Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Borrelia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.Relapsing Fever: An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Lyme Disease Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)Mice, Inbred C3HDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Glossitis, Benign Migratory: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Bites and StingsGene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.PolandComplement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Acrodermatitis: Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.North AmericaBabesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Blotting, Southwestern: A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.ConnecticutAminocoumarins: COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.ShrewsDoxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Prurigo: A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Coyotes: The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.LatviaChromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Nymphaea: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Mice, Inbred BALB CCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Spirochaetaceae: A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.EuropeRickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Spirochaeta: A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.ArthritisDNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Ehrlichia canis: Species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing EHRLICHIOSIS in DOGS. The most common vector is the brown dog tick. It can also cause disease in humans.

Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands. (1/450)

This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans.  (+info)

Specific antibodies reactive with the 22-kilodalton major outer surface protein of Borrelia anserina Ni-NL protect chicks from infection. (2/450)

An outer surface lipoprotein of 22 kDa was identified in the avian pathogen Borrelia anserina Ni-NL by using antibody preparations reactive with bacterial surface-exposed proteins. Amino acid sequence analysis of the 22-kDa protein demonstrated 90% identity with VmpA of B. turicatae, suggesting that the protein belongs to the family of 20-kDa outer surface proteins of the genus Borrelia. All of the 60 chicks intramuscularly treated with antibodies specifically reacting with the 22-kDa protein and infected with strain Ni-NL were completely protected from infection, since no spirochetemia was detected, and from death. Control chicks were treated with immune sera raised against apathogenic strain B. anserina Es, which expresses a prominent 20-kDa polypeptide that is also a member of the Vmp family but does not cross-react immunologically with the 22-kDa protein of the Ni-NL strain. These animals, infected with B. anserina Ni-NL, showed a high degree of spirochetemia 10 days after infection, and all died between 14 and 21 days after infection. The results showed that the 22-kDa surface protein of B. anserina Ni-NL is a determinant of the pathogenic potential of the strain and also confirmed that only strain-specific antibodies are protective against B. anserina infection.  (+info)

Tick-borne relapsing fever imported from West Africa: diagnosis by quantitative buffy coat analysis and in vitro culture of Borrelia crocidurae. (3/450)

West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is difficult to diagnose due to the low number of spirochetes in the bloodstream of patients. Previously, the causative microorganism, Borrelia crocidurae, had never been cultured in vitro. TBRF was rapidly diagnosed for two patients returning from western Africa with fever of unknown origin by quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood specimens from patients into laboratory mice. In vitro experiments showed that QBC analysis may be as much as 100-fold more sensitive than thick smear. Spirochetes were also cultured from blood samples from both patients in modified Kelly's medium and were identified as B. crocidurae by partial sequencing of the PCR-amplified rrs gene.  (+info)

Short report: Diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever by the quantitative buffy coat fluorescence method. (4/450)

The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) parasite detection method is a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of malaria parasites. It is also useful for the diagnoses of other hemoparasites, including Trypanosoma, Babesia, and Leptospira. We report a case of relapsing fever diagnosed by this technique in a short-term traveler from Senegal. The diagnosis was confirmed by the standard Giemsa hemoscopy and by the identification of significant titers of antibodies to Borrelia spp. of tick-borne relapsing fevers by specific immunofluorescence and Western blot tests. The QBC technique seems to be useful in the diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever in blood samples and should be included in the management of fever in the traveler returning from tropical regions.  (+info)

Comparative analysis and immunological characterization of the Borrelia Bdr protein family. (5/450)

Multiple circular and linear plasmids of Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia spirochetes carry genes for members of the Bdr (Borrelia direct repeat) protein family. To define their common and divergent attributes, we first comprehensively compared the known homologs. Bdr proteins with predicted sizes ranging from 10.7 to 30. 6 kDa formed five homology groups, based on variable numbers of short direct repeats in a central domain and diverse N- and C-terminal domains. In a further characterization, Western blots were probed with rabbit antisera raised against either of two purified recombinant Bdr proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi B31. The results showed that antibodies cross-react and several Bdr paralogs 19.5 to 30.5 kDa in size are expressed by cultured strain B31 in a temperature-independent manner. In situ proteolysis, immunofluorescence, and growth inhibition assays indicated that Bdr proteins are not surface exposed. Distinct patterns of cross-reacting proteins of 17.5 to 33 kDa were also detected in other B. burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii strains as well as in relapsing fever spirochetes Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia turicatae. Last, we examined whether these proteins are antibody targets during Lyme disease. Analysis of 47 Lyme disease patient sera by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that 24 (51%) and 20 (43%), respectively, had detectable antibodies to one or more of the Bdr proteins. Together, these data indicate that Bdr proteins constitute a family of cross-reactive Borrelia proteins which are expressed in the course of Lyme disease and in vitro.  (+info)

Identification of a novel strain of Borrelia hermsii in a previously undescribed northern California focus. (6/450)

An epizootiologic investigation testing for the presence of tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes in rodent and tick hosts was conducted at Eagle Lake in Lassen County, California. Six of 211 O. hermsii ticks and none of 180 rodents were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia spirochetes. Sequencing of the PCR-amplified flagellin gene fragment suggests that the spirochetes from Eagle Lake represent a previously undescribed strain of Borrelia hermsii.  (+info)

Characterization of VspB of Borrelia turicatae, a major outer membrane protein expressed in blood and tissues of mice. (7/450)

Serotypes A and B of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae produce different disease manifestations in infected mice. Whereas serotype B causes more severe arthritis and reaches higher densities in the blood of mice than serotype A, serotype A invades the central nervous system earlier than serotype B during infection. These differences between serotypes A and B in mice are associated with the expression of different surface proteins, VspA and VspB, respectively, in the culture medium. To determine whether these proteins, in particular, VspB, are also expressed in vivo, scid mice infected with B. turicatae were studied. The expression of VspB by spirochetes in the blood was demonstrated in Coomassie blue-stained polyacrylamide gels and Western blots with a specific monoclonal antibody. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase studies confirmed the expression of VspB in the blood and also demonstrated VspB expression in the joints and heart. The gene for VspB was next identified and cloned by using partial amino acid sequencing, reverse transcriptase PCR, and a specific monoclonal antibody. The vspB gene encodes a protein of 216 amino acids that is 68% identical to VspA of B. turicatae and 44 to 56% identical to representative Vsp and OspC lipoproteins of other Borrelia spp. The processed VspB protein was distinguished from 26 other Vsp and OspC proteins by a high predicted isoelectric point at 9.39. The promoter region for vspB was similar to the promoter region for the vsp33 gene of Borrelia hermsii and for the ospC gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, two genes known to be environmentally regulated. These studies established that the virulence-associated VspB protein is expressed by spirochetes in the mouse and that VspB is a novel member of the Vsp-OspC family of proteins.  (+info)

Toward the development of antibacterial vaccines: report of a symposium and workshop. Organizing Committee. (8/450)

On 26 and 27 October 1998, the Department of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), hosted a symposium and workshop on bacterial vaccines. The symposium featured invited speakers who are internationally recognized authorities in their fields and who discussed selected topics related to specific pathogens or specific principles of bacterial vaccine development. The workshop, held on the day following the symposium, brought together the invited speakers and members of the organizing committee, who came from UCSF and the University of California, Berkeley, to discuss 4 specific topics and to define priorities for future vaccine development. Considerable knowledge has been gained from successful and unsuccessful vaccine development efforts, and large gains in knowledge relevant to vaccine development have resulted from studies of basic immunology and microbial pathogenesis. This report summarizes the presentations at the symposium and the discussions of the workshop sessions.  (+info)

*Tick-borne disease

Organism: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bacterium). *Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis (=I. dammini), I. pacificus, I. ... Organisms: Borrelia species such as B. hermsii, B. parkeri, B. duttoni, B. miyamotoi ... In most places in the US, 30-50% of deer ticks will be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi (the agent of Lyme disease). Other ... Relapsing fever (tick-borne relapsing fever, different from Lyme disease due to different Borrelia species and ticks) * ...

