A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technique for the treatment of neoplasms in which an isotope is introduced into target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.
Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.

Synthesis and in vivo murine evaluation of Na4[1-(1'-B10H9)-6-SHB10H8] as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. (1/104)

Reaction of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- and the protected thiol anion, [SC(O)OC(CH3)3]-, produces an unexpected isomer of [B20H17SC(O)OC(CH3)3]4- directly and in good yield. The isomer produced under mild conditions is characterized by an apical-apical boron atom intercage connection as well as the location of the thiol substituent on an equatorial belt adjacent to the terminal boron apex. Although the formation of this isomer from nucleophilic attack of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- has not been reported previously, the isomeric assignment has been unambiguously confirmed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 11B NMR spectroscopy. Deprotection of the thiol substituent under acidic conditions produces a protonated intermediate, [B20H18SH]3-, which can be deprotonated with a suitable base to yield the desired product, [B20H17SH]4-. The sodium salt of the resulting [B20H17SH]4- ion has been encapsulated in small, unilamellar liposomes, which are capable of delivering their contents selectively to tumors in vivo, and investigated as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. The biodistribution of boron was determined after intravenous injection of the liposomal suspension into BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinoma. At low injected doses, the tumor boron concentration increased throughout the time-course experiment, resulting in a maximum observed boron concentration of 46.7 micrograms of B per g of tumor at 48 h and a tumor to blood boron ratio of 7.7. The boron concentration obtained in the tumor corresponds to 22.2% injected dose (i.d.) per g of tissue, a value analogous to the most promising polyhedral borane anions investigated for liposomal delivery and subsequent application in boron neutron capture therapy.  (+info)

Treatment of isografted 9L rat brain tumors with beta-5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine neutron capture therapy. (2/104)

beta-5-o-Carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) is a nontoxic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue designed for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors. In vitro studies indicated that D-CDU accumulates to levels 92- and 117-fold higher than the extracellular concentration in rat 9L and human U-251 glioma cells, respectively, and persists for several hours at levels 5-fold higher than the extracellular concentration. Furthermore, D-CDU was not toxic to rats injected i.p. with up to 150 mg/kg. On the basis of these studies, D-CDU was evaluated as a neutron capture therapy agent using rats bearing stereotactically implanted intracranial 9L tumors at single i.p. doses of 30 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg of D-CDU (20% 10B enriched), given 2 h before irradiation with thermal neutrons. Boron concentrations in tumors 2 h after dosing were 2.3 +/- 1.6 and 7.4 +/- 1.3 micrograms boron/g tissue (mean +/- SD), corresponding to tumor/brain ratios of 11.5 +/- 3.6 and 6.8 +/- 2.0 micrograms boron/g tissue for the low and high doses, respectively. All untreated animals died within 28 days, whereas half survived at days 32, 55, and 38 for groups receiving neutrons only, 30 mg/kg D-CDU, and 150 mg/kg D-CDU, respectively. Odds ratios of all treatment groups differed significantly from the untreated group (P < 0.002; logrank test). The median survival time for the 30 mg/kg-treated group but not for the 150 mg/kg-treated group was significantly longer than for rats treated with neutrons only (P = 0.036), which may correlate with the decreased tumor selectivity for D-CDU observed at the higher dose. Additional pharmacodynamic studies are warranted to determine optimal dosing strategies for D-CDU.  (+info)

Boron microlocalization in oral mucosal tissue: implications for boron neutron capture therapy. (3/104)

Clinical studies of the treatment of glioma and cutaneous melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are currently taking place in the USA, Europe and Japan. New BNCT clinical facilities are under construction in Finland, Sweden, England and California. The observation of transient acute effects in the oral mucosa of a number of glioma patients involved in the American clinical trials, suggests that radiation damage of the oral mucosa could be a potential complication in future BNCT clinical protocols, involving higher doses and larger irradiation field sizes. The present investigation is the first to use a high resolution surface analytical technique to relate the microdistribution of boron-10 (10B) in the oral mucosa to the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li neutron capture reaction in this tissue. The two boron delivery agents used clinically in Europe/Japan and the USA, borocaptate sodium (BSH) and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), respectively, were evaluated using a rat ventral tongue model. 10B concentrations in various regions of the tongue mucosa were estimated using ion microscopy. In the epithelium, levels of 10B were appreciably lower after the administration of BSH than was the case after BPA. The epithelium:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.2:1 and 1:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. The 10B content of the lamina propria was higher than that measured in the epithelium for both BSH and BPA. The difference was most marked for BSH, where 10B levels were a factor of six higher in the lamina propria than in the epithelium. The concentration of 10B was also measured in blood vessel walls where relatively low levels of accumulation of BSH, as compared with BPA, was demonstrated in blood vessel endothelial cells and muscle. Vessel wall:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.3:1 and 0.9:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. Evaluation of tongue mucosal response (ulceration) to BNC irradiation indicated a considerably reduced radiation sensitivity using BSH as the boron delivery agent relative to BPA. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor for BSH was estimated at 0.29 +/- 0.02. This compares with a previously published CBE factor for BPA of 4.87 +/- 0.16. It was concluded that variations in the microdistribution profile of 10B, using the two boron delivery agents, had a significant effect on the response of oral mucosa to BNC irradiation. From a clinical perspective, based on the findings of the present study, it is probable that potential radiation-induced oral mucositis will be restricted to BNCT protocols involving BPA. However, a thorough high resolution analysis of 10B microdistribution in human oral mucosal tissue, using a technique such as ion microscopy, is a prerequisite for the use of experimentally derived CBE factors in clinical BNCT.  (+info)

Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of the boron neutron capture reaction in human melanoma cells using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. (4/104)

The present work reports on the genotoxicity of the boron neutron capture (BNC) reaction in human metastatic melanoma cells (A2058) assessed by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) using p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery agent. Different concentrations of BPA (0.48, 1.2 and 2.4 mM) and different fluences of thermal neutrons were studied. Substantial genotoxic potential of alpha and lithium particles generated inside or near the malignant cell by the BNC reaction was observed in a dose-response manner as measured by the frequency of micronucleated binucleated melanoma cells and by the number of micronuclei (MN) per binucleated cell. The distribution of the number of MN per micronucleated binucleated cell was also studied. The BNC reaction clearly modifies this distribution, increasing the frequency of micronucleated cells with 2 and, especially, > or =3 MN and conversely decreasing the frequency of micronucleated cells with 1 MN. A decrease in cell proliferation was also observed which correlated with MN formation. A discrete genotoxic and anti-proliferative contribution from both thermal neutron irradiation and BPA was observed and should be considered secondary. Additionally, V79 Chinese hamster cells (chromosomal aberrations assay) and human lymphocytes (CBMN assay) incubated with different concentrations of BPA alone did not show any evidence of genotoxicity. The presented results reinforce the usefulness of the CBMN assay as an alternative method for assessment of the deleterious effects induced by high LET radiation produced by the BNC reaction in human melanoma cells.  (+info)

Atomic emission method for total boron in blood during neutron-capture therapy. (5/104)

BACKGROUND: Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is a drug-targeted binary radiotherapy for cancer. The (10)B capture of thermal neutrons induces secondary radiation within cells during irradiation. The most widely used boron carrier is 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine (BPA). The duration and timing of the irradiation is adjusted by monitoring (10)B concentrations in whole blood. METHODS: We developed a new method for boron determination that uses inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and protein removal with trichloroacetic acid before analysis. This method was compared with the established but tedious inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which uses wet ashing as sample pretreatment. Erythrocyte boron concentrations were determined indirectly on the basis of plasma and whole blood boron concentrations and the hematocrit. The hematocrit was determined indirectly by measuring calcium concentrations in plasma and whole blood. RESULTS: Within- and between-day CVs were <5%. The recoveries for boron in whole blood were 95.6-96.2%. A strong correlation was found between results of the ICP-AES and ICP-MS (r = 0.994). Marked differences in plasma and erythrocyte boron concentrations were observed during and after infusion of BPA fructose complex. CONCLUSIONS: The present method is feasible, accurate, and one of the fastest for boron determination during BNCT. Our results indicate that it is preferable to determine boron in plasma and in whole blood. Indirect erythrocyte-boron determination thus becomes possible and avoids the impact of preanalytical confounding factors, such as the influence of the hematocrit of the patient. Such an approach enables a more reliable estimation of the irradiation dose.  (+info)

Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: investigation of urinary metabolites and oxidation products of sodium borocaptate by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (6/104)

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on a nuclear capture reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low energy neutrons to produce high-energy alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. The purpose of the present study was to determine what urinary metabolites, if any, could be detected in patients with brain tumors who were given sodium borocaptate (BSH), a drug that has been used clinically for BNCT. BSH was infused intravenously over a 1-h time period at doses of 26.5, 44.1, or 88.2 mg/kg of body weight to patients with high-grade brain tumors. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been used to investigate possible urinary metabolites of BSH. Chemical and instrument conditions were established to detect BSH and its possible metabolites in both positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. Using this methodology, boronated ions were found in patients' urine samples that appeared to be consistent with the following chemical structures: BSH sulfenic acid (BSOH), BSH sulfinic acid (BSO(2)H), BSH disulfide (BSSB), BSH thiosulfinate (BSOSB), and a BSH-S-cysteine conjugate (BSH-CYS). Although BSH has been used clinically for BNCT since the late 1960s, this is the first report of specific biotransformation products following administration to patients. Further studies will be required to determine both the biological significance of these metabolites and whether any of these accumulate in significant amounts in brain tumors.  (+info)

Quantitative imaging and microlocalization of boron-10 in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells by SIMS ion microscopy: relevance to neutron capture therapy. (7/104)

