A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.

Four clones of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cause invasive infection in humans. (1/1041)

Lyme disease begins at the site of a tick bite, producing a primary infection with spread of the organism to secondary sites occurring early in the course of infection. A major outer surface protein expressed by the spirochete early in infection is outer surface protein C (OspC). In Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, OspC is highly variable. Based on sequence divergence, alleles of ospC can be divided into 21 major groups. To assess whether strain differences defined by ospC group are linked to invasiveness and pathogenicity, we compared the frequency distributions of major ospC groups from ticks, from the primary erythema migrans skin lesion, and from secondary sites, principally from blood and spinal fluid. The frequency distribution of ospC groups from ticks is significantly different from that from primary sites, which in turn is significantly different from that from secondary sites. The major groups A, B, I, and K had higher frequencies in the primary sites than in ticks and were the only groups found in secondary sites. We define three categories of major ospC groups: one that is common in ticks but very rarely if ever causes human disease, a second that causes only local infection at the tick bite site, and a third that causes systemic disease. The finding that all systemic B. burgdorferi sensu stricto infections are associated with four ospC groups has importance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease.  (+info)

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by reverse line blot in the joints of Dutch patients with Lyme arthritis. (2/1041)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synovial samples from the knee joint of patients with Lyme arthritis by polymerase chain reaction, and to differentiate the species by reverse line blot (RLB). METHODS: Synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue (ST) samples were obtained from patients with Lyme arthritis (n = 4) and from patients with various other forms of arthritis (n = 9). DNA extracted from synovial samples was amplified by using, as a target, the spacer region between the 5S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Subsequently, 4 species-specific DNA probes were used in the RLB for specific hybridization. RESULTS: DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto DNA was detected in the SF and ST from 3 patients with Lyme arthritis. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was not detected in the synovial samples from 9 control patients. CONCLUSION: The relationship between different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and arthritis can be studied using direct analysis of extracted DNA from joint samples. This method can be used to study the association between particular clinical manifestations of Lyme disease and different species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato.  (+info)

Scored antibody reactivity determined by immunoblotting shows an association between clinical manifestations and presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. Valaisiana in humans. (3/1041)

An immunoglobulin G immunoblot was developed with antigenic extracts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana genospecies and was reacted with sera from patients with neuroborreliosis, acrodermatitis, and Lyme arthritis. A detailed analysis of the reactivities of the protein bands was performed, and a two-step scoring procedure was selected to determine the preferential reactivity of sera to one particular genospecies. The discriminative potential of 5 proteins (12-kDa, 16-kDa, 18-kDa, OspA, and 66-kDa proteins) was used as a rapid first-step scoring method, followed by scoring of 14 additional protein bands if necessary. The advantage of this procedure is the low percentage of serum samples with inconclusive results for one of the four species (10% for patients with neuroborreliosis, 6% for patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and 6% for patients with Lyme arthritis). Among 31 serum samples from patients with neuroborreliosis, 16 were more reactive to B. garinii, 7 were more reactive to B. afzelii, 3 were more reactive to B. valaisiana, and 2 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Of 31 serum samples from patients with acrodermatitis, 26 showed a higher level of reactivity to B. afzelii. Of 34 serum samples from patients with Lyme arthritis, 21 were more reactive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, 10 were more reactive to B. afzelii, and 1 was more reactive to B. valaisiana. Our results suggest an organotropism of Borrelia species and provide some evidence of a pathogenic potential of B. valaisiana in humans.  (+info)

Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice. (4/1041)

The Lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in enzootic cycles involving Ixodes ticks and small mammals. Previous studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi expresses outer surface protein A (OspA) but not OspC when residing in the midgut of unfed ticks. However, after ticks feed on blood, some spirochetes stop making OspA and express OspC. Our current work examined the timing and frequency of OspA and OspC expression by B. burgdorferi in infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs as they fed on uninfected mice and in uninfected I. scapularis larvae and nymphs as they first acquired spirochetes from infected mice. Smears of midguts from previously infected ticks were prepared at 12- or 24-h intervals following attachment through repletion at 96 h, and spirochetes were stained for immunofluorescence for detection of antibodies to OspA and OspC. As shown previously, prior to feeding spirochetes in nymphs expressed OspA but not OspC. During nymphal feeding, however, the proportion of spirochetes expressing OspA decreased, while spirochetes expressing OspC became detectable. In fact, spirochetes rapidly began to express OspC, with the greatest proportion of spirochetes having this protein at 48 h of attachment and then with the proportion decreasing significantly by the time that the ticks had completed feeding. In vitro cultivation of the spirochete at different temperatures showed OspC to be most abundant when the spirochetes were grown at 37 degrees C. Yet, the synthesis of this protein waned with continuous passage at this temperature. Immunofluorescence staining of spirochetes in smears of midguts from larvae and nymphs still attached or having completed feeding on infected mice demonstrated that OspA but not OspC was produced by these spirochetes recently acquired from mice. Therefore, the temporal synthesis of OspC by spirochetes only in feeding ticks that were infected prior to the blood meal suggests that this surface protein is involved in transmission from tick to mammal but not from mammal to tick.  (+info)

The relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii contains multiple, antigen-encoding circular plasmids that are homologous to the cp32 plasmids of Lyme disease spirochetes. (5/1041)

Borrelia hermsii, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, was found to contain multiple circular plasmids approximately 30 kb in size. Sequencing of a DNA library constructed from circular plasmid fragments enabled assembly of a composite DNA sequence that is homologous to the cp32 plasmid family of the Lyme disease spirochete, B. burgdorferi. Analysis of another relapsing fever bacterium, B. parkeri, indicated that it contains linear homologs of the B. hermsii and B. burgdorferi cp32 plasmids. The B. hermsii cp32 plasmids encode homologs of the B. burgdorferi Mlp and Bdr antigenic proteins and BlyA/BlyB putative hemolysins, but homologs of B. burgdorferi erp genes were absent. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that relapsing fever patients produced antibodies to Mlp proteins, indicating that those proteins are synthesized by the spirochetes during human infection. Conservation of cp32-encoded genes in different Borrelia species suggests that their protein products serve functions essential to both relapsing fever and Lyme disease spirochetes. Relapsing fever borreliae replicate to high levels in the blood of infected animals, permitting direct detection and possible functional studies of Mlp, Bdr, BlyA/BlyB, and other cp32-encoded proteins in vivo.  (+info)

Rapid differentiation of Borrelia garinii from Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by LightCycler fluorescence melting curve analysis of a PCR product of the recA gene. (6/1041)