*Cat flea

In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...

*Anorexia nervosa (differential diagnoses)

PPachner, A. R. (1988). "Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: The new "great imitator"". Annals of the New York Academy ... he was noted to have positive serologic tests for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with a 14 day course of intravenous ...

*Codon usage bias

McInerney, James O. (1998-09-01). "Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". ...

*Lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii are the cause. In Europe and Asia, the bacteria Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii ... The Lyme-related Borrelia species are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and show a great deal of genetic ... 2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host ... and Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana appear to be associated with birds. Both rodents and birds are competent reservoir ...

*Espiroquetas, a enciclopedia libre

Borrelia burgdorferi, que causa a enfermidade de Lyme, transmitida por insectos.. *Borrelia recurrentis, que causa a febre ... Borrelia. Brevinema. Clevelandina. Cristispira. Diplocalyx. Hollandina. Pillotina. Spirochaeta. Spirosymplokos. Treponema. ... O xenoma de Spirochaetes é moi inusual e consta de cromosomas e plásmidos, e en xéneros como Borrelia os cromosomas son liñais ... Schwan T (1996). "Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod interactions". Infect Agents Dis 5 (3 ...

*Amblyomma gervaisi

Borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. in Amblyomma varanense ...

*Bacterial cell structure

Most bacterial chromosomes are circular although some examples of linear DNA exist (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi). Along with ...

*Spirochaete

2014 Genus Borreliella Adeolu & Gupta 2015 [Borrelia burgdorferi species-group] (Lyme disease Borrelia) Genus Borrelia ... containing the members of the Lyme disease Borrelia (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex)". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 105 (6 ... the emended genus Borrelia containing only the members of the relapsing fever Borrelia, and the genus Borreliella gen. nov. ... Borrelia emend. Borreliella gen. nov.). A conserved signature indel has also been found exclusively shared by all Spirochaetes ...

*Factor H

Pathogens that have been shown to recruit factor H include: Aspergillus spp.; Borrelia burgdorferi; B. duttonii; B. recurrentis ...

*Bartonella

Eskow E, Rao RV, Mordechai E (Sep 2001). "Concurrent infection of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi and ...

*Canine vector-borne disease

Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Rickettsia rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Rickettsia conorii causes ...

*Lyme disease microbiology

Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferi B31 Genome Page Borrelia garinii PBi Genome Page Borrelia afzelli PKo Genome Page Schwan TG, ... Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the ... "Expanded diversity among Californian Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ... Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. ...

*White-footed mouse

2004) Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of Peromyscus leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where ... 2001) Effects of acorn production and mouse abundance on abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence of nymphal ... 1988) The urinary bladder, a consistent source of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected white-footed mice ( ... 1991) Kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi dissemination and evolution of disease after intradermal inoculation of mice. Am J ...

*Blood film

... these are long sinuous filamentous structures that can be mistaken for organisms such as Borrelia. If the blood is kept at ...

*Cell (biology)

... including members of the genus Borrelia notably Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease.[14] Though not forming a ... European Bioinformatics Institute, Karyn's Genomes: Borrelia burgdorferi, part of 2can on the EBI-EMBL database. Retrieved 5 ...

*John Chrispinsson

Previously, he had suffered from borrelia. Sekelskiften: en krönika om sex, makt och pengar. Stockholm: Norstedt. 1999. ISBN 91 ...

*Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans

B. afzelii may not be the exclusive etiologic agent of ACA; Borrelia garinii has also been detected. The rash caused by ACA is ... This progressive skin process is due to the effect of continuing active infection with the spirochete Borrelia afzelii, which ...

*Ixodes holocyclus

The most common name for this spirochaete is Borrelia burgdorferi, but many different Borrelia species cause Lyme Disease ... Some vector competence studies have been undertaken on Ixodes holocyclus with respect to the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia ... An Australian spirochaete has not been found in humans yet, and may be quite different from Borrelia burgdorferi. Despite ... for the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. International Journal Parasitology, 21: 109-11. ...

*Chargaff kuralları - Vikipedi

"Replicational and transcriptional selection on codon usage in Borrelia burgdorferi". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95 (18): 10698- ...

*List of taxa with candidatus status

Borrelia tachyglossi" Loh et al. 2017 "Ca. Borrelia texasensis" Lin et al. 2005 "Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola" Toenshoff et al. ...

*Basic amino acid antiporter family

Fusobacterium and Borrelia species). The proteins are of about 480 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and have 10-12 putative ...

*Ornithodoros hermsi

It can be infected with Borrelia hermsii. Ornithodoros hermsi is a soft-bodied tick of the family Argasidae. It is one of the ... This species is a vector of Borrelia hermsii, which can cause tick-borne relapsing fever in humans. which are spread from O. ... July 2009). "Tick-borne relapsing fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA". Emerging Infect. Dis. 15 (7 ... "Tick-borne Relapsing Fever Caused by Borrelia hermsii, Montana". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (9): 1151-1154. doi:10.3201/ ...

*Relapsing fever

Borrelia hermsii Borrelia hispanica Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia parkeri Borrelia turicatae B. hermsii and B. recurrentis cause ... Lice that feed on infected humans acquire the Borrelia organisms that then multiply in the gut of the louse. When an infected ... Borrelia crocidurae - occurs in Egypt, Mali, Senegal, Tunisia; vectors - Carios erraticus, Ornithodoros sonrai; animal host - ... In 1984, it was renamed Borrelia duttoni. The first time relapsing fever was described in North America was in 1915 in ...