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is dependent on the selective accumulation of boron-10 in tumor cells relative to the contiguous normal cells. Ion microscopy was used to evaluate the microdistribution of boron-10 from p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the 9L rat gliosarcoma and the F98 rat glioma brain tumor models. Four routes of BPA administration were used: i.p. injection, intracarotid (i.c.) injection [with and without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D)], and continuous timed i.v. infusions. i.p. injection of BPA in the 9L gliosarcoma resulted in a tumor-to-brain (T:Br) boron-10 concentration ratio of 3.7:1 when measured at the tumor-normal brain interface. In the F98 glioma, i.c injection of BPA resulted in a T:Br ratio of 2.9:1, and this increased to 5.4:1 when BBB-D was performed. The increased tumor boron uptake would potentially enhance the therapeutic ratio of BNCT by >25%. At present, ion microscopy is the only technique to provide a direct measurement of the T:Br boron-10 concentration ratio for tumor cells infiltrating normal brain. In the 9L gliosarcoma, this ratio was 2.9:1 after i.p. administration. In the F98 glioma, i.c injection resulted in a ratio of 2.2:1, and this increased to 3.0:1 after BBB-D. Ion microscopy revealed a consistent pattern of boron-10 microdistribution for both rat brain tumor models. The boron-10 concentration in the main tumor mass (MTM) was approximately twice that of the infiltrating tumor cells. One hour after a 2-h i.v. infusion of BPA in rats with the 9L gliosarcoma, tumor boron-10 concentrations were 2.7 times higher than that of infiltrating tumor cells [83 +/- 23 microg/g tissue versus 31 +/- 12 microg/g tissue (mean +/- SD)]. Continuous 3- and 6-h i.v. infusions of BPA in the 9L gliosarcoma resulted in similar high boron-10 concentrations in the MTM. The boron-10 concentration in infiltrating tumor cells was two times lower than the MTM after a 3-h infusion. After 6 h, the boron-10 concentration in infiltrating tumor cells had increased nearly 90% relative to the 2- and 3-h infusions. A 24-h i.v. infusion resulted in similar boron-10 levels between the MTM and the infiltrating tumor cells. Boron concentrations in the normal brain were similar for all four infusion times (approximately 20 microg/g tissue). These results are important for BNCT, because clinical protocols using a 2-h infusion have been performed with the assumption that infiltrating tumor cells contain equivalent amounts of boron-10 as the MTM. The results reported here suggest that this is not the case and that a 6-h or longer infusion of BPA may be necessary to raise boron-10 levels in infiltrating tumor cells to that in the MTM.  (+info)

Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model. (8/104)