To differentiate the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies, LightCycler real-time PCR was used for the fluorescence (SYBR Green I) melting curve analysis of borrelial recA gene PCR products. The specific melting temperature analyzed is a function of the GC/AT ratio, length, and nucleotide sequence of the amplified product. A total of 32 DNA samples were tested. Of them three were isolated from B. burgdorferi reference strains and 16 were isolated from B. burgdorferi strains cultured from Ixodes ricinus ticks; 13 were directly isolated from nine human biopsy specimens and four I. ricinus tick midguts. The melting temperature of B. garinii was 2 degrees C lower than that of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii. Melting curve analysis offers a rapid alternative for identification and detection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies.  (+info)

Crystal structure of outer surface protein C (OspC) from the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (7/1041)

Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a major antigen on the surface of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, when it is being transmitted to humans. Crystal structures of OspC have been determined for strains HB19 and B31 to 1.8 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The three-dimensional structure is predominantly helical. This is in contrast to the structure of OspA, a major surface protein mainly present when spirochetes are residing in the midgut of unfed ticks, which is mostly beta-sheet. The surface of OspC that would project away from the spirochete's membrane has a region of strong negative electrostatic potential which may be involved in binding to positively charged host ligands. This feature is present only on OspCs from strains known to cause invasive human disease.  (+info)

Impact of genotypic variation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto on kinetics of dissemination and severity of disease in C3H/HeJ mice. (8/1041)

Various genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto have been previously identified among a large collection of isolates cultured from patients with Lyme disease in the United States. Furthermore, association of specific genotypes with hematogenous dissemination early in the disease course has been observed. The present study assessed kinetics of spirochete dissemination and disease severity in C3H/HeJ mice infected with two different genotypes of B. burgdorferi. Spirochete load in plasma and ear and other tissue samples of infected mice was measured by quantitative PCR, and these data were compared to those obtained by culture and histopathologic analysis. In mice infected with isolate BL206 (a type 1 strain), the peak number of spirochetes was observed in plasma between day 4 and 7, in heart and ear tissue on day 14, and in joints on day 28 postinoculation. There was a correlation between the peak number of spirochetes in plasma on day 4 or 7 and that in ear biopsy and joint specimens on day 14. By contrast, spirochete burdens in plasma of mice infected with isolate B356 (a type 3 strain) were 16- and 5-fold lower than those of BL206-infected mice on days 7 and 14 of infection, respectively. Similarly, approximately 6- and 13-fold fewer spirochetes were detected in the heart tissues of B356-infected mice compared to BL206-infected mice. Histopathologically, severe arthritis and aortitis were noted only in mice infected with isolate BL206. Spirochete dissemination and disease severity vary significantly in mice infected with distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi, suggesting that genotypic differences in the infecting spirochetes play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of clinical disease.  (+info)

