A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.

Four clones of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cause invasive infection in humans. (1/1041)

Lyme disease begins at the site of a tick bite, producing a primary infection with spread of the organism to secondary sites occurring early in the course of infection. A major outer surface protein expressed by the spirochete early in infection is outer surface protein C (OspC). In Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, OspC is highly variable. Based on sequence divergence, alleles of ospC can be divided into 21 major groups. To assess whether strain differences defined by ospC group are linked to invasiveness and pathogenicity, we compared the frequency distributions of major ospC groups from ticks, from the primary erythema migrans skin lesion, and from secondary sites, principally from blood and spinal fluid. The frequency distribution of ospC groups from ticks is significantly different from that from primary sites, which in turn is significantly different from that from secondary sites. The major groups A, B, I, and K had higher frequencies in the primary sites than in ticks and were the only groups found in secondary sites. We define three categories of major ospC groups: one that is common in ticks but very rarely if ever causes human disease, a second that causes only local infection at the tick bite site, and a third that causes systemic disease. The finding that all systemic B. burgdorferi sensu stricto infections are associated with four ospC groups has importance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease.  (+info)

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by reverse line blot in the joints of Dutch patients with Lyme arthritis. (2/1041)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synovial samples from the knee joint of patients with Lyme arthritis by polymerase chain reaction, and to differentiate the species by reverse line blot (RLB). METHODS: Synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue (ST) samples were obtained from patients with Lyme arthritis (n = 4) and from patients with various other forms of arthritis (n = 9). DNA extracted from synovial samples was amplified by using, as a target, the spacer region between the 5S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Subsequently, 4 species-specific DNA probes were used in the RLB for specific hybridization. RESULTS: DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto DNA was detected in the SF and ST from 3 patients with Lyme arthritis. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was not detected in the synovial samples from 9 control patients. CONCLUSION: The relationship between different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and arthritis can be studied using direct analysis of extracted DNA from joint samples. This method can be used to study the association between particular clinical manifestations of Lyme disease and different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato.  (+info)

Scored antibody reactivity determined by immunoblotting shows an association between clinical manifestations and presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. Valaisiana in humans. (3/1041)

An immunoglobulin G immunoblot was developed with antigenic extracts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana genospecies and was reacted with sera from patients with neuroborreliosis, acrodermatitis, and Lyme arthritis. A detailed analysis of the reactivities of the protein bands was performed, and a two-step scoring procedure was selected to determine the preferential reactivity of sera to one particular genospecies. The discriminative potential of 5 proteins (12-kDa, 16-kDa, 18-kDa, OspA, and 66-kDa proteins) was used as a rapid first-step scoring method, followed by scoring of 14 additional protein bands if necessary. The advantage of this procedure is the low percentage of serum samples with inconclusive results for one of the four species (10% for patients with neuroborreliosis, 6% for patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and 6% for patients with Lyme arthritis). Among 31 serum samples from patients with neuroborreliosis, 16 were more reactive to B. garinii, 7 were more reactive to B. afzelii, 3 were more reactive to B. valaisiana, and 2 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Of 31 serum samples from patients with acrodermatitis, 26 showed a higher level of reactivity to B. afzelii. Of 34 serum samples from patients with Lyme arthritis, 21 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, 10 were more reactive to B. afzelii, and 1 was more reactive to B. valaisiana. Our results suggest an organotropism of Borrelia species and provide some evidence of a pathogenic potential of B. valaisiana in humans.  (+info)

Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice. (4/1041)

The Lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in enzootic cycles involving Ixodes ticks and small mammals. Previous studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi expresses outer surface protein A (OspA) but not OspC when residing in the midgut of unfed ticks. However, after ticks feed on blood, some spirochetes stop making OspA and express OspC. Our current work examined the timing and frequency of OspA and OspC expression by B. burgdorferi in infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs as they fed on uninfected mice and in uninfected I. scapularis larvae and nymphs as they first acquired spirochetes from infected mice. Smears of midguts from previously infected ticks were prepared at 12- or 24-h intervals following attachment through repletion at 96 h, and spirochetes were stained for immunofluorescence for detection of antibodies to OspA and OspC. As shown previously, prior to feeding spirochetes in nymphs expressed OspA but not OspC. During nymphal feeding, however, the proportion of spirochetes expressing OspA decreased, while spirochetes expressing OspC became detectable. In fact, spirochetes rapidly began to express OspC, with the greatest proportion of spirochetes having this protein at 48 h of attachment and then with the proportion decreasing significantly by the time that the ticks had completed feeding. In vitro cultivation of the spirochete at different temperatures showed OspC to be most abundant when the spirochetes were grown at 37 degrees C. Yet, the synthesis of this protein waned with continuous passage at this temperature. Immunofluorescence staining of spirochetes in smears of midguts from larvae and nymphs still attached or having completed feeding on infected mice demonstrated that OspA but not OspC was produced by these spirochetes recently acquired from mice. Therefore, the temporal synthesis of OspC by spirochetes only in feeding ticks that were infected prior to the blood meal suggests that this surface protein is involved in transmission from tick to mammal but not from mammal to tick.  (+info)

The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii contains multiple, antigen-encoding circular plasmids that are homologous to the cp32 plasmids of Lyme disease spirochetes. (5/1041)

Borrelia hermsii, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, was found to contain multiple circular plasmids approximately 30 kb in size. Sequencing of a DNA library constructed from circular plasmid fragments enabled assembly of a composite DNA sequence that is homologous to the cp32 plasmid family of the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi. Analysis of another relapsing fever bacterium, B. parkeri, indicated that it contains linear homologs of the B. hermsii and B. burgdorferi cp32 plasmids. The B. hermsii cp32 plasmids encode homologs of the B. burgdorferi Mlp and Bdr antigenic proteins and BlyA/BlyB putative hemolysins, but homologs of B. burgdorferi erp genes were absent. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that relapsing fever patients produced antibodies to Mlp proteins, indicating that those proteins are synthesized by the spirochetes during human infection. Conservation of cp32-encoded genes in different Borrelia species suggests that their protein products serve functions essential to both relapsing fever and Lyme disease spirochetes. Relapsing fever borreliae replicate to high levels in the blood of infected animals, permitting direct detection and possible functional studies of Mlp, Bdr, BlyA/BlyB, and other cp32-encoded proteins in vivo.  (+info)

Rapid differentiation of Borrelia garinii from Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by LightCycler fluorescence melting curve analysis of a PCR product of the recA gene. (6/1041)

To differentiate the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies, LightCycler real-time PCR was used for the fluorescence (SYBR Green I) melting curve analysis of borrelial recA gene PCR products. The specific melting temperature analyzed is a function of the GC/AT ratio, length, and nucleotide sequence of the amplified product. A total of 32 DNA samples were tested. Of them three were isolated from B. burgdorferi reference strains and 16 were isolated from B. burgdorferi strains cultured from Ixodes ricinus ticks; 13 were directly isolated from nine human biopsy specimens and four I. ricinus tick midguts. The melting temperature of B. garinii was 2 degrees C lower than that of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii. Melting curve analysis offers a rapid alternative for identification and detection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies.  (+info)

Crystal structure of outer surface protein C (OspC) from the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (7/1041)

Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it is being transmitted to humans. Crystal structures of OspC have been determined for strains HB19 and B31 to 1.8 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The three-dimensional structure is predominantly helical. This is in contrast to the structure of OspA, a major surface protein mainly present when spirochetes are residing in the midgut of unfed ticks, which is mostly beta-sheet. The surface of OspC that would project away from the spirochete's membrane has a region of strong negative electrostatic potential which may be involved in binding to positively charged host ligands. This feature is present only on OspCs from strains known to cause invasive human disease.  (+info)

Impact of genotypic variation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto on kinetics of dissemination and severity of disease in C3H/HeJ mice. (8/1041)

Various genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto have been previously identified among a large collection of isolates cultured from patients with Lyme disease in the United States. Furthermore, association of specific genotypes with hematogenous dissemination early in the disease course has been observed. The present study assessed kinetics of spirochete dissemination and disease severity in C3H/HeJ mice infected with two different genotypes of B. burgdorferi. Spirochete load in plasma and ear and other tissue samples of infected mice was measured by quantitative PCR, and these data were compared to those obtained by culture and histopathologic analysis. In mice infected with isolate BL206 (a type 1 strain), the peak number of spirochetes was observed in plasma between day 4 and 7, in heart and ear tissue on day 14, and in joints on day 28 postinoculation. There was a correlation between the peak number of spirochetes in plasma on day 4 or 7 and that in ear biopsy and joint specimens on day 14. By contrast, spirochete burdens in plasma of mice infected with isolate B356 (a type 3 strain) were 16- and 5-fold lower than those of BL206-infected mice on days 7 and 14 of infection, respectively. Similarly, approximately 6- and 13-fold fewer spirochetes were detected in the heart tissues of B356-infected mice compared to BL206-infected mice. Histopathologically, severe arthritis and aortitis were noted only in mice infected with isolate BL206. Spirochete dissemination and disease severity vary significantly in mice infected with distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi, suggesting that genotypic differences in the infecting spirochetes play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of clinical disease.  (+info)

