Borrelia burgdorferi Group
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
Erythema Chronicum Migrans
Molecular Sequence Data
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Glossitis, Benign Migratory
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
Amino Acid Sequence
Complement Factor H
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins
RNA Polymerase Sigma 54
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
RNA, Ribosomal, 23S
Sensitivity and Specificity
Genetic Complementation Test
Blood Bactericidal Activity
RNA, Ribosomal, 5S
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Four clones of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cause invasive infection in humans. (1/1041)Lyme disease begins at the site of a tick bite, producing a primary infection with spread of the organism to secondary sites occurring early in the course of infection. A major outer surface protein expressed by the spirochete early in infection is outer surface protein C (OspC). In Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, OspC is highly variable. Based on sequence divergence, alleles of ospC can be divided into 21 major groups. To assess whether strain differences defined by ospC group are linked to invasiveness and pathogenicity, we compared the frequency distributions of major ospC groups from ticks, from the primary erythema migrans skin lesion, and from secondary sites, principally from blood and spinal fluid. The frequency distribution of ospC groups from ticks is significantly different from that from primary sites, which in turn is significantly different from that from secondary sites. The major groups A, B, I, and K had higher frequencies in the primary sites than in ticks and were the only groups found in secondary sites. We define three categories of major ospC groups: one that is common in ticks but very rarely if ever causes human disease, a second that causes only local infection at the tick bite site, and a third that causes systemic disease. The finding that all systemic B. burgdorferi sensu stricto infections are associated with four ospC groups has importance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease. (+info)
Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by reverse line blot in the joints of Dutch patients with Lyme arthritis. (2/1041)OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synovial samples from the knee joint of patients with Lyme arthritis by polymerase chain reaction, and to differentiate the species by reverse line blot (RLB). METHODS: Synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue (ST) samples were obtained from patients with Lyme arthritis (n = 4) and from patients with various other forms of arthritis (n = 9). DNA extracted from synovial samples was amplified by using, as a target, the spacer region between the 5S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Subsequently, 4 species-specific DNA probes were used in the RLB for specific hybridization. RESULTS: DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto DNA was detected in the SF and ST from 3 patients with Lyme arthritis. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was not detected in the synovial samples from 9 control patients. CONCLUSION: The relationship between different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and arthritis can be studied using direct analysis of extracted DNA from joint samples. This method can be used to study the association between particular clinical manifestations of Lyme disease and different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (+info)
Scored antibody reactivity determined by immunoblotting shows an association between clinical manifestations and presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. Valaisiana in humans. (3/1041)An immunoglobulin G immunoblot was developed with antigenic extracts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana genospecies and was reacted with sera from patients with neuroborreliosis, acrodermatitis, and Lyme arthritis. A detailed analysis of the reactivities of the protein bands was performed, and a two-step scoring procedure was selected to determine the preferential reactivity of sera to one particular genospecies. The discriminative potential of 5 proteins (12-kDa, 16-kDa, 18-kDa, OspA, and 66-kDa proteins) was used as a rapid first-step scoring method, followed by scoring of 14 additional protein bands if necessary. The advantage of this procedure is the low percentage of serum samples with inconclusive results for one of the four species (10% for patients with neuroborreliosis, 6% for patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and 6% for patients with Lyme arthritis). Among 31 serum samples from patients with neuroborreliosis, 16 were more reactive to B. garinii, 7 were more reactive to B. afzelii, 3 were more reactive to B. valaisiana, and 2 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Of 31 serum samples from patients with acrodermatitis, 26 showed a higher level of reactivity to B. afzelii. Of 34 serum samples from patients with Lyme arthritis, 21 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, 10 were more reactive to B. afzelii, and 1 was more reactive to B. valaisiana. Our results suggest an organotropism of Borrelia species and provide some evidence of a pathogenic potential of B. valaisiana in humans. (+info)
Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice. (4/1041)The Lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in enzootic cycles involving Ixodes ticks and small mammals. Previous studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi expresses outer surface protein A (OspA) but not OspC when residing in the midgut of unfed ticks. However, after ticks feed on blood, some spirochetes stop making OspA and express OspC. Our current work examined the timing and frequency of OspA and OspC expression by B. burgdorferi in infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs as they fed on uninfected mice and in uninfected I. scapularis larvae and nymphs as they first acquired spirochetes from infected mice. Smears of midguts from previously infected ticks were prepared at 12- or 24-h intervals following attachment through repletion at 96 h, and spirochetes were stained for immunofluorescence for detection of antibodies to OspA and OspC. As shown previously, prior to feeding spirochetes in nymphs expressed OspA but not OspC. During nymphal feeding, however, the proportion of spirochetes expressing OspA decreased, while spirochetes expressing OspC became detectable. In fact, spirochetes rapidly began to express OspC, with the greatest proportion of spirochetes having this protein at 48 h of attachment and then with the proportion decreasing significantly by the time that the ticks had completed feeding. In vitro cultivation of the spirochete at different temperatures showed OspC to be most abundant when the spirochetes were grown at 37 degrees C. Yet, the synthesis of this protein waned with continuous passage at this temperature. Immunofluorescence staining of spirochetes in smears of midguts from larvae and nymphs still attached or having completed feeding on infected mice demonstrated that OspA but not OspC was produced by these spirochetes recently acquired from mice. Therefore, the temporal synthesis of OspC by spirochetes only in feeding ticks that were infected prior to the blood meal suggests that this surface protein is involved in transmission from tick to mammal but not from mammal to tick. (+info)
The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii contains multiple, antigen-encoding circular plasmids that are homologous to the cp32 plasmids of Lyme disease spirochetes. (5/1041)Borrelia hermsii, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, was found to contain multiple circular plasmids approximately 30 kb in size. Sequencing of a DNA library constructed from circular plasmid fragments enabled assembly of a composite DNA sequence that is homologous to the cp32 plasmid family of the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi. Analysis of another relapsing fever bacterium, B. parkeri, indicated that it contains linear homologs of the B. hermsii and B. burgdorferi cp32 plasmids. The B. hermsii cp32 plasmids encode homologs of the B. burgdorferi Mlp and Bdr antigenic proteins and BlyA/BlyB putative hemolysins, but homologs of B. burgdorferi erp genes were absent. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that relapsing fever patients produced antibodies to Mlp proteins, indicating that those proteins are synthesized by the spirochetes during human infection. Conservation of cp32-encoded genes in different Borrelia species suggests that their protein products serve functions essential to both relapsing fever and Lyme disease spirochetes. Relapsing fever borreliae replicate to high levels in the blood of infected animals, permitting direct detection and possible functional studies of Mlp, Bdr, BlyA/BlyB, and other cp32-encoded proteins in vivo. (+info)
Rapid differentiation of Borrelia garinii from Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by LightCycler fluorescence melting curve analysis of a PCR product of the recA gene. (6/1041)To differentiate the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies, LightCycler real-time PCR was used for the fluorescence (SYBR Green I) melting curve analysis of borrelial recA gene PCR products. The specific melting temperature analyzed is a function of the GC/AT ratio, length, and nucleotide sequence of the amplified product. A total of 32 DNA samples were tested. Of them three were isolated from B. burgdorferi reference strains and 16 were isolated from B. burgdorferi strains cultured from Ixodes ricinus ticks; 13 were directly isolated from nine human biopsy specimens and four I. ricinus tick midguts. The melting temperature of B. garinii was 2 degrees C lower than that of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii. Melting curve analysis offers a rapid alternative for identification and detection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies. (+info)
Crystal structure of outer surface protein C (OspC) from the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (7/1041)Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it is being transmitted to humans. Crystal structures of OspC have been determined for strains HB19 and B31 to 1.8 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The three-dimensional structure is predominantly helical. This is in contrast to the structure of OspA, a major surface protein mainly present when spirochetes are residing in the midgut of unfed ticks, which is mostly beta-sheet. The surface of OspC that would project away from the spirochete's membrane has a region of strong negative electrostatic potential which may be involved in binding to positively charged host ligands. This feature is present only on OspCs from strains known to cause invasive human disease. (+info)
