately) residues 25 to 198. B. burgdorferi B31 (AE000792.1), N40 (DQ437463.1), A (a non-type strain, ABQ42987.1), B (a non-type strain, ABK41066.1), ZS7 (AF500204.1), and JD1 (DQ437462.1), as well as Vsp3, an OspC ortholog found in B. hermsii (relapsing fever; AAA22967.1), were included for comparison. Alignment was performed in ClustalW2, and shading was performed using ExPASys BoxShade (black indicates identical residues, gray indicates residues with biochemical properties similar to those of the majority of the residues in the same position, and white indicates unrelated residues). Symbols: dashes indicate gaps, dots in the consensus line indicate moderate to high conservation, gaps indicate no conservation, and asterisks indicate fully conserved residues. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki,...
To the Editor: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tickborne human disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The incidence of the disease in not the same throughout Europe; in southern Europe, the incidence ranges from 43% in Croatia to 1.1% in Greece. Suspected borreliosis cases have been reported in Greece, none were confirmed. Ixodes ricinus, the principal tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe, is found in northern Greece. A low prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies was found in healthy persons in Greece (1,2); a frequency of 7.3% was found in arthritis patients (1), while a frequency of 16.9% was found in patients with neurologic disorders (A. Papa, unpub. data).. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to detect B. burgdorferi DNA in humans and to determine genospecies (3). Isolates found in the United States have constituted a homogeneous group. In Europe, five different genospecies from the original B. burgdorferi, now called burgdorferi sensu lato complex, have been described: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manganese and zinc regulate virulence determinants in borrelia burgdorferi. AU - Troxell, Bryan. AU - Ye, Meiping. AU - Yang, Youyun. AU - Carrasco, Sebastian E.. AU - Lou, Yongliang. AU - Yang, X.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, must adapt to two diverse niches, an arthropod vector and a mammalian host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, plays a central role in spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by governing expression of many genes important for mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi is known to be unique in metal utilization, and little is known of the role of biologically available metals in B. burgdorferi. Here, we identified two transition metal ions, manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), that influenced regulation of RpoS. The intracellular Mn2+ level fluctuated approximately 20-fold under different conditions and inversely correlated with levels of RpoS and the major virulence factor OspC. Furthermore, an ...
In this study, more than 3400 short-term B. burgdorferi T cell lines generated from subjects with chronic B. burgdorferi infection were compared with naive B. burgdorferi-reactive T cell lines from normal individuals. Chronic B. burgdorferi infection was associated with high frequencies of B. burgdorferi-reactive T cells secreting high amounts of IFN-γ and IL-10, which was induced by IL-12 secreted by PBMC. T cell secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10 was suppressed in the presence of neutralizing Abs to IL-12. The presence of IFN-γ/IL-10 secretion was observed only in B. burgdorferi- and not in TT-specific T cell lines. These data demonstrate that chronic B. burgdorferi infection causes IL-12 secretion that induces a population of T cells characterized by secretion of both IFN-γ and IL-10.. The significance of the cellular immune response to B. burgdorferi in Lyme disease has been investigated earlier. A strong T cell response to B. burgdorferi was detected early in the course of illness, often ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi Strain B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Vector borne research
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
GORDILLO PEREZ, Ma. Guadalupe y SOLORZANO SANTOS, Fortino. Lyme disease. Experience in Mexican children. Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex. [online]. 2010, vol.67, n.2, pp.164-176. ISSN 1665-1146.. Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious disease produced by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is a bacteria transmitted to the host organism by the bite of Ixodes ticks. In this report we present the general knowledge about the etiological agent, clinical manifestations of the disease and diagnostic laboratory tests. We offer cumulative information about Lyme disease in Mexican children treated at two childrens hospitals in Mexico City during the last 10 years.. Palabras llave : Borrelia burgdorferi; Erythema migrans; Lyme borreliosis; Neuroborreliosis. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia.. In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne infection caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The infection is associated with several clinical features, of which erythema migrans (EM) and neuroborreliosis (NB) are the most common in Europe. The prognosis after antibiotic therapy is generally good. However, some patients may have residual symptoms post-treatment. The cause of the delayed convalescence is unclear. There are several factors that may affect the clinical outcome of LB, for example, the early interaction between the hosts immune response and B. burgdorferi, the spirochete genotype, antibiotic therapy, as well as the hosts vulnerability.. This thesis aimed to explore the type of early immune response that is generated to B. burgdorferi and its importance for the clinical outcome of LB, and to study the condition of persistent symptoms post-NB from clinical, immunological and diagnostic perspectives. In total, 125 adult patients with different clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a diverse bacterial group with a worldwide distribution of 20 named and 1 unnamed genospecies. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto seen in North America, B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe, are the main genospecies (group 1) that cause Lyme disease. A second group of eight genospecies (B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. kurtenbachii, B. mayonii, B. miyamotoi, B lusitaniae, B spielmanii, B valisiana) have been shown to have a limited disease potential.
Rapid and accurate retrieval of whole genome sequences of human pathogens from disease vectors or animal reservoirs will enable fine-resolution studies of pathogen epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics. However, next generation sequencing technologies have not yet been fully harnessed for the study of vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens, due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality pathogen sequence data directly from field specimens with a high ratio of host to pathogen DNA. We addressed this challenge by using custom probes for multiplexed hybrid capture to enrich for and sequence 30 Borrelia burgdorferi genomes from field samples of its arthropod vector. Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The proprosed culture-independent method enables efficient whole genome capture and sequencing of pathogens directly from arthropod
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Bacteria produce only two types of toxins: endotoxins, which are non-secreted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that make up a large part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; and, exotoxins that are secreted by some gram-positive bacteria and a few strains of gram-negative bacteria.. At one time, Borrelia burgdorferi, was thought to possess an endotoxin since a product isolated from B. burgdorferi was reported to be pyrogenic for rabbits, mitogenic for human mononuclear cells and mouse spleen cells, capable of clotting limulus lysate (a diagnostic test for LPS), and cytotoxic for mouse macrophages; these are properties generally ascribed to bacterial LPS (1). However, subsequent studies revealed the absence of lipid A and other chemical structures characteristic of classic gram-negative endotoxins (2). Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. It is a highly invasive spirochete...
Antigens, Bacterial, CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins, CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, Borrelia burgdorferi, CHEMISTRY, IMMUNOLOGY, Carbon Isotopes, Escherichia coli, GENETICS, Nitrogen Isotopes, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular, Protons, Recombinant Proteins, CHEMISTRY, Solutions, Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S ...
A Novel Laboratory Assessment for the Detection of Borrelia Burgdorferi by Chenggang Jin, MD, PhD, Pharmasan Labs, and Deanna J. Fall, BA, NeuroScience Inc. ** Townsend Letter, the Examiner of Alternative Medicine alternative medicine magazine articles are written by researchers, health practitioners and patients.