*Lichen sclerosus

A link with Lyme Disease is shown by the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in LSA biopsy tissue. Since LS in females is ... In 1987, LS linked with Borrelia infection. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus was first described in 1887 by Dr. Hallopeau. Since ... A disease that is similar to LS, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Viral ... Eisendle, K; Grabner, TG; Kutzner, H (2008). "Possible Role of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Infection in Lichen Sclerosus". ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a diverse bacterial group with a worldwide distribution of 20 named and 1 unnamed genospecies. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto seen in North America, B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe, are the main genospecies (group 1) that cause Lyme disease. A second group of eight genospecies (B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. kurtenbachii, B. mayonii, B. miyamotoi, B lusitaniae, B spielmanii, B valisiana) have been shown to have a limited disease potential.
I read Branda and Rosenbergs (1) editorial with great interest. Readers may be interested to know that my colleagues and I discovered Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes scapularis ticks more than 10 years ago and were able to show transmission by infected ticks to mice with subsequent antibody response and persistent infection (2). We also showed that this organism was widespread in I. scapularis, with a mean prevalence of about 2%. We then applied 5 unsuccessful times to the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for funding to determine whether this organism infects humans and causes disease. The agencies cited lack of evidence for human infection as their reasoning for not funding our study, which was the objective of the proposal ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biomedica offers ELISA kits for the diagnostic screening of Lyme Borreliosis - Borrelia recombinant IgG ELISA and Borrelia recombinant IgM ELISA. The combination of antigens used in both Borrelia assays detect antibodies directed against the different Borrelia species, pathogenic for humans, including B. burgdorferi senso strictu.
Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies to B. garinii in human serum, plasma, synovial or cerebrospinal fluid and for the detection of intrathecal production of specific antibodies to Borrelia sp. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
Borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. in Amblyomma varanense from Python reticulatus. Crossref DOI link: https://doi.org/10.1186/S13071-016-1629-8 Published: 2016-12. Update policy: https://doi.org/10.1007/SPRINGER_CROSSMARK_POLICY. ...
Borrelia hermsii is the most common cause of tickborne relapsing fever in North America. DNA sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA noncoding intergenic spacer (IGS) region were determined for 37 isolates of this spirochete. These sequences distinguished the 2 genomic groups of B. hermsii identified previously with other loci. Multiple IGS genotypes were identified among isolates from an island, which suggested that birds might play a role in dispersing these spirochetes in nature. In support of this theory, all stages of the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi fed successfully on birds in the laboratory and advanced in their life cycle. B. hermsii produced a detectable spirochetemia in 1 chicken inoculated subcutaneously. Additional work is warranted to explore the role of birds as enzootic hosts for this relapsing fever spirochete ...
Name(s) of illness: Borrelia miyamotoi infection, Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF), Borreliosis Caused by: infection with Borrelia miyamotoi, a species of bacteria that can be transmitted through the bite the following hard-bodied ticks: Ixodes scapularis (deer tick), Ixodes pacificus (western blacklegged tick), Ixodes ricinus (castor bean tick), and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick). (The first two tick species listed are common in North America, and…
Gelderblom H, Londoño D, Bai Y, Cabral ES, Quandt J, Hornung R, Martin R, Marques A, Cadavid D. High production of CXCL13 in blood and brain during persistent infection with the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007 Mar; 66(3):208-17 ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Principal Investigator:ISOGAI Emiko, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology)
the evidence for the so-called cyst or other biologically active pleomorphic forms of Bb is not compelling at all. Indeed, much of what has been touted as cysts have been, for the most part, in vitro-generated lifeless forms of unknown pathogenicity. Such irregularly shaped organisms have been produced artificially, primarily by culturing Bb under suboptimal conditions. On the other hand, it is possible that what is being referred to as cysts here may actually be the small membranous vesicles or blebs (or circular pouches) that were well-described many years ago as occurring in both Bb and in the very closely related spirochete Borrelia hermsii. These blebs were found to be essentially remnants of whole Borrelia organisms that were disintegrating following exposure to borreliacidal levels of antibodies or antibiotics. Similar results were found in our laboratory after various strains of Bb were treated with three different antibiotics. These inert blebs also appear as part of the natural ...
bacterial Vsp protein: from Borrelia turicatae expressed in blood & tissues of mice; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AF048952
In situ-perfused rat livers were infused with a single dose of 1.5 x 10(7) radiolabeled borreliae. Significant (P < 0.00005) differences in the liver
Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. Early symptoms may include fever, headache, and fatigue. A rash occurs in 70-80% of infected persons at the site of the tick bite after a delay of 3-30 days (average is about 7 days), and may or may not appear as the well-publicized bulls-eye (erythema migrans). The rash is only rarely painful or itchy, although it may be warm to the touch. Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early. Delayed or inadequate treatment can lead to more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat.. Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. Early symptoms may include fever, headache, and fatigue. A rash occurs in 70?80% of infected persons at the ...
Acknowledgment: The authors thank Dr. Allen C. Steere for reading the manuscript and providing useful suggestions on its focus and content.. Financial Support: This research was internally funded by IMUGEN. Drs. Telford and Goethert are funded, in part, by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R41 AI 078631), the Evelyn Lilly Lutz Foundation, the Dorothy Harrison Egan Foundation, and the Tufts Innovation Institute.. Disclosures: Dr. Molloy reports that he is the paid medical director of IMUGEN. Dr. Telford reports personal fees from IMUGEN, Immunetics, Meridian Bioscience, and Fuller Laboratories outside the submitted work. Dr. Chowdri reports employment as a clinical consultant for IMUGEN. Ms. Weeks reports board membership, employment as vice-president and laboratory manager, and stock ownership at IMUGEN. Ms. Hewins reports board membership, employment as vice-president and laboratory manager, and stock ownership at IMUGEN. Dr. Goethert reports that she is a part-time employee of ...
Relapsing fever is a tick-borne bacterial disease caused by a number of species in the genus Borrelia. Persistence is a key component of the lifecycle of relapsing fever Borrelia as it improves the chance for tick acquisition ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree (bootstrap value 250) showingclustering of the rrs gene between Borrelia duttonii/B. recurrentis andB. crocidurae.
... are helically shaped, either resembling a corkscrew or a flat wave. Spirochetes have hidden flagella and tremendous antigenic variation, making them potentially potent pathogens. Spirochetes thrive in blood, saliva and other nutrient-rich environment; they are susceptible to (and avoid via chemotaxis) H2O2 and other free radicals.. Interestingly, Borrelia species do not have LPS in their outer membranes and are neither gram-positive nor -negative. Their genome lacks any LPS biosynthesis genes. The eight genera of spirochetes are listed below. Signal transduction, motility, and chemotaxis mutants are defective in tissue penetration. ...
vlp1B. recurrentis A1 is plasmid encoded and duplicated in isolate A1. A: Plasmid (lane 1 to 4) and chromosome-rich (lane 5 to 8) DNA were digested with EcoRI (
Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing fever group spirochetes are emerging as causative agents of human illness (Borrelia miyamotoi disease) in the United States. Host-seeking Ixodes scapularis ticks are naturally infected with these spirochetes in the eastern United States and experimentally capable of transmitting B. miyamotoi. However, the duration of time required from tick attachment to spirochete transmission has yet to be determined. We therefore conducted a study to assess spirochete transmission by single transovarially infected I. scapularis nymphs to outbred white mice at three time points post-attachment (24, 48, and 72h) and for a complete feed (>72-96h). Based on detection of B. miyamotoi DNA from the blood of mice fed on by an infected nymph, the probability of spirochete transmission increased from 10% by 24h of attachment (evidence of infection in 3/30 mice) to 31% by 48h (11/35 mice), 63% by 72h (22/35 mice), and 73% for a complete feed (22/30 mice). We conclude that (i) ...
Blood samples from 18 tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) patients and Ornithodoros tholozani specimens were tested with a Borrelia flaB-PCR. Results were positive for all patients and 2%-40% of ticks. A 7-amino acid gap characterized all 9 sequenced flagellin gene amplicons. By phylogenetic analysis, Israel TBRF Borrelia sequences clustered separately from American and African groups.
14 different babesia species, 24 different bartonella species, 21 different borrelia species, 2 ehrlichia. Commonly causing Lymes disease, Cat Scratch disease and Relapsing Fever.
Would you have Transaminases increased when you have Borrelia infection? We study people who have Transaminases increased and Borrelia infection from FDA. Check out who they are, other conditions they have and drugs they take
Excerpted from the New York Times: (08/11/2013) Over the last few months the news media has begun covering what many doctors already knew: there are two newly discovered pathogens transmitted by ticks that endanger our health. One, Borrelia miyamotoi, is a strain of bacteria that resembles the organism that causes Lyme disease. It causes relapsing…
Vsp surface lipoproteins are serotype-defining antigens of relapsing fever spirochetes that undergo multiphasic antigenic variation to avoid the immun
FIG. 1. Time-kill curves for B. spielmanii isolate PC-Eq17 with ceftriaxone. Lines in boldface indicate borrelial growth of the growth control (GC), inoculum reduction at the MIC (0.031 μg/ml), and killing of the inoculum at the MBC (2 μg/ml) over 120 h of incubation. For reasons of comparison, lines not in boldface show borrelial growth at a ceftriaxone concentration of the MIC (0.008 μg/ml) and decelerated killing of the inoculum at a concentration of 3 log10 units below the MBC (0.25 μg/ml). Experiments were performed on different days by investigation of growth using conventional cell counts, and data are reported as the means from two independent experiments. ...
Felt something tickling my back in my apartment today. Went to scratch it and pulled out a tick. Geez, I havent been near the woods. All Ive done is take my dog walking around the apartment complex. Im sure the dog picked it up and gave it to me. Then I read about this new tick disease some woman in NJ got, borrelia miyamotoi bacterial infection. http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2013/01/25/n-j-woman-becomes-first-in-u-s-diagnosed-with-new-deer-tick-disease/ Man, I hate ticks. Heading