Impact of genotypic variation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto on kinetics of dissemination and severity of disease in C3H/HeJ mice. (8/1041)Various genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto have been previously identified among a large collection of isolates cultured from patients with Lyme disease in the United States. Furthermore, association of specific genotypes with hematogenous dissemination early in the disease course has been observed. The present study assessed kinetics of spirochete dissemination and disease severity in C3H/HeJ mice infected with two different genotypes of B. burgdorferi. Spirochete load in plasma and ear and other tissue samples of infected mice was measured by quantitative PCR, and these data were compared to those obtained by culture and histopathologic analysis. In mice infected with isolate BL206 (a type 1 strain), the peak number of spirochetes was observed in plasma between day 4 and 7, in heart and ear tissue on day 14, and in joints on day 28 postinoculation. There was a correlation between the peak number of spirochetes in plasma on day 4 or 7 and that in ear biopsy and joint specimens on day 14. By contrast, spirochete burdens in plasma of mice infected with isolate B356 (a type 3 strain) were 16- and 5-fold lower than those of BL206-infected mice on days 7 and 14 of infection, respectively. Similarly, approximately 6- and 13-fold fewer spirochetes were detected in the heart tissues of B356-infected mice compared to BL206-infected mice. Histopathologically, severe arthritis and aortitis were noted only in mice infected with isolate BL206. Spirochete dissemination and disease severity vary significantly in mice infected with distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi, suggesting that genotypic differences in the infecting spirochetes play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of clinical disease. (+info)
Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.
Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.
In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.
There are several types of Borrelia infections, including:
1. Lyme disease: This is the most common Borrelia infection, and it is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a distinctive rash called erythema migrans.
2. Babesiosis: This infection is caused by the bacterium Borrelia microti and is transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick (Ixodes scapularis). It can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue.
3. Anaplasmosis: This infection is caused by the bacterium Borrelia anaplasmataceae and is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle pain.
4. Relapsing fever: This infection is caused by the bacterium Borrelia hermsii and is transmitted through the bite of an infected soft tick (Ornithodoros mojavensis). It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and joint pain.
Borrelia infections can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.
Prevention of Borrelia infections involves protecting against tick bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and doing regular tick checks. It is also important to be aware of the risks of Borrelia infections in different regions and to take appropriate precautions when traveling or spending time outdoors.
Overall, while Borrelia infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, they are treatable with antibiotics and preventable through awareness and protection against tick bites. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early treatment can help to improve outcomes.
The term "erythema chronicum migrans" is derived from the Latin words "erythema," meaning redness, and "chronicum," meaning long-lasting. The term "migrans" refers to the fact that the rash typically spreads or migrates over time. ECM is considered a hallmark symptom of Lyme disease and is often used as a diagnostic criterion for the condition.
The exact cause of ECM is not fully understood, but it is thought to be due to an immune response to the bacterial infection. Treatment for ECM typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and symptoms may resolve within several weeks of treatment. However, some patients may experience persistent symptoms or develop long-term complications, such as arthritis or neurological problems.
The symptoms of relapsing fever can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:
* Fever (which can be quite high, often exceeding 104°F)
* Muscle pain
* Joint pain
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Sore throat
* Weakness and fatigue
The infection is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests.
Relapsing fever is treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or penicillin G. The infection can be cured with proper treatment, but without treatment, it can lead to complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, or death.
Prevention of relapsing fever includes avoiding tick bites, using protective clothing and insect repellents when outdoors in areas where the bacteria is found, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.
Synonyms: tick bites, tick infestations, tick-borne illnesses, tick-transmitted diseases.
Types of Tick Infestations:
1. Lyme disease: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a distinctive skin rash.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
3. Tick-borne relapsing fever: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia duttoni, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected soft tick (Ornithodoros moenia). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
4. Babesiosis: Caused by the parasite Babesia microti, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, chills, and fatigue.
5. Anaplasmosis: Caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle aches.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Exposure to ticks: The risk of developing tick-borne diseases is high in areas where ticks are common, such as wooded or grassy areas with long grass or leaf litter.
2. Warm weather: Ticks are most active during warm weather, especially in the spring and summer months.
3. Outdoor activities: People who engage in outdoor activities, such as hiking, camping, or gardening, are at higher risk of exposure to ticks.
4. Poor tick awareness: Not knowing how to protect yourself from ticks or not being aware of the risks of tick-borne diseases can increase your likelihood of getting sick.