Abstract Background In our previous studies on lipoprotein secretion in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we used monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) N-terminal lipopeptides to gather first insights into lipoprotein sorting determinants. OspA:mRFP1 fusions could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy both in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. To build on these findings and to complement the prior targeted mutagenesis approach, we set out to develop a screen to probe a random mutagenesis expression library for mutants expressing differentially localized lipoproteins. Results A Glu-Asp codon pair in the inner membrane-localized OspA20:mRFP1 fusion was chosen for mutagenesis since the two negative charges were previously shown to define the phenotype. A library of random mutants in the two codons was generated and expressed in B. burgdorferi. In situ surface proteolysis combined with fluorescence ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
Both, birds and rodents, are competent reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Nevertheless, this genospecies infects questing ticks less frequently in Central Europe than do B. afzelii- and B. garinii- spirochetes, the other pathogenic spirochetes. Because each of the genospecies is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, a vector with a broad host array, one would expect that B. burgdorferi s.s. is more likely to be transmitted to a competent host than the more host adapted genospecies (Levine et al. 1985, Olsen et al. 1995, and Richter et al. 2000). Similarly a higher rate of double-infections with B. burgdorferi s.s. in ticks would be expected. B. burgdorferi s.s., however, is not the most prevalent genospecies in questing ticks in nature. For each questing nymph collected in the Stadtpark of Göttingen that is infected by B. burgdorferi s.s., more than four ticks are infected by B. afzelii and more than ten by B. garinii. This difference in prevalence of B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi ...
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) Borrelia garinii strains. The ratio of the mean number of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) nucleotide substitutions per site ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, exists in a complex enzootic cycle, transiting between its vector, Ixodes ticks, and a diverse range of vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi linear plasmid 38 (lp38) contains several genes that are differentially regulated in response to conditions mimicking the tick or mouse environments, suggesting that these plasmid-borne genes may encode proteins important for the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle. Some of these genes encode potential virulence factors, including hypothetical lipoproteins as well as a putative membrane transport system. To characterize the role of lp38 in the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle, we constructed a shuttle vector to selectively displace lp38 from the B. burgdorferi genome and analyzed the resulting clones to confirm the loss of lp38. We found that, in vitro, clones lacking lp38 were similar to isogenic wild-type bacteria, both in growth rate and in antigenic protein production. We analyzed these strains in an
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions.
Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, including the tick-transmitted agents of human Lyme borreliosis, have particularly complex genomes, consisting of a linear main chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. The number and structure of plasmids is variable even in strains within a single genospecies. Genes on these plasmids are known to play essential roles in virulence and pathogenicity as well as host and vector associations. For this reason, it is essential to explore methods for rapid and reliable characterisation of molecular level changes on plasmids. In this study we used three strains: a low passage isolate of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31(−NRZ) and two closely related strains (PAli and PAbe) that were isolated from human patients. Sequences of these strains were compared to the previously sequenced reference strain B31 (available in GenBank) to obtain proof-of-principle information on the suitability of next generation sequencing (NGS) library
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
It is suggested that Borrelia burgdorferi infection could be associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Stanek et al. were able to cultivate Borrelia burgdorferi from myocardial biopsy tissue of a patient with longstanding dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we present a study in which we examined the effect of standard antibiotic treatment on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. In this study we assessed the serum (IgG, IgM Elisa) and history of 46 IDC patients with specific regard to Borrelia burgdorferi infection (mean LVEF 30.4 +/- 1.3%, measured by cardiac catheterization and echocardiography with the length-area-volume method). All 46 patients received standard treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy: ACE inhibitors, digitalis, and diuretics. Eleven (24%) patients showed positive serology and a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection; nine of these also had a typical history of tick bite and ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody titers to B. burgdorferi in serum. Antibiotic therapy may abrogate the antibody response to the infection as shown in our patients. B. burgdorferi may persist as shown by positive culture in MKP-medium; patients may have subclinical or clinical disease without diagnostic antibody titers to B. burgdorferi. We conclude that early stage of the disease as well as chronic Lyme disease with persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic therapy cannot be excluded when the serum is negative for antibodies against B. burgdorferi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manganese and zinc regulate virulence determinants in borrelia burgdorferi. AU - Troxell, Bryan. AU - Ye, Meiping. AU - Yang, Youyun. AU - Carrasco, Sebastian E.. AU - Lou, Yongliang. AU - Yang, X.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, must adapt to two diverse niches, an arthropod vector and a mammalian host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, plays a central role in spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by governing expression of many genes important for mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi is known to be unique in metal utilization, and little is known of the role of biologically available metals in B. burgdorferi. Here, we identified two transition metal ions, manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), that influenced regulation of RpoS. The intracellular Mn2+ level fluctuated approximately 20-fold under different conditions and inversely correlated with levels of RpoS and the major virulence factor OspC. Furthermore, an ...
Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined. Fibronectin (Fn), a ubiquitous host molecule targeted by many pathogens, promotes vascular interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Here, we investigated how B. burgdorferi exploits Fn to interact with endothelia under physiological shear stress, using recently developed live cell imaging and particle-tracking methods for studying bacterial-endothelial interaction biomechanics. We found ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi Strain B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Vector borne research
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the ...
Four patients who had received tick bites while visiting forests in Mexico had skin lesions that met the case definition of erythema migrans, or borrelial lymphocytoma. Clinical diagnosis was supported with histologic, serologic, and molecular tests. This study suggests the Borrelia burgdorferi infection is in Mexico.
Variable Lipoprotein Surface-Exposed protein, or VlsE, is a lipoprotein on the surface of the Lyme Disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, detectable during all its life stages. It can exist as many different isoforms. VlsE has variable regions (VRs) and invariable regions (IRs). Some IRs are anchored in the outer membrane of the bacteria and some are antigens exposed on the membrane surface. Replacement of the VR by Borrelia within days of being transferred to a mammalian host presents new surface antigens to the host immune system, and helps Borrelia avoid a strong reaction by host immune systems. The VlsE is apparently not modified as much in the tick or in the rodent vector, when compared to in the mammal host. Several putative envelope proteins of B. burgdorferi appear to be expressed only in the infected mammalian host. The VRs are antigenic, irregularly shaped loops on the bacterial surface which may help to hide both membrane-incorporated and surface portions of adjacent proteins from
Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia.. In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including humans, when transmitted by ticks.. ...
Rapid and accurate retrieval of whole genome sequences of human pathogens from disease vectors or animal reservoirs will enable fine-resolution studies of pathogen epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics. However, next generation sequencing technologies have not yet been fully harnessed for the study of vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens, due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality pathogen sequence data directly from field specimens with a high ratio of host to pathogen DNA. We addressed this challenge by using custom probes for multiplexed hybrid capture to enrich for and sequence 30 Borrelia burgdorferi genomes from field samples of its arthropod vector. Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The proprosed culture-independent method enables efficient whole genome capture and sequencing of pathogens directly from arthropod
Lyme disease has emerged as an increasing problem for people in the east and northeastern part of the United States. It can cause a chronic debilitating infection if left untreated and is difficult to diagnose. The illness is caused by an infection with the spirochete known as Borrelia burgdorferi. B. burgdorferi is a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes genus. The primary carriers in regions of high Lyme disease incidence are Ixodes scapularis vector and white-footed Mus musculus rodents. B. burgdorferi is not known to produce common virulence factors such as toxins or capsules. Chemotaxis and motility are important for B. burgdorferi to cause infection and are considered as invasive attributes of this organism. Only a handful of studies have reported that non-chemotactic and non-motile B. burgdorferi mutants are unable to disseminate in hosts, and are, therefore, non-infectious in mice. Although motility and chemotaxis has been shown to be crucial for the ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B. burgdorferi. It modulates the expression of identified and unidentified open reading frames needed to deal with and overcome the many nutritional stresses and other challenges faced by the spirochete in ticks and animal reservoirs. The metabolic and morphologic changes resulting from activation of the stringent response in B. burgdorferi may also be involved in the recently described non-genetic phenotypic phenomenon of tolerance to otherwise lethal doses of antimicrobials and ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in Korea using outer surface protein A (OspA) serotyping system. AU - Kee, Sun-Ho. AU - Hwang, K. J.. AU - Oh, H. B.. AU - Park, K. S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Two characteristic strains (935T, 934U) of B. burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein A (OspA). The reactive pattern of strain 934U with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to B. afzelii and that of strain 935T was different from other isolates. Monoclonal antibody (5TEE3) which is specific to strain 935T did not react with any other Western and Japanese isolates. So, it was suggested that there exist at least two groups of B. burgdorferi in Korea. One could be classified as B, afielii and the other is a divergent group from three known ...
In the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the outer membrane protein P66 is capable of pore formation with an atypical high single-channel conductance of 11 nS in 1 M KCl, which suggested that it could have a larger diameter than normal Gram-negative bacterial porins. We studied the diameter of the P66 channel by analyzing its single-channel conductance in black lipid bilayers in the presence of different nonelectrolytes with known hydrodynamic radii. We calculated the filling of the channel with these nonelectrolytes and the results suggested that nonelectrolytes (NEs) with hydrodynamic radii of 0.34 nm or smaller pass through the pore, whereas neutral molecules with greater radii only partially filled the channel or were not able to enter it at all. The diameter of the entrance of the P66 channel was determined to be \(\leq\)1.9 nm and the channel has a central constriction of about 0.8 nm. The size of the channel appeared to be symmetrical as judged from one-sidedness of addition ...
This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i.e., head-banging and Kriging. In addition, several covariates purported to be associated with B. burgdorferi prevalence were collected on the same spatio-temporal granularity, and include forestation, elevation, water coverage, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, population density, and median household income. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to analyze
In this study, more than 3400 short-term B. burgdorferi T cell lines generated from subjects with chronic B. burgdorferi infection were compared with naive B. burgdorferi-reactive T cell lines from normal individuals. Chronic B. burgdorferi infection was associated with high frequencies of B. burgdorferi-reactive T cells secreting high amounts of IFN-γ and IL-10, which was induced by IL-12 secreted by PBMC. T cell secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10 was suppressed in the presence of neutralizing Abs to IL-12. The presence of IFN-γ/IL-10 secretion was observed only in B. burgdorferi- and not in TT-specific T cell lines. These data demonstrate that chronic B. burgdorferi infection causes IL-12 secretion that induces a population of T cells characterized by secretion of both IFN-γ and IL-10.. The significance of the cellular immune response to B. burgdorferi in Lyme disease has been investigated earlier. A strong T cell response to B. burgdorferi was detected early in the course of illness, often ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which affects an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States. When treated early, the disease usually resolves, but when left untreated, it can result in symptoms such as arthritis and encephalopathy. Treatment of the late-stage disease may require multiple courses of antibiotic therapy. Given that antibiotic resistance has not been observed for B. burgdorferi, the reason for the recalcitrance of late-stage disease to antibiotics is unclear. In other chronic infections, the presence of drug-tolerant persisters has been linked to recalcitrance of the disease. In this study, we examined the ability of B. burgdorferi to form persisters. Killing growing cultures of B. burgdorferi with antibiotics used to treat the disease was distinctly biphasic, with a small subpopulation of surviving cells. Upon regrowth, these cells formed a new subpopulation of antibiotic-tolerant cells, indicating that these are persisters rather than ...
Abstract. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-system disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by hard ticks Ixodes spp. The most common clinical manifestation is the skin lesion (erythema migrans), however there is a tendency of the pathogen to spread and cause damages to the joints, nervous and cardiovascular system. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based primarily on clinical findings, epidemiological and anamnestic data and laboratory test results. The application of the modern real-time PCR method allows us to test the skin in tick bite area for a presence of B. burgdorferi. In the diagnosis of Lyme disease, we often use indirect methods (TIIF, ELISA, Western blot) for detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi in serum, liquor and synovial fluid. To confirm the diagnosis, the presence of IgG antibodies should be demonstrated, since the presence of IgM is not a relible indicator of a recent infection. When interpreting immunodiagnostic test results it has to ...
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki,...
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures ...
A simple procedure for extraction of plasmid-enriched DNA from borreliae was used in a plasmid analysis of 13 strains of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. The extracted DNA was subjected to low-percentage agarose gel electrophoresis and examined either directly by ethidium bromide staining or after hybridization of the plasmids in situ with a DNA probe for the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein OspA. Each isolate had four to seven discernible plasmids of various sizes. Only 2 of the 13 strains had the same plasmid profile. The ospA gene probe hybridized to large plasmids to strains from both North America and Europe. A strain which had been passaged many times was found to have lost two of the six plasmids originally present. These findings indicate the potential usefulness of plasmid analysis as a strain-typing procedure and for identifying possible plasmid-conferred virulence factors.
B. burgdorferi cells were grown in SF-E medium or SF-E medium that contained 100 μM Dp or Ds. Reduced extracellular Fe concentrations in SF-E medium with chelators had no effect on the growth rate of B. burgdorferi (Fig. 1B), unlikeEscherichia coli, which ceases to grow when extracellular Fe concentrations drop below 0.4 μM (16). This result is similar to the observation that the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum, a free-living soil bacterium that does not use Fe (16), is the same in Fe-chelated (10 μM ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid) and Fe-containing (0.6 μM) medium. B. burgdorferi cells cultured in SF-E medium treated with the metal-chelating resin Chelex (SF-E-Clx) were nonmotile and failed to grow (Fig. 1C). ICP-MS analysis of this medium indicated that Fe, Mn, and Zn were not detectable, and Mg concentrations had been reduced 100-fold (∼60 μM). Various metals were added to the medium in order to restore growth. Mn (1 μM), Zn (1 μM), and Mg (600 μM) were all required to ...