Felt something tickling my back in my apartment today. Went to scratch it and pulled out a tick. Geez, I havent been near the woods. All Ive done is take my dog walking around the apartment complex. Im sure the dog picked it up and gave it to me. Then I read about this new tick disease some woman in NJ got, borrelia miyamotoi bacterial infection. http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2013/01/25/n-j-woman-becomes-first-in-u-s-diagnosed-with-new-deer-tick-disease/ Man, I hate ticks. Heading
Relapsing Fever has other names including Relapsing fever borreliosis, louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF, also known as epidemic relapsing fever), tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF)
Enzyme immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in human serum, plasma, synovial or cerebrospinal fluid and for the detection of intrathecal production of specific antibodies to Borrelia sp.
The VMP is a patented, programmable, fluid dispensing and metering device, complete with integrated industrial Ethernet and serial controls.
Abstract Background In our previous studies on lipoprotein secretion in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we used monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) N-terminal lipopeptides to gather first insights into lipoprotein sorting determinants. OspA:mRFP1 fusions could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy both in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. To build on these findings and to complement the prior targeted mutagenesis approach, we set out to develop a screen to probe a random mutagenesis expression library for mutants expressing differentially localized lipoproteins. Results A Glu-Asp codon pair in the inner membrane-localized OspA20:mRFP1 fusion was chosen for mutagenesis since the two negative charges were previously shown to define the phenotype. A library of random mutants in the two codons was generated and expressed in B. burgdorferi. In situ surface proteolysis combined with fluorescence ...
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. B. burgdorferi resembles other spirochetes in that it has an outer membrane and inner membrane with a thin layer of peptidoglycan in between. However, the outer membrane lacks lipopolysaccharide. Its shape is a flat wave. It is about 0.3 μm wide and 5 to 20 μm in length. B. burgdorferi ...
Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has 52 known species. Three main species (Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.) are the main causative agents of the disease in humans, while a number of others have been implicated as possibly pathogenic. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with the single species in that complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America. Borrelia are microaerophilic and slow-growing-the primary reason for the long delays when diagnosing Lyme disease-and have been found to have greater strain diversity than previously estimated. The strains differ in clinical symptoms and/or presentation as well as geographic distribution. Except for Borrelia recurrentis (which causes louse-borne relapsing fever and is transmitted by ...
Five persons contracted tick-borne relapsing fever after staying in a cabin in western Montana. Borrelia hermsii was isolated from the blood of two patients, and Ornithodoros hermsi ticks were collected from the cabin, the first demonstration of this bacterium and tick in Montana. Relapsing fever should be considered when patients who reside or have vacationed in western Montana exhibit a recurring febrile illness.
Free Online Library: Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.(DISPATCHES, Report) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Demographic aspects Health aspects Research Disease transmission Methods Prevention DNA Epidemiology Lice Trench fever Causes of
Author Summary In North Africa, Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex are the only known vector of Borrelia infections causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. There is limited data on vector distribution, the animal reservoir of the disease has never been investigated, and there is no published data on TBRF patients. Our aim was to systematically investigate the distribution of O. erraticus s.l. in most regions of Morocco, to measure the proportion of infected ticks, to identify small mammalian species that act as potential reservoir, and to analyze data on TBRF patients fortuitously collected during a malaria eradication program. Our study shows that a high proportion of rodent burrows are colonized by vector ticks in all regions of Morocco from the Atlantic Sahara to the Mediterranean coast. We identified three Borrelia species in ticks and/or small mammals: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. We report five species of small mammals found infected for the first
Variable Lipoprotein Surface-Exposed protein, or VlsE, is a lipoprotein on the surface of the Lyme Disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, detectable during all its life stages. It can exist as many different isoforms. VlsE has variable regions (VRs) and invariable regions (IRs). Some IRs are anchored in the outer membrane of the bacteria and some are antigens exposed on the membrane surface. Replacement of the VR by Borrelia within days of being transferred to a mammalian host presents new surface antigens to the host immune system, and helps Borrelia avoid a strong reaction by host immune systems. The VlsE is apparently not modified as much in the tick or in the rodent vector, when compared to in the mammal host. Several putative envelope proteins of B. burgdorferi appear to be expressed only in the infected mammalian host. The VRs are antigenic, irregularly shaped loops on the bacterial surface which may help to hide both membrane-incorporated and surface portions of adjacent proteins from
Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is recognized as an important infectious disease in North America, Europe, and Asia. The formerly designated Borrelia burgdorferi has now been subdivided into multiple Borrelia species, including three that cause human infection. In the United States, the sole cause of infection is B. burgdorferi. Although all three pathogenic species are found in Europe, most disease there is caused by B. afzelii or B. garinii; these two species also seem to be responsible for the illness in Asia. This chapter presents biology and enzootic cycles of B. burgdorferi and related Borrelia species. As with other spirochetal infections, human Lyme borreliosis generally occurs in stages, with remissions, exacerbations, and different clinical manifestations at each stage. Early infection consists of stage 1 (localized skin infection), followed within days to weeks by stage 2 (disseminated infection). Late infection, or stage 3 (persistent or progressive infection), usually begins months to
Nine proficiency test events for Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi antibody were carried out from October 1988 to January 1992 by the New York State Department of Health, Albany. Overall sensitivity for the 846 participants averaged 95.4%, with varying sensitivities of 98.7% for users 71 laboratories of immunofluorescence assays, 97.4% for...
A newly described illness of the southern United States, closely related to Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia lonestari. It is associated with the bite of the Lone Star Tick, Amblyomma americanum.
Lyme disease or borreliosis, is an infectious disease. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia. The disease is carried by ticks which are parasitic on mammals such as mice and deer. In other words, ticks are the vector which transmits the disease. It is the most common tick-borne infection in the United States. Although Allen Steere realized in 1978 that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1982. It can cause joint swelling, rashes, and neurological disorders. It remains controversial whether if left untreated, Lyme disease can become a chronic condition. [1][2] ...
Borrelia afzelii NlpH protein: isolated from Borrelia afzelii; amino acid sequence in first source; NlpH protein also found in B. burgdorferi and B. garinii.; GenBank Y08413
If you apprehend anything about Lyme Disease or Chronic Lyme Disease, you perceive there are various thoughts and opinions without interrupti~ how it should be treated. When I esteem about my own treatment, boy I wish the medical practitioner that treated me over 10 years since would have properly diagnosed me, in consequence maybe just maybe I would not have ~ing going through this right now.. You discern, many doctors believe that when a living body is bitten by a deer check off that is infected with Borrelia Burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme Disease grant that they are treated immediately with antibiotics in opposition to 28-30 days they should subsist ok and for the most office completely recover. While in more cases this is true, the occurrence remains that more than 50% of those infected through Lyme Disease are misdiagnosed mostly suitable to the fact that the current mode used to test for Lyme is outdated, by consequence Lyme goes "missed" or undetected for the time of routine ...
In this research, QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCRTM) system protocols for the detection of bacterial (Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi) DNA were developed and tested. Existing Ixodes scapularis samples collected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts and previously determined to be 60% positive for B. burgdorferi were utilized to investigate absolute bacterial genome carriage per tick using the ddPCR assays optimized here. The ddPCR technology proved to be a reliable means for detection and absolute quantification of control bacterial DNA with sensitivity as low as 10 spirochetes per μl input DNA. Application of ddPCR revealed an average B. burgdorferi carriage level of 27,239 copies in infected ticks (range: 231- 118,407 copies), 2,197 copies in infected nymphs (range: 231- 4,983 copies), and 45,620 copies in infected adults (range: 5,647- 118,407 copies). This is the first known and validated application of ddPCR for the detection of Borrelia DNA in Ixodes ticks.
Question: Is there a different treatment if Lyme is contracted by a tic or a spider? Answer: Lyme is Lyme, whether from a Tic, Spider or a Beetle. If the insect/arachnid is carrying the Gram-negative spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, in its venom, the results will all be the same: Victim catches Lyme Disease.…
The Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria causes Lyme disease, but many people continue to suffer even when all the B. burgodorferi are dead - a previously unexplained phenomenon called chronic Lyme disease.
In the mid 1970s, a mysterious illness began to plague the residents of Long Island, NY and Lyme, CT. First referred to as "Montauk Knee", the disease began to spread throughout the entire Northeast. Finally, researchers discovered that the common denominator was a bulls-eye rash connected with tick bites, and the condition was given a name - Lyme disease.. The infectious bacteria that causes lyme disease is called Borellia burgdorferi, named after the Australian biochemist who made the breakthrough in tracking down lymes source. Unlike most insect borne infections, borellia is incredibly complex; with some scientists claiming it to be the most complex bacterium known to man.. free young singles dating site. Lyme is characterized by powerful fatigue, muscle aches, inability to focus and, in some cases, almost total incapacity. Some researchers to this day consider it to be psychosomatic, but those who suffer know that the disease is very real and can be utterly debilitating. It is now believed ...