Abstract Background In our previous studies on lipoprotein secretion in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we used monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) N-terminal lipopeptides to gather first insights into lipoprotein sorting determinants. OspA:mRFP1 fusions could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy both in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. To build on these findings and to complement the prior targeted mutagenesis approach, we set out to develop a screen to probe a random mutagenesis expression library for mutants expressing differentially localized lipoproteins. Results A Glu-Asp codon pair in the inner membrane-localized OspA20:mRFP1 fusion was chosen for mutagenesis since the two negative charges were previously shown to define the phenotype. A library of random mutants in the two codons was generated and expressed in B. burgdorferi. In situ surface proteolysis combined with fluorescence ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
Both, birds and rodents, are competent reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Nevertheless, this genospecies infects questing ticks less frequently in Central Europe than do B. afzelii- and B. garinii- spirochetes, the other pathogenic spirochetes. Because each of the genospecies is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, a vector with a broad host array, one would expect that B. burgdorferi s.s. is more likely to be transmitted to a competent host than the more host adapted genospecies (Levine et al. 1985, Olsen et al. 1995, and Richter et al. 2000). Similarly a higher rate of double-infections with B. burgdorferi s.s. in ticks would be expected. B. burgdorferi s.s., however, is not the most prevalent genospecies in questing ticks in nature. For each questing nymph collected in the Stadtpark of Göttingen that is infected by B. burgdorferi s.s., more than four ticks are infected by B. afzelii and more than ten by B. garinii. This difference in prevalence of B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi ...
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) Borrelia garinii strains. The ratio of the mean number of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) nucleotide substitutions per site ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics and prototype gene expression during infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. AU - Hodzic, Emir. AU - Feng, Sunlian. AU - Freet, Kim J.. AU - Barthold, Stephen W. PY - 2003/9/1. Y1 - 2003/9/1. N2 - The population dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi were quantified by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene in skin (inoculation site, noninoculation site, and ear), heart (heart base and ventricle), quadriceps muscle, and the tibiotarsal joint at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after intradermal inoculation in C3H and C3H-scid mice. In addition, RNA transcription was assessed for several prototype genes, including flaB, ospA, ospC, dbpA, arp, vlsE, fbp, oppA-2, and p37-42. Spirochete numbers were equivalent in C3H and C3H-scid mice at 1 or 2 weeks and then declined in C3H mice, but they continued to rise and then plateaued in C3H-scid mice. Gene transcription was likewise higher in C3H-scid mice than in C3H mice, particularly at 4 or more ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, exists in a complex enzootic cycle, transiting between its vector, Ixodes ticks, and a diverse range of vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi linear plasmid 38 (lp38) contains several genes that are differentially regulated in response to conditions mimicking the tick or mouse environments, suggesting that these plasmid-borne genes may encode proteins important for the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle. Some of these genes encode potential virulence factors, including hypothetical lipoproteins as well as a putative membrane transport system. To characterize the role of lp38 in the B. burgdorferi infectious cycle, we constructed a shuttle vector to selectively displace lp38 from the B. burgdorferi genome and analyzed the resulting clones to confirm the loss of lp38. We found that, in vitro, clones lacking lp38 were similar to isogenic wild-type bacteria, both in growth rate and in antigenic protein production. We analyzed these strains in an
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions.
Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, including the tick-transmitted agents of human Lyme borreliosis, have particularly complex genomes, consisting of a linear main chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. The number and structure of plasmids is variable even in strains within a single genospecies. Genes on these plasmids are known to play essential roles in virulence and pathogenicity as well as host and vector associations. For this reason, it is essential to explore methods for rapid and reliable characterisation of molecular level changes on plasmids. In this study we used three strains: a low passage isolate of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31(−NRZ) and two closely related strains (PAli and PAbe) that were isolated from human patients. Sequences of these strains were compared to the previously sequenced reference strain B31 (available in GenBank) to obtain proof-of-principle information on the suitability of next generation sequencing (NGS) library
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also
It is suggested that Borrelia burgdorferi infection could be associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Stanek et al. were able to cultivate Borrelia burgdorferi from myocardial biopsy tissue of a patient with longstanding dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we present a study in which we examined the effect of standard antibiotic treatment on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. In this study we assessed the serum (IgG, IgM Elisa) and history of 46 IDC patients with specific regard to Borrelia burgdorferi infection (mean LVEF 30.4 +/- 1.3%, measured by cardiac catheterization and echocardiography with the length-area-volume method). All 46 patients received standard treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy: ACE inhibitors, digitalis, and diuretics. Eleven (24%) patients showed positive serology and a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection; nine of these also had a typical history of tick bite and ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific IgG and IgM antibody titers to B. burgdorferi in serum. Antibiotic therapy may abrogate the antibody response to the infection as shown in our patients. B. burgdorferi may persist as shown by positive culture in MKP-medium; patients may have subclinical or clinical disease without diagnostic antibody titers to B. burgdorferi. We conclude that early stage of the disease as well as chronic Lyme disease with persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic therapy cannot be excluded when the serum is negative for antibodies against B. burgdorferi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Manganese and zinc regulate virulence determinants in borrelia burgdorferi. AU - Troxell, Bryan. AU - Ye, Meiping. AU - Yang, Youyun. AU - Carrasco, Sebastian E.. AU - Lou, Yongliang. AU - Yang, X.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, must adapt to two diverse niches, an arthropod vector and a mammalian host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, plays a central role in spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by governing expression of many genes important for mammalian infection. B. burgdorferi is known to be unique in metal utilization, and little is known of the role of biologically available metals in B. burgdorferi. Here, we identified two transition metal ions, manganese (Mn2+) and zinc (Zn2+), that influenced regulation of RpoS. The intracellular Mn2+ level fluctuated approximately 20-fold under different conditions and inversely correlated with levels of RpoS and the major virulence factor OspC. Furthermore, an ...
Bacterial dissemination via the cardiovascular system is the most common cause of infection mortality. A key step in dissemination is bacterial interaction with endothelia lining blood vessels, which is physically challenging because of the shear stress generated by blood flow. Association of host cells such as leukocytes and platelets with endothelia under vascular shear stress requires mechanically specialized interaction mechanisms, including force-strengthened catch bonds. However, the biomechanical mechanisms supporting vascular interactions of most bacterial pathogens are undefined. Fibronectin (Fn), a ubiquitous host molecule targeted by many pathogens, promotes vascular interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Here, we investigated how B. burgdorferi exploits Fn to interact with endothelia under physiological shear stress, using recently developed live cell imaging and particle-tracking methods for studying bacterial-endothelial interaction biomechanics. We found ...
Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi Strain B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Vector borne research
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated between the western and eastern parts of Sweden. On average, 10% of the ...
Four patients who had received tick bites while visiting forests in Mexico had skin lesions that met the case definition of erythema migrans, or borrelial lymphocytoma. Clinical diagnosis was supported with histologic, serologic, and molecular tests. This study suggests the Borrelia burgdorferi infection is in Mexico.
