Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Borrelia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Lyme Disease Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Relapsing Fever: An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.Mice, Inbred C3HTick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Glossitis, Benign Migratory: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Bites and StingsEhrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Acrodermatitis: Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.PolandRodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Aminocoumarins: COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).ConnecticutJoints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.North AmericaSynovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.ShrewsDecorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.LatviaEhrlichia canis: Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Mice, Inbred BALB CAnimals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Four clones of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cause invasive infection in humans. (1/1041)

Lyme disease begins at the site of a tick bite, producing a primary infection with spread of the organism to secondary sites occurring early in the course of infection. A major outer surface protein expressed by the spirochete early in infection is outer surface protein C (OspC). In Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, OspC is highly variable. Based on sequence divergence, alleles of ospC can be divided into 21 major groups. To assess whether strain differences defined by ospC group are linked to invasiveness and pathogenicity, we compared the frequency distributions of major ospC groups from ticks, from the primary erythema migrans skin lesion, and from secondary sites, principally from blood and spinal fluid. The frequency distribution of ospC groups from ticks is significantly different from that from primary sites, which in turn is significantly different from that from secondary sites. The major groups A, B, I, and K had higher frequencies in the primary sites than in ticks and were the only groups found in secondary sites. We define three categories of major ospC groups: one that is common in ticks but very rarely if ever causes human disease, a second that causes only local infection at the tick bite site, and a third that causes systemic disease. The finding that all systemic B. burgdorferi sensu stricto infections are associated with four ospC groups has importance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease.  (+info)

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by reverse line blot in the joints of Dutch patients with Lyme arthritis. (2/1041)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synovial samples from the knee joint of patients with Lyme arthritis by polymerase chain reaction, and to differentiate the species by reverse line blot (RLB). METHODS: Synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue (ST) samples were obtained from patients with Lyme arthritis (n = 4) and from patients with various other forms of arthritis (n = 9). DNA extracted from synovial samples was amplified by using, as a target, the spacer region between the 5S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Subsequently, 4 species-specific DNA probes were used in the RLB for specific hybridization. RESULTS: DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto DNA was detected in the SF and ST from 3 patients with Lyme arthritis. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was not detected in the synovial samples from 9 control patients. CONCLUSION: The relationship between different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and arthritis can be studied using direct analysis of extracted DNA from joint samples. This method can be used to study the association between particular clinical manifestations of Lyme disease and different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato.  (+info)

Scored antibody reactivity determined by immunoblotting shows an association between clinical manifestations and presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. Valaisiana in humans. (3/1041)

An immunoglobulin G immunoblot was developed with antigenic extracts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana genospecies and was reacted with sera from patients with neuroborreliosis, acrodermatitis, and Lyme arthritis. A detailed analysis of the reactivities of the protein bands was performed, and a two-step scoring procedure was selected to determine the preferential reactivity of sera to one particular genospecies. The discriminative potential of 5 proteins (12-kDa, 16-kDa, 18-kDa, OspA, and 66-kDa proteins) was used as a rapid first-step scoring method, followed by scoring of 14 additional protein bands if necessary. The advantage of this procedure is the low percentage of serum samples with inconclusive results for one of the four species (10% for patients with neuroborreliosis, 6% for patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and 6% for patients with Lyme arthritis). Among 31 serum samples from patients with neuroborreliosis, 16 were more reactive to B. garinii, 7 were more reactive to B. afzelii, 3 were more reactive to B. valaisiana, and 2 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Of 31 serum samples from patients with acrodermatitis, 26 showed a higher level of reactivity to B. afzelii. Of 34 serum samples from patients with Lyme arthritis, 21 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, 10 were more reactive to B. afzelii, and 1 was more reactive to B. valaisiana. Our results suggest an organotropism of Borrelia species and provide some evidence of a pathogenic potential of B. valaisiana in humans.  (+info)

Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice. (4/1041)

The Lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in enzootic cycles involving Ixodes ticks and small mammals. Previous studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi expresses outer surface protein A (OspA) but not OspC when residing in the midgut of unfed ticks. However, after ticks feed on blood, some spirochetes stop making OspA and express OspC. Our current work examined the timing and frequency of OspA and OspC expression by B. burgdorferi in infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs as they fed on uninfected mice and in uninfected I. scapularis larvae and nymphs as they first acquired spirochetes from infected mice. Smears of midguts from previously infected ticks were prepared at 12- or 24-h intervals following attachment through repletion at 96 h, and spirochetes were stained for immunofluorescence for detection of antibodies to OspA and OspC. As shown previously, prior to feeding spirochetes in nymphs expressed OspA but not OspC. During nymphal feeding, however, the proportion of spirochetes expressing OspA decreased, while spirochetes expressing OspC became detectable. In fact, spirochetes rapidly began to express OspC, with the greatest proportion of spirochetes having this protein at 48 h of attachment and then with the proportion decreasing significantly by the time that the ticks had completed feeding. In vitro cultivation of the spirochete at different temperatures showed OspC to be most abundant when the spirochetes were grown at 37 degrees C. Yet, the synthesis of this protein waned with continuous passage at this temperature. Immunofluorescence staining of spirochetes in smears of midguts from larvae and nymphs still attached or having completed feeding on infected mice demonstrated that OspA but not OspC was produced by these spirochetes recently acquired from mice. Therefore, the temporal synthesis of OspC by spirochetes only in feeding ticks that were infected prior to the blood meal suggests that this surface protein is involved in transmission from tick to mammal but not from mammal to tick.  (+info)

The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii contains multiple, antigen-encoding circular plasmids that are homologous to the cp32 plasmids of Lyme disease spirochetes. (5/1041)

Borrelia hermsii, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, was found to contain multiple circular plasmids approximately 30 kb in size. Sequencing of a DNA library constructed from circular plasmid fragments enabled assembly of a composite DNA sequence that is homologous to the cp32 plasmid family of the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi. Analysis of another relapsing fever bacterium, B. parkeri, indicated that it contains linear homologs of the B. hermsii and B. burgdorferi cp32 plasmids. The B. hermsii cp32 plasmids encode homologs of the B. burgdorferi Mlp and Bdr antigenic proteins and BlyA/BlyB putative hemolysins, but homologs of B. burgdorferi erp genes were absent. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that relapsing fever patients produced antibodies to Mlp proteins, indicating that those proteins are synthesized by the spirochetes during human infection. Conservation of cp32-encoded genes in different Borrelia species suggests that their protein products serve functions essential to both relapsing fever and Lyme disease spirochetes. Relapsing fever borreliae replicate to high levels in the blood of infected animals, permitting direct detection and possible functional studies of Mlp, Bdr, BlyA/BlyB, and other cp32-encoded proteins in vivo.  (+info)

Rapid differentiation of Borrelia garinii from Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by LightCycler fluorescence melting curve analysis of a PCR product of the recA gene. (6/1041)

To differentiate the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies, LightCycler real-time PCR was used for the fluorescence (SYBR Green I) melting curve analysis of borrelial recA gene PCR products. The specific melting temperature analyzed is a function of the GC/AT ratio, length, and nucleotide sequence of the amplified product. A total of 32 DNA samples were tested. Of them three were isolated from B. burgdorferi reference strains and 16 were isolated from B. burgdorferi strains cultured from Ixodes ricinus ticks; 13 were directly isolated from nine human biopsy specimens and four I. ricinus tick midguts. The melting temperature of B. garinii was 2 degrees C lower than that of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii. Melting curve analysis offers a rapid alternative for identification and detection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies.  (+info)

Crystal structure of outer surface protein C (OspC) from the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (7/1041)

Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it is being transmitted to humans. Crystal structures of OspC have been determined for strains HB19 and B31 to 1.8 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The three-dimensional structure is predominantly helical. This is in contrast to the structure of OspA, a major surface protein mainly present when spirochetes are residing in the midgut of unfed ticks, which is mostly beta-sheet. The surface of OspC that would project away from the spirochete's membrane has a region of strong negative electrostatic potential which may be involved in binding to positively charged host ligands. This feature is present only on OspCs from strains known to cause invasive human disease.  (+info)

Impact of genotypic variation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto on kinetics of dissemination and severity of disease in C3H/HeJ mice. (8/1041)