We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies and shown that boronophenylalanine delivers potentially therapeutic 36.9 +/- 17.5 ppm boron to tumor tissue with tumor:normal tissue and tumor:blood ratios of 2.4:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. Here we report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue, and normal oral tissue to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days posttreatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in an additional 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue.  (+info)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation therapy technique which is based on the principle of irradiating boron atoms with neut
Accurate dosimetry and determination of the biological effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is challenging because of the mix of different types and energies of radiation at the cellular and subcellular levels. In this paper, we present a computational, multiscale system of models to better assess the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and compound biological effectiveness (CBE) of several neutron sources as applied to BNCT using boronophenylalanine (BPA) and a potential monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets HER-2-positive cells with Trastuzumab. The multiscale model is tested against published in vitro and in vivo measurements of cell survival with and without boron. The combined dosimetric and radiobiological model includes an analytical formulation that accounts for the type of neutron source, the tissue- or cancer-specific dose–response characteristics, and the microdistribution of boron. Tests of the model against results from published experiments with and without
20 November 2017 - RaySearch and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Sumitomo), based in Tokyo, Japan, have entered into an agreement regarding treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) - a unique type of radiation therapy that targets cancer at the cellular level. The agreement extends the existing cooperation between Sumitomo and RaySearch on proton therapy. Sumitomo has developed the worlds first accelerator-based clinical BNCT system and is conducting clinical trials regarding recurrent head-and-neck and brain cancers in Japan. Treatment planning is an essential aspect of BNCT, and Sumitomo selected RayStation because of its advanced capabilities and usability. Under the agreement, RayStations functionality will be extended to support BNCT planning requirements*. BNCT will be an additional treatment modality in RayStation, alongside the existing options for photon, electron, proton, and carbon ion therapy. Users of BNCT will have access to the full range of advanced ...
A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets.
RATIONALE: Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effe
The present invention relates to immunoconjugates for use in neutron capture therapy, in particular Boron neutron capture therapy, for killing target cells such as tumours. The immunoconjugate of the
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 00 936 887.9 (publication No. WO 00/76557) was refused by a decision of the examining division of 29 August 2005 on the basis of Article 97 EPC on the grounds of lack of inventive step under Article 56 EPC.. II. The following documents were inter alia cited during the proceedings before the examining division and the board of appeal:. (1) J.-L.A. Shih and R.M. Brugger: Neutron induced brachytherapy: A combination of neutron capture therapy and brachytherapy Medical Physics, vol. 19, no. 2, March/April 1992, pages 369-375. (2) EP-A-0 857 470. (3) US-A-5 840 009. (4) US-A-5 947 889. (4a) DE-A-196 00 669. III. The decision was based on claims 1-19 of the main request filed with letter dated 15 January 2002 (entry into the European phase).. Independent claims 1 of the main request before the examining division read as follows:. 1. A stent for neutron capture therapy, the stent comprising a body portion fabricated from a material ...
0030] When the FDA-approved 10B-BPA is used as a boron drug in the BNCT for treating tumors, the ratio of boron concentrations accumulated in the tumor and the adjacent to normal organs must be evaluated by using 18F-BPA Positron Emission Tomography (PET) first. In other words, if a boron drug that is similar to 10B-BPA (high T/N ratio) is developed for use in the BNCT for treating liver cancer, this step of labeling the boron drug with radioisotope (such as 18F) and evaluating the boron drug T/N ratio by PET cannot be avoided. But in the present invention, boric acid is used as a boron drug in the BNCT for treating liver cancer, which does not require the step of labeling the boron drug with radioisotope or evaluating the boron drug T/N ratio by PET. This is due to the fact that boric acid does not result in specific accumulation in the soft tissues of a living creature, so the boron concentrations in a patients blood and in the liver tumor are approximately equal. Consequently, it is not ...
Arylboronate esters bearing methyl groups in both of their ortho positions were stably incorporated into lipid membranes at high concentrations without undergoing hydrolysis to the corresponding boronic acids. This method could be used in combination with previous methods to increase the maximum ratio of boron atoms in liposomal boron carriers ...
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the MITR. The fission converter-based epithermal neutron irradiation (FCB) facility is housed in the experimental hall of the MITR and operates in parallel with other user applications. The fission converter contains an array of 10 spent MITR-II fuel elements cooled by forced convection of heavy water coolant. A shielded horizontal beam line contains an aluminum and Teflon filter moderator to tailor the neutron energy spectrum into the desired epithermal energy range. A patient collimator defines the beam aperture and extends into the shielded medical room to provide circular apertures ranging from 16 to 8 cm in diameter. The in-air epithermal flux for the available field sizes ranges from 3.2 to 4.6 × 109 n/cm2 s at the patient position. The measured specific absorbed doses are constant for all field sizes and are well below the inherent background of 2.8 × 10−12 C+y(w) m2/n produced by epithermal neutrons in tissue. The dose distributions achieved with the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Peng Wang, Haining Zhen, Xinbiao Jiang, Wei Zhang, Xin Cheng, Geng Guo, Xinggang Mao, Xiang Zhang].
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Specialized treatment planning software systems are generally required for neutron capture therapy (NCT) research and clinical applications. The standard simplifying approximations that work well for
Developing radiation delivery systems for optimisation of absorbed dose to the target without normal tissue toxicity requires advanced calculations for transport of radiation. In this thesis absorbed dose and fluence in different radiotherapy applications were calculated by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations.. In paper I-III external neutron activation of gadolinium (Gd) for intravascular brachytherapy (GdNCB) and tumour therapy (GdNCT) was investigated. MC codes MCNP and GEANT4 were compared. MCNP was chosen for neutron capture reaction calculations. Gd neutron capture reaction includes both very short range (Auger electrons) and long range (IC electrons and gamma) products. In GdNCB the high-energetic gamma gives an almost flat absorbed dose delivery pattern, up to 4 mm around the stent. Dose distribution at the edges and inside the stent may prevent stent edge and in-stent restenosis. For GdNCT the absorbed dose from prompt gamma will dominate over the dose from IC and Auger electrons in an ...
RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) to detect the presence of boron in tumor cells may help determine whether patients who have thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy.. PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects of giving BPA-F and/or BSH before surgery to detect boron uptake in tissues of patients with primary, metastatic, or recurrent thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases from colorectal cancer. ...
A computer model is described that performs microdosimetric calculations of the radiation dose delivered to tumour and normal tissue in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by simulating capture reactions in a predefined three-dimensional space. The role of intracellular boron distributions and cellular dimensions on the radiation dose in clinical and experimental BNCT has been studied using a PC-based computer model. In order to calculate the radiation dose to low boron uptake cells, the extent of irradiation by boron containing adjacent cells (cross fire) is also dealt with. Radiation doses from boron and nitrogen neutron capture are converted to a biological effect by means of relative individual ion track segment efficacies, based on linear energy transfer along the particle track. A good correlation was found after comparing predicted values with previously published experimental data. A number of examples is given to illustrate the programs features.
The melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been used to deliver 10B to melanoma tissue for boron neutron capture therapy. Uptake studies in tumor models other than melanoma now indicate that BPA is capable of delivering therapeutic amounts of boron to tumors other than melanoma. The KHJJ murine mammary tumor carried s.c. in BALB/c mice, the GS-9L rat glioma carried both s.c. and intracranially in F-344 rats, and the human U-87 MG glioma xenograft carried s.c. in nude mice have all shown significant accumulation of boron in tumor tissue following single p.o. (intragastric) doses of BPA. In the KHJJ mammary tumor, the l isomer of BPA was preferentially accumulated compared to the d isomer, indicative of a carrier-mediated transport process. Double-label, whole-body autoradiographic studies in a pigmented murine melanoma have shown that the boron distribution (from BPA) differs from the distribution of a tritiated melanin precursor (tyrosine). Boron accumulated only in the ...
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head and neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head, neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
Boron compounds now have many applications in a number of fields, including Medicinal Chemistry. Although the uses of boron compounds in pharmacological science have been recognized several decades ago, surprisingly few are found in pharmaceutical drugs. The boron-containing compounds epitomize a new class for medicinal chemists to use in their drug designs. Carboranes are a class of organometallic compounds containing carbon (C), boron (B), and hydrogen (H) and are the most widely studied boron compounds in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, other boron-based compounds are of great interest, such as dodecaborate anions, metallacarboranes and metallaboranes. The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been utilized for cancer treatment from last decade, where chemotherapy and radiation have their own shortcomings. However, the improvement in the already existing (BPA and/or BSH) localized delivery agents or new tumor-targeted compounds are required before realizing the full clinical potential of BNCT.
Boron neutron capture therapy, or BNCT, is a two-part therapy that enhances the effect of radiation on cancer cells while minimizing the effect on nearby healthy cells.. Inadvertant damage to non-cancerous tissue is a major side effect of conventional radiation therapies, especially in the treatment of brain tumors. Conventional radiation therapy also requires several bouts of treatment, an inconvenience for many patients.. BNCT avoids these pitfalls by using radiation from BNLs medical reactor and a drug containing the element boron. Called BPA for boronophenylalanine, the drug is injected into the patient and travels through the bloodstream, concentrating preferentially in tumor tissue.. By itself BPA is harmless, but when exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor, the boron atoms capture neutrons, creating secondary effects that kill cells in the immediate vicinity.. Clinical trials of BNCT have been under way at BNL since 1994. Other locations in the U.S. are conducting related ...
Psimei, a recently launched biotechnology company in Middlesex, England, has acquired the license to commercialize the new boron compounds from Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), the organization that manages Brookhaven for the U.S. Department of Energy. BSA holds U.S. patents and U.S. patent applications covering these compounds and has filed international patent applications, which are pending.. Brookhaven researchers recently performed clinical trials to determine the safety and toxicity limits of an experimental therapy known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) when used with a boronated amino acid called BPA in patients with an incurable brain cancer known as glioblastoma multiforme. In these trials, BNCT was no more effective than conventional therapies in slowing the recurrence of brain tumors.. Compared to BPA, the new boron compounds are expected to deliver higher concentrations of boron to certain tumors than to normal surrounding tissues within the neutron-irradiated regions, ...
Department of Life Science and Technology home page - Research video: Fighting cancer with slime chemistry and BNCT - Department of Life Science and Technology, School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology.Expectations are growing for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a new cancer treatment, with few ...
For years, radiotherapy has been an essential mode of noninvasive cancer therapy and advancements have led to life saving treatments for patients. In contrast to other conventional radiotherapies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is unique in its selective destruction of cancerous cells. BNCT is based on nuclear capture and fission reactions when nonradioactive 10B is irradiated with neutrons to yield excited 11B* which decays into high energy alpha particles and 7Li nuclei. Boron is preferentially accumulated into tumour cells though non-toxic carriers and the short length of the generated neutron beams (5-9 µm) destroys nearby cells leaving the surrounding healthy tissue intact.. The development of carrier systems that deliver sufficient amounts of boron to carry out effective destruction of all vicinal tumour cells has been a significant area of BNCT research for many years. A recent breakthrough made by Professors Atsushi Ikeda of Hiroshima University, Takeshi Nagasaki of Osaka City ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a technique in which p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is transferred to cancer cells, and the boron in it undergoes nuclear fission reaction upon irradiation of ther