Variable Lipoprotein Surface-Exposed protein, or VlsE, is a lipoprotein on the surface of the Lyme Disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, detectable during all its life stages. It can exist as many different isoforms. VlsE has variable regions (VRs) and invariable regions (IRs). Some IRs are anchored in the outer membrane of the bacteria and some are antigens exposed on the membrane surface. Replacement of the VR by Borrelia within days of being transferred to a mammalian host presents new surface antigens to the host immune system, and helps Borrelia avoid a strong reaction by host immune systems. The VlsE is apparently not modified as much in the tick or in the rodent vector, when compared to in the mammal host. Several putative envelope proteins of B. burgdorferi appear to be expressed only in the infected mammalian host. The VRs are antigenic, irregularly shaped loops on the bacterial surface which may help to hide both membrane-incorporated and surface portions of adjacent proteins from
Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted to humans, B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an infection which can impair different organs, such as the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. Alterations in protein expression due to the different environments Borrelia encounters during its complicated life cycle require advanced adaptation mechanisms. The outer surface-exposed proteins play a critical role in survival and pathogenesis of Borrelia in different hosts and tissues, being involved in avoiding the host immune response, adhesion to different tissues and nutrient acquisition. This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia.. In this thesis, three B. burgdorferi proteins, P13, BBA01 and P66, were shown to be porins, and characterized structurally and functionally ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including humans, when transmitted by ticks.. ...
Rapid and accurate retrieval of whole genome sequences of human pathogens from disease vectors or animal reservoirs will enable fine-resolution studies of pathogen epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics. However, next generation sequencing technologies have not yet been fully harnessed for the study of vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens, due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality pathogen sequence data directly from field specimens with a high ratio of host to pathogen DNA. We addressed this challenge by using custom probes for multiplexed hybrid capture to enrich for and sequence 30 Borrelia burgdorferi genomes from field samples of its arthropod vector. Hybrid capture enabled sequencing of nearly the complete genome (~99.5 %) of the Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen with 132-fold coverage, and identification of up to 12,291 single nucleotide polymorphisms per genome. The proprosed culture-independent method enables efficient whole genome capture and sequencing of pathogens directly from arthropod
Lyme disease has emerged as an increasing problem for people in the east and northeastern part of the United States. It can cause a chronic debilitating infection if left untreated and is difficult to diagnose. The illness is caused by an infection with the spirochete known as Borrelia burgdorferi. B. burgdorferi is a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes genus. The primary carriers in regions of high Lyme disease incidence are Ixodes scapularis vector and white-footed Mus musculus rodents. B. burgdorferi is not known to produce common virulence factors such as toxins or capsules. Chemotaxis and motility are important for B. burgdorferi to cause infection and are considered as invasive attributes of this organism. Only a handful of studies have reported that non-chemotactic and non-motile B. burgdorferi mutants are unable to disseminate in hosts, and are, therefore, non-infectious in mice. Although motility and chemotaxis has been shown to be crucial for the ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
These findings support the hypothesis that there is an association between Borrelia burgdorferi infection and psychiatric morbidity. In countries where this infection is endemic, a proportion of psychiatric inpatients may be suffering from neuropathogenic effects of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B. burgdorferi. It modulates the expression of identified and unidentified open reading frames needed to deal with and overcome the many nutritional stresses and other challenges faced by the spirochete in ticks and animal reservoirs. The metabolic and morphologic changes resulting from activation of the stringent response in B. burgdorferi may also be involved in the recently described non-genetic phenotypic phenomenon of tolerance to otherwise lethal doses of antimicrobials and ...
The Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) IgG ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) in a sample. This kit utilizes Borrelia sensu stricto ATCC 35211 complete antigen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in Korea using outer surface protein A (OspA) serotyping system. AU - Kee, Sun-Ho. AU - Hwang, K. J.. AU - Oh, H. B.. AU - Park, K. S.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Two characteristic strains (935T, 934U) of B. burgdorferi isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (Apodemus agrarius) in Korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein A (OspA). The reactive pattern of strain 934U with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to B. afzelii and that of strain 935T was different from other isolates. Monoclonal antibody (5TEE3) which is specific to strain 935T did not react with any other Western and Japanese isolates. So, it was suggested that there exist at least two groups of B. burgdorferi in Korea. One could be classified as B, afielii and the other is a divergent group from three known ...
In the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the outer membrane protein P66 is capable of pore formation with an atypical high single-channel conductance of 11 nS in 1 M KCl, which suggested that it could have a larger diameter than normal Gram-negative bacterial porins. We studied the diameter of the P66 channel by analyzing its single-channel conductance in black lipid bilayers in the presence of different nonelectrolytes with known hydrodynamic radii. We calculated the filling of the channel with these nonelectrolytes and the results suggested that nonelectrolytes (NEs) with hydrodynamic radii of 0.34 nm or smaller pass through the pore, whereas neutral molecules with greater radii only partially filled the channel or were not able to enter it at all. The diameter of the entrance of the P66 channel was determined to be \(\leq\)1.9 nm and the channel has a central constriction of about 0.8 nm. The size of the channel appeared to be symmetrical as judged from one-sidedness of addition ...
This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i.e., head-banging and Kriging. In addition, several covariates purported to be associated with B. burgdorferi prevalence were collected on the same spatio-temporal granularity, and include forestation, elevation, water coverage, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, population density, and median household income. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to analyze
In this study, more than 3400 short-term B. burgdorferi T cell lines generated from subjects with chronic B. burgdorferi infection were compared with naive B. burgdorferi-reactive T cell lines from normal individuals. Chronic B. burgdorferi infection was associated with high frequencies of B. burgdorferi-reactive T cells secreting high amounts of IFN-γ and IL-10, which was induced by IL-12 secreted by PBMC. T cell secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10 was suppressed in the presence of neutralizing Abs to IL-12. The presence of IFN-γ/IL-10 secretion was observed only in B. burgdorferi- and not in TT-specific T cell lines. These data demonstrate that chronic B. burgdorferi infection causes IL-12 secretion that induces a population of T cells characterized by secretion of both IFN-γ and IL-10.. The significance of the cellular immune response to B. burgdorferi in Lyme disease has been investigated earlier. A strong T cell response to B. burgdorferi was detected early in the course of illness, often ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which affects an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States. When treated early, the disease usually resolves, but when left untreated, it can result in symptoms such as arthritis and encephalopathy. Treatment of the late-stage disease may require multiple courses of antibiotic therapy. Given that antibiotic resistance has not been observed for B. burgdorferi, the reason for the recalcitrance of late-stage disease to antibiotics is unclear. In other chronic infections, the presence of drug-tolerant persisters has been linked to recalcitrance of the disease. In this study, we examined the ability of B. burgdorferi to form persisters. Killing growing cultures of B. burgdorferi with antibiotics used to treat the disease was distinctly biphasic, with a small subpopulation of surviving cells. Upon regrowth, these cells formed a new subpopulation of antibiotic-tolerant cells, indicating that these are persisters rather than ...
Abstract. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-system disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by hard ticks Ixodes spp. The most common clinical manifestation is the skin lesion (erythema migrans), however there is a tendency of the pathogen to spread and cause damages to the joints, nervous and cardiovascular system. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is based primarily on clinical findings, epidemiological and anamnestic data and laboratory test results. The application of the modern real-time PCR method allows us to test the skin in tick bite area for a presence of B. burgdorferi. In the diagnosis of Lyme disease, we often use indirect methods (TIIF, ELISA, Western blot) for detecting specific IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi in serum, liquor and synovial fluid. To confirm the diagnosis, the presence of IgG antibodies should be demonstrated, since the presence of IgM is not a relible indicator of a recent infection. When interpreting immunodiagnostic test results it has to ...