Various genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto have been previously identified among a large collection of isolates cultured from patients with Lyme disease in the United States. Furthermore, association of specific genotypes with hematogenous dissemination early in the disease course has been observed. The present study assessed kinetics of spirochete dissemination and disease severity in C3H/HeJ mice infected with two different genotypes of B. burgdorferi. Spirochete load in plasma and ear and other tissue samples of infected mice was measured by quantitative PCR, and these data were compared to those obtained by culture and histopathologic analysis. In mice infected with isolate BL206 (a type 1 strain), the peak number of spirochetes was observed in plasma between day 4 and 7, in heart and ear tissue on day 14, and in joints on day 28 postinoculation. There was a correlation between the peak number of spirochetes in plasma on day 4 or 7 and that in ear biopsy and joint specimens on day 14. By contrast, spirochete burdens in plasma of mice infected with isolate B356 (a type 3 strain) were 16- and 5-fold lower than those of BL206-infected mice on days 7 and 14 of infection, respectively. Similarly, approximately 6- and 13-fold fewer spirochetes were detected in the heart tissues of B356-infected mice compared to BL206-infected mice. Histopathologically, severe arthritis and aortitis were noted only in mice infected with isolate BL206. Spirochete dissemination and disease severity vary significantly in mice infected with distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi, suggesting that genotypic differences in the infecting spirochetes play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of clinical disease.  (+info)