5. Lack of tick prevention measures: Failing to use tick repellents, wear protective clothing, or perform regular tick checks can increase your risk of exposure to ticks and tick-borne diseases.
Prevention and Treatment:
1. Tick awareness: Learn how to identify ticks, the risks of tick-borne diseases, and how to protect yourself from ticks.
2. Use tick repellents: Apply tick repellents to your skin and clothing before going outdoors, especially in areas where ticks are common.
3. Wear protective clothing: Wear long sleeves, pants, and closed-toe shoes to cover your skin and make it harder for ticks to attach to you.
4. Perform regular tick checks: Check yourself, children, and pets frequently for ticks when returning indoors, especially after spending time outdoors in areas where ticks are common.
5. Remove attached ticks: If you find a tick on your body, remove it promptly and correctly to reduce the risk of infection.
6. Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear: Treating your clothing and gear with permethrin can help repel ticks and reduce the risk of infection.
7. Vaccination: There are vaccines available for some tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, which can help protect against these illnesses.
8. Early treatment: If you suspect that you have been bitten by a tick and develop symptoms of a tick-borne disease, seek medical attention promptly. Early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.
It's important to note that not all ticks carry diseases, but it's always better to be safe than sorry. By following these tips, you can reduce your risk of tick bites and the potential for tick-borne illnesses.
1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain tissue.
3. Cranial neuritis: Inflammation of the nerves in the head.
4. Radiculoneuritis: Inflammation of the nerves in the spine.
5. Peripheral neuropathy: Damage to the nerves outside of the CNS.
Lyme neuroborreliosis can be difficult to diagnose, as it may mimic other conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Bell's palsy. Diagnosis is typically based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, and early recognition and intervention are important to prevent long-term neurological damage.
Symptoms of Lyme neuroborreliosis can vary depending on the stage of the disease and the severity of the infection. They may include:
1. Fever, headache, and neck stiffness
2. Confusion, seizures, or loss of consciousness
3. Weakness, numbness, or paralysis in the limbs
4. Pain or tingling sensations in the arms and legs
5. Difficulty with speech, vision, or hearing
6. Incoordination or difficulty walking
7. Balance problems or dizziness
8. Memory loss or difficulty concentrating
9. Mood changes, such as depression or anxiety
10. Sleep disturbances
It is important to note that some people may experience long-term neurological symptoms after treatment for Lyme disease, known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). This condition is not well understood and may be due to a variety of factors, including persistent infection, autoimmune responses, or inflammation.
The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis can be challenging, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions such as meningitis or encephalitis. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect antibodies against the bacteria, as well as spinal fluid testing to rule out other conditions. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may also be used to support the diagnosis.
Treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as seizures or muscle weakness. Early recognition and treatment are important to prevent long-term neurological damage.
Prevention is key to avoiding Lyme neuroborreliosis, and this involves protecting against tick bites. Some ways to do this include:
1. Wearing protective clothing such as long sleeves and pants when outdoors in tick-prone areas
2. Using insect repellents that contain DEET or picaridin on exposed skin and clothing
3. Conducting regular tick checks on oneself, children, and pets after spending time outdoors
4. Avoiding areas with high grass and leaf litter, where ticks are more likely to be found
5. Using permethrin-treated clothing and gear to reduce the risk of tick bites.
Overall, Lyme neuroborreliosis is a serious condition that can have long-lasting effects on the nervous system if left untreated. Early recognition and treatment are crucial to preventing complications and improving outcomes for patients with this condition.
Some common tick-borne diseases include:
1. Lyme disease: This is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States, and it is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a distinctive rash, and if left untreated, can lead to joint pain, swelling, and long-term health problems.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and a rash with tiny red spots. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
3. Babesiosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Babesia, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue. It can be particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly or those with chronic illnesses.
4. Anaplasmosis: This is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle pain. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
5. Powassan virus disease: This is a rare tick-borne disease caused by the Powassan virus, and it can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and confusion. It can be severe and even life-threatening if left untreated.
Prevention of tick-borne diseases includes protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and doing regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of tick-borne diseases can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
A type of arthritis that is caused by an infection in the joint, typically bacterial or viral. The most common form of infectious arthritis is Lyme disease, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Other types of infectious arthritis include septic arthritis (caused by bacterial infection) and reactive arthritis (caused by a bacterial or viral infection in another part of the body).