Lyme borreliosis, an infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a major health problem for populations in areas of endemicity in the Northern Hemisphere. In the present study we assessed the density of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato among ticks in popular urban recreational areas of Helsinki,...
Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures ...
A simple procedure for extraction of plasmid-enriched DNA from borreliae was used in a plasmid analysis of 13 strains of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. The extracted DNA was subjected to low-percentage agarose gel electrophoresis and examined either directly by ethidium bromide staining or after hybridization of the plasmids in situ with a DNA probe for the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein OspA. Each isolate had four to seven discernible plasmids of various sizes. Only 2 of the 13 strains had the same plasmid profile. The ospA gene probe hybridized to large plasmids to strains from both North America and Europe. A strain which had been passaged many times was found to have lost two of the six plasmids originally present. These findings indicate the potential usefulness of plasmid analysis as a strain-typing procedure and for identifying possible plasmid-conferred virulence factors.
B. burgdorferi cells were grown in SF-E medium or SF-E medium that contained 100 μM Dp or Ds. Reduced extracellular Fe concentrations in SF-E medium with chelators had no effect on the growth rate of B. burgdorferi (Fig. 1B), unlikeEscherichia coli, which ceases to grow when extracellular Fe concentrations drop below 0.4 μM (16). This result is similar to the observation that the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum, a free-living soil bacterium that does not use Fe (16), is the same in Fe-chelated (10 μM ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid) and Fe-containing (0.6 μM) medium. B. burgdorferi cells cultured in SF-E medium treated with the metal-chelating resin Chelex (SF-E-Clx) were nonmotile and failed to grow (Fig. 1C). ICP-MS analysis of this medium indicated that Fe, Mn, and Zn were not detectable, and Mg concentrations had been reduced 100-fold (∼60 μM). Various metals were added to the medium in order to restore growth. Mn (1 μM), Zn (1 μM), and Mg (600 μM) were all required to ...
Extraction of DNA: Adult deer ticks (I. scapularis) collected in 1994 on Shelter Island, Long Island, New York, were bisected and DNA was extracted as described before (Guttmanet al. 1996).. PCR amplifications: Two genes, ospA and ospC, both encoding outer surface lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi, were studied.. ospA amplification: Procedure for ospA PCR amplification was the same as described previously (Guttmanet al. 1996). This amplification combined both nested and touch-down PCR. The first round of PCR was performed with low stringency and low cycling number using a pair of external primers to generate a heterogeneous population of amplified DNAs. The second round of PCR, using primer pairs internal to the previously amplified DNAs, was started out at very high stringency; as amplification proceeded the stringency was reduced gradually to increase yield.. ospC amplification: On the basis of our previous experience with ospA and preliminary experiments with ospC, the optimal size of the DNA ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cranial neuropathy and severe pain due to early disseminated Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and
Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, was recently shown to contain plasmid DNA. Two plasmid species have been described in strain CT1, a Wisconsin tick isolate: a 9.2-kilobase entity; and a larger, 70-kilobase entity. Characterization of the 9.2-kilobase entity by using DNase I and restriction endonucleases demonstrated that the plasmid is supercoiled and exists as a stable dimer in this strain. The role played by the plasmid in B. burgdorferi is unknown.
Recent advances in the development of animal models for Lyme borreliosis have provided means of identifying potential targets for the design of a subunit vaccine to prevent this disease. The C3H/HeN mouse model was used to study several Borrelia burgdorferi antigens from a single isolate for their ability to elicit borreliacidal and protective antibodies. The ospA, ospB, ospC, ospD, and 83-kDa genes from a California isolate, SON 188, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins fused to the C-terminal end of maltose-binding protein. Active immunization of mice with these fusion proteins elicited high titers of antibodies that recognized the homologous SON 188 antigens upon immunoblotting. Antibodies generated to the OspA and OspB fusion proteins, but not to the OspC, OspD, and the 83-kDa fusion proteins, demonstrated in vitro borreliacidal activity. Challenge of all actively immunized mice with 10(7) SON 188 spirochetes resulted in infection in all mice receiving the OspD or 83-kDa ...
Investigations with individual pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and transfected cell lines have promoted the viewpoint that recognition of extracellular bacteria occurs mainly via the interaction of cell wall constituents with TLRs on the surface of innate immune cells (3, 25). Recent studies with mammalian systems have revealed the existence of a cytosolic pathogen surveillance network comprised of a superfamily of Nod-like receptors (80, 84). Based on experiments utilizing vacuole-restricted mutants of intracellular pathogens, investigators often have surmised that confinement of extracellular bacteria to phagosomal compartments segregates them from cytosolic sensors (48, 81, 85). Work in our laboratory using human PBMCs incubated with live spirochetes has indicated that both of the above-described ideas regarding innate immune recognition of extracellular bacteria are overly simplistic and that cytosolic signals induced by phagocytosed B. burgdorferi induce programmed cell death ...
The lp28-1 plasmid is required for persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutational studies on this plasmid have shown that the vls locus is important for antigenic variation of the VlsE lipoprotein that leads to immune evasion and persistence. However, it is still unknown whether the vls system is the only genetic locus on this plasmid necessary for long-term infection, and thus the potential role of non-vls genes on lp28-1 in virulence and persistence is yet to be fully determined. Despite extensive mutational analyses, two lp28-1 regions containing the ORFs bbf19 - bbf22 and bbf27 - bbf30 have not yet been mutated in their entirety. In this study, we set out to establish if these unstudied regions of lp28-1 play a role in spirochete persistence. Results show that the generated mutants were fully infectious in immunocompetent mice, and were able to persist for 91 days following infection. Following this finding, ospC expression by these mutants was determined, as
Bacteria produce only two types of toxins: endotoxins, which are non-secreted lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that make up a large part of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; and, exotoxins that are secreted by some gram-positive bacteria and a few strains of gram-negative bacteria.. At one time, Borrelia burgdorferi, was thought to possess an endotoxin since a product isolated from B. burgdorferi was reported to be pyrogenic for rabbits, mitogenic for human mononuclear cells and mouse spleen cells, capable of clotting limulus lysate (a diagnostic test for LPS), and cytotoxic for mouse macrophages; these are properties generally ascribed to bacterial LPS (1). However, subsequent studies revealed the absence of lipid A and other chemical structures characteristic of classic gram-negative endotoxins (2). Although B. burgdorferi does not produce an endotoxin, it does possess lipoproteins that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammalian cells that comprise the innate immune ...
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Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed ...
The maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus was investigated from 202 mark and recapture mice and 61 mice that were removed from a site in Baltimore County, Maryland. Borrelia burgdorferi infection was detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ear tissue, and exposure to the spirochete was quantified by serology. Overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi, as determined by culture and PCR of ear tissue at first capture, was 25% in the longitudinal sample and 42% in the cross-sectional sample. Significantly more juvenile mice were captured in the longitudinal sample (18%) than in the cross-sectional sample (0%). Among 36 captured juvenile mice, only one was infected with B. burgdorferi; this contributed to a significant trend for infection with B. burgdorferi with age. Recovery from infection with B. burgdorferi was not detected among 77 mice followed for an average of 160 days. The incidence rate of infection with B. burgdorferi was 10 times greater in mice
Of the Bernese Mountain Dogs, 58 percent had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi, compared with only 15 percent of the control dogs. Factors such as living in a rural area or coat colour did not explain the result, leading the authors to conclude that the breed may be predisposed to B. burgdorferi infection. The authors data did not allow them to reach any conclusions regarding speculation that glomerular disease found in Bernese Mountain Dogs may be caused directly by B. burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the cause of the disease. ...