Abstract Background In our previous studies on lipoprotein secretion in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we used monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) N-terminal lipopeptides to gather first insights into lipoprotein sorting determinants. OspA:mRFP1 fusions could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy both in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. To build on these findings and to complement the prior targeted mutagenesis approach, we set out to develop a screen to probe a random mutagenesis expression library for mutants expressing differentially localized lipoproteins. Results A Glu-Asp codon pair in the inner membrane-localized OspA20:mRFP1 fusion was chosen for mutagenesis since the two negative charges were previously shown to define the phenotype. A library of random mutants in the two codons was generated and expressed in B. burgdorferi. In situ surface proteolysis combined with fluorescence ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) Borrelia garinii strains. The ratio of the mean number of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) nucleotide substitutions per site ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, exists in a complex enzootic cycle, transiting between its vector, Ixodes ticks, and a diverse range of vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi linear plasmid 38 (lp38) contains several genes that are differentially regulated in response to conditions mimicking the tick or mouse environments, suggesting that these plasmid-borne genes may encode proteins important for the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle. Some of these genes encode potential virulence factors, including hypothetical lipoproteins as well as a putative membrane transport system. To characterize the role of lp38 in the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle, we constructed a shuttle vector to selectively displace lp38 from the B. burgdorferi genome and analyzed the resulting clones to confirm the loss of lp38. We found that, in vitro, clones lacking lp38 were similar to isogenic wild-type bacteria, both in growth rate and in antigenic protein production. We analyzed these strains in an
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions.
Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, including the tick-transmitted agents of human Lyme borreliosis, have particularly complex genomes, consisting of a linear main chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. The number and structure of plasmids is variable even in strains within a single genospecies. Genes on these plasmids are known to play essential roles in virulence and pathogenicity as well as host and vector associations. For this reason, it is essential to explore methods for rapid and reliable characterisation of molecular level changes on plasmids. In this study we used three strains: a low passage isolate of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31(−NRZ) and two closely related strains (PAli and PAbe) that were isolated from human patients. Sequences of these strains were compared to the previously sequenced reference strain B31 (available in GenBank) to obtain proof-of-principle information on the suitability of next generation sequencing (NGS) library
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
It is suggested that Borrelia burgdorferi infection could be associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Stanek et al. were able to cultivate Borrelia burgdorferi from myocardial biopsy tissue of a patient with longstanding dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we present a study in which we examined the effect of standard antibiotic treatment on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. In this study we assessed the serum (IgG, IgM Elisa) and history of 46 IDC patients with specific regard to Borrelia burgdorferi infection (mean LVEF 30.4 +/- 1.3%, measured by cardiac catheterization and echocardiography with the length-area-volume method). All 46 patients received standard treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy: ACE inhibitors, digitalis, and diuretics. Eleven (24%) patients showed positive serology and a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection; nine of these also had a typical history of tick bite and ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody titers to B. burgdorferi in serum. Antibiotic therapy may abrogate the antibody response to the infection as shown in our patients. B. burgdorferi may persist as shown by positive culture in MKP-medium; patients may have subclinical or clinical disease without diagnostic antibody titers to B. burgdorferi. We conclude that early stage of the disease as well as chronic Lyme disease with persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic therapy cannot be excluded when the serum is negative for antibodies against B. burgdorferi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manganese and zinc regulate virulence determinants in borrelia burgdorferi. AU - Troxell, Bryan. AU - Ye, Meiping. AU - Yang, Youyun. AU - Carrasco, Sebastian E.. AU - Lou, Yongliang. AU - Yang, X.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, must adapt to two diverse niches, an arthropod vector and a mammalian host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, plays a central role in spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by governing expression of many genes important for mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi is known to be unique in metal utilization, and little is known of the role of biologically available metals in B. burgdorferi. Here, we identified two transition metal ions, manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), that influenced regulation of RpoS. The intracellular Mn2+ level fluctuated approximately 20-fold under different conditions and inversely correlated with levels of RpoS and the major virulence factor OspC. Furthermore, an ...
Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined. Fibronectin (Fn), a ubiquitous host molecule targeted by many pathogens, promotes vascular interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Here, we investigated how B. burgdorferi exploits Fn to interact with endothelia under physiological shear stress, using recently developed live cell imaging and particle-tracking methods for studying bacterial-endothelial interaction biomechanics. We found ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi Strain B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Vector borne research
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the ...
Four patients who had received tick bites while visiting forests in Mexico had skin lesions that met the case definition of erythema migrans, or borrelial lymphocytoma. Clinical diagnosis was supported with histologic, serologic, and molecular tests. This study suggests the Borrelia burgdorferi infection is in Mexico.
Variable Lipoprotein Surface-Exposed protein, or VlsE, is a lipoprotein on the surface of the Lyme Disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, detectable during all its life stages. It can exist as many different isoforms. VlsE has variable regions (VRs) and invariable regions (IRs). Some IRs are anchored in the outer membrane of the bacteria and some are antigens exposed on the membrane surface. Replacement of the VR by Borrelia within days of being transferred to a mammalian host presents new surface antigens to the host immune system, and helps Borrelia avoid a strong reaction by host immune systems. The VlsE is apparently not modified as much in the tick or in the rodent vector, when compared to in the mammal host. Several putative envelope proteins of B. burgdorferi appear to be expressed only in the infected mammalian host. The VRs are antigenic, irregularly shaped loops on the bacterial surface which may help to hide both membrane-incorporated and surface portions of adjacent proteins from
Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia.. In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including humans, when transmitted by ticks.. ...
Rapid and accurate retrieval of whole genome sequences of human pathogens from disease vectors or animal reservoirs will enable fine-resolution studies of pathogen epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics. However, next generation sequencing technologies have not yet been fully harnessed for the study of vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens, due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality pathogen sequence data directly from field specimens with a high ratio of host to pathogen DNA. We addressed this challenge by using custom probes for multiplexed hybrid capture to enrich for and sequence 30 Borrelia burgdorferi genomes from field samples of its arthropod vector. Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The proprosed culture-independent method enables efficient whole genome capture and sequencing of pathogens directly from arthropod
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B. burgdorferi. It modulates the expression of identified and unidentified open reading frames needed to deal with and overcome the many nutritional stresses and other challenges faced by the spirochete in ticks and animal reservoirs. The metabolic and morphologic changes resulting from activation of the stringent response in B. burgdorferi may also be involved in the recently described non-genetic phenotypic phenomenon of tolerance to otherwise lethal doses of antimicrobials and ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in Korea using outer surface protein A (OspA) serotyping system. AU - Kee, Sun-Ho. AU - Hwang, K. J.. AU - Oh, H. B.. AU - Park, K. S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Two characteristic strains (935T, 934U) of B. burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein A (OspA). The reactive pattern of strain 934U with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to B. afzelii and that of strain 935T was different from other isolates. Monoclonal antibody (5TEE3) which is specific to strain 935T did not react with any other Western and Japanese isolates. So, it was suggested that there exist at least two groups of B. burgdorferi in Korea. One could be classified as B, afielii and the other is a divergent group from three known ...
This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i.e., head-banging and Kriging. In addition, several covariates purported to be associated with B. burgdorferi prevalence were collected on the same spatio-temporal granularity, and include forestation, elevation, water coverage, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, population density, and median household income. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to analyze
Abstract. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-system disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by hard ticks Ixodes spp. The most common clinical manifestation is the skin lesion (erythema migrans), however there is a tendency of the pathogen to spread and cause damages to the joints, nervous and cardiovascular system. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based primarily on clinical findings, epidemiological and anamnestic data and laboratory test results. The application of the modern real-time PCR method allows us to test the skin in tick bite area for a presence of B. burgdorferi. In the diagnosis of Lyme disease, we often use indirect methods (TIIF, ELISA, Western blot) for detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi in serum, liquor and synovial fluid. To confirm the diagnosis, the presence of IgG antibodies should be demonstrated, since the presence of IgM is not a relible indicator of a recent infection. When interpreting immunodiagnostic test results it has to ...
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki,...
A simple procedure for extraction of plasmid-enriched DNA from borreliae was used in a plasmid analysis of 13 strains of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. The extracted DNA was subjected to low-percentage agarose gel electrophoresis and examined either directly by ethidium bromide staining or after hybridization of the plasmids in situ with a DNA probe for the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein OspA. Each isolate had four to seven discernible plasmids of various sizes. Only 2 of the 13 strains had the same plasmid profile. The ospA gene probe hybridized to large plasmids to strains from both North America and Europe. A strain which had been passaged many times was found to have lost two of the six plasmids originally present. These findings indicate the potential usefulness of plasmid analysis as a strain-typing procedure and for identifying possible plasmid-conferred virulence factors.