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210™ Designation: B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector borne research
Lymphocytic meningoradiculitis and encephalomyelitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi: a clinical and serological study of 18 cases. ...
ebook maternal 1993; landmark Weber K, Wilske B, extensive therapy, Thurmayr R. Azithromycin versus website co-exist for the el of cyberspace Lyme tolerance. ebook maternal 1993; off Schmidli J, Hunziker insurance, Moesli history, Schaad UB. ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding and human of Borrelia artists from remote Disease three levels after physician of minimal body antibiotic to Lyme Persistence. J Infect Dis 1988; civic south ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding, Pfister HW, Spiegel H, et al. small-engined Cash of Borrelia burgdorferi from an world payment. 162 brief ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding, Weber K, Pfister HW, et al. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in down valued groups with Lyme diarrhea. ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding and human lactation a guide for 1989; 17(6):355-9 Nocton therapy, Dressler F, Rutledge BJ, et al. story of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by disease advice cost in Spare brain from ...
Borreliella bavariensis is one of the pathogens of the Borreliella burgdorferi sensu lato complex and causative agent of Lyme disease, mainly in Europe. Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), also referred to as Osp17 or p17, has a molecular size of approximately 17 kDa and is expressed during the mammalian phase of infection. DbpA is associated with binding of the pathogen to host collagen-associated proteoglycan decorin. DIARECT™ antigens are for further manufacturing or research use only. ...
And [we] cant even make a [blood] smear with Borrelia burgdorferi and see the organism. Its there. But you dont see it. You cannot find this spirochete. Why not? After all, I have a sick person here. He is trembling all over. His synovial fluid is full of spirochetes. But when it comes to blood, its not there. So there is something associated with this organism that makes it different. Andy Wilson: Why is Borrelia burgdorferi so hard to find in the body and culture outside the body? Dr. Burgdorfer: Borrelia burgdorferi in the tissues of a patient is extremely difficult to demonstrate, because, first of all, you dont like somebody to take samples out of your brain [to look] for spirochetes. The same with other tissues. Every system in your body can be infected with spirochete. But to prove that is extremely difficult. It demands surgical work, which is very expensive Andy Wilson: Are you a believer in the idea of persistent Lyme infections? Dr. Burgdorfer: I am a believer in persistent ...
And [we] cant even make a [blood] smear with Borrelia burgdorferi and see the organism. Its there. But you dont see it. You cannot find this spirochete. Why not? After all, I have a sick person here. He is trembling all over. His synovial fluid is full of spirochetes. But when it comes to blood, its not there. So there is something associated with this organism that makes it different. Andy Wilson: Why is Borrelia burgdorferi so hard to find in the body and culture outside the body? Dr. Burgdorfer: Borrelia burgdorferi in the tissues of a patient is extremely difficult to demonstrate, because, first of all, you dont like somebody to take samples out of your brain [to look] for spirochetes. The same with other tissues. Every system in your body can be infected with spirochete. But to prove that is extremely difficult. It demands surgical work, which is very expensive Andy Wilson: Are you a believer in the idea of persistent Lyme infections? Dr. Burgdorfer: I am a believer in persistent ...
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Borrelia afzelii NlpH protein: isolated from Borrelia afzelii; amino acid sequence in first source; NlpH protein also found in B. burgdorferi and B. garinii.; GenBank Y08413
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COMPLEX (IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIPOPROTEIN), OUTER SURFACE PROTEIN A COMPLEXED WITH FAB184.1, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI STRAIN B31, COMPLEX (IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIPOPROTEIN) ...
Detection of (p)ppGpp in B. burgdorferi B31 grown at 34°C in BSK-H in the presence (lane 1) or absence (lane 2) of 6% rabbit serum, or in BSK-H at 23°C in the
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Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
All organisms, from bacteria to humans, need to recognize where they are, and respond accordingly. A pathogen must sense its location in the inf...
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PepTivator® B. afzelii bmpA is a pool of lyophilized peptides, consisting mainly of 15-mer sequences with 11 amino acids overlap, covering the complete sequence of the Borrelia afzelii basic membrane protein A (UniProt ID: Q0SND0). In vitro stimulation of antigen-specific T cells with PepTivator Peptide Pools causes the secretion of effector cytokines and the up-regulation of activation markers, which then allow the detection and isolation of antigen-specific T cells. - Belgique
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Marie Kroun, MD Founder and webmaster of LymeRICK - Denmark Transmission by Contact via Feces, urine or Tick-excretes - can Borrelia burgdorferi...
(A) PBMC were kept as an unstimulated control or exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi (MOI = 0.1) in presence or absence of IFN-α (5 ng/ml) or with IFN-α (5 ng
mostly general information about treatment for more infections; treatment for SINGLE infection that has its own link group on this website, will be placed in that group ...
Therefore, it might be important to eradicate all germative forms (not only the motile form) of the bacterium to obtain a proper treatment for Lyme borreliosis. Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) contains bioactive flavenoids (e.g., hesperitin, resveratrol, and naringenin) and has been shown to possess anti-microbiological effect against bacteria and fungus [6,7]. Many studies indicate that GSE is a substance whose therapeutic effect ranks equal to or better than ...
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Found by Myxomop & Caba.. Growing on a 12 mm thick twig.. Spores 4-5 × 2-2.5. Basidia 4-spored, 17+4 x 4.5. Setae 100 × 10 (and longer). Hyphae ~2 microns wide. ...
View Notes - cells2 from BIOL 20204 at TCU. II. The Cell- Basic Unit of Life A. Cell or Plasma membrane-found @ outer surface of cell 1. Structure i. Thickness-75 ancryms=3/10,000,000 ii. Fluid
Abstract Background In our previous studies on lipoprotein secretion in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we used monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) N-terminal lipopeptides to gather first insights into lipoprotein sorting determinants. OspA:mRFP1 fusions could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy both in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. To build on these findings and to complement the prior targeted mutagenesis approach, we set out to develop a screen to probe a random mutagenesis expression library for mutants expressing differentially localized lipoproteins. Results A Glu-Asp codon pair in the inner membrane-localized OspA20:mRFP1 fusion was chosen for mutagenesis since the two negative charges were previously shown to define the phenotype. A library of random mutants in the two codons was generated and expressed in B. burgdorferi. In situ surface proteolysis combined with fluorescence ...