Abstract In order to determine if Peromyscus spp. could become infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) by direct inoculation and to determine the duration of spirochetemia, 4 P. leucopus and 5 P. maniculatus were inoculated by the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes with an isolate of B. burgdorferi obtained from the blood of a trapped wild P. leucopus from Camp McCoy, Wisconsin. All of the mice developed antibodies to B. burgdorferi which reached a peak indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) geometric mean antibody titer of 10 log2 21 days post-inoculation. B. burgdorferi was recovered from the blood of 1 P. maniculatus 21 days post-inoculation. One uninfected Peromyscus of each species was housed in the same cage with the infected Peromyscus as a contact control. Both of the contact controls developed IFA B. burgdorferi antibodies by day 14, indicating contact infection. To determine if B. burgdorferi was being transmitted by direct contact, 5 uninfected P.
Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has 52 known species. Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the disease in humans, while a number of others have been implicated as possibly pathogenic. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with the single species in that complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. Borrelia are microaerophilic and slow-growing-the primary reason for the long delays when diagnosing Lyme disease-and have been found to have greater strain diversity than previously estimated. The strains differ in clinical symptoms and/or presentation as well as geographic distribution. Except for Borrelia recurrentis (which causes louse-borne relapsing fever and is transmitted by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the organization of multicopy linear- and circular-plasmid- carried open reading frames in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. AU - Carlyon, Jason A.. AU - LaVoie, Crystal. AU - Sung, Shian Ying. AU - Marconi, Richard T.. PY - 1998/3. Y1 - 1998/3. N2 - Plasmid cp8.3 of Borrelia afzelii IP21 carries several open reading frames (ORFs) and a 184-bp inverted repeat (IR) element. It has been speculated that this plasmid may encode factors involved in virulence or infectivity. In this report, we have characterized the distribution, molecular variability, and organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 4 and the IR elements among isolates of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. ORFs 1 and 2 are contained within a segment of cp8.3 that is bordered by the IR elements, while ORF 4 resides just outside of the IR-bordered region. By PCR, ORF 4 was amplified from most isolates while ORFs 1 and 2 were amplified from only some B. afzelii isolates. However, Southern hybridization ...
This blood test is used to aid in the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease). The diagnosis of Lyme disease is most often made by clinical examination combined with evidence of tick bite or exposure in endemic areas. Amplification of Borrelia genomic DNA from blood, fluids or tissues can support the diagnosis.. Lyme disease (LD) is a corkscrew shaped bacterial infection caused by the spirochete known as Borrelia. Lyme Disease knows no borders and is a major health problem worldwide. In 2007, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that reported Lyme disease cases in the US had more than doubled since the CDC began recording cases in 1991. In 2010, the CDC reported 94% of Lyme disease cases were reported from 12 states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia & Wisconsin. Lyme disease has exceeded AIDS as one of the fastest growing infectious epidemics in our nation, with a cost to society ...
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Borrelia burgdorferi synthesizes an HtrA protease (BbHtrA) which is a surface-exposed, conserved protein within Lyme disease spirochetes with activity toward CheX and BmpD of Borrelia spp, as well as aggrecan, fibronectin and proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues of vertebrates. An antibody response against BbHtrA is observed in Lyme disease patients and in experimentally infected laboratory mice and rabbits. Given the surface location of BbHtrA on B. burgdorferi and its ability to elicit an antibody response in infected hosts, we explored recombinant BbHtrA as a potential vaccine candidate in a mouse model of tick-transmitted Lyme disease. We immunized mice with two forms of BbHtrA: the proteolytically active native form and BbHtrA ablated of activity by a serine to alanine mutation at amino acid 226 (BbHtrAS226A). Although inoculation with either BbHtrA or BbHtrAS226A produced high-titer antibody responses in C3H/HeJ mice, neither antigen was successful in protecting mice from ...
Lyme disease is a most common vector borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard 30 day antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. It has been reported in the literature that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting symptoms with varying degree of improvement. However, the activity of essential oils on the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of a panel of 34 essential oils for activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. Interestingly, we found that many essential oils had varying degrees of activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi. In particular, the top 5 essential oils (oregano, cinnamon ...
Abstract: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of 3 Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from wooded areas of the Lublin region (eastern Poland). A group of 1,813 I. ricinus ticks from 6 districts were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B.b. s.l.) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Another group of 438 I. ricinus ticks collected from 4 districts were examined for the presence of B.b. s.l. by culture on BSKH liquid medium confirmed by PCR, and for the presence of Borrelia spp. by dark field microscopy (DFM). Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii) were determined by nested-PCR in 113 ticks lysates showing presence of B.b. s.l. (in PCR or in culture and PCR). 5.4% of I. ricinus ticks examined by PCR showed the presence of B.b. s.l. DNA. The infection rate was highest in females (12.1%), lower in males (6.0%) and the lowest in nymphs (1.7%) ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Infection with the Lyme disease pathogen suppresses innate immunity in mice with diet-induced obesity.
Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade.. Results: 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains ...
Lyme disease research studies often require generation of ticks infected with the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, a process that...
Lyme disease is one of the most common infectious diseases in the United States with about 329,000 new cases each year, according to statistics released in 2015 by the CDC. Lyme disease is a potentially disabling infection caused by bacteria transmitted through the bite of an infected tick to people and pets.. The efficacy and accepted regimen of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease has been a point of significant contention among physicians and patients.. Newly published research finds that the Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi survive a 28-day course of antibiotics when treated months after infection. In addition, the study also measured the antibody immune response to the bacteria both pre- and post- treatment, as this is how current diagnostics typically evaluate Lyme disease in humans.. Lead author of the study, Monica Embers, PhD joined me to discuss the research and its implications. Dr Embers is an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at Tulane University School of ...
The per capita incidence of human Lyme disease in the northeastern United States is more than twice that in the Midwest. However, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, in the tick vector is nearly identical in the 2 regions. The disparity in human Lyme disease incidence may result from a disparity in the human invasiveness of the bacteria in the Northeast and Midwest caused by fundamentally different evolutionary histories. B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest are geographically isolated, enabling evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness. However, we found that B. burgdorferi populations in the Northeast and Midwest shared a recent common ancestor, which suggests that substantial evolutionary divergence in human invasiveness has not occurred. We propose that differences in either animal ecology or human behavior are the root cause of the differences in human incidence between the 2 regions ...
Lyme borreliosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Europe, Lyme borreliosis is predominantly caused by Borrelia afzelii and transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. Although Borrelia behavior throughout tick development is quite well documented, specific molecular interactions between Borrelia and the tick have not been satisfactorily examined. Here,...
The Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria causes Lyme disease, but many people continue to suffer even when all the B. burgodorferi are dead - a previously unexplained phenomenon called chronic Lyme disease…
Lyme borreliosis is a tick-transmitted spirochetal infection with protean clinical manifestations, [1] including involvement of the nervous system, [2,3] cardiovascular system, skin, [4] and joints [5]. Neurologic involvement, Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), is the most feared of the sequelae of the infection but the one that is least understood from the standpoint of pathogenesis, latency, and therapy.. A better understanding of this infection can be gained from the study of animal models. Inoculation of subprimate animals, such as mice and hamsters, has resulted in systemic infection with the spirochete but an absence of consistent infection and inflammation in the CNS. To test whether a model more faithful to human LNB could be elicited in nonhuman primates (NHPs), we injected rhesus macaques with infectious Borrelia burgdorferi and evaluated the course of the infection.. Methods. Animals. Animals used in this study were housed and cared for in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act and the ...