B. burgdorferi cells were grown in SF-E medium or SF-E medium that contained 100 μM Dp or Ds. Reduced extracellular Fe concentrations in SF-E medium with chelators had no effect on the growth rate of B. burgdorferi (Fig. 1B), unlikeEscherichia coli, which ceases to grow when extracellular Fe concentrations drop below 0.4 μM (16). This result is similar to the observation that the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum, a free-living soil bacterium that does not use Fe (16), is the same in Fe-chelated (10 μM ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid) and Fe-containing (0.6 μM) medium. B. burgdorferi cells cultured in SF-E medium treated with the metal-chelating resin Chelex (SF-E-Clx) were nonmotile and failed to grow (Fig. 1C). ICP-MS analysis of this medium indicated that Fe, Mn, and Zn were not detectable, and Mg concentrations had been reduced 100-fold (∼60 μM). Various metals were added to the medium in order to restore growth. Mn (1 μM), Zn (1 μM), and Mg (600 μM) were all required to ...
Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and
Bacteria produce only two types of toxins: endotoxins, which are non-secreted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that make up a large part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; and, exotoxins that are secreted by some gram-positive bacteria and a few strains of gram-negative bacteria.. At one time, Borrelia burgdorferi, was thought to possess an endotoxin since a product isolated from B. burgdorferi was reported to be pyrogenic for rabbits, mitogenic for human mononuclear cells and mouse spleen cells, capable of clotting limulus lysate (a diagnostic test for LPS), and cytotoxic for mouse macrophages; these are properties generally ascribed to bacterial LPS (1). However, subsequent studies revealed the absence of lipid A and other chemical structures characteristic of classic gram-negative endotoxins (2). Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody t
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A quantitative, indirect, fluorescence immunoassay (FIAX; Whittaker Bioproducts, Inc.) was compared with the conventional indirect fluorescent-antibody test for detection of serum antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. FIAX correlated well with the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (r = 0.72). FIAX is a convenient and dependable means of measuring serum antibody to B. burgdorferi. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. It is a highly invasive spirochete...
Antigens, Bacterial, CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins, CHEMISTRY, GENETICS, Borrelia burgdorferi, CHEMISTRY, IMMUNOLOGY, Carbon Isotopes, Escherichia coli, GENETICS, Nitrogen Isotopes, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular, Protons, Recombinant Proteins, CHEMISTRY, Solutions, Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S ...
A Novel Laboratory Assessment for the Detection of Borrelia Burgdorferi by Chenggang Jin, MD, PhD, Pharmasan Labs, and Deanna J. Fall, BA, NeuroScience Inc. ** Townsend Letter, the Examiner of Alternative Medicine alternative medicine magazine articles are written by researchers, health practitioners and patients.
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210™ Designation: B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector borne research
Lymphocytic meningoradiculitis and encephalomyelitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi: a clinical and serological study of 18 cases. ...
My laboratory investigates vector-borne diseases. Studies are directed toward understanding Lyme disease, Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and West Nile virus. Efforts on Lyme disease include exploring immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi, selective B. burgdorferi gene expression in vivo, and the immunobiology of Lyme arthritis. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by a newly described pathogen, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks, that persists within neutrophils. We are investigating the molecular strategies that this pathogen uses to survive in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. West Nile virus can cause fatal encephalitis, and we seek to understand the pathogenesis of this emerging disease. Finally, we are also developing molecular approaches to prevent ticks from feeding on a mammalian host, thereby interfering with pathogen transmission.. ...
My laboratory investigates vector-borne diseases. Studies are directed toward understanding Lyme disease, Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and West Nile virus. Efforts on Lyme disease include exploring immunity to Borrelia burgdorferi, selective B. burgdorferi gene expression in vivo, and the immunobiology of Lyme arthritis. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by a newly described pathogen, transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks, that persists within neutrophils. We are investigating the molecular strategies that this pathogen uses to survive in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. West Nile virus can cause fatal encephalitis, and we seek to understand the pathogenesis of this emerging disease. Finally, we are also developing molecular approaches to prevent ticks from feeding on a mammalian host, thereby interfering with pathogen transmission.. ...
When the pH of BSK-H was adjusted to 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0, we observed at least 37 alterations in the membrane protein profile, suggesting that pH may play a regulatory role in the expression of many of these membrane proteins. Initially, six of these changes were seen by immunoblotting with hyperimmune serum or serum derived from a tick-acquired infection, suggesting that the immunogens observed at pHs 6.0 and 7.0 (Fig. 1) are expressed during infection. The hyperimmune serum also reacted with a 42-kDa membrane protein that increased in amount as the pH of the medium was increased from 6.0 to 8.0 (Fig. 1). In addition, the tick bite immune serum recognized a 48- and a 46-kDa protein that went undetected when probed with hyperimmune serum. This also suggests that there may be numerous membrane proteins expressed at pHs 6.0 and 7.0 which may be differentially expressed during the infectious cycle and not recognized by the hyperimmune serum. These alterations in membrane proteins as the pH of the ...
During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several tissues throughout the body. The specific mechanism of spirochete emigration is presently unknown. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to the subendothelial matrix. Low passage isolates adhered 22-30-fold greater than a strain maintained in culture continuously. Spirochete binding to subendothelial matrix was inhibited 48-63% by pretreatment of the matrix with anti-fibronectin antiserum. Spirochete migration across endothelial monolayers cultured on amniotic membrane was increased when the monolayers were damaged by chemical or physical means. Electron microscopic examination of spirochete-endothelial interactions demonstrated the presence of spirochetes in the intercellular junctions between endothelial cells as well as beneath the monolayers. Scanning electron microscopy identified a ...
ebook maternal 1993; landmark Weber K, Wilske B, extensive therapy, Thurmayr R. Azithromycin versus website co-exist for the el of cyberspace Lyme tolerance. ebook maternal 1993; off Schmidli J, Hunziker insurance, Moesli history, Schaad UB. ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding and human of Borrelia artists from remote Disease three levels after physician of minimal body antibiotic to Lyme Persistence. J Infect Dis 1988; civic south ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding, Pfister HW, Spiegel H, et al. small-engined Cash of Borrelia burgdorferi from an world payment. 162 brief ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding, Weber K, Pfister HW, et al. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in down valued groups with Lyme diarrhea. ebook maternal and infant assessment for breastfeeding and human lactation a guide for 1989; 17(6):355-9 Nocton therapy, Dressler F, Rutledge BJ, et al. story of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by disease advice cost in Spare brain from ...
Metabolism:. This organism is an extracellular organism. It adapts to the host organism accordingly. The nutrient requirement of borrelia is very specific hence it makes the survival of this organism in vitro very difficult. It acts mainly by the regulation of the various lipoproteins present in the body.. The Lyme disease or the recurring fever that is caused due to borrelia mainly occur due to a tick or a flee bite. The life span of a tick is about 2 years. In order to survive it requires a blood meal. The blood meal helps the tick to mature. Spirochetes are acquired by the tick mostly in the larva stage. The blood meal in order to survive is acquired from mice and other types of rodents such as the white footed mice. The spirochetes then survive on the expense of the tick. The tick acts as the host. The spirochetes generally survive in the digestive track of the host through which it passes the disease to other animals and human beings.. Human beings are generally affected when they get ...
This unit provides a chronological in‐depth description of all protocols needed for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q‐RT‐PCR) analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression within infected mouse tissues
And [we] cant even make a [blood] smear with Borrelia burgdorferi and see the organism. Its there. But you dont see it. You cannot find this spirochete. Why not? After all, I have a sick person here. He is trembling all over. His synovial fluid is full of spirochetes. But when it comes to blood, its not there. So there is something associated with this organism that makes it different. Andy Wilson: Why is Borrelia burgdorferi so hard to find in the body and culture outside the body? Dr. Burgdorfer: Borrelia burgdorferi in the tissues of a patient is extremely difficult to demonstrate, because, first of all, you dont like somebody to take samples out of your brain [to look] for spirochetes. The same with other tissues. Every system in your body can be infected with spirochete. But to prove that is extremely difficult. It demands surgical work, which is very expensive Andy Wilson: Are you a believer in the idea of persistent Lyme infections? Dr. Burgdorfer: I am a believer in persistent ...
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COMPLEX (IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIPOPROTEIN), OUTER SURFACE PROTEIN A COMPLEXED WITH FAB184.1, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI STRAIN B31, COMPLEX (IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIPOPROTEIN) ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, is often found associated with host connective tissue, where it interacts with components of the extracellular matrix, including fibronectin. BBK32 is a surface-expressed lipoprotein with fibronectin-binding ability of Borrelia burgdorferi. A fragment of the bbk32 gene of Borrelia afzelii strain ACAI encoding the N-terminus of the protein including the fibronectin-binding domain (designated BS4 in this study) was cloned end expressed in Echerichia coli under the control of arabinose promoter as six histidine-tagged protein. Expression for the target protein showed that BS4 was accumulated both in soluble and insoluble forms. The molecular weight of the recombinant protein was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 35 kDa including the six histidine tag. The expressed protein was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. The purified BS4 recombinant protein was evaluated as an antigen in the serology of Lyme disease. ...
The p39 protein, or Basic membrane protein A, is one of the immunogenic cell membrane components of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete carried by Ixodes ticks. The spirochete migrates from the tick midgut during feeding to its salivary glands and are thus transmitted to the mammal host. This transition may be facilitated by changes in expression of some B. burgdorferi genes. It is believed that expression of the various proteins associated with the spirochete may be regulated by the changes in tick life cycle, changes in conditions during tick feeding (such as temperature, pH, and nutrients) and/or in coordination with the course of infection of the mammal host. BmpA is expressed during the invasion of the spirochete and in the evolution of the arthritis of Lyme disease in mammals. It belongs to the BMP lipoprotein family. The major products of the B. burgdorferi basic membrane protein (bmp) A/B operon that are induced in murine and human joints possess inflammatory properties. Non-lipidated