We determined the humoral immune response to outer surface protein C (OspC) of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with early or late manifestations of Lyme disease and investigated the use of this antigen in the serodiagnosis of early infection. The ospC gene from the low-passage human isolate 297, a North American B. burgdorferi strain, was used to make a recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-OspC fusion protein for serologic tests. This gene showed 84 to 85% nucleotide sequence identity and 76 to 79% amino acid identity with ospC of B. burgdorferi B31 and 2591. The antibody responses to MBP-OspC were determined in serial sera from 15 patients with Lyme disease who were monitored for 4 to 12 years of illness, in single-serum samples from 189 patients with early or late manifestations of the disorder, and in serum samples from 106 control patients. Early in the infection, patients with erythema migrans or meningitis commonly had weak to strong immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses to OspC and ...
Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has 52 known species. Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the disease in humans, while a number of others have been implicated as possibly pathogenic. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with the single species in that complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. Borrelia are microaerophilic and slow-growing-the primary reason for the long delays when diagnosing Lyme disease-and have been found to have greater strain diversity than previously estimated. The strains differ in clinical symptoms and/or presentation as well as geographic distribution. Except for Borrelia recurrentis (which causes louse-borne relapsing fever and is transmitted by ...
The maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus was investigated from 202 mark and recapture mice and 61 mice that were removed from a site in Baltimore County, Maryland. Borrelia burgdorferi infection was detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ear tissue, and exposure to the spirochete was quantified by serology. Overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi, as determined by culture and PCR of ear tissue at first capture, was 25% in the longitudinal sample and 42% in the cross-sectional sample. Significantly more juvenile mice were captured in the longitudinal sample (18%) than in the cross-sectional sample (0%). Among 36 captured juvenile mice, only one was infected with B. burgdorferi; this contributed to a significant trend for infection with B. burgdorferi with age. Recovery from infection with B. burgdorferi was not detected among 77 mice followed for an average of 160 days. The incidence rate of infection with B. burgdorferi was 10 times greater in mice
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Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade.. Results: 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains ...
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Abstract In order to determine if Peromyscus spp. could become infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) by direct inoculation and to determine the duration of spirochetemia, 4 P. leucopus and 5 P. maniculatus were inoculated by the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes with an isolate of B. burgdorferi obtained from the blood of a trapped wild P. leucopus from Camp McCoy, Wisconsin. All of the mice developed antibodies to B. burgdorferi which reached a peak indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) geometric mean antibody titer of 10 log2 21 days post-inoculation. B. burgdorferi was recovered from the blood of 1 P. maniculatus 21 days post-inoculation. One uninfected Peromyscus of each species was housed in the same cage with the infected Peromyscus as a contact control. Both of the contact controls developed IFA B. burgdorferi antibodies by day 14, indicating contact infection. To determine if B. burgdorferi was being transmitted by direct contact, 5 uninfected P.
Four patients who had received tick bites while visiting forests in Mexico had skin lesions that met the case definition of erythema migrans, or borrelial lymphocytoma. Clinical diagnosis was supported with histologic, serologic, and molecular tests. This study suggests the Borrelia burgdorferi infection is in Mexico.
Borrelia burgdorferi synthesizes an HtrA protease (BbHtrA) which is a surface-exposed, conserved protein within Lyme disease spirochetes with activity toward CheX and BmpD of Borrelia spp, as well as aggrecan, fibronectin and proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues of vertebrates. An antibody response against BbHtrA is observed in Lyme disease patients and in experimentally infected laboratory mice and rabbits. Given the surface location of BbHtrA on B. burgdorferi and its ability to elicit an antibody response in infected hosts, we explored recombinant BbHtrA as a potential vaccine candidate in a mouse model of tick-transmitted Lyme disease. We immunized mice with two forms of BbHtrA: the proteolytically active native form and BbHtrA ablated of activity by a serine to alanine mutation at amino acid 226 (BbHtrAS226A). Although inoculation with either BbHtrA or BbHtrAS226A produced high-titer antibody responses in C3H/HeJ mice, neither antigen was successful in protecting mice from ...
Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, including the tick-transmitted agents of human Lyme borreliosis, have particularly complex genomes, consisting of a linear main chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. The number and structure of plasmids is variable even in strains within a single genospecies. Genes on these plasmids are known to play essential roles in virulence and pathogenicity as well as host and vector associations. For this reason, it is essential to explore methods for rapid and reliable characterisation of molecular level changes on plasmids. In this study we used three strains: a low passage isolate of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31(−NRZ) and two closely related strains (PAli and PAbe) that were isolated from human patients. Sequences of these strains were compared to the previously sequenced reference strain B31 (available in GenBank) to obtain proof-of-principle information on the suitability of next generation sequencing (NGS) library
Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that utilize cattle as amplifying hosts, namely Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia sensu stricto, to increase. To test these hypotheses, we compared the densities of questing I. ricinus between twenty pairs of plots in grazed and ungrazed forest areas. The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. Nymphs were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia s.s. DNA from twelve paired areas. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and ...
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B. burgdorferi. It modulates the expression of identified and unidentified open reading frames needed to deal with and overcome the many nutritional stresses and other challenges faced by the spirochete in ticks and animal reservoirs. The metabolic and morphologic changes resulting from activation of the stringent response in B. burgdorferi may also be involved in the recently described non-genetic phenotypic phenomenon of tolerance to otherwise lethal doses of antimicrobials and ...
Abstract. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-system disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by hard ticks Ixodes spp. The most common clinical manifestation is the skin lesion (erythema migrans), however there is a tendency of the pathogen to spread and cause damages to the joints, nervous and cardiovascular system. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based primarily on clinical findings, epidemiological and anamnestic data and laboratory test results. The application of the modern real-time PCR method allows us to test the skin in tick bite area for a presence of B. burgdorferi. In the diagnosis of Lyme disease, we often use indirect methods (TIIF, ELISA, Western blot) for detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi in serum, liquor and synovial fluid. To confirm the diagnosis, the presence of IgG antibodies should be demonstrated, since the presence of IgM is not a relible indicator of a recent infection. When interpreting immunodiagnostic test results it has to ...
OBJECTIVE: To estimate long term survival, health, and educational/social functioning in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis compared with the general population.. DESIGN: Nationwide population based cohort study using national registers.. SETTING: Denmark.. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish residents diagnosed during 1986-2016 as having Lyme neuroborreliosis (n=2067), defined as a positive Borrelia burgdorferi intrathecal antibody test and a clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and a comparison cohort from the general population matched on sex and date of birth (n=20 670).. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality rate ratios, incidence rate ratios of comorbidities, and differences in educational and social outcomes.. RESULTS: Mortality among patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis was not higher than in the general population (mortality rate ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.03). Lyme neuroborreliosis patients had increased risk of haematological (incidence rate ratio 3.07, 2.03 to 4.66) and ...