Symptoms: Pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limited range of motion in the affected joint. Fever may also be present.
Diagnosis: A diagnosis is made based on symptoms, physical examination, blood tests (such as a complete blood count or a polymerase chain reaction test to detect the presence of bacteria or viruses), and imaging studies (such as X-rays or ultrasound).
Treatment: Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as medication to manage symptoms such as pain and inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or joints.
Symptoms of glossitis, benign migratory include:
Painful patches on the tongue that come and go
Difficulty speaking or eating due to discomfort
Tongue appears to have a map-like pattern with different areas having different textures
Burning sensation in the mouth
Redness and swelling of the tongue
The condition is diagnosed based on the appearance of the tongue and the patient's symptoms. Treatment options include avoiding trigger foods, practicing good oral hygiene, using topical anesthetics or anti-inflammatory medications, and in severe cases, corticosteroid therapy.
While the condition is not serious, it can cause significant discomfort and affect quality of life. Therefore, if you experience symptoms of glossitis, benign migratory, it is essential to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms of ehrlichiosis typically begin within one to two weeks after the tick bite and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and rash. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, liver failure, and kidney failure.
Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect the bacterial DNA in the blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis.
Prevention of ehrlichiosis primarily involves avoiding tick habitats and using tick-repellent clothing and insecticides to prevent tick bites. Early detection and treatment of ehrlichiosis can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve outcomes for infected individuals.
Here are some common types of bites and stings and their symptoms:
1. Insect bites: These can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain at the site of the bite. Some people may experience an allergic reaction to insect venom, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Common insect bites include mosquito bites, bee stings, wasp stings, hornet stings, and fire ant bites.
2. Spider bites: Spiders can also cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, pain, and itching. Some spider bites can be serious and require medical attention, such as the black widow spider bite or the brown recluse spider bite. These bites can cause necrotic lesions, muscle cramps, and breathing difficulties.
3. Animal bites: Animal bites can be serious and can cause infection, swelling, pain, and scarring. Rabies is a potential risk with animal bites, especially if the animal is not up to date on its vaccinations. Common animal bites include dog bites, cat bites, and bat bites.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may experience an allergic reaction to insect or animal bites or stings, which can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include hives, itching, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, tongue, or throat, and a rapid heartbeat.
5. Infections: Bites and stings can also cause infections, especially if the wound becomes infected or is not properly cleaned and cared for. Symptoms of an infection include redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and pus.
It's important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms after a bite or sting, as they can be serious and potentially life-threatening. A healthcare professional can assess the severity of the injury and provide appropriate treatment.
The symptoms of acrodermatitis may include:
* Redness and swelling of the skin on the hands and feet
* Blisters or ulcers on the palms and soles
* Itching, burning, or stinging sensations on the affected areas
* Cracking or peeling of the skin on the hands and feet
* Skin thickening and pigmentation on the palms and soles
Acrodermatitis can be diagnosed by a dermatologist based on the appearance of the skin and may require a biopsy to rule out other conditions. Treatment for acrodermatitis typically involves avoiding exposure to allergens or irritants, topical corticosteroids, and in severe cases, systemic medications such as antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs.
The term "acrodermatitis" is derived from the Greek words "akros," meaning "tip" or "extremity," and "derma," meaning skin. It was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe a condition characterized by inflammation of the skin on the hands and feet. Since then, the term has been used interchangeably with other terms such as "hand and foot dermatitis" or "acral dermatitis."
In addition to its use in medical literature, the term "acrodermatitis" is also used in some alternative medicine practices to describe a condition characterized by inflammation of the skin on the extremities, typically accompanied by fatigue, fever, and malaise. However, this usage is not widely accepted in conventional medical practice and should be approached with caution.
1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): This is a severe respiratory disease caused by the hantavirus, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms of HPS can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Leptospirosis: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Leptospira, which is found in the urine of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
3. Rat-bite fever: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is found in the saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): This is a viral infection caused by the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
5. Tularemia: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.
These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can be transmitted to humans through contact with rodents. It is important to take precautions when handling or removing rodents, as they can pose a serious health risk. If you suspect that you have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.