Extraction of DNA: Adult deer ticks (I. scapularis) collected in 1994 on Shelter Island, Long Island, New York, were bisected and DNA was extracted as described before (Guttmanet al. 1996).. PCR amplifications: Two genes, ospA and ospC, both encoding outer surface lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi, were studied.. ospA amplification: Procedure for ospA PCR amplification was the same as described previously (Guttmanet al. 1996). This amplification combined both nested and touch-down PCR. The first round of PCR was performed with low stringency and low cycling number using a pair of external primers to generate a heterogeneous population of amplified DNAs. The second round of PCR, using primer pairs internal to the previously amplified DNAs, was started out at very high stringency; as amplification proceeded the stringency was reduced gradually to increase yield.. ospC amplification: On the basis of our previous experience with ospA and preliminary experiments with ospC, the optimal size of the DNA ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cranial neuropathy and severe pain due to early disseminated Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and
Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, was recently shown to contain plasmid DNA. Two plasmid species have been described in strain CT1, a Wisconsin tick isolate: a 9.2-kilobase entity; and a larger, 70-kilobase entity. Characterization of the 9.2-kilobase entity by using DNase I and restriction endonucleases demonstrated that the plasmid is supercoiled and exists as a stable dimer in this strain. The role played by the plasmid in B. burgdorferi is unknown.
Recent advances in the development of animal models for Lyme borreliosis have provided means of identifying potential targets for the design of a subunit vaccine to prevent this disease. The C3H/HeN mouse model was used to study several Borrelia burgdorferi antigens from a single isolate for their ability to elicit borreliacidal and protective antibodies. The ospA, ospB, ospC, ospD, and 83-kDa genes from a California isolate, SON 188, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins fused to the C-terminal end of maltose-binding protein. Active immunization of mice with these fusion proteins elicited high titers of antibodies that recognized the homologous SON 188 antigens upon immunoblotting. Antibodies generated to the OspA and OspB fusion proteins, but not to the OspC, OspD, and the 83-kDa fusion proteins, demonstrated in vitro borreliacidal activity. Challenge of all actively immunized mice with 10(7) SON 188 spirochetes resulted in infection in all mice receiving the OspD or 83-kDa ...
Investigations with individual pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and transfected cell lines have promoted the viewpoint that recognition of extracellular bacteria occurs mainly via the interaction of cell wall constituents with TLRs on the surface of innate immune cells (3, 25). Recent studies with mammalian systems have revealed the existence of a cytosolic pathogen surveillance network comprised of a superfamily of Nod-like receptors (80, 84). Based on experiments utilizing vacuole-restricted mutants of intracellular pathogens, investigators often have surmised that confinement of extracellular bacteria to phagosomal compartments segregates them from cytosolic sensors (48, 81, 85). Work in our laboratory using human PBMCs incubated with live spirochetes has indicated that both of the above-described ideas regarding innate immune recognition of extracellular bacteria are overly simplistic and that cytosolic signals induced by phagocytosed B. burgdorferi induce programmed cell death ...
The lp28-1 plasmid is required for persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutational studies on this plasmid have shown that the vls locus is important for antigenic variation of the VlsE lipoprotein that leads to immune evasion and persistence. However, it is still unknown whether the vls system is the only genetic locus on this plasmid necessary for long-term infection, and thus the potential role of non-vls genes on lp28-1 in virulence and persistence is yet to be fully determined. Despite extensive mutational analyses, two lp28-1 regions containing the ORFs bbf19 - bbf22 and bbf27 - bbf30 have not yet been mutated in their entirety. In this study, we set out to establish if these unstudied regions of lp28-1 play a role in spirochete persistence. Results show that the generated mutants were fully infectious in immunocompetent mice, and were able to persist for 91 days following infection. Following this finding, ospC expression by these mutants was determined, as
Bacteria produce only two types of toxins: endotoxins, which are non-secreted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that make up a large part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; and, exotoxins that are secreted by some gram-positive bacteria and a few strains of gram-negative bacteria.. At one time, Borrelia burgdorferi, was thought to possess an endotoxin since a product isolated from B. burgdorferi was reported to be pyrogenic for rabbits, mitogenic for human mononuclear cells and mouse spleen cells, capable of clotting limulus lysate (a diagnostic test for LPS), and cytotoxic for mouse macrophages; these are properties generally ascribed to bacterial LPS (1). However, subsequent studies revealed the absence of lipid A and other chemical structures characteristic of classic gram-negative endotoxins (2). Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune ...
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Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed ...
The maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus was investigated from 202 mark and recapture mice and 61 mice that were removed from a site in Baltimore County, Maryland. Borrelia burgdorferi infection was detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ear tissue, and exposure to the spirochete was quantified by serology. Overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi, as determined by culture and PCR of ear tissue at first capture, was 25% in the longitudinal sample and 42% in the cross-sectional sample. Significantly more juvenile mice were captured in the longitudinal sample (18%) than in the cross-sectional sample (0%). Among 36 captured juvenile mice, only one was infected with B. burgdorferi; this contributed to a significant trend for infection with B. burgdorferi with age. Recovery from infection with B. burgdorferi was not detected among 77 mice followed for an average of 160 days. The incidence rate of infection with B. burgdorferi was 10 times greater in mice
Of the Bernese Mountain Dogs, 58 percent had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi, compared with only 15 percent of the control dogs. Factors such as living in a rural area or coat colour did not explain the result, leading the authors to conclude that the breed may be predisposed to B. burgdorferi infection. The authors data did not allow them to reach any conclusions regarding speculation that glomerular disease found in Bernese Mountain Dogs may be caused directly by B. burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the cause of the disease. ...
Abstract In order to determine if Peromyscus spp. could become infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) by direct inoculation and to determine the duration of spirochetemia, 4 P. leucopus and 5 P. maniculatus were inoculated by the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes with an isolate of B. burgdorferi obtained from the blood of a trapped wild P. leucopus from Camp McCoy, Wisconsin. All of the mice developed antibodies to B. burgdorferi which reached a peak indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) geometric mean antibody titer of 10 log2 21 days post-inoculation. B. burgdorferi was recovered from the blood of 1 P. maniculatus 21 days post-inoculation. One uninfected Peromyscus of each species was housed in the same cage with the infected Peromyscus as a contact control. Both of the contact controls developed IFA B. burgdorferi antibodies by day 14, indicating contact infection. To determine if B. burgdorferi was being transmitted by direct contact, 5 uninfected P.
Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has 52 known species. Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the disease in humans, while a number of others have been implicated as possibly pathogenic. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with the single species in that complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. Borrelia are microaerophilic and slow-growing-the primary reason for the long delays when diagnosing Lyme disease-and have been found to have greater strain diversity than previously estimated. The strains differ in clinical symptoms and/or presentation as well as geographic distribution. Except for Borrelia recurrentis (which causes louse-borne relapsing fever and is transmitted by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the organization of multicopy linear- and circular-plasmid- carried open reading frames in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. AU - Carlyon, Jason A.. AU - LaVoie, Crystal. AU - Sung, Shian Ying. AU - Marconi, Richard T.. PY - 1998/3. Y1 - 1998/3. N2 - Plasmid cp8.3 of Borrelia afzelii IP21 carries several open reading frames (ORFs) and a 184-bp inverted repeat (IR) element. It has been speculated that this plasmid may encode factors involved in virulence or infectivity. In this report, we have characterized the distribution, molecular variability, and organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 4 and the IR elements among isolates of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. ORFs 1 and 2 are contained within a segment of cp8.3 that is bordered by the IR elements, while ORF 4 resides just outside of the IR-bordered region. By PCR, ORF 4 was amplified from most isolates while ORFs 1 and 2 were amplified from only some B. afzelii isolates. However, Southern hybridization ...
This blood test is used to aid in the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease). The diagnosis of Lyme disease is most often made by clinical examination combined with evidence of tick bite or exposure in endemic areas. Amplification of Borrelia genomic DNA from blood, fluids or tissues can support the diagnosis.. Lyme disease (LD) is a corkscrew shaped bacterial infection caused by the spirochete known as Borrelia. Lyme Disease knows no borders and is a major health problem worldwide. In 2007, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that reported Lyme disease cases in the US had more than doubled since the CDC began recording cases in 1991. In 2010, the CDC reported 94% of Lyme disease cases were reported from 12 states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia & Wisconsin. Lyme disease has exceeded AIDS as one of the fastest growing infectious epidemics in our nation, with a cost to society ...
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Borrelia burgdorferi synthesizes an HtrA protease (BbHtrA) which is a surface-exposed, conserved protein within Lyme disease spirochetes with activity toward CheX and BmpD of Borrelia spp, as well as aggrecan, fibronectin and proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues of vertebrates. An antibody response against BbHtrA is observed in Lyme disease patients and in experimentally infected laboratory mice and rabbits. Given the surface location of BbHtrA on B. burgdorferi and its ability to elicit an antibody response in infected hosts, we explored recombinant BbHtrA as a potential vaccine candidate in a mouse model of tick-transmitted Lyme disease. We immunized mice with two forms of BbHtrA: the proteolytically active native form and BbHtrA ablated of activity by a serine to alanine mutation at amino acid 226 (BbHtrAS226A). Although inoculation with either BbHtrA or BbHtrAS226A produced high-titer antibody responses in C3H/HeJ mice, neither antigen was successful in protecting mice from ...
Lyme disease is a most common vector borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard 30 day antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. It has been reported in the literature that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting symptoms with varying degree of improvement. However, the activity of essential oils on the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of a panel of 34 essential oils for activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. Interestingly, we found that many essential oils had varying degrees of activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi. In particular, the top 5 essential oils (oregano, cinnamon ...
Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of 3 Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from wooded areas of the Lublin region (eastern Poland). A group of 1,813 I. ricinus ticks from 6 districts were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B.b. s.l.) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Another group of 438 I. ricinus ticks collected from 4 districts were examined for the presence of B.b. s.l. by culture on BSKH liquid medium confirmed by PCR, and for the presence of Borrelia spp. by dark field microscopy (DFM). Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii) were determined by nested-PCR in 113 ticks lysates showing presence of B.b. s.l. (in PCR or in culture and PCR). 5.4% of I. ricinus ticks examined by PCR showed the presence of B.b. s.l. DNA. The infection rate was highest in females (12.1%), lower in males (6.0%) and the lowest in nymphs (1.7%) ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Infection with the Lyme disease pathogen suppresses innate immunity in mice with diet-induced obesity.
Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade.. Results: 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains ...
Lyme disease research studies often require generation of ticks infected with the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, a process that...
Lyme disease is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States with about 329,000 new cases each year, according to statistics released in 2015 by the CDC. Lyme disease is a potentially disabling infection caused by bacteria transmitted through the bite of an infected tick to people and pets.. The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients.. Newly published research finds that the Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi survive a 28-day course of antibiotics when treated months after infection. In addition, the study also measured the antibody immune response to the bacteria both pre- and post- treatment, as this is how current diagnostics typically evaluate Lyme disease in humans.. Lead author of the study, Monica Embers, PhD joined me to discuss the research and its implications. Dr Embers is an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at Tulane University School of ...
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions ...
Lyme borreliosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Europe, Lyme borreliosis is predominantly caused by Borrelia afzelii and transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. Although Borrelia behavior throughout tick development is quite well documented, specific molecular interactions between Borrelia and the tick have not been satisfactorily examined. Here,...
The Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria causes Lyme disease, but many people continue to suffer even when all the B. burgodorferi are dead - a previously unexplained phenomenon called chronic Lyme disease…
Lyme borreliosis is a tick-transmitted spirochetal infection with protean clinical manifestations, [1] including involvement of the nervous system, [2,3] cardiovascular system, skin, [4] and joints [5]. Neurologic involvement, Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), is the most feared of the sequelae of the infection but the one that is least understood from the standpoint of pathogenesis, latency, and therapy.. A better understanding of this infection can be gained from the study of animal models. Inoculation of subprimate animals, such as mice and hamsters, has resulted in systemic infection with the spirochete but an absence of consistent infection and inflammation in the CNS. To test whether a model more faithful to human LNB could be elicited in nonhuman primates (NHPs), we injected rhesus macaques with infectious Borrelia burgdorferi and evaluated the course of the infection.. Methods. Animals. Animals used in this study were housed and cared for in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act and the ...
Lyme Disease Ticks more Abundant and Active Early in 1998 Abstract: The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven received almost twice as many ticks for testing for the Lyme disease pathogen this year than during the first three months last year. Also, nymphal ticks have been received earlier this year. From January 1 to April 3, 366 Ixodes scapularis ticks (the tick that carries the Lyme disease pathogen known as the deer tick) were received. ...
The plant Coleus forskohlii is distributed primarily in India, Thailand, China, Egypt and Brazil and has a history of use in the treatment of multiple diseases. Isoforskolin (ISOF) is the principle active component of C. forskohlii native to China and has previously been studied for its biological effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ISOF on the proinflammatory responses induced by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). In in vitro experiments, the proinflammatory effects of rBmpA and the anti‑inflammatory function of ISOF were evaluated in murine macrophages, human macrophages and dendritic cells by detecting the transcription and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑6. In in vivo experiments, mean arthritis index and X‑ray and histopathological examinations were used to verify the role of ISOF in experimental Lyme arthritis in mice. The results indicated that rBmpA, which induced the transcription ...
Lyme Disease is caused by a Borrelia Burgdorferi infection transmitted through the bite of a black legged tick, Ixodes Scapularis. The infected ticks are found throughout the Northeast and more than forty other states, as well as Europe, Asia, and Australia. A telltale Bulls Eye, or erythema migrans rash, along with flu-like symptoms, occurs in only 30-40% of early Lyme Disease patients. This rash classically delineates the initial stage of the infection. Usually after a four to six week course of antibiotic therapy, the disease process can be arrested.. However, Lyme Disease can prove to be a more difficult and complex process to diagnose and treat. When characteristic more commonplace symptoms are not present (such as above). Lyme Disease can progress untreated and become a serious, chronic, and sometimes debilitating illness, which affects multiple systems of the body.. Chronic Systemic Lyme Disease (CSLD) has an affinity for the joints, muscles, heart, and especially the nervous ...