Lyme disease is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States with about 329,000 new cases each year, according to statistics released in 2015 by the CDC. Lyme disease is a potentially disabling infection caused by bacteria transmitted through the bite of an infected tick to people and pets.. The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients.. Newly published research finds that the Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi survive a 28-day course of antibiotics when treated months after infection. In addition, the study also measured the antibody immune response to the bacteria both pre- and post- treatment, as this is how current diagnostics typically evaluate Lyme disease in humans.. Lead author of the study, Monica Embers, PhD joined me to discuss the research and its implications. Dr Embers is an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at Tulane University School of ...
Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is recognized as an important infectious disease in North America, Europe, and Asia. The formerly designated Borrelia burgdorferi has now been subdivided into multiple Borrelia species, including three that cause human infection. In the United States, the sole cause of infection is B. burgdorferi. Although all three pathogenic species are found in Europe, most disease there is caused by B. afzelii or B. garinii; these two species also seem to be responsible for the illness in Asia. This chapter presents biology and enzootic cycles of B. burgdorferi and related Borrelia species. As with other spirochetal infections, human Lyme borreliosis generally occurs in stages, with remissions, exacerbations, and different clinical manifestations at each stage. Early infection consists of stage 1 (localized skin infection), followed within days to weeks by stage 2 (disseminated infection). Late infection, or stage 3 (persistent or progressive infection), usually begins months to
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease, the most common tickborne disease in the United States, is caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in North America. The present study evaluated the genotypes of ,400 clinical isolates of B. burgdorferi recovered from patients from suburban New York City with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans; it is the largest number of borrelial strains from North America ever to be investigated. METHODS: Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction analysis of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA spacer and reverse line blot analysis of the outer surface protein C gene (ospC ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria causes Lyme disease, but many people continue to suffer even when all the B. burgodorferi are dead - a previously unexplained phenomenon called chronic Lyme disease…
Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined. Fibronectin (Fn), a ubiquitous host molecule targeted by many pathogens, promotes vascular interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Here, we investigated how B. burgdorferi exploits Fn to interact with endothelia under physiological shear stress, using recently developed live cell imaging and particle-tracking methods for studying bacterial-endothelial interaction biomechanics. We found ...
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement. Owing to their mode of action, the interacting surface-exposed proteins identified among B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, and B. bavariensis can be classified into at least two major categories, namely molecules that directly interfere with distinct complement components including BBK32, CspA,
Lyme Disease is caused by a Borrelia Burgdorferi infection transmitted through the bite of a black legged tick, "Ixodes Scapularis." The infected ticks are found throughout the Northeast and more than forty other states, as well as Europe, Asia, and Australia. A telltale "Bulls Eye", or "erythema migrans" rash, along with flu-like symptoms, occurs in only 30-40% of early Lyme Disease patients. This rash classically delineates the initial stage of the infection. Usually after a four to six week course of antibiotic therapy, the disease process can be arrested.. However, Lyme Disease can prove to be a more difficult and complex process to diagnose and treat. When characteristic more commonplace symptoms are not present (such as above). Lyme Disease can progress untreated and become a serious, chronic, and sometimes debilitating illness, which affects multiple systems of the body.. Chronic Systemic Lyme Disease (CSLD) has an affinity for the joints, muscles, heart, and especially the nervous ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody t
Variable Lipoprotein Surface-Exposed protein, or VlsE, is a lipoprotein on the surface of the Lyme Disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, detectable during all its life stages. It can exist as many different isoforms. VlsE has variable regions (VRs) and invariable regions (IRs). Some IRs are anchored in the outer membrane of the bacteria and some are antigens exposed on the membrane surface. Replacement of the VR by Borrelia within days of being transferred to a mammalian host presents new surface antigens to the host immune system, and helps Borrelia avoid a strong reaction by host immune systems. The VlsE is apparently not modified as much in the tick or in the rodent vector, when compared to in the mammal host. Several putative envelope proteins of B. burgdorferi appear to be expressed only in the infected mammalian host. The VRs are antigenic, irregularly shaped loops on the bacterial surface which may help to hide both membrane-incorporated and surface portions of adjacent proteins from
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The plant Coleus forskohlii is distributed primarily in India, Thailand, China, Egypt and Brazil and has a history of use in the treatment of multiple diseases. Isoforskolin (ISOF) is the principle active component of C. forskohlii native to China and has previously been studied for its biological effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ISOF on the proinflammatory responses induced by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). In in vitro experiments, the proinflammatory effects of rBmpA and the anti‑inflammatory function of ISOF were evaluated in murine macrophages, human macrophages and dendritic cells by detecting the transcription and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑6. In in vivo experiments, mean arthritis index and X‑ray and histopathological examinations were used to verify the role of ISOF in experimental Lyme arthritis in mice. The results indicated that rBmpA, which induced the transcription ...
Lyme disease was first recognized in 1975 in a town, named old Lyme in Connecticut. Now the disease in noticed worldwide. Most of the Lyme disease cases are observed through transmission of spirochete Borrelia bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi through bite of deer ticks or western back legged ticks. Ticks are tiny, blood sucking ectoparasites which vary in color and size. Tick bite can be recognized only as a lump with a small scab on the skin surface. Incubation period of lyme disease is around two weeks. Though the early symptoms are not observed in several cases, the typical skin rash of the disease can be seen. This skin rash should be taken seriously and consulted with the doctor, to avoid further complications. Lyme disease can also be fatal, which affects vital organs of the body, such as brain and heart. Lyme disease diagnosis shall be done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test, Western Blot test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Lyme disease treatment: As lyme is ...
Lyme disease is the most common vectorborne illness in the United States, with about 30,000 confirmed and probable cases diagnosed in 2010. Lyme disease also occurs worldwide. In Europe, the tick that causes Lyme disease lives on sheep, not on deer.An estimated 70 to 80 percent of people with Lyme disease develop a characteristic solid or bullseye red rash, called erythema migrans (EM). But Lyme disease should be suspected in anyone who has visited an area where Lyme disease is common, may have had a tick bite, and has other symptoms of early Lyme disease such as:
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions ...
Lymerix works on the outer surface protein A (Osp-A) of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease. Osp-A causes ... This statement became a rallying point for what advocacy groups call the Lyme disease controversy. In the face of some elements ... Kamradt T, Lengl-Janssen B, Strauss AF, Bansal G, Steere AC (April 1996). "Dominant recognition of a Borrelia burgdorferi outer ... April 2006). "Antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis is associated with HLA-DR molecules that bind a Borrelia burgdorferi peptide ...
Lyme disease; is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the Deer tick ( ... Ixodes scapularis). Lyme disease is one of a group of diseases which have earned the name the "great imitator" for their ... February 2002). "Higher prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in psychiatric patients than in healthy subjects". The ...