In this research, QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCRTM) system protocols for the detection of bacterial (Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi) DNA were developed and tested. Existing Ixodes scapularis samples collected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts and previously determined to be 60% positive for B. burgdorferi were utilized to investigate absolute bacterial genome carriage per tick using the ddPCR assays optimized here. The ddPCR technology proved to be a reliable means for detection and absolute quantification of control bacterial DNA with sensitivity as low as 10 spirochetes per μl input DNA. Application of ddPCR revealed an average B. burgdorferi carriage level of 27,239 copies in infected ticks (range: 231- 118,407 copies), 2,197 copies in infected nymphs (range: 231- 4,983 copies), and 45,620 copies in infected adults (range: 5,647- 118,407 copies). This is the first known and validated application of ddPCR for the detection of Borrelia DNA in Ixodes ticks.
Spirochete bacteria, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Spirochetes are bacteria with helically coiled cells. They contain filamentous flagella (axial filaments) that run lengthwise between the cell membrane and outer membrane. The twisting motion of the flagella allows the bacterium to move about. Disease causing members of this phylum include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease and Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. Magnification: x13,000 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image B220/1745
Spirochete bacteria, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). Spirochetes are bacteria with helically coiled cells. They contain filamentous flagella (axial filaments, red) that run lengthwise between the cell membrane and outer membrane. The twisting motion of the flagella allows the bacterium to move. Disease causing members of this phylum include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease and Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. Magnification: x13,300 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C020/8811
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MMWR. 2004;53:365-3691 table, 2 figures omittedLyme disease (LD) is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through the bite of Ixodes
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Borrelia afzelii NlpH protein: isolated from Borrelia afzelii; amino acid sequence in first source; NlpH protein also found in B. burgdorferi and B. garinii.; GenBank Y08413
Enzyme immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in human serum, plasma, synovial or cerebrospinal fluid and for the detection of intrathecal production of specific antibodies to Borrelia sp.
All organisms, from bacteria to humans, need to recognize where they are, and respond accordingly. A pathogen must sense its location in the inf...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Tick cell lines were used to model the effects of endosymbiont infection on phagocytic immune responses. The lines tested for their ability to phagocytose the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales ...
Quidel Corporation, a provider of rapid diagnostic testing solutions, cellular-based virology assays and molecular diagnostic systems, announced today that it has received CE Mark to market Quidels Sofia 2 Lyme+ FIA to be used with the Sofia 2 Fluorescent Immunoassay Analyzer for the rapid differential detection of human IgM and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii from serum and plasma specimens.. ...
Detection of (p)ppGpp in B. burgdorferi B31 grown at 34°C in BSK-H in the presence (lane 1) or absence (lane 2) of 6% rabbit serum, or in BSK-H at 23°C in the
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Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the Lyme spirochete which was later named for him (Borrelia burgdorferi, died this week at age 89.
In article ,1994Apr21.190914.23337 at dal1,, arlin at ac.dal.ca wrote: [...] , If these and a few other important characters (circular chromosomes, , operons, shine-dalgarno sites, etc) were present in the common , ancestor, as is likely, then archaebacteria and eubacteria have a , common heritage that I would call bacterial. [...] Just an aside... Its time to throw out the bacteria only have circular chromosomes idea. See: Davidson BE; MacDougall J; Saint Girons I. 1992. Physical map of the linear chromosome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi 212, a causative agent of Lyme disease, and localization of rRNA genes. J. Bacteriol.174:3766-74. The cool question is: What system/s does a bacterium use to maintain a linear chromosome? - Tim Ikeda (timi at mendel.berkeley.edu ...
This serum is derived from the blood of healthy adult animals. Rabbit serum is used to support cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease.
Disclosed are the dbp gene and dbp-derived nucleic acid segments from Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, and DNA segments encoding dbp from related borrelias. Also disclosed are decorin binding ...
Disclosed are the dbp gene and dbp-derived nucleic acid segments from Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, and DNA segments encoding dbp from related borrelias. Also disclosed are decorin binding ...
The aim was to find if there is variability in the production of specific antibodies by BALB/c mice to certain antigens of three individual Borrelia afzelii (dead cell suspension) strains originally isolated from different sources. Analysis of the borrelian proteins immunogenicity was performed...
Marie Kroun, MD Founder and webmaster of LymeRICK - Denmark Transmission by Contact via Feces, urine or Tick-excretes - can Borrelia burgdorferi...
(A) PBMC were kept as an unstimulated control or exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi (MOI = 0.1) in presence or absence of IFN-α (5 ng/ml) or with IFN-α (5 ng
Hence, serology can be an excellent tool to increase specificity for a patient with a known infection, but not a screening tool for the early stage.. Serology has a high sensitivity in the disseminated or late phase of the disease. However, by this time the spirochetes have already invaded the body, neurologic or cardiac manifestations, arthritis or chronic neurologic abnormalities may be present.. The nature of DualDur. Already a few hours after the tick-bite, Borrelia may get into the bloodstream of the host, and start disseminating. However, even in the late and severe cases of Lyme borreliosis, borrelia may be present in the blood in relatively low numbers. Sometimes only a few bacteria may be found in a whole ml of blood.. In order to investigate only the spirochetes, DualDur medium and method separates the low-weight bacterial content of the blood and concentrates them at least 1,000 times. This is done in a safe way so the bacteria are not harmed and show normal signs of life, they even ...
A simple method has been found that tells people who have become seriously ill after a tick bite once and for all whether they have bacteria in their blood.
Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed ...
The maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus was investigated from 202 mark and recapture mice and 61 mice that were removed from a site in Baltimore County, Maryland. Borrelia burgdorferi infection was detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ear tissue, and exposure to the spirochete was quantified by serology. Overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi, as determined by culture and PCR of ear tissue at first capture, was 25% in the longitudinal sample and 42% in the cross-sectional sample. Significantly more juvenile mice were captured in the longitudinal sample (18%) than in the cross-sectional sample (0%). Among 36 captured juvenile mice, only one was infected with B. burgdorferi; this contributed to a significant trend for infection with B. burgdorferi with age. Recovery from infection with B. burgdorferi was not detected among 77 mice followed for an average of 160 days. The incidence rate of infection with B. burgdorferi was 10 times greater in mice
We determined the humoral immune response to outer surface protein C (OspC) of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with early or late manifestations of Lyme disease and investigated the use of this antigen in the serodiagnosis of early infection. The ospC gene from the low-passage human isolate 297, a North American B. burgdorferi strain, was used to make a recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-OspC fusion protein for serologic tests. This gene showed 84 to 85% nucleotide sequence identity and 76 to 79% amino acid identity with ospC of B. burgdorferi B31 and 2591. The antibody responses to MBP-OspC were determined in serial sera from 15 patients with Lyme disease who were monitored for 4 to 12 years of illness, in single-serum samples from 189 patients with early or late manifestations of the disorder, and in serum samples from 106 control patients. Early in the infection, patients with erythema migrans or meningitis commonly had weak to strong immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses to OspC and ...
Of the Bernese Mountain Dogs, 58 percent had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi, compared with only 15 percent of the control dogs. Factors such as living in a rural area or coat colour did not explain the result, leading the authors to conclude that the breed may be predisposed to B. burgdorferi infection. The authors data did not allow them to reach any conclusions regarding speculation that glomerular disease found in Bernese Mountain Dogs may be caused directly by B. burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the cause of the disease. ...
Abstract In order to determine if Peromyscus spp. could become infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) by direct inoculation and to determine the duration of spirochetemia, 4 P. leucopus and 5 P. maniculatus were inoculated by the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes with an isolate of B. burgdorferi obtained from the blood of a trapped wild P. leucopus from Camp McCoy, Wisconsin. All of the mice developed antibodies to B. burgdorferi which reached a peak indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) geometric mean antibody titer of 10 log2 21 days post-inoculation. B. burgdorferi was recovered from the blood of 1 P. maniculatus 21 days post-inoculation. One uninfected Peromyscus of each species was housed in the same cage with the infected Peromyscus as a contact control. Both of the contact controls developed IFA B. burgdorferi antibodies by day 14, indicating contact infection. To determine if B. burgdorferi was being transmitted by direct contact, 5 uninfected P.
Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has 52 known species. Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the disease in humans, while a number of others have been implicated as possibly pathogenic. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with the single species in that complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. Borrelia are microaerophilic and slow-growing-the primary reason for the long delays when diagnosing Lyme disease-and have been found to have greater strain diversity than previously estimated. The strains differ in clinical symptoms and/or presentation as well as geographic distribution. Except for Borrelia recurrentis (which causes louse-borne relapsing fever and is transmitted by ...
This blood test is used to aid in the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease). The diagnosis of Lyme disease is most often made by clinical examination combined with evidence of tick bite or exposure in endemic areas. Amplification of Borrelia genomic DNA from blood, fluids or tissues can support the diagnosis.. Lyme disease (LD) is a corkscrew shaped bacterial infection caused by the spirochete known as Borrelia. Lyme Disease knows no borders and is a major health problem worldwide. In 2007, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that reported Lyme disease cases in the US had more than doubled since the CDC began recording cases in 1991. In 2010, the CDC reported 94% of Lyme disease cases were reported from 12 states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia & Wisconsin. Lyme disease has exceeded AIDS as one of the fastest growing infectious epidemics in our nation, with a cost to society ...