Combined Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Egg Phosphatidylchloline Liposomes Loaded with a Carboranyl Compound Intended for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ...
Boron neutron capture therapy, a local radiation therapy, may give cancer patients tumour-free time and relief from symptoms when other known and effective treatment methods have been exhausted.
International Society for Neutron Capture Therapy. ISNCT promotes widespread interest on neutron capture therapy and related forms of cancer management.. ...
The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center (MURR) is home to a tank-type nuclear research reactor that serves the University of Missouris Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute (NSEI) in Columbia. As of March 2012[update], the MURR is the highest power university research reactor in the U.S. at 10 megawatt thermal output. The fuel is highly enriched uranium. In 1959, University President Elmer Ellis proposed a research reactor, understanding that the many fields of research to benefit from nuclear science are a part of the University of Missouris educational responsibilities to our youth and to all our citizens. The MURR began operation October 13, 1966 about one mile (1.6 km) southwest of the universitys main campus and the citys main business district. The reactor building was designed by Cornelius L.T. Gabler and Associates of Detroit, Michigan.The architectural style is mid-century modern. The supplier of construction services was General Electric. In 1970, MURR scientist ...
Maleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapyMaleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapy ...
This Safety Guide provides practical guidance and recommendations on ageing management for the safety related systems, structures and components of research reactors on the basis of current international good practices. It is intended for use by operating organizations in establishing, implementing and improving ageing management programmes for research reactors, and by regulatory bodies in verifying that ageing of research reactors is being effectively managed. The Safety Guide focuses on managing the physical ageing of systems, structures and components important to safety, and also provides guidance on safety aspects of managing obsolescence.. ...
We have measured the -ray energy spectrum from the thermal neutron capture, Gd, on an enriched Gd target (GdO) in the energy range from 0.11 MeV up to about 8 MeV. The target was placed inside the germanium spectrometer of the ANNRI detector at J-PARC and exposed to a neutron beam from the Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS). Radioactive sources (Co, Cs, and Eu) and the Cl(,) reaction were used to determine the spectrometers detection efficiency for rays at energies from 0.3 to 8.5 MeV. Using a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector and based on our data, we have developed a model to describe the -ray spectrum from the thermal Gd(,) reaction. While we include the strength information of 15 prominent peaks above 5 MeV and associated peaks below 1.6 MeV from our data directly into the model, we rely on the theoretical inputs of nuclear level density and the photon strength function of Gd to describe the continuum -ray spectrum from the Gd(,) reaction. Our model combines these two ...
Sjuvarsson E, Damaraju VL, Mowles D, Sawyer MB, Tiwari R, Agarwal HK, Khalil A, Hasabelnaby S, Goudah A, Nakkula RJ, Barth RF, Cass CE, Eriksson S, Tjarks W. Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Nov;347(2):388-97 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polymyxin B agonist capture therapy for intrauterine inflammation. T2 - proof-of-principle in a fetal ovine model. AU - Saito, Masatoshi. AU - Payne, Matthew S. AU - Miura, Yuichiro. AU - Ireland, Demelza J. AU - Stock, Sarah. AU - Kallapur, Suhas G. AU - Kannan, Paranthaman S. AU - Newnham, John P. AU - Kramer, Boris W. AU - Jobe, Alan H. AU - Keelan, Jeffrey A. AU - Kemp, Matthew W. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. N2 - Intrauterine infection is a leading cause of preterm birth (PTB), most notably in deliveries occurring before 32 weeks gestation. Preterm infants exposed to intrauterine inflammation are more likely to have a host of neurological, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and visual pathologies. Preventing preterm delivery and protecting the fetus from injury is thus likely to require treatment of both intrauterine infection and inflammation. Polymyxin B (PMXB) is a cationic peptide antibiotic that binds Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and prevents inflammatory ...
With the removal of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel from Nigerias research reactor earlier this month, all 11 operational research reactors in Africa are now running on low enriched uranium (LEU).
The exact role of boron in humans is not known although its supplementation causes several important metabolic and inflammatory changes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an association between blood boron level and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects. A total number of 80 subjects, categorized into four groups based on their body mass index as normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese, were enrolled in this study. Age, sex, body mass index, and blood boron levels were recorded for each subject. Although the distribution of female and male subjects and blood boron levels were similar between groups, the mean age of normal subjects was significantly lower than the others (p = 0.002). There was a significant relationship between age and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject (beta = 0.24; p = 0.003). In addition, between blood boron levels and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, a significant ...
|p|Boronic acids and their esters are highly considered compounds for the design of new drugs and drug delivery devices, particularly as boron-carriers suitable for neutron capture therapy. However, these compounds are only marginally stable in water. Hydrolysis of some phenylboronic pinacol esters is described here. The kinetics is dependent on the substituents in the aromatic ring. Also the pH strongly influences the rate of the reaction, which is considerably accelerated at physiological pH. Therefore, care must be taken when considering these boronic pinacol esters for pharmacological purposes. |inline-formula||alternatives| [...] |/alternatives||/inline-formula||/p|
Building new research reactors takes years and is costly.. The refurbishment and restart of the Mark-II TRIGA research reactor that is currently lying dormant in Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is an opportunity that could be leveraged in the near future to begin to remedy this situation, where there are no operating research reactors in central and east Africa, nor in any French speaking Sub-Saharan African country.. The first nuclear research reactor in Africa was built in the Belgian Congo in 1958. It was a 50kW TRIGA reactor supplied by General Atomic (USA), named TRICO-I.. In the 1960s, in the independent Republic of the Congo, TRICO-I was safely operated to provide research and training in the nuclear sciences, as well as radioisotope applications in agriculture, biology and medicine.. TRICO-I was permanently shut down in 1970, and was replaced in 1972 by TRICO-II, another TRIGA research reactor, with a higher power capacity of 1000kW and located at the Centre for Nuclear ...