2014 Genus Borreliella Adeolu & Gupta 2015 [Borrelia burgdorferi species-group] (Lyme disease Borrelia) Genus Borrelia ... containing the members of the Lyme disease Borrelia (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex)". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 105 (6 ... which causes leptospirosis Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, which cause Lyme disease Borrelia recurrentis, ... the emended genus Borrelia containing only the members of the relapsing fever Borrelia, and the genus Borreliella gen. nov. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, and Treponema pallidum. Comparing the sequences, in a 2001 study by Rominus et al., it was determined ... that S. thermophila was most closely related to T. pallidum for this sequence and the sister to those groups was B. ... burgdorferi that was a mesophile. This was an interesting revelation because it was previously assumed that the thermophilic, ...
Most bacterial chromosomes are circular although some examples of linear DNA exist (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi). Along with ... They have O-acetyl groups on carbon-6 of some MA residues. The matrix substances in the walls of gram-positive bacteria may be ... There do exist, however, specialized groups of bacteria that contain more complex intracellular structures, some of which are ... Intracellular membranes are also found in bacteria belonging to the poorly studied Planctomycetes group, although these ...
Ticks and lice form another large group of invertebrate vectors. The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme Disease ... Another large group of vectors are flies. Sandfly species transmit the disease leishmaniasis, by acting as vectors for ...
... and Borrelia burgdorferi (known for causing Lyme disease). Meningitis may be encountered in cerebral malaria (malaria infecting ... For instance, while N. meningitides groups B and C cause most disease episodes in Europe, group A is found in Asia and ... Meningococcus vaccines exist against groups A, B, C, W135 and Y. In countries where the vaccine for meningococcus group C was ... Inflammation of the meninges may lead to abnormalities of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves arising from the brain stem ...
... including the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. - and important in natural transmission. Nuttall's ... Her group has also shown that the proteins in saliva differ between individual ticks of the same species and also change over ... One vaccine candidate explored by Nuttall's group is 64TRP, a 15 kDa Rhipicephalus appendiculatus protein from the cement cone ... group has continued to study the phenomenon, and have shown that immunity to tick-borne encephalitis virus does not prevent ...
Borrelia MeSH B03.851.595.193.150 --- Borrelia burgdorferi group MeSH B03.851.595.193.150.125 --- Borrelia burgdorferi MeSH ... Borrelia MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.193.150 --- Borrelia burgdorferi group MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.193.150.125 --- Borrelia ... Streptococcus milleri group MeSH B03.510.400.800.872.875.475.080 --- Streptococcus anginosus MeSH B03.510.400.800.872.875. ... burgdorferi MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.670 --- Serpulina MeSH B03.440.425.410.711.670.400 --- Serpulina hyodysenteriae MeSH ...
... species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease Synergistetes Tenericutes, alternatively class Mollicutes in ... and those groups were then grouped according to their similarities, and so on, to form a hierarchy. Budd, G.E.; Jensen, S. (May ... a method in which groups are placed on a "family tree" without any formal ranking of group size. A definition of a phylum based ... classified plants into five groups named divisions, a term that remains in use today for groups of plants, algae and fungi. The ...
In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Cat Specialist Group Sue Paterson (16 March 2009). Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. John Wiley & Sons. p. 122. ISBN ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...
The most common name for this spirochaete is Borrelia burgdorferi, but many different Borrelia species cause Lyme Disease ... Tick Alert Group Support, Mona Vale, Sydney, TAGS Inc until 2009 (A community organisation supporting sufferers of tick- ... An Australian spirochaete has not been found in humans yet, and may be quite different from Borrelia burgdorferi. Despite ... for the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. International Journal Parasitology, 21: 109-11. Hudson, B.J., Barry, R.D ...
Spirochaetes, notable for compartmentalisation and species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. The ... several groups of phyla have clear clustering and are referred to as superphyla. The FCB group (now called Sphingobacteria) ... Marine Group A (from Pacific ocean) Termite Group 1 (from a Reticulitermes speratus termite gut, now Elusimicrobia) Since then ... Chloroflexus group (Chloroflexus, Herpetosiphon) Thermomicrobium group (Thermomicrobium roseum) Thermotogae (Thermotoga ...
Introduction of the Borrelia burgdorferi blyAB locus into Escherichia coli produces a hemolytic phenotype that is dependent on ... The BlyA Holin Family (TC# 1.E.17) is a group of holin proteins that are approximately 55-70 amino acyl residues (aas) in ... Damman, C. J.; Eggers, C. H.; Samuels, D. S.; Oliver, D. B. (2000-12-01). "Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi BlyA and ... from Borrelia burgdorferi". International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM. 298 (5-6): 473-481. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.07 ...
The genomic variations of Borrelia burgdorferi contribute to varying degrees of infection and dissemination. Each genomic group ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North ... Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. ... Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi ...
The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Direct tests ... 21 are members of the Lyme disease group, 29 belong to the relapsing fever group, and two are members of a third group. The ... Borrelia genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Borrelia Microbe Wiki Page ... Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum. It causes borreliosis, a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted ...
OspA from Borrelia burgdorferi is an unusual outer surface protein, it has two globular domains which are connected with a ... Members of this group include: PagC, required by Salmonella typhimurium for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice ... Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins play role in persistence within ticks (OspA, OspB, OspD), mammalian host ... OspA OspC is a major surface lipoprotein produced by Borrelia burgdorferi when infected ticks feed. OspC is necessary for tick ...
Borrelia burgdorferi and Helicobactor pylori. As a derivative of ampicillin, amoxicillin is a member of the same family as ... It has two ionizable groups in the physiological range (the amino group in alpha-position to the amide carbonyl group and the ... carboxyl group).[citation needed] Amoxicillin was one of several semisynthetic derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) ...
It is a part of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and is a Gram-negative bacterium. B. lusitaniae is tick-borne; ... it is the sole species of the Lyme borreliosis group in southern Portugal. Lizards of the family Lacertidae are believed to be ... 1995). "T cell response to Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains". ... Borrelia lusitaniae is a bacterium of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia, which has a diderm (double-membrane) envelope ...
Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Rickettsia conorii causes ... A canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) is one of "a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused ... viruses are also becoming recognized as another group of transmitted pathogens of both animals and humans. Some "canine vector- ...
Ticks, their hosts, and Borrelia burgdorferi on the outer banks of North Carolina. Pp. 7-8 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and ... Sucking lice (Anoplura) are a diverse group infecting placental mammals. Species found on marsh rice rats include three of the ... Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from coastal Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology 28(5):668-674. Levine, J.F ... Tick-host associations and maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in Virginia. Pp. 8-9 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and Snoddy ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira, and beta-hemolytic Streptococci. The only vaccine proven to induce ADEM is the Semple form of ... Group means for each cognitive domain were all within one standard deviation of age norms, demonstrating that, as a group, they ... The VAERS Working Group". Vaccine. 18 (26): 2963-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00111-0. PMID 10825597. Tourbah A, Gout O, Liblau ... Again, all groups means were within one standard deviation of the controls, meaning that while effects were statistically ...