Lyme disease (LD), caused by the Ixodes tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Despite p...
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused primarily by three pathogenic species of the spirochete Borrelia (B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii). B. burgdorferi is the principal cause of the disease in the United States. All three pathogenic
Most medical professionals, when speaking of Lyme disease, are typically referring to an outdated and over-simplified version of the disease that was once taught and believed that the main causative agent being dealt with was the borrelia spirochete. We now know there are many agents involved. Borreliosis Complex for Lyme disease is a better term than just Lyme disease. We now know there are many agents involved and much neuroendocrine involvement due to not only Borrelia, but viral activity and damage to the Methylation cycle (KREBS CYCLE). It is so good to see the two groups learning from one another. Initially the group of Lyme researchers was looking at only Borrelia the causative agent for Lyme disease but as time went on they discovered many other agents. The CFIDS doctors were looking at damage to the Methylation cycle, Diastolic Heart Dysfunction and so much more in their research endeavors. It appears one group was looking for the AGENTS and the other was looking for the DAMAGE. It is ...
Borrelia bacteria (Borrelia sp.), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). These bacteria are pathogenic, causing diseases in humans and in animals. They are transmitted by arthropods such as ticks. Lyme disease and relapsing fever are two diseases that are caused by Borrelia bacteria. The bacteria are long, coiling rope-like structures. Magnification: x3550 when printed 10cm high. - Stock Image B220/1528
MMWR. 2004;53:365-3691 table, 2 figures omittedLyme disease (LD) is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through the bite of Ixodes
PepTivator® B. afzelii bmpA is a pool of lyophilized peptides, consisting mainly of 15-mer sequences with 11 amino acids overlap, covering the complete sequence of the Borrelia afzelii basic membrane protein A (UniProt ID: Q0SND0). In vitro stimulation of antigen-specific T cells with PepTivator Peptide Pools causes the secretion of effector cytokines and the up-regulation of activation markers, which then allow the detection and isolation of antigen-specific T cells. - Belgique
Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%), and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
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Summary 1. We received a juvenile squirrel-monkey, Leontocebus geoffroyi (Pucheran) with a naturally acquired spirochetosis on May 20, 1930. This animal had been in captivity for a short time in the region of Arraijan and La Chorrera, Republic of Panama. This region has long been known as an endemic center for relapsing fever. 2. We secured, in August, 1930, two monkeys of this same species that were positive for a scant or latent infection of apparently the same spirochete. These animals were captured in the jungle at a point on the banks of the Tuira river above Boca de Cupe, Dárien Province, Republic of Panama. Twenty other specimens captured on the same expedition failed to show the infection. All were post mortem examinations. 3. We have passed the spirochetal infection from the squirrel-monkeys to white mice, white rats, one guinea pig, white-faced monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator Thomas), red spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl), a night monkey (Aotus zonalis Goldman) and to numerous
The frequency of a new tick-borne infection that shares many similarities with Lyme disease, and a description of the antibody test used to test individuals for evidence of the infection, have been reported for the first time by researchers at the Yale Schools of Public Health and Medicine. The results are published in the May 7 online issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.. The new antibody test was used to detect evidence of infection by the bacterium Borrelia miyamotoi, which is found in black-legged ticks and is related to the Borrelia (a bacteria sub-type) that causes Lyme disease. The researchers found that about 4% of 639 healthy people living in southern New England had evidence of previous B. miyamotoi infection, compared to about 10% with evidence of previous Lyme disease infection.. In addition to concluding that human B. miyamotoi infection may be common in southern New England, the authors also write that the antibody test for Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent that causes Lyme ...
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement. Owing to their mode of action, the interacting surface-exposed proteins identified among B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, and B. bavariensis can be classified into at least two major categories, namely molecules that directly interfere with distinct complement components including BBK32, CspA,
Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus Borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. The copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, B31, of B. burgdorferi. All three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific DNA probes. The low copy number of Borrelia plasmids suggests that initiation of DNA replication and partitioning are carefully controlled during the cell division cycle. The copy numbers of these three plasmids of strain B31 were unchanged after approximately 7,000 generations in continuous in vitro culture. A clone of B. burgdorferi B31 that did not contain the 16-kb linear plasmid was obtained after exposure of a culture to novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor. The plasmid-cured strain contains only one ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
Microbiologists at the University of Calgary have demonstrated the first direct visualization of the dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. This real-time, three-dimensional look at spirochete dissemination in a living mammalian host is published June 20 in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens.
Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a protein that may help give Lyme disease its bite.. The findings suggest that the bacterial protein, which aids in transporting the metal manganese, is essential for the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to become virulent.. "We believe our findings provide a foundation for further defining metal homeostasis in this human pathogen and may lead to new strategies for thwarting Lyme disease," said Dr. Michael Norgard, chairman of microbiology at UT Southwestern and senior author of a study now online and in an upcoming issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. Lyme disease, discovered in 1977, is the most prevalent tick-borne infection in the U.S. Borrelia burgdorfei, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, lives in infected mammals and in the midgut of ticks. When an infected tick bites an animal or a human, the bacteria are transmitted to the new host. Infection causes fever, malaise, fatigue, headache, muscle ...
Relapsing fevers occur worldwide and are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and spirochetemia. In central, eastern, and southern Africa, the disease is often caused by Borrelia duttonii, which is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. We conducted a field investigation in September 1994 at a hospital in Mitwaba, southern Zaire, which was the only medical facility within 150 km. The introduction of a rapid blood-smear staining technique allowed us to demonstrate that 4.3%-7.4% of the 25-50 new outpatients seen each day had relapsing fever. Because of the absence of malaria in this area, these patients account for most of the febrile patients. The incidence of relapsing fever among all pregnant women in the maternity ward was estimated to be 6.4%, and this condition often led to maternal death or to spontaneous abortion. The 16S rRNA gene of B. dutonii was sequenced after the spirochete was isolated from patients blood samples and directly from Ornithodoros tick vectors. In ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, and B. turicatae, a neurotropic agent of relapsing fever, are susceptible to vancomycin in vitro, with an MIC of 0.5 microgram/ml. To determine the activity of vancomycin in vivo, particularly in the brain, we infected adult immunocompetent BALB/c and immunodeficient CB-17 scid mice with B. burgdorferi or B. turicatae. The mice were then treated with vancomycin, ceftriaxone as a positive control, or normal saline as a negative control. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by cultures of blood and brain and other tissues. Ceftriaxone at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight administered every 12 h for 7 to 10 days eliminated cultivable B. burgdorferi or B. turicatae from all BALB/c or scid mice in the study. Vancomycin at 30 mg/kg administered every 12 h was effective in eliminating infection from immunodeficient mice if treatment was started within 3 days of the onset of infection. If treatment with vancomycin was delayed for 7 days or more, ...
Coxiella burnetii, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, causes human Q fever and is considered a potential agent of bioterrorism. Distinct genomic groups of C. burnetii are revealed by restriction fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLP). Here we comprehensively define the genetic diversity …
Infectious diseases such as malaria and relapsing fever borreliosis (RF), cause severe human mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp. parasites, is estimated by the World Health Organization to cause 1.5-2.7 million deaths annually. RF, caused by Borrelia spirochetes, has the highest prevalence described for any bacterial disease in Africa, with infection outcomes ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. RF borreliosis manifests in humans as a recurring fever and with other symptoms very similar to those of malaria.. RF borreliosis has been regarded as a transient infection of the blood. However, B. duttonii exploits the brain as an immunoprivileged site escaping the host immune response while spirochetes in the blood are cleared. To investigate whether residual bacteria are dormant or actively dividing, mice with residual brain infection were administered ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic interfering with cell wall synthesis. Hence, it only affects ...
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Lyme disease (LD) is a multi-stage, multi-system bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, a spiral shaped bacterium that is most commonly transmitted by a tick bite. The disease takes its name from Lyme, Connecticut, where the illness was first identified in the United States in 1975.. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lyme disease continues to be a rapidly emerging infectious disease, and is the leading cause of all insect-borne illness in the U.S. According to the CDC, LD cases more than doubled during the surveillance period of 1992 to 2006. In 2010, there were nearly 23,000 confirmed cases and nearly 7,000 probable cases of LD.. Lyme disease is a year-round problem, although April through October is considered tick season. Cases of LD have been reported in nearly all states in this country, with most cases occurring in:. ...
Lyme Arthritis is a feature of Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick Ixodes dammini.
An acute febrile illness caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The fevers spontaneously abate and then recur. The human body louse (Pediculus humanus) is the main vector. A less severe form is transmitted by soft ticks of the genus Ornithodorus.