EXCURS-3-RR is a kinetic computer code for simulating reactivity and loss of flow accidents in MTR research reactors and in sodium cooled fast reactors. EXCURS-3-RR is a new version of the EXCURS-3 code. It is based on a coupling of neutron point kinetics and thermal hydraulics equations, with adjusted reactivity feedbacks. The thermohydraulics reactor behavior is determined by solving the one-dimensional heat conduction equation, with forced heat convection boundary condition. The calculations are restricted to a single equivalent unit cell which consists of fuel, clad and coolant ...
Nowadays, JSC SSC RIAR operates the majority of Russias high-flux research reactors: MIR, SM, BOR-60, VK-50, RBT-6 and RBT-10/2. RIARs reactors provide a full range of capabilities to test fuel and materials of all types of existing power reactors as well as advanced and innovative ones: water-cooled thermal reactors, including those with boiling and pressurized water, gas-cooled, fast and other types of reactors.. All the above reactors have the state, characteristics and operating parameters comparable with the best worlds ones. Nowadays, they are operated at the design parameters and with a capacity factor achieving 0.7. ...
The Jules Horowitz research Reactor (JHR), a project conducted by the CEA Nuclear Energy Division, is an answer to a key technological and scientific challenge: testing fuel and material behaviour under irradiation in support of current and future nuclear reactors.
This report describes technical modifications implemented by INVAP to improve the safety of the Research Reactors the company designs and builds.
Two sources contribute essentially to the presence of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment: (i) release from nuclear materials with a major fraction derived from the nuclear bomb testing period during the period 1950-1963 and (ii) emissions from the nuclear industry, such as waste waters from U-mine tailing or nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This chapter focuses mainly on the major source responsible for global surface contamination, that is, radioisotope aerosol deposition after release into the atmosphere. The atmospheric emissions were caused mainly via surface atomic bomb tests and reactor accidents, with the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe as the most important contribution. In contrast with most fission products, almost all actinides (which are produced via neutron capture reactions) are rather long lived and can be measured in environmental samples with high precision. Some of the actinides (i.e., U, Pu, Cm) consist of various isotopes (e.g.,238,239,240,241Pu) and hence can be ...
The energy deposition in the nucleus of cells exposed to the 10B(n, alpha)7Li neutron capture reaction has been calculated and compared to the measured biological effect of this reaction. It was found that a considerable distribution of hit sizes to the nucleus occurs. The comparison of hit size fre …
A neutron-capture experiment on {sup nat}Cd has been carried out at DANCE. Multiple-fold coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra have been collected from J=0, 1 resonances in {sup 111}Cd and {sup 113}Cd. The cascades ending at the ground state can be described by the SLO model while the cascades ending at the 2+ states are better reproduced by the mixed SLO+KMF model. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shin-Ichiro Masunaga, Yoshinori Sakurai, Hiroki Tanaka, Keizo Tano, Minoru Suzuki, Natsuko Kondo, Masaru Narabayashi, Yosuke Nakagawa, Tsubasa Watanabe, Akira Maruhashi, Koji Ono].
The Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkish: Çekmece Nükleer Araştırma ve Eğitim Merkezi), known as ÇNAEM, is the primary nuclear research and training center of Turkey. The organization was established on March 6, 1958 as a subunit of Turkish Atomic Energy Administration (Turkish: Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu, TAEK) at Küçükçekmece district in the west of Istanbul. The organizations name was coined on August 12, 1960 in conjunction with its location. The groundbreaking of the facility at the eastern shore of Lake Küçükçekmece to house the countrys first nuclear research reactor was held in 1959. After completion of the construction and the start of the operation of the research reactor, the official opening of the center took place on May 27, 1962 in the presence of President Cemal Gürsel. The center is directed by Ass. Prof. Dr. Gürsel Karahan. The acquired valuable knowledge and experience at the institution led in 2010 to the reorganization of ÇNAEM. The ...
Foreword This Operational Research Reactor Data Base is a specific output of the computerised IAEA Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB), jointly managed by the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences (NAPC) and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology (NEFW). The complete IAEA RRDB contains the information on both operational, shutdown and decommissioned research reactors. It is prepared from the data provided by research reactor administrators of the IAEA Member States through annual questionnaires. While every attempt is made to keep the RRDB current, the IAEA makes no warranties, either express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or suitability of the information. Please inform the Project Officer of any updates or corrections needed. This database contains only the information related to the operational, temporary shutdown or under construction/planned research reactor facilities and classifies them into three categories according to. ...
The 10th International Symposium on Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics covers several broad areas of theoretical and experimental nuclear science. This is the 10th in a series of conferences that alternates between the US and Europe and takes place every three years. Although originally focused on low-energy neutron capture reactions, the conference has expanded to include many more areas of current interest to the nuclear science community. The conference addresses the major areas of nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear data, fundamental physics, capture reactions and applications of nuclear science.Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics: 10th International Symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, 30 August - 3 September 1999 (AIP Conference Proceedings), 2000 was published 2000 under ISBN 9781563969522 and ISBN 1563969521. [read more] ...
Tajikistans Academy of Sciences has started to implement the governmental programme to refurbish and restart the Argus-FTI research reactor, Academy President Farkhod Rahimi said on 14 January.Argus is a 20MW homogeneous molten salt reactor...