1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.
It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.
Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:
* Muscle and joint pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:
* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock
Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.
Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:
* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly
Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.
The symptoms of myocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the inflammation and the location of the affected areas of the heart muscle. Common symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.
Myocarditis can be difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions such as coronary artery disease or heart failure. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests.
Treatment of myocarditis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Mild cases may require only rest and over-the-counter pain medication, while more severe cases may require hospitalization and intravenous medications to manage inflammation and cardiac function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.
Prevention of myocarditis is important, as it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias if left untreated. Prevention strategies include avoiding exposure to viruses and other infections, managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and getting regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor cardiac function.
In summary, myocarditis is an inflammatory condition that affects the heart muscle, causing symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Diagnosis can be challenging, but treatment options range from rest and medication to hospitalization and surgery. Prevention is key to avoiding serious complications and maintaining good cardiac health.
There are several types of erythema, including:
1. Erythema migrans (Lyme disease): A rash that occurs due to an infection with the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and is characterized by a red, expanding rash with a central clearing.
2. Erythema multiforme: A condition that causes small, flat or raised red lesions on the skin, often triggered by an allergic reaction to medication or infection.
3. Erythema nodosum: A condition that causes small, painful lumps under the skin, usually due to an allergic reaction to medication or infection.
4. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease): A viral infection that causes a red rash on the face, arms, and legs.
5. Erythema annulare centrifugum: A condition that causes a ring-shaped rash with raised borders, often seen in people with autoimmune disorders or taking certain medications.
Treatment for erythema depends on the underlying cause, and may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, or antibiotics. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual skin changes or symptoms, as some types of erythema can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.
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Misinformation About Lyme Disease - American Lyme Disease Foundation
- Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class in the genus Borrelia , and is one of the causative agents of Lyme disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
-   Along with a few similar genospecies, some of which also cause Lyme disease, it makes up the species complex of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato . (wikipedia.org)
-  B. burgdorferi sensu stricto exists in North America and Eurasia and until 2016 was the only known cause of Lyme disease in North America. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi , Northeast (82%), followed distantly by the Midwest (9%) the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- We address the Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the hypothesis that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary and Midwest have fundamentally different evolutionary histories. (cdc.gov)
- Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burg- Genetic loci are found in perfect or near-perfect association dorferi , is the most common vector-borne disease in the in B. burgdorferi in the Northeast ( 9-12 ). (cdc.gov)
- Evidence is strong human Lyme disease cases reported in the Northeast and that recombination occurs within a genomic lineage of B. burgdorferi ( 15-17 ). (cdc.gov)
- Recently, CDC has received inquiries regarding a laboratory-developed test that uses a novel culture method to identify Borrelia burgdorferi , the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. (cdc.gov)
- Assessment of new culture method for detection of Borrelia species from serum of Lyme disease patients. (cdc.gov)
- Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi . (medlineplus.gov)
- The persistence of B. burgdorferi and the high number of organs involved with slight to severe signs of inflammation in this series can be compared to persistence and to the multiorgan involvement seen in human Lyme disease. (nih.gov)
- Thus gerbils can serve as suitable experimental animals to study the pathogenesis of Lyme disease and the extent of organ damage caused by B. burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
- An NIH-supported team recently uncovered a unique gene expression pattern in white blood cells from people infected with the Lyme disease-causing bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . (nih.gov)
- Recent reports say that 10% of black-legged ticks carry the bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) that`s responsible for Lyme Disease. (terrierlogic.com)
- A blood test that determines if lyme disease bacteria is present (antibodies for borrelia burgdorferi). (nh.gov)