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement. Owing to their mode of action, the interacting surface-exposed proteins identified among B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, and B. bavariensis can be classified into at least two major categories, namely molecules that directly interfere with distinct complement components including BBK32, CspA,
The infectivity and dissemination to the skin of six isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi were evaluated by inoculating them into groups of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), hamsters, and Swiss Webster mice. Rodent infection was assayed by culture of ear punch biopsy specimens taken at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postinoculation (p.i.). Spirochetes were detected in biopsy specimens from individuals of all three host species that had been inoculated with four isolates (CA3, CA4, CA7, and CA8). Ear punch biopsy specimens taken from Swiss Webster mice at 12 weeks p.i. yielded an additional reisolate (CA2), even though these animals did not seroconvert. The remaining isolate (CA9) was not recovered from any host. However, two deer mice and all hamsters and Swiss Webster mice inoculated with CA9 seroconverted. All six isolates were of low infectivity to ticks when inoculated intramuscularly into hosts. Only 4 (1.6%) of 250 Ixodes pacificus larvae acquired and transstadially maintained infection from hosts ...
We developed a PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay in which Ehrlichia, B. burgdorferi, andBartonella species can be detected and differentiated. The assay was specific enough to detect single-base-pair changes with immobilized oligonucleotide probes and enabled us to differentiateEhrlichia variants. The reverse line blot technique is a relatively easy and rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of microorganisms in field samples such as ticks. In its present form we can combine the hybridization of PCR products obtained in separate PCRs. We are now developing a multiplex PCR that will enable us to have an even more convenient method for the screening of samples. These samples could be tick lysates but could also be other material such as blood from patients suffering from a febrile disease with an unknown origin.. In the study presented here we used this method to detect and identifyEhrlichia and B. burgdorferi species in DutchI. ricinus ticks. Analysis of the ...
Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is recognized as an important infectious disease in North America, Europe, and Asia. The formerly designated Borrelia burgdorferi has now been subdivided into multiple Borrelia species, including three that cause human infection. In the United States, the sole cause of infection is B. burgdorferi. Although all three pathogenic species are found in Europe, most disease there is caused by B. afzelii or B. garinii; these two species also seem to be responsible for the illness in Asia. This chapter presents biology and enzootic cycles of B. burgdorferi and related Borrelia species. As with other spirochetal infections, human Lyme borreliosis generally occurs in stages, with remissions, exacerbations, and different clinical manifestations at each stage. Early infection consists of stage 1 (localized skin infection), followed within days to weeks by stage 2 (disseminated infection). Late infection, or stage 3 (persistent or progressive infection), usually begins months to
Evaluation of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility of different morphological forms of Borrelia burgdorferi Eva Sapi1, Navroop Kaur1, Samuel Anyanwu1, David F Luecke1, Akshita Datar1, Seema Patel1, Michael Rossi1, Raphael B Stricker21Lyme Disease Research Group, Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of New Haven, New Haven, CT, USA; 2International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Although antibiotic therapy is usually effective early in the disease, relapse may occur when administration of antibiotics is discontinued. Studies have suggested that resistance and recurrence of Lyme disease might be due to formation of different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi, namely round bodies (cysts) and biofilm-like colonies. Better understanding of the effect of antibiotics on all morphological forms of B. burgdorferi is therefore crucial to provide effective therapy for
Synonyms for Chronic lyme disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chronic lyme disease. 1 synonym for Lyme disease: Lyme arthritis. What are synonyms for Chronic lyme disease?
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BACKGROUND: Lyme disease, the most common tickborne disease in the United States, is caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in North America. The present study evaluated the genotypes of ,400 clinical isolates of B. burgdorferi recovered from patients from suburban New York City with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans; it is the largest number of borrelial strains from North America ever to be investigated. METHODS: Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction analysis of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA spacer and reverse line blot analysis of the outer surface protein C gene (ospC ...
of Lewy Neurites].. I have previously demonstrated to you (with the most excellent Immunostains of Paula at Excalibur Labs) that:. 1. Lewy bodies are marked with Rabbit antibodies to human Alpha Synuclein. 2. Lewy neurites are marked with rabbit antibodies to human Alpha Synuclein. 3. Nematode larval worms contain immunorective proteins to Human Alpha Synuclein. 4. Nematode worms are endowed with their own neurons and their own Glial cells. 5. Synuclein proteins (but not necessarily the toxic variant of Alpha synuclein) are incumbent in Synaptic Structure, and these are located between the Dendritic/Synaptic button apparatus and the Nucleus of the neuron. 6. Borrelia burgdorferi is an EndoSymbiont microbe which dwells inside of the bodies of select nematode worms, larvae, and worm eggs too.. 7. Borrelia burgdorferi might be endowed with a protein which is immune-reactive to the toxic variant of Alpha Synuclein or Borrelia spirochetes may absorb this protein or Borrelia spriochetes may absorb ...
Lyme disease was first recognized in 1975 in a town, named old Lyme in Connecticut. Now the disease in noticed worldwide. Most of the Lyme disease cases are observed through transmission of spirochete Borrelia bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi through bite of deer ticks or western back legged ticks. Ticks are tiny, blood sucking ectoparasites which vary in color and size. Tick bite can be recognized only as a lump with a small scab on the skin surface. Incubation period of lyme disease is around two weeks. Though the early symptoms are not observed in several cases, the typical skin rash of the disease can be seen. This skin rash should be taken seriously and consulted with the doctor, to avoid further complications. Lyme disease can also be fatal, which affects vital organs of the body, such as brain and heart. Lyme disease diagnosis shall be done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test, Western Blot test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Lyme disease treatment: As lyme is ...
Most bacterial chromosomes are circular although some examples of linear DNA exist (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi). Usually a ...
Pathogens that have been shown to recruit factor H include: Aspergillus spp.; Borrelia burgdorferi; B. duttonii; B. recurrentis ... The Gram-negative bacterium B.burgdorferi has five Factor H binding proteins: CRASP-1, CRASP-2, CRASP-3, CRASP-4 and CRASP-5. ...
... the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii cause Lyme disease. In Europe and Asia, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia ... The Lyme-related Borrelia species are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and show a great deal of genetic ... and the spirochete was named Borrelia burgdorferi in his honor. After the identification of B. burgdorferi as the causative ... Borrelia afzelii is most frequently detected in rodent-feeding vector ticks, and Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana ...
Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Rickettsia conorii causes ...
He believed Borrelia burgdorferi was a persistent infection, and that the current serological testing methodologies needed to ... He discovered the bacterial pathogen that causes Lyme disease, a spirochete named Borrelia burgdorferi in his honor. He was ... The agent was named after him - Borrelia burgdorferi. Throughout his career, Burgdorfer participated in a number of World ... Burgdorfer, W. How the discovery of Borrelia burgdorferi came about. Clin. Dermatol. 11:335-338, 1993. Burgdorfer, W. Arthropod ...
OspA from Borrelia burgdorferi is an unusual outer surface protein, it has two globular domains which are connected with a ... Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins play role in persistence within ticks (OspA, OspB, OspD), mammalian host ... OspA OspC is a major surface lipoprotein produced by Borrelia burgdorferi when infected ticks feed. OspC is necessary for tick ... "Borrelia burgdorferi OspC Protein Required Exclusively in a Crucial Early Stage of Mammalian Infection". Infection and Immunity ...
Tetracycline is the first choice for treating Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Additionally, ... "Antibiotic treatment of experimentally Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ponies". Veterinary Microbiology. 107 (3-4): 285-294. doi: ...
Wormser GP, Schwartz I (July 2009). "Antibiotic treatment of animals infected with Borrelia burgdorferi". Clin. Microbiol. Rev ... a known medical disorder caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, or with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, a set of ... A few doctors attribute these symptoms to persistent infection with Borrelia, or co-infections with other tick-borne pathogens ... complexes for which there is no reproducible or convincing scientific evidence of any relationship to Borrelia burgdorferi ...
It is caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Types include: Acrodermatitis enteropathica Acropustulosis Acrodermatitis ...
In 1997, TIGR determined the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi (which causes Lyme Disease) . In 1998, TIGR sequenced the genome of ... Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-586. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..580F. doi:10.1038/37551. PMID 9403685. Fraser, C. M ...
Other examples are Rickettsia, Buchnera aphidicola, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Small genome size in such species is associated ...
Ticks, their hosts, and Borrelia burgdorferi on the outer banks of North Carolina. Pp. 7-8 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and ... Tick-host associations and maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in Virginia. Pp. 8-9 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and Snoddy ... Reservoir competence of rice rat and lizards for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Pp. 11-13 in Apperson, C.S ... Levine, Jay F.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Nicholson, William L.; Turner, R. T. (1991). "Borrelia burgdorferi in Ticks (Acari: ...
Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in the United States, have been found in marsh ... IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in Tennessee. Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases 3(3-4):130-134. ... Ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at Cape Hatteras, NC and Assateague Island, MD and VA (abstract only ...
... as well as the Escherichia coli and Borrelia burgdorferi N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (Chb) porters. It is part of the PTS-GFL ... "Genetics and regulation of chitobiose utilization in Borrelia burgdorferi". Journal of Bacteriology. 183 (19): 5544-5553. doi: ... While the Lac porters consist of two polypeptide chains (IIA and IICB), the Chb porters of E. coli and B. burgdorferi consist ...
"Borrelia burgdorferi in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Coastal Virginia". Journal of Medical Entomology. 28 (5): 668-674. doi: ...
In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...
McInerney JO (1998). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
1997). "Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-586. Bibcode:1997Natur. ...
Transtadial (between tick stages) passage of Borrelia burgdorferi is common. Vertical passage (from mother to egg) of Borrelia ... It can also transmit other Borrelia species, including Borrelia miyamotoi. Ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi to humans can ... While adult deer ticks are more likely to carry and transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, it is more common for the hard to spot nymph ... "Role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and ...
1997). "Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-6. Bibcode:1997Natur.390 ... 2004). "Comparative analysis of the Borrelia garinii genome". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (20): 6038-46. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh953. PMC ...
McInerney, J. O. (1 September 1998). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". ... career focused on the study of codon usage in a variety of organisms including Trichomonas vaginalis and Borrelia burgdorferi. ...
PPachner, A. R. (1988). "Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: The new "great imitator"". Annals of the New York Academy ... he was noted to have positive serologic tests for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with a 14 day course of intravenous ...
McInerney, James O. (1998-09-01). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". ...
Pachner AR (1988). "Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: the new "great imitator"". Annals of the New York Academy of ...
"Coiling phagocytosis is the preferential phagocytic mechanism for Borrelia burgdorferi". Infection and Immunity. 60 (10): 4205- ...
Examples of this are seen in Streptococcus pyogenes and Borrelia burgdorferi. It is possible, but uncommon for molecular ...
A link with Lyme disease is shown by the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in LSA biopsy tissue. Since LS in females is ... A disease that is similar to LS, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Viral ... Eisendle, K; Grabner, TG; Kutzner, H (2008). "Possible Role of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Infection in Lichen Sclerosus". ... In 1987, LS linked with Borrelia infection. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus was first described in 1887 by Dr. Hallopeau. Since ...
Hansen, K; Cruz, M; Link, H (June 1990). "Oligoclonal Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid in ...
... such as Borrelia burgdorferi. In fact, experiments in which the circular chromosomes of prokaryotic organisms have been ...
Despite a wide range and demonstrated potential to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, I. angustus ... "Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and ... "Vector competence of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto." Experimental & applied ...
... spésies Borrelia liyané ya iku B. garinii uga bisa nyebabaké lelara kanthi gejala kang mèmper karo lelara Lyme.[2] Panularan ... burgdorferi ditransmisèkaké ing manngsa nalika tuma mau lagi nyedot getihé manungsa.[4] ... Lumrahé bisa diarani manawa distribusi lelara iki jembar lan ditransmisikan ing manungsa lumantar golongan Borrelia lan jinis- ... Penyakit iki disebabaké déning Borrelia burgdoferi, baktèri saka golongan Spirochetes, lan disebaraké déning tuma Ixodes ...
Borrelia burgdorferi (en) Sintoma(k). eritema migrans kronikoa, nekea, buruko mina, artralgia, mialgia, faszikulazioa, ... Lyme gaitza edo Lyme borreliosia gaixotasun infekzioso multisistemikoa da, Borrelia burgdorferi bakterioak eragindakoa, akainen ... Ikerketek aurrera egin zuten eta 1982an kaparrotan mikroorganismo bat aurkitu zuten; Borrelia burgdorferi izenez bataiatu zen ... Gizakiarengan diagnostikaturiko kasuez gain, zenbait animalia espezietan Borrelia burgdorferi dagoela baieztatu da. Hala ere, ...
Borrelia burgdorferi deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles tick bite ...
A recent study in British Columbia of 218 deer mice showed 30% (66) were seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi,[7] the agent of ...
Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi. . In: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. . 95, Nr. 18 ...
Erythema chronicum migrans due to Borrelia burgdorferi. *(A69.8) Other specified spirochaetal infections ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.[12][29] In a model of cecum perforation-induced sepsis, ALOX5 gene ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema chronicum migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia ...
... որպես Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato և ունեն նկատելի գենետիկական տարբերություններ։ B. burgdorferi sensu lato -ն ներառում է ... ն և Borrelia mayonii-ն են[4][11]։ Եվրոպայում և Ասիայում հիվանդությունը հարուցում են նաև Borrelia afzelii-ն և Borrelia garinii-ն ... և սպիրոխետները անվանվեցին նրա պատվին Borrelia burgdorferi [177] B. burgdorferi-ի որպես Լայմի հիվանդության պատճառածին ագենտ, ... 49,0 49,1 «Biology of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi»։ Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 22 (2): 217-34, v։ June ...
The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. ... Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... Borrelia brasiliensis ♦ Davis 1952. *Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al. 1984 emend. Baranton et al. 1992 (Lyme disease ... Borrelia burgdorferi the causative agent of Lyme disease (borreliosis) magnified 400 times. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) Porin. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae Antigen mixtures. Cutibacterium acnes ...
Spirochaetes, notable for compartmentalisation and species include Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. ...
"Destruction of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi round-body propagules (RBs) by the antibiotic Tigecycline". Proceedings of the ... and Borrelia (the spirochete which causes Lyme disease) only have retained about 20% of the genes they need to live freely ...
Dylan Haenel, Eva Sapi Ph.D., Antimicrobial effects of lactoferrin and cannabidiol on Borrelia burgdorferi, veebiversioon ( ... Borrelia-bakteeri kykenee muuntautumaan helposti, Jyväskülä ülikool. *↑ Professional Guide to Diseases, 9th Edition, lk 139-140 ... Lyme'i tõbi ehk Lyme'i borrelioos ehk puukborrelioos on nakkushaigus mida põhjustavad mõned borreelia (Borrelia) perekonna ... Kuna borrelia spiroheedid liiguvad ka vere kaudu (spiroheteemia), siis on tõenäoline, et borrelioosinakkus kandub nabavääti ...