... has recently been found to have excellent activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative ... This intermediate is then modified by methylation (which incorporates a methyl group from L-methionine onto the alcohol at the ... "Identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi from the NCI compound ...
studied the diversification and epidemiology of endemic bacterial pathogens by using the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex ( ... Moore et al conducted a study in 2014 in which a group of Atlantic Salmon populations which were previously analyzed with ... "Comparative Population Genomics of the Borrelia burgdorferi Species Complex Reveals High Degree of Genetic Isolation among ... They also wished to compare the genetic structure between B. burgdorferi and the closely related species B. garinii and B. ...
Ticks, their hosts, and Borrelia burgdorferi on the outer banks of North Carolina. Pp. 7-8 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and ... Pentastomida is an enigmatic group of parasites that may be related to maxillopod crustaceans.[94] One species, Porocephalus ... Tick-host associations and maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in Virginia. Pp. 8-9 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and Snoddy ... Reservoir competence of rice rat and lizards for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Pp. 11-13 in Apperson, C.S ...
Borrelia burgdorferi deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles tick bite ... During most of human prehistory groups of hunter-gatherers were probably very small. Such groups probably made contact with ...
Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferiBlyA and BlyB Proteins: a Prophage-Encoded Holin-Like System Christopher J. Damman, ... Transduction by φBB-1, a Bacteriophage ofBorrelia burgdorferi Christian H. Eggers, Betsy J. Kimmel, James L. Bono, Abdallah F. ... Altered Stationary-Phase Response in aBorrelia burgdorferi rpoS Mutant Abdallah F. Elias, James L. Bono, James A. Carroll, ... Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis inBorrelia burgdorferi James L. Bono, Abdallah F. Elias, John J. Kupko, Brian Stevenson, Kit ...
... burgdorferi. Group I strains have been identified in both North America and Eurasia, while strains belonging to Borrelia groups ... by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves Borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct phyletic groups.. Welsh J1, ... The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, was first identified by Burgdorfer et al. in 1982 (W. Burgdorfer, A ... These same three groups have also been delineated by Baranton et al. (G. Baranton, D. Postic, I. Saint Girons, P. Boerlin, J.-C ...
... and were asked to donate a serum specimen for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... burgdorferi. The disparity between serological reactivity and the clinical evidence of Lyme borreliosis suggests cumulative ... assay (ELISA), immunoblotting, and borrelia inhibition assays, and for detection of potentially cross-reactive antibodies. Of ... exposure to a nonpathogenic form of B. burgdorferi. ... burgdorferi and evidence of past disease in a high-risk group. ...
Disparity Between Serological Reactivity toBorrelia burgdorferiand Evidence of Past Disease in a High-Risk Group. ... burgdorferi.The disparity between serological reactivity and the clinical evidence of Lyme borreliosis suggests cumulative ... and borrelia inhibition assays, and for detection of potentially cross-reactive antibodies. Of 302 individuals, 77 (25%) had ...
1992 Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and Group VS461 associated with Lyme ... 1995 Simultaneous detection and genotyping of three genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ... The alleles of ospC of B. burgdorferi form "major sequence groups" (Wanget al. 1999). Sequences between major groups are ≥10% ... 1997 Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. (Borrelia Genomic Groups VS116 and M19). Int. J. Syst. ...
We documented seropositivity for Borrelia burgdorferi (13.9%) and B. miyamotoi (2.6%), as well as a single equivocal result ( ... Krause PJ, Narasimhan S, Wormser GP, Barbour AG, Platonov AE, Brancato J, et al.; Tick Borne Diseases Group. Borrelia miyamotoi ... Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Residents Bitten by Ixodes Ticks, Maine, USA On ... Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, and Powassan Virus in Residents Bitten by Ixodes Ticks, Maine, USA. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi.- Antibody detection.- Brucella species.- Antibody detection.- Campylobacter species.- Antigen detection ... Spotted Fever bio-group and Typhus Fever bio-group.- Antibody detection.- Rotavirus.- Antigen detection.- Antibody detection.- ... group D).- Antigen detection.- Epstein-Barr virus.- Epstein-Barr virus.- Antibody detection.- Epstein-Barr virus (EA).- ... Encephalitis bio-group: EEEV, WEEV, SLEV and CEV.- Antibody detection.- Flaviviruses: Dengue fever virus.- Antibody detection ...
Expanded diversity among Californian Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ... and Borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29:403-6.PubMed ... Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks, Chicago Area. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2006;12(6):1039-1041. doi:10.3201/ ... Effects of bovine serum albumin on the ability of Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium to detect Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin ...
... and IgG3 reactivities to each peptide were significantly increased in the Lyme disease patient group (p , 0.0001, p , 0.01, and ... Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme ... Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme ... Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme ...
Lyme Disease Vaccine Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:209-215. ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in ... Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Sherwood R. ... Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Sherwood R. ... Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Steven E. Schutzer, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Sherwood R. ...
1997) Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 13:951-957. ... Borrelia garinii,Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana,Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia andersonii,Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia ... Expanded diversity among Californian Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ... 1995) Simultaneous detection and genotyping of three genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ...
was significantly more common (p , 0.05) in individuals seropositive for Borrelia (16.3%) compared to the healthy control group ... High seroprevalence of Babesia antibodies among Borrelia burgdorferi-infected humans in Sweden.. Svensson J1, Hunfeld KP2, ... was investigated in a cohort of patients that were seropositive for Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Data were ... Almost one third of the sera were from patients with a confirmed seropositive reaction against B. burgdorferi s.l. All sera ...
However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical ... B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human ... However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests ... The group C allele in the Midwest shares 96.8% similarity with the group C allele in the Northeast. Whether the unique ospC ...
The purpose of this study was to document the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected in southeastern Missouri and ... burgdorferi. These results confirm that B. burgdorferi is present in questing D. variabilis and A. americanum ticks in areas of ... Spirochetes were detected and identified as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests using the monoclonal ... burgdorferi-specific primers followed by Southern blotting. The DNA sequences of amplified 371-basepair PCR products from two ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the primary causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochetal bacterium that can adopt different inactive ... In Vitro Effectiveness of Samento and Banderol Herbal Extracts on the Different Morphological Forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi. by ... 4. Brorson Ø, Brorson SH, Scythes J, MacAllister J, Wier A, Margulis L. Destruction of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi round- ... A tick-borne, multisystemic disease, Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has grown into a major ...
Five genospecies were detected: Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorfer … ... A total of 874 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in Switzerland to investigate the genetic diversity of the Borrelia ... Borrelia burgdorferi Group / classification* * Borrelia burgdorferi Group / genetics* * Borrelia burgdorferi Group / isolation ... Five genospecies were detected: Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, and ...