to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease. The most commonly used is the test. An immunoblot test is done to confirm ELISA results. Be aware, though, in the early stage of infection, blood tests may be normal. Also, if you are treated with antibiotics in the early stage, your body may not make enough antibodies to be detected by blood tests.. In areas where Lyme disease is more common, your health care provider may be able to diagnose early disseminated Lyme disease (Stage 2) without doing any lab tests.. Other tests that may be done when the infection has spread include:. ...
The answer is a. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. After B. burgdorferi is introduced into the skin, it spreads locally. The local spread leads to erythema migrans (EM), a rash that is found in approximately two-thirds of patients. Keep in mind that a rash may not be present in up to 20% of cases and even if present may be mild, nonspecific, and easily missed by the patient, family, caregivers, and/or the initial treating physicians ...
Ronald Plasterk, is a Dutch politician of the Labour Party and successful scientist and molecular genetics. He studied biology at the Leiden University and economics at the University of Amsterdam. In 1981 he received the Dutch doctorandus degree in biology. In 1984 he earned a doctorate in mathematics and natural sciences from the University of Leiden.. After receiving his Ph.D. he moved to California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and worked as a post-doc (1985-1986) on the transposon sequences in DNA in the parasite Borrelia hermsii. Plasterk was also a post-doc at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge (1986-1987) where he studied Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode that is used as a model organism. His major area of research include genetics and functional genomics.. He came back to the Netherlands in 1987 and became a group leader and member of the board of the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam. Between 1989 and 2000 he was director of the research school of ...
The aim was to find if there is variability in the production of specific antibodies by BALB/c mice to certain antigens of three individual Borrelia afzelii (dead cell suspension) strains originally isolated from different sources. Analysis of the borrelian proteins immunogenicity was performed...
Treatment of Lyme disease can also be a problem because it can be prolonged. Many horses come to the Lyme diagnosis after many other treatments have been attempted. Treatment of Lyme disease most commonly involves one or two antibiotics. Tetracyline is a very effective treatment for Lyme disease and is relatively inexpensive. However, it must be given intravenously once a day, so most horses will only be treated with this antibiotic for a short time. Doxycycline is a related antibiotic, but it can be given orally. This drug must be given twice a day, but because it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, treatment duration is often prolonged, frequently one month or more. Sometimes, it is necessary to treat for months at a time until the antibody level has dropped to a low level. In some cases, the organism is never eradicated from the body. If Lyme Disease is caught early many horses respond quickly to the treatment, and the first signs of improvement can be seen in 2 to 5 days. The ...
WASHINGTON, DC - December 4, 2012 -- New clues about the bacteria that cause Lyme disease could lead to a novel strategy to reduce infections, according to a study to be published in mBio®, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, on December 4.
In certain parts of the U.S., up to 90 percent of dogs may test positive for the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. Heres how vets tend to treat the disease.
Torontos tick surveillance program monitors the number of blacklegged ticks, their locations and the number of them that carry the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. This information helps to determine the overall risk of Lyme disease in Toronto. The tick surveillance program consists of ticks brought in by the public and ticks found by dragging. Tick […]
LYME DISEASE ~ PCOS Lady: Lyme Disease will manifest over years effecting parts through your body... You may experience needing several surgeries and numerous medications over time... I know a woman that has experienced both! ~ You can see some symptoms overlap other medical conditions... ~ Spirochetes are tough to kill cause they may be…
Diagnosis of Lyme Disease can be achieved through many methods. Learn about diagnosis of Lyme Disease and find causes, symptoms, and many types of smart treatments for Lyme Disease at FoundHealth.
Lyme disease, one cause of peripheral neuropathy, continues to be the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the US. It was the 7th most common nationally notifiable disease in 2012 with many cases that go unreported. Three complementary studies are currently being conducted by the CDC to better quantify how many people are actually diagnoed with Lyme disease each year. According to the CDC, new estimates indicate that the number of Lyme disease cases in the US each year is close to 300,000. READ MORE. Source: Healio/Infectious Disease ...
Lyme disease can be tough to diagnose, and sometimes even tougher to treat. Here, tactics to prevent Lyme disease, and keep your child safe.
Medications can be effective in treating Lyme Disease. Understand drugs and medical procedures for Lyme Disease, see research evidence, and discover other smart treatments for Lyme Disease at FoundHealth.
The clip shows a doctor removing a tick embedded inside an unnamed patient's eardrum. Ticks can cause Lyme disease, caused Matt, 44, to need heart surgery after suffering complications.
This study is designed to establish a population of patients with Lyme disease for evaluation, treatment and follow-up to learn more about the infection.. Patients with active Lyme disease may be eligible for this study.. Participants will have a medical history and physical examination and diagnostic evaluations as appropriate to their individual condition. Laboratory tests may include routing blood and urine tests, X-rays, or other imaging studies, body fluid or tissue cultures, skin biopsy and tests for allergic or immune responses. Treatment will include only medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration, given according to accepted dose schedules and ways of taking the medicines. All diagnostic tests and treatments will be according to standard medical practice for the disease. No experimental procedures will be offered under this protocol.. Patients will be followed as needed for evaluation and treatment of their condition. In general, they will be asked to return at the end of ...
How These Treatments Help People with Lyme Disease to Drop the Weight They Cant Lose For people who cannot control their Lyme disease weight loss or
Read all Question sabout ★ LYME DISEASE IN DOGS ★ NOW ➡ This topic consists of (1) Questions ➡ Find out all Answers on Lyme disease in dogs | Ask.Naij.com
Lyme disease can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and other organ systems. If Lyme disease is diagnosed quickly and treated with antibiotics, most people feel better quickly.
Lyme disease is a scary thought for people, with approximately 30,000 cases being reported to the CDC every year. Are you aware that Lyme disease can also affect dogs, too?
Lyme disease can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and other organ systems. If Lyme disease is diagnosed quickly and treated with antibiotics, most people feel better quickly.
Lyme Disease is such a devastating disease. It is so easy to become isolated and desperate with the never ending symptoms that Lyme Disease causes. Not to
Lyme Disease is such a devastating disease. It is so easy to become isolated and desperate with the never ending symptoms that Lyme Disease causes. Not to
Destroying the Lyme Disease Biofilm Using An Ancient Infiltrator For people with relapsing Lyme disease symptoms By Greg Lee Resealable bags protect your
I renencnlty got dignoised with cronic Lyme disease and starting meds today all of my symptoms seems to be affecting my Nero side like my mind a blank mind confused very out of it depersonalized dizzy ...
By Ellwood Shreve, Chatham Daily News Thursday, October 17, 2013 6:38:48 EDT PM Chatham-Kent has seen an increase in reported human cases of Lyme disease, compared to other areas in the region. There has been four confirmed cases of Lyme disease in Chatham-Kent so far this year with another case still under investigation. This is up from two confirmed cases in Continues →. ...
Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade.. Results: 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains ...
Lyme disease is a multisystem tick-borne disorder with dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic manifestations (3, 26, 29). The disease represents the most common vector-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere and is caused by human-pathogenic members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and the very recently established species B. spielmanii (22, 28). Isolates belonging to the newly delineated genospecies B. spielmanii have hitherto been isolated from patients in The Netherlands, Hungary, Slovenia, and Germany as well as from ticks in France, Germany, Ukraine, and the Czech Republic (6-8, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28). The heterogeneity of borrelial strains is known to impact the variability of Lyme disease manifestations and clearly is a challenge for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines (7). Moreover, minor differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the classical borrelial genospecies known to be ...
OBJECTIVE: To estimate long term survival, health, and educational/social functioning in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis compared with the general population.. DESIGN: Nationwide population based cohort study using national registers.. SETTING: Denmark.. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish residents diagnosed during 1986-2016 as having Lyme neuroborreliosis (n=2067), defined as a positive Borrelia burgdorferi intrathecal antibody test and a clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and a comparison cohort from the general population matched on sex and date of birth (n=20 670).. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality rate ratios, incidence rate ratios of comorbidities, and differences in educational and social outcomes.. RESULTS: Mortality among patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis was not higher than in the general population (mortality rate ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.03). Lyme neuroborreliosis patients had increased risk of haematological (incidence rate ratio 3.07, 2.03 to 4.66) and ...
Ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-species complex have been implicated as vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi). A variety of other ticks, notably American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) and Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the U.S., appear incapable of transmitting Lyme disease spirochetes despite ingesting these bacteria. In this study, I confirmed that deer ticks, but not dog ticks or Lone Star ticks became infected with Lyme disease spirochetes after feeding on infected hosts. In addition, I assessed several potential physiologic factors that could affect the ability of ticks to acquire, maintain, and transmit B. burgdorferi. One factor in particular, found in tick saliva, appears responsible for preventing spirochete killing in I. scapularis but not D. variabilis or A. americanum. In one study, I assessed anti-microbial activity of the ticks immune system. In particular, I determined whether ticks exhibited measurable phenoloxidase and antimicrobial activity.
In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Ticks were collected by dragging a flag over the vegetation and B....