- B. burgdorferi -infected ticks can cause Lyme disease in mammalian hosts. (nih.gov)
- This technology relates to the use of B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins (BBA64 and BBA66) as Lyme disease vaccine candidates. (nih.gov)
- Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne illness in the United States, is a multisystem illness usually caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (see the image below) and the body's immune response to the infection. (medscape.com)
- Lyme disease is an infection caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium carried by deer ticks and transmitted to humans through a bite. (seattledailyobserver.com)
- Electron cryotomography was used to analyze the structure of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (arizona.edu)
- This initiative also targets development of more sensitive and accurate methods of detection of Borrelia burgdorferi, leading to improved diagnostics for Lyme disease. (nih.gov)
- Another example is Borrelia burgdorferi , which can cause Lyme disease. (nih.gov)
- The most common tick-borne illness in the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria that are transmitted to people by Ixodes scapularis ticks. (nih.gov)
- To see if ticks can be used to detect B. burgdorferi in people who have had Lyme disease and received antibiotic therapy and if it correlates with persistent symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Lyme disease is a common vector-borne illness most often caused by Borrelia burgdorferi in infected ticks. (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] Lyme disease is typically caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and rarely by Borrelia mayonii . (medscape.com)
- B. burgdorferi is a microaerobic , motile spirochete with seven to 11 bundled perisplasmic flagella set at each end that allow the bacterium to move in low- and high-viscosity media alike, which is related to its high virulence factor. (wikipedia.org)
- B. burgdorferi is a slow-growing microaerophilic spirochete with a doubling time of 24 to 48 hours. (wikipedia.org)
- This is a polyclonal antibody, prepared against CRASP-2 from the spirochete B. burgdorferi, for use in ELISA and western blotting applications. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- What concerns us is not what this creature takes but rather what it leaves in our body after it bites us: corkscrew shaped bacteria called spirochetes and with the name Borrelia burgdorferi. (scienceblogs.com)
- Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
- These proteins represent another immune evasion mechanism of B. burgdorferi , as bacteria acquire human complement regulators to control complement activation on their surface and prevent formation of toxic activation products (Kraiczy, et al. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- Deer are vitally important to the survival of deer ticks, but they are not involved with transmitting the Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi ," explains senior author Stephen Rich, professor of microbiology. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
- In this paper, we report the solution NMR structure of the B. burgdorferi outer surface lipoprotein BBA03, which is known to provide a competitive advantage to the bacteria during the transmission from tick vector to mammalian host. (rsu.lv)
- B. burgdorferi circulates between Ixodes ticks and a vertebrate host in an enzootic cycle . (wikipedia.org)
- The illness is transmitted by a tick bite and in some endemic areas, where more than 40% of the ticks are infected with the causative agent of Borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex species, which increases the risk of transmission to human host ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Blood samples from 324 randomly selected subjects were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies to WNV, CCHFV, F. tularensis and B. burgdorferi with commercially available kits. (bvsalud.org)
- In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. (altmetric.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. (altmetric.com)
- Projects will focus on approaches that provide substantial and significant advances over conventional serology-based diagnostics using antibodies, consider host responses, and/or have the capacity to detect and differentiate multiple B. burgdorferi strains. (nih.gov)
- B. burgdorferi strains appear to be highly insufficient for use in bacterial transformation due to the large amount of DNA needed for transformation, the time it takes to produce reliable transformants, and the influence of restriction modification systems . (wikipedia.org)
- 1984). CRASP-2 (CSPz) is a 20/21-kDa protein which binds to FHL-1 and factor H binding protein (although it interacts preferentially with Factor H) and may be predominantly expressed by serum-resistant Borrelia strains (Rossmann, et al. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- If the patient has been in Europe, where different strains of Borrelia are more common, a C6 peptide ELISA is a more accurate confirmatory test than the Western blots, which have been developed to B burgdorferi , which is the most common strain found in the United States. (medscape.com)
-  Despite this, some headway has been made in unraveling the mysteries of B. burgdorferi, such as the discovery of gene cyaB as essential for mammalian infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Isolation of the B. burgdorferi from different organs six months post infection causes a generalized infection thus demonstrating that borreliae persist in these animals for a long period. (nih.gov)