The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of ... Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi Nature. 1997 Dec 11;390(6660):580-6. doi: 10.1038/37551. ... Borrelia burgdorferi Group / genetics* * Chemotaxis * Chromosomes, Bacterial * DNA Repair * DNA, Bacterial / biosynthesis ... The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of ...
... including Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, and deer tick virus (Powassan virus, lineage II). ... The tick vector that transmits A. phagocytophilum also transmits other pathogens, and coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi or ... De Martino SJ, Carlyon JA, Fikrig E. Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. N ... Simultaneous infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22:91-2. ...
Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis ... Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis. N Engl ... Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary gland proteins in New Jersey outdoor workers. Am J Public Health 1993;83: ... Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988;7: ...
Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis ... Diagnostic value of proteins of three Borrelia species (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and implications for development and ... is a multiorgan infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. A subspecies, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto ... Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban recreational areas of Helsinki. J. Clin. Microbiol.37:1361- ...
1992) Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme ... Lyme borreliosis or Lyme disease is caused by a group of bacteria species called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (2, 15). The ... 1984) Borrelia burgdorferi sp. nov.: etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34:496-497. ... 1997) Borrelia burgdorferi migrates into joint capsules and causes an up-regulation of interleukin-8 in synovial membranes of ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210™ Designation: B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector ... Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AE000783 Borrelia burgdorferi B31, complete genome. Nucleotide (GenBank) : AE001115 Borrelia burgdorferi ... Borrelia burgdorferi small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence. Nucleotide (GenBank) : U76405 Borrelia burgdorferi vmp-like vlsE ( ...
  • Since Borrelia is highly clonal, the ospC alleles can be used to define clones. (genetics.org)
  • The genetic homogeneity of ospC -A isolates was confi rmed agent, Borrelia burgdorferi , a spirochete that parasitizes by sequences at 6 additional chromosomal housekeeping vertebrates, is transmitted by hard-bodied ticks through- loci ( gap, alr, glpA, xylB, ackA, and tgt ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we obtained a well-resolved polymorphism type of intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence phylogeny of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto clonal complexes (corresponding to the ospC- A and -B groups) is associated by using multilocus sequence typing at housekeeping loci with hematogenous dissemination in patients with early as well as loci under adaptive evolution. (cdc.gov)
  • Four ospC clonal complexes dence of genetic endemism, recent migration events, and (A, B, I, and K groups) were found to be more likely than recombinant genomic types. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, the ospC -B group consists of genotypes distinct to each continent, indicating geographic isolation. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 12 distinct outer surface protein C ( ospC ) major sequence types coexist in local B. burgdorferi sensu stricto populations in the northeastern United States ( 13 - 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, we showed that the expression of ospC in B. burgdorferi is governed by a novel alternative sigma factor regulatory network, the RpoN-RpoS pathway. (asm.org)
  • Using deletion analyses and genetic complementation in an OspC-deficient mutant of B. burgdorferi , we analyzed the cis element(s) required for the expression of ospC in its native borrelial background. (asm.org)
  • Two highly conserved upstream inverted repeat elements, previously implicated in ospC regulation, were not required for ospC expression in B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • The implication of our findings to understanding how B. burgdorferi differentially regulates ospC and other ospC -like genes via the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway is discussed. (asm.org)
  • Evolution of the Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein OspC. (asm.org)
  • The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. (asm.org)
  • The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the phylogenetic tree obtained for the B. hermsii variable major protein, Vmp33, and 18 OspC amino acid sequences suggested that Vmp33 and OspC from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains share a common evolutionary origin. (asm.org)
  • A previous study in this laboratory showed that OspC antibody raised against a denatured immunogen isolated from B. burgdorferi cells failed to provide protective immunity. (asm.org)
  • Following seroconversion to OspC, the animals were challenged with an infectious dose of B. burgdorferi B31 by tick bite. (asm.org)
  • The difference in this group, however, was that they had been immunized with OspC from B. burgdorferi B31 cells purified under denaturing conditions. (asm.org)
  • This report describes results of tick bite challenges to groups of mice actively immunized with strain B31-derived recombinant OspC that had been treated by various denaturation procedures. (asm.org)
  • Synthesis of the B. burgdorferi OspC protein is induced upon tick feeding ( 25 ), which suggests that this protein is involved in transmission between the tick and mammalian hosts. (asm.org)
  • as B. burgdorferi transitions from its arthropod vector into mammalian tissue, ospC is upregulated, and ospA is downregulated. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, using B. burgdorferi cultivated under varying conditions in BSK-H medium, we found that a decrease in pH, in conjunction with increases in temperature (e.g. 34 degrees C or 37 degrees C) and cell density, acted interdependently for the reciprocal expression of ospC and ospA. (nih.gov)
  • That the expression of rpoS, encoding a putative stress-related alternative sigma factor (sigma(s)), was ospC-like suggested that the expression of some of the group I genes may be controlled through sigma(s). (nih.gov)
  • Colored isolate names highlight isolates with the same ospC major group that cluster in different clades, which suggests horizontal gene transfer. (cdc.gov)
  • Co-evolution of the outer surface protein C gene (ospC) and intraspecific lineages of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in the northeastern United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, OspC is highly variable. (asm.org)
  • Based on sequence divergence, alleles of ospC can be divided into 21 major groups. (asm.org)
  • To assess whether strain differences defined by ospC group are linked to invasiveness and pathogenicity, we compared the frequency distributions of major ospC groups from ticks, from the primary erythema migrans skin lesion, and from secondary sites, principally from blood and spinal fluid. (asm.org)
  • The frequency distribution of ospC groups from ticks is significantly different from that from primary sites, which in turn is significantly different from that from secondary sites. (asm.org)
  • 40 ) found 13 ospC alleles of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto within a small tick population, while Livey et al. (asm.org)
  • 40 ) defined major ospC groups by using the observation that ospC alleles are either very similar (less than 2% sequence divergence) or very different (greater than 8% sequence divergence), with most having greater than 14% sequence divergence. (asm.org)
  • OspA OspC is a major surface lipoprotein produced by Borrelia burgdorferi when infected ticks feed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), a borrelial outer surface protein, is one of the key proteins in B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • Previous reports indicated a correlation between loss of plasmids and decreased infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31, suggesting that plasmids may encode proteins that are required for pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • This was confirmed using lipidated vs nonlipidated hexapeptides of Borrelia outer surface proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • The BlyA Holin Family (TC# 1.E.17) is a group of holin proteins that are approximately 55-70 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit one transmembrane segment (TMS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins can contain iron as part of different cofactors, such as iron-sulfur clusters (Fe-S) and heme groups, both of which are assembled in mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron is present in the iron-sulfur clusters and heme groups of the electron transport chain proteins that generate a proton gradient that allows ATP synthase to synthesize ATP (chemiosmosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi B31, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • Motility and chemotaxis genes comprise 5 to 6% of the genome of B. burgdorferi , yet the functions of most of those genes remain uncharacterized, mainly due to the paucity of a nonpolar gene inactivation system. (asm.org)