Spirochaeta - definition of Spirochaeta by The Free DictionarySpirochaeta - definition of Spirochaeta by The Free Dictionary

Based on 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences, the Genus Borrelia belongs to the Order Spirochaetales, family Spirochetaceae along ... Lyme borreliosis: is there a preexisting (natural) variation in antimicrobial susceptibility among Borrelia burgdorferi strains ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Spirochaeta

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever | Wisconsin Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesRocky Mountain Spotted Fever | Wisconsin Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Borreliosis or Lyme Disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi or B. mayonii) *Infection rates: blacklegged (deer) tick nymphs with ...
more infohttp://labs.russell.wisc.edu/wisconsin-ticks/rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-rmsf/

Lyme disease organism - Borrelia burgdorferi: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageLyme disease organism - Borrelia burgdorferi: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ... Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is similar in shape to the spirochetes that cause ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/1028.htm

Borrelia - WikipediaBorrelia - Wikipedia

Borrelia recurrentis (Louse borne relapsing fever). *Borrelia hermsii/Borrelia duttoni/Borrelia parkeri (Tick borne relapsing ... The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. ... Borrelia brasiliensis ♦ Davis 1952. *Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al. 1984 emend. Baranton et al. 1992 (Lyme disease ... Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum.[1] It causes borreliosis, a zoonotic, vector-borne disease ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrelia

Benach and borrelia - PubMed - NCBIBenach and borrelia - PubMed - NCBI

Benach[All Fields] AND ("borrelia"[MeSH Terms] OR "borrelia"[All Fields]). Search. ... Lipid exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and host cells.. Crowley JT, Toledo AM, LaRocca TJ, Coleman JL, London E, Benach JL ... The loss and gain of marginal zone and peritoneal B cells is different in response to relapsing fever and Lyme disease Borrelia ... Borrelia burgdorferi - morphological structure and motility as adaptation for transmission and survival in the habitat of a ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Benach+and+borrelia

barthold sw and borrelia - PubMed - NCBIbarthold sw and borrelia - PubMed - NCBI

Showing results for barthold sw and borrelia. Your search for bartold SW and borrelia retrieved no results. ... Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii alters the course of murine Lyme borreliosis. ... barthold sw[Author] AND ("borrelia"[MeSH Terms] OR "borrelia"[All Fields]). Search. ... Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.. Hodzic E, Feng S, Holden K, Freet KJ, Barthold SW. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=bartold+SW+and+borrelia