... najmä Borrelia burgdorferi, ktoré spôsobujú lymskú boreliózu.[3] Plazmidy obsahujú dodatočné gény, ako napríklad gény ... Lineárne bakteriálne plazmidy boli identifikované u niekoľkých druhoch spirochét, vrátane členov rodu Borrelia, ...
... the most important reservoir-competent host for Borrelia burgdorferi in the US.[69][70] ...
Borrelia burgdorferi), note also rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari) (for more see[109]). Treponema is converted into treponeme ...
Kawabata M, Kubo N, Arashima Y, Yoshida M, Kawano K (1991). «[Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by ELISA using Borrelia burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes shown by dark-field microscopy. Rails can be infected with this bacterial species, which can ... and the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, carried by Ixodes ticks, which is also a human pathogen causing Lyme disease.[63] Three ... "Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Chlamydophila psittaci in throat and cloacal swabs from birds migrating ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema chronicum migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia ...
... including members of the genus Borrelia notably Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease.[14] Though not forming a ... European Bioinformatics Institute, Karyn's Genomes: Borrelia burgdorferi, part of 2can on the EBI-EMBL database. Retrieved 5 ...
Eskow E, Rao RV, Mordechai E (Sep 2001). "Concurrent infection of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi and ...
Kawabata M, Kubo N, Arashima Y, Yoshida M, Kawano K (1991). "[Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by ELISA using Borrelia burgdorferi ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia recurrentis ( ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii Lymphatic filariasis (Elephantiasis) Wuchereria bancrofti and ... Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia recurrentis, and other Borrelia species Respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial ...
Borrelia. *Borrelia burgdorferi/Borrelia afzelii *Lyme disease. *Erythema chronicum migrans. *Neuroborreliosis. *Borrelia ...
Sarkoidsetes granuloomides on sarkooidoosihaigetel tuvastatud mitmeid baktereid, nagu mükoplasmad, Borrelia burgdorferi, ...
Ticks, their hosts, and Borrelia burgdorferi on the outer banks of North Carolina. Pp. 7-8 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and ... Tick-host associations and maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in Virginia. Pp. 8-9 in Apperson, C.S., Levine, J.F. and Snoddy ... Reservoir competence of rice rat and lizards for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Pp. 11-13 in Apperson, C.S ... Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from coastal Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology 28(5):668-674. ...
... and Borrelia burgdorferi (known for causing Lyme disease). Meningitis may be encountered in cerebral malaria (malaria infecting ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North ... Zückert WR (2007). "Laboratory Maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi". Laboratory maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi. Current ... Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species ... Video Interview of Eva Sapi, PhD on Borrelia Biofilms NCBI Borrelia Taxonomy Browser Borrelia burgdoferi B31 Genome Page https ...
Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes ticks, the disease if left untreated can cause ... Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii from serum and plasma specimens. ... 2 Fluorescent Immunoassay Analyzer for the rapid differential detection of human IgM and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi ...
Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ... Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ...
NAME: Borrelia burgdorferi SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis, relapsing fever, Erythema migrans (EM) ... LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported specifically for B. burgdorferi, however there have been 45 reported cases up to ...
Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host. K Suk, S Das, W Sun, B Jwang, S W Barthold, R A Flavell ... Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host. K Suk, S Das, W Sun, B Jwang, S W Barthold, R A Flavell ... Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host. K Suk, S Das, W Sun, B Jwang, S W Barthold, R A Flavell ... Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Antibodies to Borrelia turicatae in Experimentally Infected Dogs Cross-React with Borrelia burgdorferi Serologic Assays Tick- ... Direct Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Children with Lyme ... An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi B31-Specific Interferon Gamma-Secreting T Cells Cannot ... borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by several Borrelia spp. (including Borrelia turicatae), which are primarily transmitted ...
Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferiBlyA and BlyB Proteins: a Prophage-Encoded Holin-Like System Christopher J. Damman, ... Transduction by φBB-1, a Bacteriophage ofBorrelia burgdorferi Christian H. Eggers, Betsy J. Kimmel, James L. Bono, Abdallah F. ... Altered Stationary-Phase Response in aBorrelia burgdorferi rpoS Mutant Abdallah F. Elias, James L. Bono, James A. Carroll, ... Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis inBorrelia burgdorferi James L. Bono, Abdallah F. Elias, John J. Kupko, Brian Stevenson, Kit ...
... several Borrelia species (relapsing fever), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Leptospira interrogans (leptospirosis), ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Borrelia burgdorferi partial fla gene for flagellin, isolate ADC9cl1 Borrelia burgdorferi partial fla gene for flagellin, ...
Immune evasion by tickborne and host-adapted Borrelia burgdorferi.. de Silva AM1, Fikrig E, Hodzic E, Kantor FS, Telford SR 3rd ... Immune sera from mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, have strong biologic activity against ... The purpose of this study was to explore the susceptibility of three different adaptive forms of B. burgdorferi (in vitro ... Recent studies with rodents and ticks infected with B. burgdorferi indicate that spirochetes undergo major changes in protein ...
We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the ... In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm ... Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic ... It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to ...
Lyme disease is usually carried by the black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis. This duplex qPCR tests for both Borrelia burgdorferi & Anaplasma phagocytophilum. ...
This review discusses the current literature on mammalian coinfection with B. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative ... Parveen, N.; Bhanot, P. Babesia microti-Borrelia burgdorferi Coinfection. Pathogens 2019, 8, 117. ... This review discusses the current literature on mammalian coinfection with B. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative ... Parveen N, Bhanot P. Babesia microti-Borrelia burgdorferi Coinfection. Pathogens. 2019; 8(3):117. ...
During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several ... Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to ...
Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Real-time PCR. TEST: 138685 Test number copied ... This assay is intended to be used as an aid to the diagnosis of infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the ... Lyme (B. burgdorferi) PCR. 4991-6. 139155. Lyme (B. burgdorferi) PCR. 4991-6. ...
C6 B. burgdorferi (Lyme). 38173-1. 015401. C6 Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme). index. 38173-1. ... Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi C6 Antigen With Reflex to Western Blot. TEST: 015400 Test number copied ... Aid in the diagnosis of acute and later stages of infections by Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete associated with Lyme ... Lyme disease is a common vector-borne disease in the US caused by B burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of ...
B burgdorferi is a tick-borne spirochete that is found in the temperate regions of much of the northern hemisphere. Endemic ... B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)?) and What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi (B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)? ... What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi (B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)?. Updated: Jul 16, 2019 ... encoded search term (What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi ( ...
Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; cultivation; dissemination; erythema migrans; incidence of Lyme borreliosis; ... Early dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi without generalized symptoms in patients with erythema migrans ... Characteristics and incidence of EM in addition to frequency of early dissemination of B. burgdorferi were studied in the ... burgdorferi, based on culture or PCR positivity of blood samples, was detected in 11.0% of the patients. The frequency of ...
... 12.07.2007. Borrelia burgdorferi seem to be particularly ... burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the ... However Gerber says that "the findings in the present study are unique as infections with B. burgdorferi are not causing ... Of the Bernese Mountain Dogs, 58 percent had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi, compared with only 15 percent of the ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete and the cause of Lyme disease, a tick transmitted illness of humans and animals. B. ... B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it is a highly specialized, motile, two-membrane, spiral shaped bacteria ... B. burgdorferi has an unusual genome compared with other eubacteria which includes a linear chromosome approximately one ...
a-c) Lane 1, wild-type B. burgdorferi; lane 2, OspC-deficient B. burgdorferi; lane 3, OspC-deficient B. burgdorferi ... OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands. Utpal Pal,1 Xiaofeng Yang,2 Manchuan Chen, ... Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and DbpA is controlled by a RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. ... Attachment of Borrelia burgdorferi within Ixodes scapularis mediated by outer surface protein A. J. Clin. Invest. 2000. 106:561 ...
Open this publication in new window or tab ,,The BBA01 protein, a member of paralog family 48 from Borrelia burgdorferi, is ... Porins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Pinne, Marija Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology. ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted ... The Borrelia burgdorferi genome exhibits redundancy, with many plasmid-carried genes belonging to paralogous gene families. It ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgG by Western Blot (CSF). 8. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, Total by ELISA (CSF). 9. Borrelia ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgM by Western Blot. 11. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgM by Western Blot (CSF). ... Borrelia burgdorferiAntibodies, IgG & IgM by Western Blot. 6. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, Totalby ELISA. 7. ...
The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of ... Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi Nature. 1997 Dec 11;390(6660):580-6. doi: 10.1038/37551. ... The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of ... Because B. burgdorferi and M. genitalium are distantly related eubacteria, we suggest that their limited metabolic capacities ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi garinii antibody conjugated to FITC validated for IHC, ICC/IF. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is ... The persistence ofBorrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is ... Persistenz der Borrelia burgdorferi bei negativer Serologie und Behandlung mit Antibiotika. Zusammenfassung. Es wird über die ... Johnson, R. C., Kodner, C., Russel, M. In vitro andin vivo susceptibility of the Lyme disease spirochete,Borrelia burgdorferi, ...
Borrelia burgdorferi Rabbit anti-Bacteria, HRP, Polyclonal, Invitrogen 1 mL; HRP ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete and the cause of Lyme disease, a tick transmitted illness of humans and animals. B. ... The PA1-73006 antibody reacts with Borrelia burgdorferi. Some cross-reactivity with Treponema pallidum, B. hermsii, and B. ... B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it is a highly specialized, motile, two-membrane, spiral shaped bacteria ...
  • B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and until 2016 was the only known cause of Lyme disease in North America (Borrelia mayonii, found in the midwestern US, is also known to cause the disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia species is the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Differential screening of a Borrelia burgdorferi (the Lyme disease agent) expression library identified a gene (p21) encoding a 20.7-kDa antigen that reacted with antibodies in serum from actively infected mice but not serum from mice immunized with heat-killed B. burgdorferi. (pnas.org)
  • Diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is challenging, as long as Borrelia -specific intrathecal antibodies are not yet detectable. (asm.org)
  • In this paper, we show that the morphology of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the result of a complex interaction between the cell cylinder and the internal periplasmic flagella. (pnas.org)
  • This phylum contains many medically important bacteria including Treponema pallidum (syphilis), several Borrelia species (relapsing fever), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Leptospira interrogans (leptospirosis), Brachyspira sp. (pnas.org)
  • Immune sera from mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, have strong biologic activity against spirochetes cultured in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • This review discusses the current literature on mammalian coinfection with B. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi , the causative agent Lyme disease. (mdpi.com)
  • During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several tissues throughout the body. (jci.org)
  • For Borrelia burgdorferi , an hausting the alphabet, we assigned both a letter and, ar- agent of Lyme borreliosis, strains differ in their reservoir bitrarily, the number 3 (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • 138685: Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Real. (labcorp.com)
  • This assay is intended to be used as an aid to the diagnosis of infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in the United States. (labcorp.com)
  • 015400: Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi C6. (labcorp.com)
  • Aid in the diagnosis of acute and later stages of infections by Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete associated with Lyme disease. (labcorp.com)
  • Lyme disease is a common vector-borne disease in the US caused by B burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks ( Ixodes spp ). (labcorp.com)
  • What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi (B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)? (medscape.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete and the cause of Lyme disease, a tick transmitted illness of humans and animals. (abcam.com)
  • To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme during 2008-2011. (cdc.gov)
  • If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. (diva-portal.org)
  • The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of 910,725 base pairs and at least 17 linear and circular plasmids with a combined size of more than 533,000 base pairs. (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody titers to B. burgdorferi in serum. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that early stage of the disease as well as chronic Lyme disease with persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic therapy cannot be excluded when the serum is negative for antibodies against B. burgdorferi . (springer.com)
  • The American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) has published on its website comprehensive guidelines to assist practitioners with identification, diagnosis and control of Borrelia burgdorferi infection and Lyme disease, an important tick borne disease of horses in the northeastern United States and beyond. (aaep.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi infection is common in horses residing in Lyme endemic areas and the geographic range for exposure appears to be increasing," said co-author Dr. Sally DeNotta. (aaep.org)
  • Despite the high prevalence of exposure and seropositivity to B. burgdorferi in horses residing in endemic regions, confirming clinical Lyme disease remains a diagnostic challenge. (aaep.org)
  • The Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Lyme Disease Guidelines, available as a PDF file, were authored for the AAEP's Infectious Disease Committee by Thomas J. Divers DVM, DACVIM, DACVECC and Sally DeNotta DVM, Ph.D., DACVIM. (aaep.org)
  • View the Borrelia burgdorferi infection and Lyme Disease Guidelines or save them to your mobile device for future reference here . (aaep.org)
  • Besides Borrelia burgdorferi infection and Lyme disease, AAEP guidelines for 22 other equine infectious diseases are available at https://aaep.org/guidelines/infectious-disease-control . (aaep.org)
  • Absence of lipopolysaccharide in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (atcc.org)
  • A bacterial genome in flux: the twelve linear and nine circular extrachromosomal DNAs in an infectious isolate of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (atcc.org)
  • Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (prohealth.com)
  • Borreliosis (Lyme disease) is a spirochetal disease caused by the species complex ofBorrelia burgdorferi transmitted byIxodes spp. (medworm.com)
  • Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it is being transmitted to humans. (rcsb.org)
  • Recently, CDC has received inquiries regarding a laboratory-developed test that uses a novel culture method to identify Borrelia burgdorferi , the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Assessment of new culture method for detection of Borrelia species from serum of Lyme disease patients. (cdc.gov)
  • The causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, have developed several ways to protect themselves against killing by the host complement system. (nature.com)
  • The causative agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB), spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, are transmitted by Ixodes ticks 1 . (nature.com)
  • GroEL protein and groEL mRNA transcript were up-regulated in gyrB mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi , a causative agent of Lyme disease. (asm.org)
  • Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi ( 4 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • To determine the background levels and specificity of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi by Western blot (immunoblot) in an area nonendemic for Lyme disease, and to correlate antibody specificity with clinical or serologic findings. (nih.gov)
  • The outer surface protein, OspC, is highly variable in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto , the agent of Lyme disease. (genetics.org)
  • Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune system, to cause them to release inflammatory products that result in tissue damage and some of the clinical manifestations of Lyme disease (3-9). (aldf.com)
  • 1985. Chemical and biological characterization of a lipopolysaccharide extracted from the Lyme disease spirochete, ( Borrelia burgdorferi ). (aldf.com)
  • The Lyme disease IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in a sample. (mpbio.com)
  • A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete. (harvard.edu)
  • T-Helper 17 Cell Cytokine Responses in Lyme Disease Correlate With Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies During Early Infection and With Autoantibodies Late in the Illness in Patients With Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis. (harvard.edu)
  • Lyme-borreliose er en flåttoverført sykdom forårsaket av Borrelia burgdorferi. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • Lyme-borreliose forårsakes vanligvis av de fire genospesies av B. burgdorferi sensu lato: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto og nylig funnet B. spielmanii ( 3 , 4 ). (tidsskriftet.no)
  • The invention relates to novel antigens associated with Borrelia burgdorferi which are exported (or shed) in vivo and whose detection is a means of diagnosing Lyme disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to novel antigens associated with Borrelia burgdorferi, antibodies that are raised against the antigens and the use of the antibodies to diagnose Lyme disease and for immune capture and cultivation of microorganisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Since the demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi as the infectious agent of Lyme borreliosis (Burdorfer, W. et at. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia ( Borreliella ) burgdorferi must tolerate nutrient stress to persist in the tick phase of its enzootic life cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of the 36 known species of Borrelia, 12 are distinguished to cause Lyme disease or borreliosis and are transmitted by ticks. (prospecbio.com)
  • The main Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. (prospecbio.com)
  • The microbiology of B. burgdorferi sheds light on why Lyme disease is an illness that at times can be relapsing and remitting and that can be refractory to normal immune surveillance and standard antibiotic regimens. (lymenet.de)
  • The causative agent of Lyme disease -the spirochete B. burgdorferi- has a long replication time, comparable in this respect to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (lymenet.de)
  • The remarkable strain variation of B. burgdorferi may account for the differences between the presentation of Lyme disease in Europe and in the United States ( 78 , 80 ). (lymenet.de)
  • GSD's highly sensitive EIA Lyme screen contains B. burgdorferi strains B31 and 2591, as well as VIsE, an immunogenic lipoprotein included for optimal performance. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The bacterial agent Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, a debilitating inflammatory disease and a major public health issue in the United States and around the world. (ku.edu)
  • Together, these data contribute to characterizing the molecular events responsible for subsurface and surface outer membrane lipoprotein secretion in B. burgdorferi, an endeavor vital to understanding the regulation and processing of these key virulence factors and thus the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. (ku.edu)
  • The 41 kD flagellin of Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) is a major component of periplasmic flagellar filament core and a good candidate for serodiagnosis in early stage of Lyme disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic, multistage, inflammatory infection resulting in patients experiencing cardiac, neurological, and arthritic complications when not treated with antibiotics shortly after exposure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lyme disease, the leading tick-borne infection in the United States, occurs in multiple stages and is a multisystemic disease due to the etiologic agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( 1 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Lyme disease is caused by B. burgdorferi , a bacterium of the spirochete class. (townsendletter.com)
  • The iSpot Lyme test counts B. burgdorferi -sensitized T cells by capturing interferon-gamma (IFN-g) secreted by these T cells. (townsendletter.com)
  • A highly sensitive T cell-based enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) method, iSpot Lyme can verify exposure to B. burgdorferi antigens. (townsendletter.com)
  • Background:Lyme disease in the United States is caused primarily by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto whileother species are also prevalent in Europe. (isaude.net)
  • These results confirm that B. burgdorferi is present in questing D. variabilis and A. americanum ticks in areas of Missouri where Lyme disease occurs. (ajtmh.org)
  • A tick-borne, multisystemic disease, Lyme borreliosis caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has grown into a major public health problem during the last 10 years. (townsendletter.com)
  • In this study, two herbal extracts, Samento and Banderol, as well as doxycycline (one of the primary antibiotics for Lyme disease treatment) were tested for their in vitro effectiveness on several of the different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi (spirochetes, round bodies, and biofilmlike colonies) using fluorescent, darkfield microscopic, and BacLight viability staining methods. (townsendletter.com)
  • Our results demonstrated that both herbal agents, but not doxycycline, had very significant effects on all forms of B. burgdorferi, especially when used in combination, suggesting that herbal agents could provide an effective therapeutic approach for Lyme disease patients. (townsendletter.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi, the primary causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochetal bacterium that can adopt different inactive forms, such as cystic and granular forms (round bodies), as well as colonylike aggregates both in vivo and in vitro, in the presence of unfavorable conditions such as exposure to the antibiotics commonly used for treating Lyme borreliosis. (townsendletter.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated these natural antimicrobial herbal extracts as well as doxycycline (one of the primary pharmaceutical antibiotics for Lyme disease treatment) for their potential effects on the different forms of B. burgdorferi. (townsendletter.com)
  • Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. (mdpi.com)
  • Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo . (mdpi.com)
  • A comprehensive evaluation of the T cell response to Borrelia infection should, therefore, provide new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of Lyme disease. (mdpi.com)
  • OspA (outer surface protein A) is an abundant immunogenic lipoprotein of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (rcsb.org)
  • Lyme disease refers to the body's immune response to the bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. (healthhype.com)
  • Lyme arthritis synovial fluid contains a large proportion of γδ T cells that proliferates upon stimulation with the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi . (jimmunol.org)
  • A panel of Borrelia -reactive γδ T cell clones was derived from synovial fluid of two patients with Lyme arthritis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Borrelia is responsible for causing the Lyme disease. (medical-wiki.com)
  • Many species of borrelia cause Lyme disease. (medical-wiki.com)
  • The Lyme disease or the recurring fever that is caused due to borrelia mainly occur due to a tick or a flee bite. (medical-wiki.com)
  • The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the top vector-borne disease in the United States. (ku.edu)
  • As such, identification of novel B. burgdorferi virulence factors is needed in order to expedite the discovery of new anti-Lyme therapeutics. (ku.edu)
  • A discovery of great importance relating to a toxin produced by the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi , has been linked to a similar toxin produced by the organism Clostridium botulinum . (samento.com.ec)
  • In 1982, the agent responsible for Lyme disease was discovered by Willy Burgdorfer, who isolated spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia from the mid-guts of ticks infecting deer, other wild animals, and dogs. (samento.com.ec)
  • The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • Densities of I. ricinus nymphs and Borrelia-infected nymphs were significantly correlated, and nymphal density can thus serve as a general indicator of risk for exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the only known human pathogen that directly activates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. (umass.edu)
  • Even though macrophages are the main infiltrating cell during Lyme carditis, the identification of a receptor capable of mediating phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi has been elusive. (umass.edu)
  • Overall, our data demonstrate roles for CR3 in the binding, phagocytosis and proinflammatory cytokine elicited by B. burgdorferi and shed light on the role of IFNγ in mediating the clearance of the spirochete during Lyme disease. (umass.edu)
  • The maintenance cycle of the Lyme disease (LD) pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States involves the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis -the main enzootic and zoonotic vector-and rodents, particularly the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus and eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus , which are efficient reservoir hosts for the pathogen and commonly used hosts for juvenile ticks ( 3 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • The agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi , produces membrane lipoproteins possessing potent inflammatory properties linked to disease pathology. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lyme disease is caused by infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. (umassmed.edu)
  • In order to investigate the potential for Borrelia burgdorferi infection before the recognition of Lyme disease as a clinical entity, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine museum specimens of Ixodes dammini (deer ticks) for the presence of spirochete-specific DNA sequences. (sciencemag.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi , the causative agent of Lyme disease, alternates between the microenvironments of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis , and a mammalian host. (asm.org)
  • Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem disorder that arises from tick-transmitted infection with Borrelia burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has a very unusual genome composed of one linear chromosome and up to 21 linear and circular plasmids. (openthesis.org)
  • Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant VlsE1 or peptide antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi compared with 2-tiered testing using whole-cell lysate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of these ticks was found to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi , the spirochete that causes Lyme disease (Pinger et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The five articles here cover certain aspects of Lyme disease currently under study, including the effects of co-infection with Borrelia Burgdorferi and Anaplasma Phagocytophilum in vector ticks and vertebrate hosts, some epidemiological and epizootological aspects of Lyme Borreliosis in Slovakia with emphasis on serological diagnostics, epidemiology and diagnostics of Lyme Borreliosis in dogs, and a health promotion approach to planning the prevention of Lyme disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ABSTRACT--White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are significant reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi , the causative agent of Lyme disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 24 Lyme arthritis patients were stimulated with B. burgdorferi, interferon (IFN)-γ, or both, and the levels of CCL4, CCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were measured in culture supernatants. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: In patients with Lyme arthritis, B. burgdorferi but not IFN-γ induced PBMC to secrete CCL4 and CCL2, and B. burgdorferi and IFN-γ each stimulated the production of CXCL9 and CXCL10. (harvard.edu)
  • We conclude that B. burgdorferi stimulates monocytes/macrophages directly and indirectly to guide innate and adaptive immune responses in patients with Lyme arthritis. (harvard.edu)
  • Dramatic alteration of surface lipoprotein profiles is a key strategy that Borrelia burgdorferi , the Lyme disease pathogen, has evolved for adapting to the diverse environments of arthropod and mammalian hosts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Synthesis and antigenicity of BBGL-2 glycolipids of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. (openrepository.com)
  • There is a public perception that the whiteâ tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) is the main reservoir supporting the maintenance and spread of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. (fao.org)
  • The genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was assessed in a focus of Lyme borreliosis in southern Britain dominated by game birds. (asm.org)
  • Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease of humans in temperate climates of the northern hemisphere, whose causative agent, a spirochete belonging to the genus Borrelia , was described and named Borrelia burgdorferi in 1984 ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii , and Borrelia afzelii are causative agents of Lyme disease in humans ( 38 ), while the pathogenic potentials of Borrelia japonica , Borrelia valaisiana (formerly genomic group VS116 [ 39 ]), and Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genomic group PotiB2 [ 18 ]) have not yet been demonstrated. (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. (cdc.gov)
  • Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. (atcc.org)
  • Correlation of plasmids with infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto type strain B31. (atcc.org)
  • In contrast, only B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is found in the United States. (genetics.org)
  • This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen. (mpbio.com)
  • Cerar T, Strle F, Stupica D, Ruzic-Sabljic E, McHugh G, Steere AC, Strle K. Differences in Genotype, Clinical Features, and Inflammatory Potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Strains from Europe and the United States. (harvard.edu)
  • Comparative molecular analyses of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (isaude.net)
  • This master thesis is focusing on the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, which is the causative agent of LB. Today, the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex consists of 20 different genotypes, in which three (B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) are commonly known as human pathogens. (uio.no)
  • Genetic exchange and plasmid transfers in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto revealed by three-way genome comparisons and multilocus sequence typing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (abnova.com)
  • Although 19% of the rodents harbored B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and/or B. garinii in internal organs, only B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was transmitted to xenodiagnostic tick larvae (it was transmitted to 1% of the larvae). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, strains of B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalent in the United Kingdom (known to be variants of B. garinii , B. afzelii , B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and B. valaisiana ) have been found to be unusually difficult to isolate and culture from ticks and hosts by standard techniques ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Surprisingly, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common genospecies in northeastern North America, appears to be comparatively rare in Europe and virtually absent in central and east Asia ( 7 , 24 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • While the transmission behavior of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto has been studied in detail with both laboratory and natural rodent hosts ( 5 , 16 , 22 ), the relative transmissibilities of other genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents and other hosts have not been investigated previously. (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi circulates between Ixodes ticks and a vertebrate host in an enzootic cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ticks can transmit B. burgdorferi to humans, but humans are dead-end hosts, unlikely to continue the life cycle of the spirochete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nymphs molt into adult ticks, which usually feed on larger mammals that are not able to support the survival of B. burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes ticks, the disease if left untreated can cause serious neurologic, cardiac, and/or rheumatologic complications. (news-medical.net)
  • including Borrelia turicatae ), which are primarily transmitted by Ornithodoros ticks. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies with rodents and ticks infected with B. burgdorferi indicate that spirochetes undergo major changes in protein expression as they adapt to the diverse environments encountered by a vectorborne pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • Preac-Mursic, V., Wilske, B., Schierz, G. European Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from humans and ticks - culture conditions and antibiotic susceptibility. (springer.com)
  • Ticks deposit B. burgdorferi into the dermis of the host, where they eventually become associated with collagen fibres. (prohealth.com)
  • Borrelia causes borreliosis, which is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted mainly by ticks and some by lice, depending on the species. (prospecbio.com)
  • Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Scandinavia. (uio.no)
  • This master thesis describes the prevalence and genotype composition of B. burgdorferi s.l. in host-seeking I. ricinus ticks at different locations in Scandinavia. (uio.no)
  • The purpose of this study was to document the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected in southeastern Missouri and around the city of St. Louis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Spirochetes were detected and identified as B. burgdorferi by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests using the monoclonal antibody H5332 in 1.9% of Amblyomma americanum and 2.0% of Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected. (ajtmh.org)
  • This condition is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted by infected Deer Ticks (Ixodes). (gettyimages.com)
  • B. burgdorferi colonizes in the infected Ixodes ticks, and then transmits to mammalian hosts (like humans). (healthhype.com)
  • However, only nymphs and adult ticks can transmit B. burgdorferi . (healthhype.com)
  • If these animals are already infected, the Ixodes ticks acquire B. burgdorferi infection. (healthhype.com)
  • B. burgdorferi live in the mid-gut of the ticks, from where they move to the salivary glands. (healthhype.com)
  • Ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex transmit the causative spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by inoculation into the dermis. (jimmunol.org)
  • The diseases caused by the borrelia are mainly transmitted by lice, ticks and sometimes mosquitoes. (medical-wiki.com)
  • B. burgdorferi is transmitted by hard-bodied Ixodes ticks in an enzootic tick/vertebrate cycle, with human infection occurring in an accidental, "dead-end" fashion. (ku.edu)
  • Enzootic maintenance of the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi by I. scapularis and small mammals is well documented, whereas its "cryptic" maintenance by other specialist ticks and wildlife hosts remains largely unexplored because these ticks rarely bite humans. (asm.org)
  • No resident wildlife harbored I. scapularis , and yet 3.5% of bird-derived ticks, 3.6% of rabbit-derived ticks, and 20% of rabbit ear biopsy specimens were infected with B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • In tracking this range expansion over a 5-year sampling period, we have documented the presence of multiple strains of B. burgdorferi not only in recently invaded I. scapularis ticks and their rodent hosts but also in other tick and wildlife species prior to the arrival of I. scapularis . (asm.org)
  • We postulated that cryptic pathogen maintenance-i.e., enzootic maintenance of B. burgdorferi in ticks that specialize on wildlife and do not commonly bite humans-could explain this preinvasion distribution of B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • We examined the effect of repeated infestation of guinea pigs with Ixodes scapularis on the capacity of ticks to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Only one of 18 I. scapularis-immune guinea pigs challenged with B. burgdorferi-infected nymphal ticks became infected, whereas 10 of 18 naive guinea pigs similarly challenged became infected. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ticks were collected by dragging a flag over the vegetation and B. burgdorferi was detected in pooled tick samples by darkfield microscopy or isolated by cultivation in BSK-II medium. (aaem.pl)
  • Five Borrelia strains were isolated from the adult I. ricinus ticks. (aaem.pl)
  • The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. (diva-portal.org)
  • A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). (diva-portal.org)
  • Of 41 non-I. ricinus ticks, none was positive for Borrelia. (diva-portal.org)
  • Upon generating a BBA05 mutant in an infectious strain of B. burgdorferi , we showed that the BBA05 mutant remained capable of establishing infection in mice, being acquired by ticks, persisting through tick molting, and reinfecting new mammalian hosts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study examines the pathogen prevalence rate of Borrelia in adult Ixodes scapularis (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the blackâ legged tick, collected from whiteâ tailed deer and compares it with pathogen prevalence rates in adult ticks gathered by dragging vegetation in two contiguous counties west of the Hudson Valley in upstate New York. (fao.org)
  • In both Broome and Chenango Counties, attached and unattached ticks harvested from whiteâ tailed deer had significantly lower prevalences of B.â burgdorferi than those collected from vegetation. (fao.org)
  • The study compares diagnostic parameters of different commercial serological kits based on three different antigen types and correlates test results with the status of the patient's Borrelia infection. (asm.org)
  • Factors such as living in a rural area or coat colour did not explain the result, leading the authors to conclude that the breed may be predisposed to B. burgdorferi infection. (innovations-report.com)
  • The authors data did not allow them to reach any conclusions regarding speculation that glomerular disease found in Bernese Mountain Dogs may be caused directly by B. burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the cause of the disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • B. burgdorferi may persist in humans and animals for months or years following initial infection, despite a robust humoral immune response. (abcam.com)
  • As recommended for serologic confirmation of clinical sparse regarding B. burgdorferi s.l. infection rates and risk cases, serum samples were tested for the presence of Bor- factors ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The laboratory diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (prohealth.com)
  • We demonstrate that B. burgdorferi N40 needle-infected C57BL/6 MBL deficient mice harbored significantly higher B. burgdorferi numbers in skin tissue during the early course of infection. (nature.com)
  • To conclude, we show a protective role of MBL in the early stages of B. burgdorferi infection, yet the underlying mechanism warrants further investigation. (nature.com)
  • Infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. can lead to erythema migrans (EM) at the tick bite site after which dissemination to other skin sites or to the heart, joint or the central nervous system can occur 4 . (nature.com)
  • Psychosis in Borrelia burgdorferi infection - part II: case reports. (medworm.com)
  • All patientswere treated for Borrelia infection and all of them developed psychotic disorders. (medworm.com)
  • Rapidly transmitted throughout the body, B. burgdorferi is known to invade the central nervous system (CNS) within the first few weeks after infection ( 20 - 22 ). (lymenet.de)
  • This review provides an overview of B. burgdorferi mechanisms for dissemination and invasion in the mammalian host, which are essential for pathogenesis and the development of persistent infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spirochetal bacterium is transmitted when an Ixodes tick vector colonized with B. burgdorferi takes a blood meal on reservoir mammals, such as small rodents and birds, or accidental human hosts, resulting in the colonization of dermal tissue and develops into a localized infection ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The immune response to infection with B. burgdorferi includes both B cell and T cell activation. (townsendletter.com)
  • A total of 668 host-seeking nymphs were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. (uio.no)
  • In addition, samples were analyzed for B. burgdorferi s.l. infection as described above. (uio.no)
  • Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. (mdpi.com)
  • However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. (mdpi.com)
  • In this stage, an immune response to B. burgdorferi infection results in symptoms in various organs. (healthhype.com)
  • 3 At the site of infection, an important APC appears to be the DC, which ingests B. burgdorferi by coiling phagocytosis and subsequently can present spirochetal antigens to conventional αβ T cells ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Development of new prophylaxes is constrained by the limited understanding of the pathobiology of B. burgdorferi, as past investigations have focused intensely on just a handful of identified proteins that play key roles in the tick/vertebrate infection cycle. (ku.edu)
  • During experimental infection of B6 mice with B. burgdorferi , iNKT cells localize to the inflamed heart where they are activated by CD1d-expressing macrophages. (umass.edu)
  • Inflammation during infection with B. burgdorferi is dependent on the ability of the spirochete to evade local mechanisms of clearance. (umass.edu)
  • We quantified B. burgdorferi infection in a cryptic bird-rabbit-tick cycle. (asm.org)
  • Serological evidence indicates that other B. burgdorferi lipoproteins are preferentially expressed during infection of mammals ( 11 , 13 ), and it is likely that they possess similar stimulatory properties ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Mice were treated with ceftriaxone or saline solution for 1 month, commencing during the early (3 weeks) or chronic (4 months) stages of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • When infection is left untreated, B. burgdorferi can effectively evade host immune clearance, resulting in persistent infection that may or may not be manifested as clinical disease. (asm.org)
  • Our goal was to begin to learn how infection with Borrelia burgdorferi leads to the secretion of these chemokines, using patient cell samples. (harvard.edu)
  • OspC is not required for B. burgdorferi replication in the tick vector but is essential for spirochetes to establish infection in the mammalian host ( 26 , 51 , 62 , 63 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are also common tick-borne pathogens carried by the Ixodes tick that infect humans similarly to Borrelia burgdorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nymphal Ixodes dammini transmitted Borrelia burgdorferi to 1 of 14 rodents exposed for 24 h, 5 of 14 rodents exposed for 48 h, and 13 of 14 rodents exposed for greater than or equal to 72 h. (asm.org)
  • Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of Sweden were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and found to be infected with Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. (diva-portal.org)
  • For example, Ixodes neotomae is a woodrat-specialist tick that rarely bites humans and is more important than Ixodes pacificus (the bridge vector in the western United States) in maintaining B. burgdorferi in nature ( 9 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (aaem.pl)
  • B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent results with B. burgdorferi indicate that the morphology of these spirochetes is likely to be influenced by the presence of the periplasmic flagella. (pnas.org)
  • B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it is a highly specialized, motile, two-membrane, spiral shaped bacteria which lives primarily as an extracellular pathogen. (abcam.com)
  • spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. (cdc.gov)
  • Borrelia spirochetes have developed strate gies to evade the mammalian host immune system. (medworm.com)
  • To evade the complement, spirochetes bind soluble complement regulators factor H (FH), factor H‐like protein, and C4bp to their outer surfaces.B. burgdorferi spirochetes can inhibit the classical pathway of complement by the outer surface protein (Osp) BBK32, which blocks the activation of the C1 complex, composed of C1q, C1r, and C1s. (medworm.com)
  • The advantage of the antibodies used in the invention is that they react with the antigens from geographically diverse strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, but do not react with antigens from related Borrelia spirochetes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Since 1981 multiple Borrelia species have been identified as the causative agents of LB and are being referred to as B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. (nature.com)
  • In the USA, B. burgdorferi is the predominant prevalent agent for LB, whereas in Europe B. afzelii and B. garinii are the main causative agents of LB 2 , 3 . (nature.com)
  • The causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is initially deposited by the tick into the host dermis, where it associates with collagen fibers, replicates, and eventually disseminates to other tissues. (asm.org)
  • The causative organism was named Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), after its discoverer. (samento.com.ec)
  • patients may have subclinical or clinical disease without diagnostic antibody titers to B. burgdorferi . (springer.com)
  • The PA1-73006 antibody reacts with Borrelia burgdorferi. (fishersci.com)
  • The PA1-73006 antibody was raised against B. burgdorferi whole cell preparation. (fishersci.com)
  • Antibody to at least one protein of B. burgdorferi was seen in over 40% of patients. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that significant levels of antibody to B. burgdorferi may be seen on Western blotting in patients who have not been exposed to this organism by clinical or epidemiologic criteria. (nih.gov)
  • Criteria for positivity should focus on the presence of antibody to the more specific proteins of B. burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of CR3 with blocking antibody was able to completely abrogate phagocytosis of B. burgdorferi by the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and partially block uptake by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), a finding that was recapitulated with CD11b-deficient BMMs. (umass.edu)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi carinii antibody LS-C51850 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to borrelia burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi carinii. (lsbio.com)
  • The results showed that genetic diversity presented in the 41 kD flagellin genes of all 89 strains among the four genotypes of B. burgdorferi , especially in the genotype of B. garinii . (hindawi.com)
  • The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. (umassmed.edu)
  • For screening, we used an ELI- ever, surveillance data and prospective studies in Europe SA based on B. afzelii extract antigen enriched with recom- and the United States suggest that children and the elderly binant VlsE (an outer-surface protein) from B. burgdorferi are particularly at risk ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Borrelia afzelii was not detected in any of the samples. (asm.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), based on 8 chromo- somal housekeeping genes, had been carried out for several strains represented in the extracts (Table) ( 4 , 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast , B. burgdorferi loads in distant tissue such as heart, joints or bladder at later time points were similar for both mouse strains. (nature.com)
  • The expression of these proteins varies between different B. burgdorferi s.l. strains, making some strains more susceptible to eradication by the complement system than others 11 . (nature.com)
  • Here, we chose 89 B. burgdorferi strains in China, amplified the gene encoding the 41 kD flagellin, and compared the sequences. (hindawi.com)
  • Some specific mutation sites for each genotype of the 41 kD flagellin genes were found, which could be used for genotyping B. burgdorferi strains in China. (hindawi.com)
  • Virulence determinants and/or adhesins are highly heterogenetic among environmental B. burgdorferi strains with particular genotypes being associated with the ability to disseminate to specific tissues and the severity of disease, but fail to generate cross-protective immunity between borrelial strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • B31 and N40 are two widely studied strains of B. burgdorferi, which belong totwo different 16 S-23 S rRNA spacer types (RST) and outer surface protein C (OspC) allelicgroups. (isaude.net)
  • Differences in the protein profiles of these B. burgdorferi strains in vitro suggest that the novel, differentially expressed molecules may affectinfectivity of B. burgdorferi. (isaude.net)
  • We identified 25 closely related B. burgdorferi strains using an rRNA gene intergenic spacer marker, the majority (68%) of which had not been reported previously. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the susceptibility of three different adaptive forms of B. burgdorferi (in vitro cultured, host-derived, and tickborne) to immune sera. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction between Borrelia burgdorferi and endothelium in vitro. (jci.org)
  • We showed that MBL is capable of binding B. burgdorferi through its carbohydrate recognition domains, but in vitro complement killing assays, peritoneal macrophage and whole blood stimulations, phagocytosis assays and an in vivo migration experiment did not reveal the mechanism by which MBL facilitates early clearance of B. burgdorferi . (nature.com)
  • The nutrient requirement of borrelia is very specific hence it makes the survival of this organism in vitro very difficult. (medical-wiki.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the mechanisms that lead to the production of proinflammatory mediators by the murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, when these cells are exposed in vitro to recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). (medsci.org)
  • In the past few years there have been several reports of differential expression in B. burgdorferi with respect to in vivo versus in vitro cultivation ( 12 , 22 , 44 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study we examine the in vitro protein expression of B. burgdorferi at pH 6.0 to pH 8.0 and identify over 37 proteins that are regulated by the environmental pH. (asm.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borrelia species are considered gram-negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • An analysis of the genome sequences of both B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum indicates that practically all of the genes required for motility and chemotaxis are present in these species ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Surface exposure and species specificity of an immunoreactive domain of a 66-kilodalton outer membrane protein (P66) of the Borrelia spp. (atcc.org)
  • Many species of borrelia exists. (medical-wiki.com)
  • There are about 36 species of borrelia known till date. (medical-wiki.com)
  • B. burgdorferi possess surface-associated proteins with the tripalmitoyl- S -glyceryl-cysteine (Pam 3 Cys) 3 modification common to many bacterial species ( 5 ), and numerous inflammatory activities have been ascribed to the Pam 3 Cys modification ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The data indicate that different genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato can be maintained in nature by distinct transmission cycles involving the same vector tick species but different vertebrate host species. (asm.org)