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Borrelia burgdorferi synthesizes an HtrA protease (BbHtrA) which is a surface-exposed, conserved protein within Lyme disease spirochetes with activity toward CheX and BmpD of Borrelia spp, as well as aggrecan, fibronectin and proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues of vertebrates. An antibody response against BbHtrA is observed in Lyme disease patients and in experimentally infected laboratory mice and rabbits. Given the surface location of BbHtrA on B. burgdorferi and its ability to elicit an antibody response in infected hosts, we explored recombinant BbHtrA as a potential vaccine candidate in a mouse model of tick-transmitted Lyme disease. We immunized mice with two forms of BbHtrA: the proteolytically active native form and BbHtrA ablated of activity by a serine to alanine mutation at amino acid 226 (BbHtrAS226A). Although inoculation with either BbHtrA or BbHtrAS226A produced high-titer antibody responses in C3H/HeJ mice, neither antigen was successful in protecting mice from ...
Lyme disease is a most common vector borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard 30 day antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. It has been reported in the literature that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting symptoms with varying degree of improvement. However, the activity of essential oils on the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of a panel of 34 essential oils for activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. Interestingly, we found that many essential oils had varying degrees of activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi. In particular, the top 5 essential oils (oregano, cinnamon ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Infection with the Lyme disease pathogen suppresses innate immunity in mice with diet-induced obesity.
Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade.. Results: 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains ...
Lyme disease research studies often require generation of ticks infected with the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, a process that...
Lyme disease is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States with about 329,000 new cases each year, according to statistics released in 2015 by the CDC. Lyme disease is a potentially disabling infection caused by bacteria transmitted through the bite of an infected tick to people and pets.. The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients.. Newly published research finds that the Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi survive a 28-day course of antibiotics when treated months after infection. In addition, the study also measured the antibody immune response to the bacteria both pre- and post- treatment, as this is how current diagnostics typically evaluate Lyme disease in humans.. Lead author of the study, Monica Embers, PhD joined me to discuss the research and its implications. Dr Embers is an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at Tulane University School of ...
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria causes Lyme disease, but many people continue to suffer even when all the B. burgodorferi are dead - a previously unexplained phenomenon called chronic Lyme disease…
Lyme borreliosis is a tick-transmitted spirochetal infection with protean clinical manifestations, [1] including involvement of the nervous system, [2,3] cardiovascular system, skin, [4] and joints [5]. Neurologic involvement, Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), is the most feared of the sequelae of the infection but the one that is least understood from the standpoint of pathogenesis, latency, and therapy.. A better understanding of this infection can be gained from the study of animal models. Inoculation of subprimate animals, such as mice and hamsters, has resulted in systemic infection with the spirochete but an absence of consistent infection and inflammation in the CNS. To test whether a model more faithful to human LNB could be elicited in nonhuman primates (NHPs), we injected rhesus macaques with infectious Borrelia burgdorferi and evaluated the course of the infection.. Methods. Animals. Animals used in this study were housed and cared for in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act and the ...
Lyme Disease Ticks more Abundant and Active Early in 1998 Abstract: The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven received almost twice as many ticks for testing for the Lyme disease pathogen this year than during the first three months last year. Also, nymphal ticks have been received earlier this year. From January 1 to April 3, 366 Ixodes scapularis ticks (the tick that carries the Lyme disease pathogen known as the deer tick) were received. ...
The plant Coleus forskohlii is distributed primarily in India, Thailand, China, Egypt and Brazil and has a history of use in the treatment of multiple diseases. Isoforskolin (ISOF) is the principle active component of C. forskohlii native to China and has previously been studied for its biological effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ISOF on the proinflammatory responses induced by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). In in vitro experiments, the proinflammatory effects of rBmpA and the anti‑inflammatory function of ISOF were evaluated in murine macrophages, human macrophages and dendritic cells by detecting the transcription and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑6. In in vivo experiments, mean arthritis index and X‑ray and histopathological examinations were used to verify the role of ISOF in experimental Lyme arthritis in mice. The results indicated that rBmpA, which induced the transcription ...
Lyme Disease is caused by a Borrelia Burgdorferi infection transmitted through the bite of a black legged tick, "Ixodes Scapularis." The infected ticks are found throughout the Northeast and more than forty other states, as well as Europe, Asia, and Australia. A telltale "Bulls Eye", or "erythema migrans" rash, along with flu-like symptoms, occurs in only 30-40% of early Lyme Disease patients. This rash classically delineates the initial stage of the infection. Usually after a four to six week course of antibiotic therapy, the disease process can be arrested.. However, Lyme Disease can prove to be a more difficult and complex process to diagnose and treat. When characteristic more commonplace symptoms are not present (such as above). Lyme Disease can progress untreated and become a serious, chronic, and sometimes debilitating illness, which affects multiple systems of the body.. Chronic Systemic Lyme Disease (CSLD) has an affinity for the joints, muscles, heart, and especially the nervous ...
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement. Owing to their mode of action, the interacting surface-exposed proteins identified among B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, and B. bavariensis can be classified into at least two major categories, namely molecules that directly interfere with distinct complement components including BBK32, CspA,
Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is recognized as an important infectious disease in North America, Europe, and Asia. The formerly designated Borrelia burgdorferi has now been subdivided into multiple Borrelia species, including three that cause human infection. In the United States, the sole cause of infection is B. burgdorferi. Although all three pathogenic species are found in Europe, most disease there is caused by B. afzelii or B. garinii; these two species also seem to be responsible for the illness in Asia. This chapter presents biology and enzootic cycles of B. burgdorferi and related Borrelia species. As with other spirochetal infections, human Lyme borreliosis generally occurs in stages, with remissions, exacerbations, and different clinical manifestations at each stage. Early infection consists of stage 1 (localized skin infection), followed within days to weeks by stage 2 (disseminated infection). Late infection, or stage 3 (persistent or progressive infection), usually begins months to
Organism: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bacterium). *Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis (=I. dammini), I. pacificus, I. ... In most places in the US, 30-50% of deer ticks will be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi (the agent of Lyme disease). Other ... Organisms: Borrelia species such as B. hermsii, B. parkeri, B. duttoni, B. miyamotoi ... Relapsing fever (tick-borne relapsing fever, different from Lyme disease due to different Borrelia species and ticks) * ...
Most bacterial chromosomes are circular although some examples of linear DNA exist (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi). Along with ...
Pathogens that have been shown to recruit factor H include: Aspergillus spp.; Borrelia burgdorferi; B. duttonii; B. recurrentis ... The Gram-negative bacterium B.burgdorferi has five Factor H binding proteins: CRASP-1, CRASP-2, CRASP-3, CRASP-4 and CRASP-5. ...
In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...
Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii are the cause. In Europe and Asia, the bacteria Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii ... The Lyme-related Borrelia species are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and show a great deal of genetic ... and the spirochete was named Borrelia burgdorferi in his honor. After the identification of B. burgdorferi as the causative ... Borrelia afzelii is most frequently detected in rodent-feeding vector ticks, and Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana ...
Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Rickettsia conorii causes ...
PPachner, A. R. (1988). "Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: The new "great imitator"". Annals of the New York Academy ... he was noted to have positive serologic tests for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with a 14 day course of intravenous ...
McInerney, James O. (1998-09-01). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, que causa a enfermidade de Lyme, transmitida por insectos.. *Borrelia recurrentis, que causa a febre ... Borrelia. Brevinema. Clevelandina. Cristispira. Diplocalyx. Hollandina. Pillotina. Spirochaeta. Spirosymplokos. Treponema. ... O xenoma de Spirochaetes é moi inusual e consta de cromosomas e plásmidos, e en xéneros como Borrelia os cromosomas son liñais ... Schwan T (1996). "Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod interactions". Infect Agents Dis 5 (3 ...
He believed Borrelia burgdorferi was a persistent infection, and that the current serological testing methodologies needed to ... He discovered the bacterial pathogen that causes Lyme disease, a spirochete named Borrelia burgdorferi in his honor. He was ... The agent was named after him - Borrelia burgdorferi. Throughout his career, Burgdorfer participated in a number of World ... Burgdorfer, W. How the discovery of Borrelia burgdorferi came about. Clin. Dermatol. 11:335-338, 1993. Burgdorfer, W. Arthropod ...
OspA from Borrelia burgdorferi is an unusual outer surface protein, it has two globular domains which are connected with a ... Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins play role in persistence within ticks (OspA, OspB, OspD), mammalian host ... OspA OspC is a major surface lipoprotein produced by Borrelia burgdorferi when infected ticks feed. OspC is necessary for tick ... "Borrelia burgdorferi OspC Protein Required Exclusively in a Crucial Early Stage of Mammalian Infection". Infection and Immunity ...
It is caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Types include: Acrodermatitis enteropathica Acropustulosis Acrodermatitis ...
Eskow E, Rao RV, Mordechai E (Sep 2001). "Concurrent infection of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi and ...
In 1997, TIGR determined the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi (which causes Lyme Disease) . In 1998, TIGR sequenced the genome of ... Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-586. doi:10.1038/37551. PMID 9403685. Fraser, C. M.; Norris, S. J.; Weinstock, G ...
Other examples are Rickettsia, Buchnera aphidicola, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Small genome size in such species is associated ...
Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in the United States, have been found in marsh ... IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in Tennessee. Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases 3(3-4):130-134. ... Ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at Cape Hatteras, NC and Assateague Island, MD and VA (abstract only ...