- The Borrelia burgdorferi specific antibody titers increased with time after infection thus indicating the persistence of spirochetes. (nih.gov)
- Rabbit Anti- Borrelia burgdorferi CRASP-2 antibody is a polyclonal recognising Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- In the United States, this is usually a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
- The activity of all agents against 16 different Borrelia isolates belonging to all borrelial genospecies known to be pathogenic for humans was investigated and analyzed under standardized conditions. (nih.gov)
- B. burgdorferi is transmitted to humans disequilibrium among genetic loci can result from several during the blood meal of an infected Ixodes tick, predomi- evolutionary and ecologic forces in addition to small popu- nantly Ixodes scapularis in North America ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- 1984. Borrelia burgdorferi sp. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. (wikipedia.org)
- The program eliminates not only the Borrelia organism but also the equally troublesome co-infections from other organisms. (seattledailyobserver.com)
- In later stages, this plaque can also involve species of Fusobacterium, Borrelia and Actinomycetes. (earthlife.net)
- Seroprevalence of West Nile virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi in rural population of Manisa, western Turkey. (bvsalud.org)
- The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi among the rural residents of Manisa region, Turkey and to identify the associated risk factors . (bvsalud.org)
- However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. (frontiersin.org)
- Basis für diese Untersuchungen war das bakterielle Lipoprotein OspA (outer surface protein A) aus Borrelia burgdorferi. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- In vivo animal studies demonstrate these outer surface proteins inhibit tick-to-host B. burgdorferi transmission. (nih.gov)
- BBA03 is a Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface lipoprotein encoded on one of the most conserved plasmids in Borrelia genome, linear plasmid 54 (lp54). (rsu.lv)
- Genomic coordinate predictions for the boundaries of ORFs, 5′ UTRs, 3′ UTRs, rRNAs, tRNAs, and sRNAs for B. burgdorferi grown to logarithmic phase in BSKII culture media, at 35°C. (nih.gov)
- Dieses Protein wird zur Prävention von Lyme-Borreliose eingesetzt und frühere Untersuchungen zeigten, dass OspA sowohl in B. burgdorferi als auch nach heterologer Expression in E. coli einer post-translationalen Lipidierung am N-Terminus unterliegt. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- 2005. A novel fold for the factor H-binding protein BbCRASP-1 of Borrelia burgdorferi. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- Complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of Borrelia burgdorferi binds to human bone morphogenic protein 2, several extracellular matrix proteins, and plasminogen. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- 2004. Complement resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with the expression of BbCRASP-1, a novel linear plasmid-encoded surface protein that interacts with human factor H and FHL-1 and is unrelated to Erp proteins. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
- Improved culture conditions for the growth and detection of Borrelia from human serum. (cdc.gov)
- Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. (altmetric.com)
- It may be oxidase negative, but B. burgdorferi possesses a gene coding for superoxide dismutase . (wikipedia.org)
-   In fact, infectivity of B. burgdorferi often requires the gene pncA , which is present on a bacterial plasmid that contains the gene bbe02 that is highly selected against during transformation. (wikipedia.org)
- The preva- lation size (drift), such as lack of recombination machinery lence and density of B. burgdorferi -infected I. scapularis or limited opportunity for gene exchange ( 13 ). (cdc.gov)
- Bacterial transformation has been utilized by researchers in order to isolate specific pathogenic genes among the Borrelia burgdorferi . (wikipedia.org)
- B. burgdorferi differ in their susceptibility to normal human serum and are therefore classified as complement-resistant, complement-sensitive and intermediate complement-sensitive. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
-  B. burgdorferi living in a tick is mainly acquired through blood meals from an infected, competent vertebrate host,  but rare cases of transovarial transmission exist. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients coinfected with B burgdorferi and B microti derive measurable clinical benefit from prolonged treatment with atovaquone and cholestyramine. (druglib.com)
- Atovaquone plus cholestyramine in patients coinfected with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi refractory to other treatment. (druglib.com)
- A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial enrolled 25 patients with confirmed Borrelia burgdorferi/B microti coinfection, abnormal visual contrast sensitivity (VCS), and persistent symptoms despite prior treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin. (druglib.com)
- We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. (frontiersin.org)
- Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. (frontiersin.org)
- We found that the periplasmic space of B. burgdorferi was quite narrow (16.0 nm) compared to those of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (arizona.edu)
- 16 mg/L). High in vitro activity of the new glycylcycline against Borrelia was further substantiated by time-kill experiments performed with B. afzelii isolate EB1. (nih.gov)
- Distribution of the positive results for WNV, CCHFV and B. burgdorferi were 4.3% (n = 14), 3.7% (n = 12) and 0.9% (n = 3), respectively. (bvsalud.org)