Borrelia miyamotoi Disease | Tick-borne Diseases | Ticks | CDCBorrelia miyamotoi Disease | Tick-borne Diseases | Ticks | CDC

Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi and other tick-borne pathogens in human clinical specimens and Ixodes scapularis ticks in New ... Borrelia miyamotoi disease, sometimes called hard tick relapsing fever, has been reported as the cause of human infection in ... Borrelia miyamotoi disease in the northeastern United States: a case series. Ann Intern Med 2015 Jul 21;163(2):91-8. ... Borrelia miyamotoi infection presenting as human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case report. Ann Intern Med 2013 Jul 2;159(1):21- ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/ticks/tickbornediseases/borrelia-miyamotoi.html

Borrelia hispanicaBorrelia hispanica

... (de Buen 1926) Steinhaus 1946. › Spirochaeta hispanica. › no culture available. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/40835

Borrelia / Rickettsia | DailyStrengthBorrelia / Rickettsia | DailyStrength

... show up as Borrelia in a LabCorp test. It was to my understanding my first LabCorp test only needed a 20 pos. count and I had ... for Borrelia.. I was still Pos For Borrelia after 4 months When my LLMD tested. ... for Borrelia.. I wonder why that MD said it was RMSF after he said I had Lyme For 4 wks before test came back then changed to ... Can rickettsia ( RMSF ) show up as Borrelia in a LabCorp test.. It was to my understanding my first LabCorp test only needed a ...
more infohttps://www.dailystrength.org/group/lyme-disease/discussion/borrelia-rickettsia

Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageLyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ... Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. It is known as a spirochete because of its long, corkscrew ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/1427.htm

What you need to know about Borrelia mayonii | Lyme Disease | CDCWhat you need to know about Borrelia mayonii | Lyme Disease | CDC

What is Borrelia mayonii?. Borrelia mayonii are a type of bacteria recently found in North America that can cause Lyme disease ... What you need to know about Borrelia mayonii. ... Borrelia burgdorferi (North America, Europe). *B. afzelii ( ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/lyme/mayonii/index.html

Borrelia hermsii Antibody Panel, IFABorrelia hermsii Antibody Panel, IFA

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative ... ImmunoDOT Borrelia DotBlot G Test. 2. ImmunoWELL Borrelia (Lyme) Test. 3. ImmunoDOT Borrelia DotBlot M Test. 4. ImmunoDOT ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies, Totalby ELISA. 8. Borrelia burgdorferi Antibody, IgG by Western Blot (CSF). 9. Borrelia ... Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies,Total by ELISA with Reflex to IgG & IgM by Western Blot (Early Disease). 11. Borrelia ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Borrelia-hermsii-Antibody-Panel--IFA-21842-1/

Borrelia burgdorferi | MSDSonlineBorrelia burgdorferi | MSDSonline

NAME: Borrelia burgdorferi SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis, relapsing fever, Erythema migrans (EM) ...
more infohttps://www.msdsonline.com/resources/sds-resources/free-safety-data-sheet-index/borrelia-burgdorferi/

Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions | PNASBorrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions | PNAS

... several Borrelia species (relapsing fever), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), Leptospira interrogans (leptospirosis), ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Mohammed Abdul Motaleb, Linda Corum, James ... Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/97/20/10899?ijkey=d8096ee1708d3d5798be0241fd0950e1f4760415&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Characterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In VitroCharacterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In Vitro

Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by ... We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the ... Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic ... In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048277

JCI -
Interaction between Borrelia burgdorferi and endothelium in vitro.JCI - Interaction between Borrelia burgdorferi and endothelium in vitro.

During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several ... Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/114615/scanned-page/1643

138685: Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Real... | LabCorp138685: Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Real... | LabCorp

Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Real-time PCR. TEST: 138685 Test number copied ... This assay is intended to be used as an aid to the diagnosis of infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/30696/lyme-disease-iborrelia-burgdorferi-i-real-time-pcr

Borrelia afzelii Canica et al. ATCC ® 51567™Borrelia afzelii Canica et al. ATCC ® 51567™

Borrelia afzelii ATCC ® 51567™ Designation: CIP 103469 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/products/all/51567.aspx

Reason for bodys response to borrelia discoveredReason for body's response to borrelia discovered

Antibodies »Borrelia »Molecules »Protein »Umeå University in Sweden »Wittung-Stafshede »borrelia bacteria »function »jack-in- ... Further reports about: , Antibodies , Borrelia , Molecules , Protein , Umeå University in Sweden , Wittung-Stafshede , borrelia ... Reason for bodys response to borrelia discovered. 07.10.2008. Inside a cell it is so crowded that a certain protein from ... Congestion in the cell environment forces the protein V1sE, which exists in borrelia bacteria, to change shape. Like a jack-in- ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/reason-body-039-s-response-borrelia-discovered-119738.html

015400: Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi C6... | LabCorp015400: Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi C6... | LabCorp

Lyme Disease, Borrelia burgdorferi C6 Antigen With Reflex to Western Blot. TEST: 015400 Test number copied ... Aid in the diagnosis of acute and later stages of infections by Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete associated with Lyme ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/30686/lyme-disease-iborrelia-burgdorferi-i-c6-antigen-with-reflex-to-western-blot

Borrelia garinii Baranton et al. ATCC ® 51383™Borrelia garinii Baranton et al. ATCC ® 51383™

Borrelia garinii ATCC ® 51383™ Designation: CIP 103362 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector ... Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis ... Borrelia garinii Baranton et al. (ATCC® 51383™) Strain Designations: CIP 103362 / Type Strain: yes / Biosafety Level: 2 ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/products/all/51383.aspx

Borrelia andersonii - WikipediaBorrelia andersonii - Wikipedia

NCBI Taxonomy Browser - Borrelia Borrelia andersonii at the Encyclopedia of Life. ... and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A". Parasites & Vectors. 5 (1): 231. doi:10.1186/ ... Borrelia andersonii is a spirochete bacterium. It can be pathogenic, being involved in cases of Lyme borreliosis. Lyme disease ... Stanek G, Reiter M (April 2011). "The expanding Lyme Borrelia complex--clinical significance of genomic species?". Clinical ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrelia_andersonii

Early dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi without generalized s...: Ingenta ConnectEarly dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi without generalized s...: Ingenta Connect

Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; cultivation; dissemination; erythema migrans; incidence of Lyme borreliosis; ... Early dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi without generalized symptoms in patients with erythema migrans ...
more infohttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mksg/apm/2001/00000109/00000009/art09903
  • Lipid rafts can form in the inner and outer membranes of Borrelia burgdorferi and have different properties and associated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • This thesis aimed to characterize integral outer membrane proteins which play a role in solute and nutrient uptake, and provides support for their role in the environmental adaptation of Borrelia. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparative molecular analyses of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains B31 and N40D10/E9 and determination of their pathogenicity. (nih.gov)
  • Your search for bartold SW and borrelia retrieved no results. (nih.gov)
  • Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to the subendothelial matrix. (jci.org)