Some bacteria, e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, contains a single linear chromosome and several linear and ... Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-586. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..580F. doi:10.1038/37551. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID ...
... as well as the Escherichia coli and Borrelia burgdorferi N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (Chb) porters. It is part of the PTS-GFL ... "Genetics and regulation of chitobiose utilization in Borrelia burgdorferi". Journal of Bacteriology. 183 (19): 5544-5553. doi: ... While the Lac porters consist of two polypeptide chains (IIA and IICB), the Chb porters of E. coli and B. burgdorferi consist ...
Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from coastal Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology 28(5):668-674. Reeves, W.K ...
McInerney JO (1998). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
Transtadial (between tick stages) passage of Borrelia burgdorferi is common. Vertical passage (from mother to egg) of Borrelia ... It can also transmit other Borrelia species, including Borrelia miyamotoi. Ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi to humans can ... "Role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and ... One of the keys of the success of I. scapularis as a Borrelia vector relies on its ability to limit the proliferation of the ...
1997). "Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-6. Bibcode:1997Natur.390 ... 2004). "Comparative analysis of the Borrelia garinii genome". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (20): 6038-46. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh953. PMC ...
Lyme encephalopathy: Arising from Lyme disease bacteria, including Borrelia burgdorferi. Toxic encephalopathy: A form of ...
Additionally, Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The surface lipoprotein VlsE can undergo ...
Pachner, AR (1988). "Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: the new "great imitator"". Annals of the New York Academy of ...
... spésies Borrelia liyané ya iku B. garinii uga bisa nyebabaké lelara kanthi gejala kang mèmper karo lelara Lyme.[2] Panularan ... burgdorferi ditransmisèkaké ing manngsa nalika tuma mau lagi nyedot getihé manungsa.[4] ... Lumrahé bisa diarani manawa distribusi lelara iki jembar lan ditransmisikan ing manungsa lumantar golongan Borrelia lan jinis- ... Penyakit iki disebabaké déning Borrelia burgdoferi, baktèri saka golongan Spirochetes, lan disebaraké déning tuma Ixodes ...
Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ... Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ...
NAME: Borrelia burgdorferi SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis, relapsing fever, Erythema migrans (EM) ... LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported specifically for B. burgdorferi, however there have been 45 reported cases up to ...
Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferiBlyA and BlyB Proteins: a Prophage-Encoded Holin-Like System Christopher J. Damman, ... Transduction by φBB-1, a Bacteriophage ofBorrelia burgdorferi Christian H. Eggers, Betsy J. Kimmel, James L. Bono, Abdallah F. ... Altered Stationary-Phase Response in aBorrelia burgdorferi rpoS Mutant Abdallah F. Elias, James L. Bono, James A. Carroll, ... Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis inBorrelia burgdorferi James L. Bono, Abdallah F. Elias, John J. Kupko, Brian Stevenson, Kit ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North ... Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. ... Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi ... Video Interview, Eva Sapi, PhD on Borrelia Biofilms NCBI Borrelia Taxonomy Browser Borrelia burgdoferi B31 Genome Page. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi partial fla gene for flagellin, isolate ADC9cl1 Borrelia burgdorferi partial fla gene for flagellin, ...
Immune evasion by tickborne and host-adapted Borrelia burgdorferi.. de Silva AM1, Fikrig E, Hodzic E, Kantor FS, Telford SR 3rd ... Immune sera from mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, have strong biologic activity against ... The purpose of this study was to explore the susceptibility of three different adaptive forms of B. burgdorferi (in vitro ... Recent studies with rodents and ticks infected with B. burgdorferi indicate that spirochetes undergo major changes in protein ...
Borrelia burgdorferi-specific immune complexes in acute Lyme disease.. Schutzer SE1, Coyle PK, Reid P, Holland B. ... Diagnosis of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease (LD), has been impeded by the lack of effective ... The B. burgdorferi immune complexes were found in 25 of 26 patients with early seronegative erythema migrans (EM) LD; 105 of ... Analysis of the B. burgdorferi immune complexes by a simple technique has the potential to support or exclude a diagnosis of ...
... several Borrelia species (relapsing fever), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Leptospira interrogans (leptospirosis), ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the ... In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm ... Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic ... It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to ...
During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several ... Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to ...
Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Real-time PCR. TEST: 138685 Test number copied ... This assay is intended to be used as an aid to the diagnosis of infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the ... Lyme (B. burgdorferi) PCR. 4991-6. 139155. Lyme (B. burgdorferi) PCR. 4991-6. ...
C6 B. burgdorferi (Lyme). 38173-1. 015401. C6 Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme). index. 38173-1. ... Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi C6 Antigen With Reflex to Western Blot. TEST: 015400 Test number copied ... Aid in the diagnosis of acute and later stages of infections by Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete associated with Lyme ... Lyme disease is a common vector-borne disease in the US caused by B burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of ...
Borrelia burgdorferi flaB gene for flagellin, partial cds, strain: Tr293 Borrelia burgdorferi flaB gene for flagellin, partial ... Borrelia burgdorferi flaB gene for flagellin, partial cds, strain: Tr293. GenBank: AB091813.1 ...
Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; cultivation; dissemination; erythema migrans; incidence of Lyme borreliosis; ... Early dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi without generalized symptoms in patients with erythema migrans ... Characteristics and incidence of EM in addition to frequency of early dissemination of B. burgdorferi were studied in the ... burgdorferi, based on culture or PCR positivity of blood samples, was detected in 11.0% of the patients. The frequency of ...
This inability to induce long-term immunity was not due to the nature of Borrelia antigens, as even T-dependent antigens of ... We show here that this is because the immune system of the Borrelia-infected host generates only short-lived, structurally ... This data illustrate the potent, if temporal, immune suppression induced by Borrelia-infection. Collectively, the data reveal a ... Moreover, influenza vaccine antigens, when applied during Borrelia-infection, failed to induce strong antibody responses and ...
... 12.07.2007. Borrelia burgdorferi seem to be particularly ... burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the ... However Gerber says that "the findings in the present study are unique as infections with B. burgdorferi are not causing ... Of the Bernese Mountain Dogs, 58 percent had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi, compared with only 15 percent of the ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete and the cause of Lyme disease, a tick transmitted illness of humans and animals. B. ... B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it is a highly specialized, motile, two-membrane, spiral shaped bacteria ... B. burgdorferi has an unusual genome compared with other eubacteria which includes a linear chromosome approximately one ...
Induction of an outer surface protein on Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding.. T G Schwan, J Piesman, W T Golde, M C Dolan ... Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals ... Induction of an outer surface protein on Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding. ... Induction of an outer surface protein on Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi peptidoglycan is a persistent antigen in patients with Lyme arthritis. Brandon L. Jutras, Robert B. ... Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in North America. If early ... Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. A common late-stage complication of this ... Borrelia burgdorferi peptidoglycan is a persistent antigen in patients with Lyme arthritis ...
a-c) Lane 1, wild-type B. burgdorferi; lane 2, OspC-deficient B. burgdorferi; lane 3, OspC-deficient B. burgdorferi ... OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands. Utpal Pal,1 Xiaofeng Yang,2 Manchuan Chen, ... Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and DbpA is controlled by a RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. ... Attachment of Borrelia burgdorferi within Ixodes scapularis mediated by outer surface protein A. J. Clin. Invest. 2000. 106:561 ...
Open this publication in new window or tab ,,The BBA01 protein, a member of paralog family 48 from Borrelia burgdorferi, is ... Porins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Pinne, Marija Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology. ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted ... The Borrelia burgdorferi genome exhibits redundancy, with many plasmid-carried genes belonging to paralogous gene families. It ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgG by Western Blot (CSF). 8. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, Total by ELISA (CSF). 9. Borrelia ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgM by Western Blot. 11. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgM by Western Blot (CSF). ... Borrelia burgdorferiAntibodies, IgG & IgM by Western Blot. 6. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, Totalby ELISA. 7. ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi garinii antibody conjugated to FITC validated for IHC, ICC/IF. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, ...
  • B. burgdorferi has an unusual genome compared with other eubacteria which includes a linear chromosome approximately one megabase in size and numerous linear and circular plasmids. (abcam.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi B31, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • AE001115 Borrelia burgdorferi B31 (section 1 of 70) of the complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the genome from one B. burgdorferi isolate, B31 MI, has been determined ( 8 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, there appear to have been numerous and substantial recent rearrangements in the linear plasmid portion of the B. burgdorferi B31 MI genome. (asm.org)
  • The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. (asm.org)
  • Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. (asm.org)
  • The plasmid-cured strain contains only one linear plasmid, the 49-kb plasmid, and thus has the smallest genome reported to date for B. burgdorferi. (asm.org)
  • It is perhaps more remarkable that B. burgdorferi is able to complete the complex events required for transmission even with its relatively small genome consisting of a 910-kbp linear chromosome and 21 circular and linear plasmids totaling 610 kbp ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The B. burgdorferi genome encodes more lipoproteins than any other organism studied to date. (ku.edu)
  • We conclude that B. burgdorferi undergoes genome-wide genetic exchange, including plasmid transfers, and previous reports of its clonality are artifacts from the use of geographically and ecological isolated samples. (pnas.org)
  • Such questions may best be answered by surveying closely related B. burgdorferi isolates on a genome-wide scale. (pnas.org)