  • The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. (diva-portal.org)
  • This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally using a combination of biochemical, biophysical and genetic methods. (diva-portal.org)
  • We demonstrated previously that B. burgdorferi is unable to bind collagen, but can bind the collagen-associated proteoglycan decorin and expresses decorin-binding proteins (Dbps). (prohealth.com)
  • Western blot analysis of proteinase K-treated intact B. burgdorferi and transmission electron microscopy studies using antibodies raised against recombinant Dbps demonstrated that these proteins are surface exposed. (prohealth.com)
  • Pathology to host tissues may be due in part to an autoimmune response to B. burgdorferi heat shock proteins (HSPs) ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Early studies of B. burgdorferi pathogenesis determined the major immunogenic factors to be lipid-modified proteins (lipoproteins). (ku.edu)
  • This was confirmed using lipidated vs nonlipidated hexapeptides of Borrelia outer surface proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • B. burgdorferi expresses two decorin-binding proteins with apparent molecular masses of 19 and 20 kDa as revealed in a Western blot (immunoblot)-type assay. (asm.org)
  • Lin B, Short SA, Eskildsen M, Klempner MS, Hu LT. Functional testing of putative oligopeptide permease (Opp) proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi: a complementation model in opp(-) Escherichia coli. (umassmed.edu)
  • M90084 Borrelia burgdorferi 22 kD antigen. (atcc.org)
  • 2. Purified antibodies or antigen-binding fragments of said antibodies raised against purified extracellular membrane vesicles exported from Borrelia burgdorferi. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Direct demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi by culture may require weeks, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen detection often lack sensitivity. (asm.org)
  • In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi . (mdpi.com)
  • These results indicate that, despite being a highly conserved and regulated antigen, the BBA05 protein has a nonessential role in the transmission cycle of B. burgdorferi , at least in the animal model. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1999. Inflammatory signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins is mediated by Toll-like receptor-2. (aldf.com)
  • The B. burgdorferi genome encodes more lipoproteins than any other organism studied to date. (ku.edu)
  • The majority of these lipoproteins are tethered to the B. burgdorferi cell surface, creating the medically important host-pathogen interface. (ku.edu)
  • In addition, many studies have revealed the significance of surface lipoproteins to the B. burgdorferi life cycle in both the tick vector and mammalian host. (ku.edu)
  • Extraction of B. burgdorferi lipoproteins with Triton X-114 enriched for the stimulatory component. (jimmunol.org)
  • The data show that the majority of B. burgdorferi lipoproteins are surface-exposed, and that the plasmids of B. burgdorferi are enriched in surface lipoprotein genes relative to the chromosome. (ku.edu)
  • Transfection of TLR2 into cell lines conferred responsiveness to lipoproteins, lipopeptides, and sonicated B. burgdorferi , as measured by nuclear translocation of NF-κB and cytokine production. (jimmunol.org)
  • The inflammatory activities attributed to B. burgdorferi lipoproteins include the ability to directly induce NF-κB nuclear translocation, resulting in cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, and generation of nitric oxide and superoxide ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Several of these differentially expressed lipoproteins have been shown to play important roles in the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A body of evidences indicates that these differentially regulated lipoproteins are important for B. burgdorferi 's maintenance in its natural cycle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, studying the functions and regulation of B. burgdorferi lipoproteins is significant to our understanding of how B. burgdorferi adapts to diverse hosts in its natural cycle. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Borrelia belongs to a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum. (prospecbio.com)
  • 1-4 Unfortunately, when B. burgdorferi is in these inactive forms, conventional antibiotic therapy will not destroy the bacteria. (townsendletter.com)
  • Borrelia is a type of a bacteria belonging to the spirochete family. (medical-wiki.com)
  • MBL deficiency has been linked to a more severe course of several infectious diseases and humans with detectable antibodies against B. burgdorferi are significantly more often MBL deficient compared to humans without antibodies against B. burgdorferi . (nature.com)
  • Hyporesponsiveness to vaccination with Borrelia burgdorferi Osp A in humans and in TLR-1 and TLR-2 deficient mice. (aldf.com)
  • Functional and Genomic Architecture of Borrelia burgdorferi-Induced Cytokine Responses in Humans. (harvard.edu)
  • Because B. burgdorferi and M. genitalium are distantly related eubacteria, we suggest that their limited metabolic capacities reflect convergent evolution by gene loss from more metabolically competent progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato based on sequence information from the hbb gene, coding for a histone-like protein. (atcc.org)
  • M34710 Borrelia burgdorferei flagellin (fla) gene, 5' end. (atcc.org)
  • Through the use of DNA manipulations and a database of known protein toxin DNA sequences, a match was made with a selected Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) gene and a specific toxin in the database. (samento.com.ec)
  • Addgene: A CRISPR interference platform for selective downregulation of gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi. (addgene.org)
  • B. burgdorferi has an unusual genome compared with other eubacteria which includes a linear chromosome approximately one megabase in size and numerous linear and circular plasmids. (abcam.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi B31, complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • AE001115 Borrelia burgdorferi B31 (section 1 of 70) of the complete genome. (atcc.org)
  • B. burgdorferi does not produce LPS ( 17 ), nor does its genome encode the enzymes required for LPS synthesis ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The team used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as well as a Western blot test to see whether the dogs had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi. (innovations-report.com)
  • Relationship between development of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs and the subsequent development of limb/joint borreliosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • Finally, the biological relevance of two porins, P13 and P66, was demonstrated in a double mutant displaying a stress response as revealed by increased sensitivity to high osmolarity and elevated expression of the B. burgdorferi heat-shock protein HtrA homolog. (diva-portal.org)
  • Porin activity of the native and recombinant outer membrane protein Oms28 of Borrelia burgdorferi. (atcc.org)
  • Isoforskolin and Cucurbitacin IIa promote the expression of anti-inflammatory regulatory factor SIGIRR in human macrophages stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A. (medworm.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated the role of the lectin pathway in the immune response against B. burgdorferi by the identification and characterisation of the tick salivary gland protein Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor (TSLPI) 12 . (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, the protein and transcript levels in gyrB mutants were greater than those in experimentally heat-shocked cultures of wild-type B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • We observed that coumermycin A 1 -resistant gyrB mutants of B. burgdorferi had increased levels of an ∼68-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified as GroEL (Fig. 1 and 2A ). (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi strain X32, a clone of strain B31 carrying a coumermycin A 1 -resistant gyrB mutation (Arg 133 → Leu) ( 22 ) (D. S. Samuels, B. J. Kimmel, D. C. Criswell, C. F. Garon, W. M. Huang, and C. H. Eggers, unpublished data), synthesizes the up-regulated 68-kDa protein. (asm.org)
  • Induction of Interleukin 10 by Borrelia burgdorferi Is Regulated by the Action of CD14-Dependent p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and cAMP-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling. (harvard.edu)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ISOF on the proinflammatory responses induced by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Isoforskolin downregulates proinflammatory responses induced by Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 14, 5974-5980. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Here we identify alterations in the membrane protein profile, as determined by immunoblotting and two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient gel electrophoresis (2D-NEPHGE), that occur in virulent B. burgdorferi B31 as the pH of the medium is altered. (asm.org)
  • However, the role of the BBA05 protein in the life cycle of B. burgdorferi has not been elucidated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi has evolved to evade the body's immune system, so it's not surprising that it can also evade antibiotics" explains Stephen Barthold, lead researcher on the study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recombinant Borrelia Burgdorferi p66 produced in E.coli is a non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain having a calculated molecular mass of 66kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a linear plasmid of Borrelia burdorferi reveals similarities to those of circular plasmids of other prokaryotes. (atcc.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi has an unusual genomic structure containing 21 plasmids. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Borrelia genus members have a linear chromosome which is about 900 kbp in length as well as an excess of both linear and circular plasmids in the 5-220 kbp size range. (prospecbio.com)
  • Much of the genetic material in B. burgdorferi is contained in plasmids ( 76 ), resulting in the possibility of significant variability. (lymenet.de)
  • To effectively deplete the plasmids, an 8kbp fragment containing essential elements for replication and partitioning in B. burgdorferi was amplified from one of the cp32 plasmids, cp32-3, and cloned into the vector pGE22 that carries a gentamycin resistance cassette and essential elements for replication in Escherichia coli. (openthesis.org)
  • Bacterial lysates of Borrelia burgdorferi carinii. (lsbio.com)
  • The invasive nature of B. burgdorferi is lacking in proactive mechanisms to modulate disease, such as secretion systems and toxins, but recent work has shown degradation of host extracellular matrices by B. burgdorferi contributes to the invasive capabilities of the pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Improved culture conditions for the growth and detection of Borrelia from human serum. (cdc.gov)
  • A Novel Laboratory Assessment for the Detection of Borrelia Burgdorferi by Chenggang Jin, MD, PhD, Pharmasan Labs, and Deanna J. Fall, BA, NeuroScience Inc. (townsendletter.com)
  • The second aim of this thesis was to compare tick DNA extraction methods, and study if these DNA extraction methods influence detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. (uio.no)
  • Culturing Borrelia is commonly considered the "gold standard" for detection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (asm.org)
  • However Gerber says that "the findings in the present study are unique as infections with B. burgdorferi are not causing disease", whereas other breeds with a predilection for an infectious disease become sick. (innovations-report.com)
  • PCR in laboratory diagnosis of human Borrelia burgdorferi infections. (asm.org)
  • This review is restricted to applications of PCR methods in the diagnosis of human B. burgdorferi infections. (asm.org)
  • These observations may be valuable in the treatment of resistant infections caused by B. burgdorferi , and suggest that a combination of TZ and a macrolide antibiotic could eradicate both cystic and mobile forms of B. burgdorferi . (isciii.es)
  • Likewise, persisting B. burgdorferi infections in the ligamentous tissue ( 21 ), synovium ( 47 ), and skin ( 25 , 45 ) of human patients following treatment with antibiotics have been documented. (asm.org)
  • Environmental cues such as pH may prove important in the regulation of virulence determinants and factors necessary for the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick or mammalian microcosm. (asm.org)
  • This evidence suggests that several environmental factors may be involved in the ability of B. burgdorferi to adapt to the different environments of the tick vector and mammalian host. (asm.org)
  • Killpack TL, Ballesteros M, Bunnell SC, Bedugnis A, Kobzik L, Hu LT, Petnicki-Ocwieja T. Phagocytic Receptors Activate Syk and Src Signaling during Borrelia burgdorferi Phagocytosis. (harvard.edu)
  • First, IFNγ greatly enhances the recognition of B. burgdorferi by macrophages, leading to increased phagocytosis of the spirochete. (umass.edu)
  • Further differential screening of the expression library identified at least five additional B. burgdorferi genes are selectively expressed in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • These in vivo findings were corroborated using a B. burgdorferi N40-infected I. scapularis infestation model. (nature.com)
  • Considering the complex life cycle of B. burgdorferi and its ability to infect a wide variety of hosts ( 41 ), this response to environmental cues is not surprising. (asm.org)
  • This duplex qPCR tests for both Borrelia burgdorferi & Anaplasma phagocytophilum. (uoguelph.ca)
  • On the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness and other molecular criteria, B. burgdorferi sensu lato is now considered to comprise at least nine genospecies and genomic groups ( 1 , 30 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to tinidazole (TZ) was examined. (isciii.es)
  • B. burgdorferi has been shown to be capable of persisting in human hosts despite extensive antibiotic treatment ( 17 , 85 - 88 ). (lymenet.de)
  • One possible explanation for this is that B. burgdorferi become resistant to antibiotic treatment, by converting from their vegetative spirochete form into different round bodies and/or into biofilmlike colonies. (townsendletter.com)
  • The goal of this dissertation is to shed light on the mechanism of lipoprotein trafficking in B. burgdorferi by (i) investigating borrelial homologs of known lipoprotein transport machinery (the Lol system), (ii) localizing a known lipoprotein, and (iii) investigating the Borrelia surface proteome to identify substrates and factors involved in lipoprotein transport. (ku.edu)
  • The overarching goal of the current study was to further define the structure-function of the B. burgdorferi cell envelope by comprehensively and conclusively defining the localization of the bacterium's predicted lipoproteome, using an epitope-tagged lipoprotein expression library. (ku.edu)
  • many of these lipoprotein genes are differentially expressed during the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi in the two diverse hosts, an arthropod tick (e.g. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Borrelia burdorferi genotype in the northeastern United mined the MLST type of strain CA8. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 verity and B. burgdorferi genotype ( 2 , 3 ), prediction of a IGS sequences ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that Dbps are adhesins of the MSCRAMM (microbial surface component-recognizing adhesive matrix molecule) family, which mediate B. burgdorferi attachment to the extracellular matrix of the host. (prohealth.com)
  • Conversion of a linear to a circular plasmid in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii. (atcc.org)
  • The infectious B31strain of B. burgdorferi used in this study, obtained from American Type Tissue Collection(ATCC# 35210), was culturedin 5% CO2 at 34 oC, in Barbour-Stoener-Kelly H (BSK H) medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum (Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri) to midlogarithmic stage (2 × 107 cells/ml). (townsendletter.com)
  • 5 passages) infectious B. burgdorferi B31 ( 8 ) was grown to mid-log phase (5 × 10 7 cells per ml) under an atmosphere of 5% CO 2 at 35°C in BSK-H medium (Sigma Chemical Co., Saint Louis, Mo. (asm.org)
  • Multiplex PCR as a tool for validating plasmid content of Borrelia burgdorferi. (diva-portal.org)
  • Herein, we present a simple and inexpensive multiplex PCR method that detects the complete plasmid profile of B. burgdorferi B31 in just two PCR tubes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Once a tick is infected, it will then transmit B. burgdorferi by feeding on another vertebrate to complete the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by several Borrelia spp. (asm.org)
  • B burgdorferi is a tick-borne spirochete that is found in the temperate regions of much of the northern hemisphere. (medscape.com)
  • In the past few years, we and others identified a regulatory pathway, the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway (also called the σ 54 -σ S sigma factor cascade), that governs the differential expression of numerous borrelial genes during the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi ( 6 - 8 , 19 , 23 , 29 , 36 , 60 , 69 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this pathway, the two-component response regulator Rrp2, along with the alternative sigma factor RpoN (σ 54 or σ N ), directly controls the production of a second alternative sigma factor, RpoS (σ S ), which in turn modulates expression of more than 145 Borrelia genes ( 8 , 19 , 44 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of various genes have suggested that the population structure of B. burgdorferi sensu lato is clonal ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • In line with these findings they also developed higher anti- B. burgdorferi IgG serum antibodies compared to WT controls. (nature.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. (diva-portal.org)
  • . I. dentatus , a B. burgdorferi -competent vector ( 4 , 57 ) that feeds almost exclusively on birds and eastern cottontail rabbits ( Sylvilagus floridanus ), has also been implicated as a cryptic vector but has been described thus far only from an area where I. scapularis is sympatric ( 35 , 58 ). (asm.org)