  • These observations imply that the dynamic nature of the B. burgdorferi genome may provide the genetic heterogeneity necessary for survival in the diverse milieus that this pathogen occupies in nature and may contribute to tropism in certain mammalian host tissues. (asm.org)
  • The completed B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31 annotated sequence revealed an unusual genome containing a linear chromosome of 910 kb in size as well as several extrachromosomal elements, including 12 linear plasmids of sizes ranging from 5 to 56 kb and 9 circular plasmids with sizes between 9 and 32 kb ( 9 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • As such, prior to the information gained from the B. burgdorferi strain B31 genome sequence, it was difficult to definitively link a specific plasmid to a defect in infectivity. (asm.org)
  • Qiu WG , Schutzer SE , Bruno JF , Attie O , Xu Y , Dunn JJ , Genetic exchange and plasmid transfers in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto revealed by three-way genome comparisons and multilocus sequence typing. (cdc.gov)
  • B. burgdorferi is distinguished from other prokaryotes by the extraordinary complexity of its genome, which is composed of a linear chromosome and a variable plasmid complement consisting of as many as 21 linear and circular plasmids ( 6 , 18 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The publication of the near-complete genome of a B. burgdorferi B31 clone ( 20 ) was a major advance in our understanding of this pathogen's complex molecular and evolutionary biology. (asm.org)
  • The number of B. burgdorferi organisms detected in skin biopsy samples was inversely correlated with the antibody levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • The ELISPOT method was developed by Cecil Czerkinsky's group in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1983, for the purpose of detecting antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in a B cell ELISPOT assay, which was a modification of a traditional sandwich ELISA immunoassay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because B. burgdorferi and M. genitalium are distantly related eubacteria, we suggest that their limited metabolic capacities reflect convergent evolution by gene loss from more metabolically competent progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • M34710 Borrelia burgdorferei flagellin (fla) gene, 5' end. (atcc.org)
  • However, the discernment of the molecular basis of gene regulation in B. burgdorferi generally has been hampered by a lack of systems for genetically manipulating the spirochete, particularly for virulent strains ( 7 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • In this communication, we describe the development of a novel gene inactivation methodology to target B. burgdorferi fliL , a putative periplasmic flagellar gene located in a large motility operon and transcribed by RNA polymerase containing σ 70 . (asm.org)
  • Interdependence of environmental factors influencing reciprocal patterns of gene expression in virulent Borrelia burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • formerly designated 2.9 LPs) fall into two distinct homology groups which appear to have arisen by gene fusion events similar to those recently proposed to have generated the three OspE, OspF, and Elp lipoprotein families (D. R. Akins, M. J. Caimano, X. Yang, F. Cerna, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Infect. (asm.org)
  • Introduction of the Borrelia burgdorferi blyAB locus into Escherichia coli produces a hemolytic phenotype that is dependent on the E. coli clyA (hlyE, sheA) gene (TC# 1.C.10.1.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The identity of IFA-positive organisms was verified by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with two different sets of B. burgdorferi -specific primers followed by Southern blotting. (ajtmh.org)
  • At the end of the experiment, B. burgdorferi DNA was detectable at low levels (10 2 to 10 4 organisms per 100 μg of extracted DNA) in multiple tissue samples regardless of treatment. (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi organisms can be detected in clinical and experimental tissue samples by several techniques, especially by culture or PCR. (asm.org)
  • Recently, a new quantitative PCR (q-PCR) system has become available, which can be used to quantify B. burgdorferi organisms ( 20 ) and other microorganisms ( 11 ) in various specimens. (asm.org)
  • The PPi-dependent phosphofrucktokinase sequences are only available from three organisms in the Spirochaetales order: Spirochaeta thermophila, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Treponema pallidum. (wikipedia.org)
  • At its most basic, a phylum can be defined in two ways: as a group of organisms with a certain degree of morphological or developmental similarity (the phenetic definition), or a group of organisms with a certain degree of evolutionary relatedness (the phylogenetic definition). (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimal requirement is that all organisms in a phylum should be clearly more closely related to one another than to any other group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even this is problematic because the requirement depends on knowledge of organisms' relationships: as more data become available, particularly from molecular studies, we are better able to determine the relationships between groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • A greater problem is that it relies on a subjective decision about which groups of organisms should be considered as phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach is useful because it makes it easy to classify extinct organisms as "stem groups" to the phyla with which they bear the most resemblance, based only on the taxonomically important similarities. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] Furthermore, organisms in the stem group of a phylum can possess the "body plan" of the phylum without all the characteristics necessary to fall within it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haeckel in 1866 placed the group in the phylum Moneres (from μονήρης: simple) in the kingdom Protista and defines them as completely structureless and homogeneous organisms, consisting only of a piece of plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrated that the loss of infectivity of B. burgdorferi does not always correlate with plasmid content, indicating that other plasmid-independent mechanisms are involved in pathogenesis ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • It was shown that the right end of the chromosome of B. burgdorferi strains is variable due to its ability to catch plasmid material [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The infectious B31strain of B. burgdorferi used in this study, obtained from American Type Tissue Collection(ATCC# 35210), was culturedin 5% CO2 at 34 oC, in Barbour-Stoener-Kelly H (BSK H) medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum (Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri) to midlogarithmic stage (2 × 107 cells/ml). (townsendletter.com)
  • Neither human anti- Ehrlichia chaffeensis serum nor rabbit anti- Borrelia burgdorferi serum reacted with rP44. (asm.org)
  • To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008-2011) participants. (cdc.gov)
  • Categorization, according to ELISA and line blot test results, of serum samples tested for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato IgG, Germany, 2008-2011. (cdc.gov)
  • As recommended for serologic confirmation of clinical cases, serum samples were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum from each patient was tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG against B. burgdorferi sensu lato by using a commercial ELISA (cutoff optical density 0.200 and indeterminate 0.200-0.400) (Enzygnost Borreliosis, Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany) ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Serum samples positive for B. burgdorferi by ELISA were further tested by Western blot (WB) by using the Marxblot assay (MarDx Diagnostics, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The combined results prompt a model that allows for predicting the regulation of other B. burgdorferi genes that may be involved in spirochaete transmission, virulence or mammalian host immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to document the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected in southeastern Missouri and around the city of St. Louis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Of 12 engorged I. ricinus ticks collected from two deer, 8 (67%) were positive for the E. phagocytophila genogroup and one (8%) was positive for B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)