  • as B. burgdorferi transitions from its arthropod vector into mammalian tissue, ospC is upregulated, and ospA is downregulated. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, using B. burgdorferi cultivated under varying conditions in BSK-H medium, we found that a decrease in pH, in conjunction with increases in temperature (e.g. 34 degrees C or 37 degrees C) and cell density, acted interdependently for the reciprocal expression of ospC and ospA. (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown that both alternative sigma factors in B. burgdorferi (σ 54 and σ S , encoded by ntrA and rpoS ) act in a cascade where σ 54 controls σ S production to regulate the expression of two lipoproteins, OspC and DbpA ( 8 ), that potentially play roles in B. burgdorferi's survival in mammals ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Homology between Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and members of the family of Borrelia hermsii variable major proteins. (nih.gov)
  • We have cloned and sequenced the ospC gene from B. burgdorferi isolate CA-11.2A, a clone in which ospC expression varies. (nih.gov)
  • The study demonstrates that the concatenated sequences of the housekeeping genes of B. burgdorferi provide highly resolved phylogenetic signals and that the housekeeping genes evolve differently compared with the IGS locus and ospC. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the susceptibility of three different adaptive forms of B. burgdorferi (in vitro cultured, host-derived, and tickborne) to immune sera. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction between Borrelia burgdorferi and endothelium in vitro. (jci.org)
  • In vitro cultivation of Borrelia sp. (prohealth.com)
  • Experimental evidence has shown that a group of genes (formerly classified as paralogous gene family 54) contiguously localized on the 54-kilobase linear plasmid of B. burgdorferi, are among the most highly regulated by in vitro conditions resembling mammalian infection. (nih.gov)
  • B. burgdorferi bba64, bba65, bba66, and bba73 expression was measured from infected mouse tissues relative to expression in in vitro culture conditions at specific times post-infection. (nih.gov)
  • By minimizing in vitro selection, PCR-based typing tools provide more accurate methods for assessing the natural genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato populations. (asm.org)
  • It has proven in vitro activity against enterococci (including glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE)), staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), streptococci, corynebacteria and stationary-phase Borrelia burgdorferi persisters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Correlation of plasmids with infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto type strain B31. (atcc.org)
  • We present evidence here that a rather recent nonhomologous recombination event in the B. burgdorferi strain Sh-2-82 lineage has replaced its right chromosomal telomere with a large portion of the linear plasmid lp21, which is present in the strain B31 lineage. (asm.org)
  • The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. (asm.org)
  • Intravenous inoculation of mice with a high-passage non-infectious B. burgdorferi strain that produced wild-type BBK32 or BBK32 mutants defective for GAG or fibronectin binding, revealed that only GAG-binding activity was required for significant localization to joints at 60 min post-infection. (nih.gov)
  • An otherwise infectious B. burgdorferi strain producing BBK32 specifically deficient in fibronectin binding was fully capable of both skin and joint colonization in the murine model, whereas a strain producing BBK32 selectively attenuated for GAG binding colonized the inoculation site but not knee or tibiotarsus joints. (nih.gov)
  • The remarkable strain variation of B. burgdorferi may account for the differences between the presentation of Lyme disease in Europe and in the United States ( 78 , 80 ). (lymenet.de)
  • Borrelia are microaerophilic and slow-growing-the primary reason for the long delays when diagnosing Lyme disease-and have been found to have greater strain diversity than previously estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • VlsE is an outer surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi that undergoes antigenic variation through an elaborate gene conversion mechanism and is thought to play a major role in the immune response to the Lyme disease borellia. (prohealth.com)
  • The goal of this dissertation is to shed light on the mechanism of lipoprotein trafficking in B. burgdorferi by (i) investigating borrelial homologs of known lipoprotein transport machinery (the Lol system), (ii) localizing a known lipoprotein, and (iii) investigating the Borrelia surface proteome to identify substrates and factors involved in lipoprotein transport. (ku.edu)
  • Together, these data contribute to characterizing the molecular events responsible for subsurface and surface outer membrane lipoprotein secretion in B. burgdorferi, an endeavor vital to understanding the regulation and processing of these key virulence factors and thus the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. (ku.edu)
  • We have previously demonstrated that phagocytosed Borrelia burgdorferi induces activation programs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that differ qualitatively and quantitatively from those evoked by equivalent lipoprotein-rich lysates. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages and splenocytes from OPN-deficient mice on mixed C57BL/6J-129S or inbred 129S backgrounds were stimulated with the Pam(3)Cys modified lipoprotein from Borrelia burgdorferi, OspA. (prohealth.com)
  • In this review we focus on the differential expression of proteins and genes, and further molecular mechanisms used by borrelia to maintain its survival in the host. (prohealth.com)
  • Many σ 54 -regulated genes are expressed in vivo , and through genetic complementation of the mutant, we demonstrated that σ 54 was required by B. burgdorferi to infect mammals. (pnas.org)
  • A number of B. burgdorferi genes are known to be regulated within its hosts ( 3 , 4 ) or under conditions that mimic host infection ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • A cluster of flagellar genes of Borrelia burgdorferi was identified and sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • MLST of housekeeping genes captures geographic population structure and suggests a European origin of Borrelia burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • We, therefore, developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for B. burgdorferi based on eight chromosomal housekeeping genes. (nih.gov)
  • Bayesian phylogenetic inference of concatenated sequences of the housekeeping genes ( clpA , clpX , nifS , pepX , pyrG , recG , rplB , and uvrA ) of B. burgdorferi . (nih.gov)
  • Phagocytosis of live B. burgdorferi results in enhanced transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes. (nih.gov)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi expression of the bba64, bba65, bba66, and bba73 genes in tissues during persistent infection in mice. (nih.gov)
  • However, little is known regarding the identity and/or function of B. burgdorferi genes expressed during colonization of tissues during mammalian infection. (nih.gov)
  • Microarray analyses of wild-type B. burgdorferi revealed that genes encoding flagellar components, ribosomal proteins, and DNA replication machinery were downregulated in response to starvation. (asm.org)
  • The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. (diva-portal.org)
  • This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and genetic methods. (diva-portal.org)
  • We demonstrated previously that B. burgdorferi is unable to bind collagen, but can bind the collagen-associated proteoglycan decorin and expresses decorin-binding proteins (Dbps). (prohealth.com)
  • Western blot analysis of proteinase K-treated intact B. burgdorferi and transmission electron microscopy studies using antibodies raised against recombinant Dbps demonstrated that these proteins are surface exposed. (prohealth.com)
  • Phosphorylation assays of chemotaxis two-component system proteins in Borrelia burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • B. burgdorferi contains an operon that is predicted to encode proteins that would mediate the uptake and conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (nih.gov)
  • Early studies of B. burgdorferi pathogenesis determined the major immunogenic factors to be lipid-modified proteins (lipoproteins). (ku.edu)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins: a potential target for new therapeutics against Lyme disease. (medworm.com)
  • We used human serum rigorously characterized to be sera from patients with acute- and convalescent-phase early Lyme disease, Lyme arthritis, and posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome, as well as the necessary controls (n = 241 samples), to select the best of 12 Borrelia burgdorferi proteins to improve our microfluidic assay (mChip-Ld). (medworm.com)
  • M34710 Borrelia burgdorferei flagellin (fla) gene, 5' end. (atcc.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi has a complex chemotaxis signal transduction system with multiple chemotaxis gene homologs similar to those found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. (nih.gov)
  • Because B. burgdorferi and M. genitalium are distantly related eubacteria, we suggest that their limited metabolic capacities reflect convergent evolution by gene loss from more metabolically competent progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • Interdependence of environmental factors influencing reciprocal patterns of gene expression in virulent Borrelia burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • Stable transformation with reporter fusions will be critical for measuring gene expression during the B. burgdorferi infection cycle. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we employed quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure temporal gene expression of a subset of this B. burgdorferi gene family (bba64, bba65, bba66, and bba73) in tissues during chronic murine infection. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that DksA gene regulatory activity impacts B. burgdorferi metabolism, virulence gene expression, and the ability of this bacterium to complete its natural life cycle. (asm.org)
  • This work represents the first example of a directed mutation in B. burgdorferi whereby a large segment of heterologous DNA (gyrB) has been inserted via homologous recombination with flanking sequences, thus demonstrating the feasibility of specific gene inactivation by allelic exchange. (asm.org)
  • It was discovered by Pritt and colleagues at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota during routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the oppA1 gene of B. burgdorferi in 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction of the Borrelia burgdorferi blyAB locus into Escherichia coli produces a hemolytic phenotype that is dependent on the E. coli clyA (hlyE, sheA) gene (TC# 1.C.10.1.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prohealth Decorin-binding adhesins from Borrelia burgdorferi. (prohealth.com)
  • medical citation needed] Benach continues to work with borrelia organisms at the Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Stony Brook University. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Novel Laboratory Assessment for the Detection of Borrelia Burgdorferi by Chenggang Jin, MD, PhD, Pharmasan Labs, and Deanna J. Fall, BA, NeuroScience Inc. (townsendletter.com)
  • Studies of the biology of Borrelia burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme disease are severely limited by the current lack of genetic tools. (asm.org)
  • Once in the CNS, B. burgdorferi, like Treponema pallidum, may remain latent, only to cause illness months later ( 23 ). (lymenet.de)
  • The PPi-dependent phosphofrucktokinase sequences are only available from three organisms in the Spirochaetales order: Spirochaeta thermophila, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Treponema pallidum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat-killed B. burgdorferi, which was internalized as well as live organisms, induced a similar degree of apoptosis of monocytes but markedly less cytokine production. (nih.gov)
  • The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. (springer.com)
  • The Long-Term Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi Antigens and DNA in the Tissues of a Patient with Lyme Disease. (nih.gov)
  • As recommended for serologic confirmation of clinical sparse regarding B. burgdorferi s.l. infection rates and risk cases, serum samples were tested for the presence of Bor- factors ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • After being admitted to a psychiatric hospital with the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, he was noted to have positive serologic tests for Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)