Lyme Disease Ticks more Abundant and Active Early in 1998 Abstract: The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven received almost twice as many ticks for testing for the Lyme disease pathogen this year than during the first three months last year. Also, nymphal ticks have been received earlier this year. From January 1 to April 3, 366 Ixodes scapularis ticks (the tick that carries the Lyme disease pathogen known as the deer tick) were received. ...
The plant Coleus forskohlii is distributed primarily in India, Thailand, China, Egypt and Brazil and has a history of use in the treatment of multiple diseases. Isoforskolin (ISOF) is the principle active component of C. forskohlii native to China and has previously been studied for its biological effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ISOF on the proinflammatory responses induced by recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (rBmpA). In in vitro experiments, the proinflammatory effects of rBmpA and the anti‑inflammatory function of ISOF were evaluated in murine macrophages, human macrophages and dendritic cells by detecting the transcription and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑6. In in vivo experiments, mean arthritis index and X‑ray and histopathological examinations were used to verify the role of ISOF in experimental Lyme arthritis in mice. The results indicated that rBmpA, which induced the transcription ...
Lyme Disease is caused by a Borrelia Burgdorferi infection transmitted through the bite of a black legged tick, Ixodes Scapularis. The infected ticks are found throughout the Northeast and more than forty other states, as well as Europe, Asia, and Australia. A telltale Bulls Eye, or erythema migrans rash, along with flu-like symptoms, occurs in only 30-40% of early Lyme Disease patients. This rash classically delineates the initial stage of the infection. Usually after a four to six week course of antibiotic therapy, the disease process can be arrested.. However, Lyme Disease can prove to be a more difficult and complex process to diagnose and treat. When characteristic more commonplace symptoms are not present (such as above). Lyme Disease can progress untreated and become a serious, chronic, and sometimes debilitating illness, which affects multiple systems of the body.. Chronic Systemic Lyme Disease (CSLD) has an affinity for the joints, muscles, heart, and especially the nervous ...
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement. Owing to their mode of action, the interacting surface-exposed proteins identified among B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, and B. bavariensis can be classified into at least two major categories, namely molecules that directly interfere with distinct complement components including BBK32, CspA,
The infectivity and dissemination to the skin of six isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi were evaluated by inoculating them into groups of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), hamsters, and Swiss Webster mice. Rodent infection was assayed by culture of ear punch biopsy specimens taken at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postinoculation (p.i.). Spirochetes were detected in biopsy specimens from individuals of all three host species that had been inoculated with four isolates (CA3, CA4, CA7, and CA8). Ear punch biopsy specimens taken from Swiss Webster mice at 12 weeks p.i. yielded an additional reisolate (CA2), even though these animals did not seroconvert. The remaining isolate (CA9) was not recovered from any host. However, two deer mice and all hamsters and Swiss Webster mice inoculated with CA9 seroconverted. All six isolates were of low infectivity to ticks when inoculated intramuscularly into hosts. Only 4 (1.6%) of 250 Ixodes pacificus larvae acquired and transstadially maintained infection from hosts ...
We developed a PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay in which Ehrlichia, B. burgdorferi, andBartonella species can be detected and differentiated. The assay was specific enough to detect single-base-pair changes with immobilized oligonucleotide probes and enabled us to differentiateEhrlichia variants. The reverse line blot technique is a relatively easy and rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of microorganisms in field samples such as ticks. In its present form we can combine the hybridization of PCR products obtained in separate PCRs. We are now developing a multiplex PCR that will enable us to have an even more convenient method for the screening of samples. These samples could be tick lysates but could also be other material such as blood from patients suffering from a febrile disease with an unknown origin.. In the study presented here we used this method to detect and identifyEhrlichia and B. burgdorferi species in DutchI. ricinus ticks. Analysis of the ...
Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is recognized as an important infectious disease in North America, Europe, and Asia. The formerly designated Borrelia burgdorferi has now been subdivided into multiple Borrelia species, including three that cause human infection. In the United States, the sole cause of infection is B. burgdorferi. Although all three pathogenic species are found in Europe, most disease there is caused by B. afzelii or B. garinii; these two species also seem to be responsible for the illness in Asia. This chapter presents biology and enzootic cycles of B. burgdorferi and related Borrelia species. As with other spirochetal infections, human Lyme borreliosis generally occurs in stages, with remissions, exacerbations, and different clinical manifestations at each stage. Early infection consists of stage 1 (localized skin infection), followed within days to weeks by stage 2 (disseminated infection). Late infection, or stage 3 (persistent or progressive infection), usually begins months to
Evaluation of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility of different morphological forms of Borrelia burgdorferi Eva Sapi1, Navroop Kaur1, Samuel Anyanwu1, David F Luecke1, Akshita Datar1, Seema Patel1, Michael Rossi1, Raphael B Stricker21Lyme Disease Research Group, Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of New Haven, New Haven, CT, USA; 2International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Although antibiotic therapy is usually effective early in the disease, relapse may occur when administration of antibiotics is discontinued. Studies have suggested that resistance and recurrence of Lyme disease might be due to formation of different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi, namely round bodies (cysts) and biofilm-like colonies. Better understanding of the effect of antibiotics on all morphological forms of B. burgdorferi is therefore crucial to provide effective therapy for
Synonyms for Chronic lyme disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chronic lyme disease. 1 synonym for Lyme disease: Lyme arthritis. What are synonyms for Chronic lyme disease?
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BACKGROUND: Lyme disease, the most common tickborne disease in the United States, is caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in North America. The present study evaluated the genotypes of ,400 clinical isolates of B. burgdorferi recovered from patients from suburban New York City with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans; it is the largest number of borrelial strains from North America ever to be investigated. METHODS: Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction analysis of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA spacer and reverse line blot analysis of the outer surface protein C gene (ospC ...
of Lewy Neurites].. I have previously demonstrated to you (with the most excellent Immunostains of Paula at Excalibur Labs) that:. 1. Lewy bodies are marked with Rabbit antibodies to human Alpha Synuclein. 2. Lewy neurites are marked with rabbit antibodies to human Alpha Synuclein. 3. Nematode larval worms contain immunorective proteins to Human Alpha Synuclein. 4. Nematode worms are endowed with their own neurons and their own Glial cells. 5. Synuclein proteins (but not necessarily the toxic variant of Alpha synuclein) are incumbent in Synaptic Structure, and these are located between the Dendritic/Synaptic button apparatus and the Nucleus of the neuron. 6. Borrelia burgdorferi is an EndoSymbiont microbe which dwells inside of the bodies of select nematode worms, larvae, and worm eggs too.. 7. Borrelia burgdorferi might be endowed with a protein which is immune-reactive to the toxic variant of Alpha Synuclein or Borrelia spirochetes may absorb this protein or Borrelia spriochetes may absorb ...
Lyme disease was first recognized in 1975 in a town, named old Lyme in Connecticut. Now the disease in noticed worldwide. Most of the Lyme disease cases are observed through transmission of spirochete Borrelia bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi through bite of deer ticks or western back legged ticks. Ticks are tiny, blood sucking ectoparasites which vary in color and size. Tick bite can be recognized only as a lump with a small scab on the skin surface. Incubation period of lyme disease is around two weeks. Though the early symptoms are not observed in several cases, the typical skin rash of the disease can be seen. This skin rash should be taken seriously and consulted with the doctor, to avoid further complications. Lyme disease can also be fatal, which affects vital organs of the body, such as brain and heart. Lyme disease diagnosis shall be done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test, Western Blot test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Lyme disease treatment: As lyme is ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North ... Zückert WR (2007). "Laboratory Maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi". Laboratory maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi. Current ... Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species ... Video Interview of Eva Sapi, PhD on Borrelia Biofilms NCBI Borrelia Taxonomy Browser Borrelia burgdoferi B31 Genome Page https ...
Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes ticks, the disease if left untreated can cause ... Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii from serum and plasma specimens. ... 2 Fluorescent Immunoassay Analyzer for the rapid differential detection of human IgM and IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi ...
Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ... Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ...
NAME: Borrelia burgdorferi SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis, relapsing fever, Erythema migrans (EM) ... LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported specifically for B. burgdorferi, however there have been 45 reported cases up to ...
Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host. K Suk, S Das, W Sun, B Jwang, S W Barthold, R A Flavell ... Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host. K Suk, S Das, W Sun, B Jwang, S W Barthold, R A Flavell ... Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host. K Suk, S Das, W Sun, B Jwang, S W Barthold, R A Flavell ... Borrelia burgdorferi genes selectively expressed in the infected host Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Antibodies to Borrelia turicatae in Experimentally Infected Dogs Cross-React with Borrelia burgdorferi Serologic Assays Tick- ... Direct Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Children with Lyme ... An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Measuring Borrelia burgdorferi B31-Specific Interferon Gamma-Secreting T Cells Cannot ... borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by several Borrelia spp. (including Borrelia turicatae), which are primarily transmitted ...
Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferiBlyA and BlyB Proteins: a Prophage-Encoded Holin-Like System Christopher J. Damman, ... Transduction by φBB-1, a Bacteriophage ofBorrelia burgdorferi Christian H. Eggers, Betsy J. Kimmel, James L. Bono, Abdallah F. ... Altered Stationary-Phase Response in aBorrelia burgdorferi rpoS Mutant Abdallah F. Elias, James L. Bono, James A. Carroll, ... Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis inBorrelia burgdorferi James L. Bono, Abdallah F. Elias, John J. Kupko, Brian Stevenson, Kit ...
... several Borrelia species (relapsing fever), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Leptospira interrogans (leptospirosis), ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Borrelia burgdorferi partial fla gene for flagellin, isolate ADC9cl1 Borrelia burgdorferi partial fla gene for flagellin, ...
Immune evasion by tickborne and host-adapted Borrelia burgdorferi.. de Silva AM1, Fikrig E, Hodzic E, Kantor FS, Telford SR 3rd ... Immune sera from mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, have strong biologic activity against ... The purpose of this study was to explore the susceptibility of three different adaptive forms of B. burgdorferi (in vitro ... Recent studies with rodents and ticks infected with B. burgdorferi indicate that spirochetes undergo major changes in protein ...
We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the ... In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm ... Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic ... It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to ...
Lyme disease is usually carried by the black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis. This duplex qPCR tests for both Borrelia burgdorferi & Anaplasma phagocytophilum. ...
This review discusses the current literature on mammalian coinfection with B. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative ... Parveen, N.; Bhanot, P. Babesia microti-Borrelia burgdorferi Coinfection. Pathogens 2019, 8, 117. ... This review discusses the current literature on mammalian coinfection with B. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative ... Parveen N, Bhanot P. Babesia microti-Borrelia burgdorferi Coinfection. Pathogens. 2019; 8(3):117. ...
During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several ... Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to ...
Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Real-time PCR. TEST: 138685 Test number copied ... This assay is intended to be used as an aid to the diagnosis of infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the ... Lyme (B. burgdorferi) PCR. 4991-6. 139155. Lyme (B. burgdorferi) PCR. 4991-6. ...
C6 B. burgdorferi (Lyme). 38173-1. 015401. C6 Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme). index. 38173-1. ... Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi C6 Antigen With Reflex to Western Blot. TEST: 015400 Test number copied ... Aid in the diagnosis of acute and later stages of infections by Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete associated with Lyme ... Lyme disease is a common vector-borne disease in the US caused by B burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of ...
B burgdorferi is a tick-borne spirochete that is found in the temperate regions of much of the northern hemisphere. Endemic ... B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)?) and What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi (B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)? ... What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi (B burgdorferi) (Lyme disease)?. Updated: Jul 16, 2019 ... encoded search term (What is the global distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi ( ...
Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; cultivation; dissemination; erythema migrans; incidence of Lyme borreliosis; ... Early dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi without generalized symptoms in patients with erythema migrans ... Characteristics and incidence of EM in addition to frequency of early dissemination of B. burgdorferi were studied in the ... burgdorferi, based on culture or PCR positivity of blood samples, was detected in 11.0% of the patients. The frequency of ...
... 12.07.2007. Borrelia burgdorferi seem to be particularly ... burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the ... However Gerber says that "the findings in the present study are unique as infections with B. burgdorferi are not causing ... Of the Bernese Mountain Dogs, 58 percent had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi, compared with only 15 percent of the ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete and the cause of Lyme disease, a tick transmitted illness of humans and animals. B. ... B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it is a highly specialized, motile, two-membrane, spiral shaped bacteria ... B. burgdorferi has an unusual genome compared with other eubacteria which includes a linear chromosome approximately one ...
a-c) Lane 1, wild-type B. burgdorferi; lane 2, OspC-deficient B. burgdorferi; lane 3, OspC-deficient B. burgdorferi ... OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands. Utpal Pal,1 Xiaofeng Yang,2 Manchuan Chen, ... Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and DbpA is controlled by a RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. ... Attachment of Borrelia burgdorferi within Ixodes scapularis mediated by outer surface protein A. J. Clin. Invest. 2000. 106:561 ...
Open this publication in new window or tab ,,The BBA01 protein, a member of paralog family 48 from Borrelia burgdorferi, is ... Porins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Pinne, Marija Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology. ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete which cycles between its arthropod vector and vertebrate host. If transmitted ... The Borrelia burgdorferi genome exhibits redundancy, with many plasmid-carried genes belonging to paralogous gene families. It ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgG by Western Blot (CSF). 8. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, Total by ELISA (CSF). 9. Borrelia ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgM by Western Blot. 11. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgM by Western Blot (CSF). ... Borrelia burgdorferiAntibodies, IgG & IgM by Western Blot. 6. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, Totalby ELISA. 7. ...
The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of ... Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi Nature. 1997 Dec 11;390(6660):580-6. doi: 10.1038/37551. ... The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of ... Because B. burgdorferi and M. genitalium are distantly related eubacteria, we suggest that their limited metabolic capacities ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi garinii antibody conjugated to FITC validated for IHC, ICC/IF. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, ...
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is ... The persistence ofBorrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is ... Persistenz der Borrelia burgdorferi bei negativer Serologie und Behandlung mit Antibiotika. Zusammenfassung. Es wird über die ... Johnson, R. C., Kodner, C., Russel, M. In vitro andin vivo susceptibility of the Lyme disease spirochete,Borrelia burgdorferi, ...
Borrelia burgdorferi Rabbit anti-Bacteria, HRP, Polyclonal, Invitrogen 1 mL; HRP ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete and the cause of Lyme disease, a tick transmitted illness of humans and animals. B. ... The PA1-73006 antibody reacts with Borrelia burgdorferi. Some cross-reactivity with Treponema pallidum, B. hermsii, and B. ... B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it is a highly specialized, motile, two-membrane, spiral shaped bacteria ...

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