This interregional training course on the Technical and Administrative Preparations Required for Shipment of Research Reactor Spent Fuel to its Country of Origin was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with the Government of the United States through Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the course was to provide participants with the technical, organizational and administrative information needed to prepare irradiated research reactor fuel for shipment to its country of origin.. The course was open to 40 participants from IAEA member States in all geographical regions. Priority was given to candidates from developing countries which possess spent research reactor fuel and which may be interested in its potential return to the country origin.. The course was held in January 1997, shortly after the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Policy was initiated by the United States on May 13, 1997. Under this Policy, the U.S. will accept ...
Traditional proppant placement evaluation in hydraulically induced fractures utilizes detection of radioactive tracers pumped downhole with the frac?? slurry. Although this technique has proven useful, it involves environmental, safety, and regulatory concerns/issues. The fracture height determination method described in this paper eliminates downhole placement of radioactive materials. A high thermal neutron capture compound (HTNCC) is inseparably incorporated into each ceramic proppant (CEP) grain during manufacturing in sufficiently low concentration that it does not affect mechanical strength, conductivity, durability, or density of the particles. The proppant is detected using standard compensated neutron logging tools (CNT) and/or pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logging tools, with detection based on the high thermal neutron absorptive properties of the compound relative to downhole constituents. Since the HTNCC is placed permanently in the proppant, logging for proppant detection can occur ...
must be determined from other dating methods. Even then, the scatter of the data points for the isochron is usually significant, perhaps hinting that the linear plot more closely models a mixing line than an isochron.. Rare-earth dating is plagued by the same questionable four assumptions as the K-Ar, Ar-Ar, and Rb-Sr dating methods,3 and the rocks they supposedly date continue to exhibit behavior that is just as consistent with a mixing line as an isochron line. Half-lives, which figure prominently in date calculations for the REEs, have a high degree of uncertainty, and the methods for measuring the primordial concentration ratios exhibit circular reasoning.. Another assumption that is seldom mentioned is the issue of continuing cosmogenic production of both parent and daughter isotopes in all these aforementioned dating methods. For example, 142Nd is continually produced via the alpha decay of 150Gd, and it in turn continually produces 143Nd via neutron capture reactions from solar radiation. ...
The s-process or slow-neutron-capture-process is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs at relatively low neutron density and intermediate temperature conditions in stars. Under these conditions heavier nuclei are created by neutron capture, increasing the atomic weight of the nucleus by one. A neutron in the new nucleus decays by beta-minus decay to a proton, creating a nucleus of higher atomic number. The rate of neutron capture by atomic nuclei is slow relative to the rate of radioactive beta-minus decay, hence the name. This process produces stable isotopes by moving along the valley of beta-decay stable isobars in the chart of isotopes. The S-process produces approximately half of the isotopes of the elements heavier than iron, and therefore plays an important role in the galactic chemical evolution. The elements heavier than iron with origins in large stars are typically those produced by the s-process, which is characterized by slow neutron diffusion and capture over long periods in such ...
Masahiko Utsuro is professor emeritus at Kyoto University and currently continues his research activities at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Japan. He spent most of his career working in the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University, and gave lectures and graduate courses in neutron science for more than 20 years both at Kyoto and Osaka University. He devoted most of his professional life to neutron optics research as the head professor for neutron science at the Research Reactor Institute. Professor Utsuro has authored over 200 scientific publications and has also contributed to book publications. He is a member of the Physical Society of Japan and of the Japanese Society for Neutron Science ...
In this paper, we investigate the effect of heterogeneous boron concentration and coolant density distribution on nodal macroscopic cross sections, which could potentially arise in an Anticipated Transient Without Control rods of a boiling water reactor. All calculations are made with the 2-D transport code PHOENIX4. Full core simulators, such as POLCA7, often have simple models for handling such heterogeneities with the basic requirement that conservative results are obtained simulating such core conditions. We have found that this is not always the case and that the errors can potentially be quite high.
Experimental fuel rods were tested in the PV-2 loop facility of the MIR reactor under conditions close to operation of full-size fuel rods in a PWR core. In the tests, the external condition of the...
Proposed Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, Sydney, Australia. MAPW policy statement adopted February 2002. The Medical Association for Prevention of War (MAPW) opposes the construction of a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. MAPW supports the Recommendations of the Senate Inquiry (Chapter 11 - May 2001) for an independent public inquiry into the risks, benefits and desirability of a new reactor, and into alternative scientific projects that represent better value for money (over $300 million) and are less hazardous.. MAPW acknowledges the importance of satisfactory isotope supply for medical and industrial purposes, and recommends that if an independent public assessment were to favour a replacement reactor, the proponents be directed to site it well away from substantial populations centres, to obviate the need for large-scale emergency evacuation and potassium iodide distribution contingencies in the event of significant radionuclide ...
Proposed Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, Sydney, Australia. MAPW policy statement adopted February 2002. The Medical Association for Prevention of War (MAPW) opposes the construction of a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. MAPW supports the Recommendations of the Senate Inquiry (Chapter 11 - May 2001) for an independent public inquiry into the risks, benefits and desirability of a new reactor, and into alternative scientific projects that represent better value for money (over $300 million) and are less hazardous.. MAPW acknowledges the importance of satisfactory isotope supply for medical and industrial purposes, and recommends that if an independent public assessment were to favour a replacement reactor, the proponents be directed to site it well away from substantial populations centres, to obviate the need for large-scale emergency evacuation and potassium iodide distribution contingencies in the event of significant radionuclide ...
An informative technical tour of the RPI research reactor, located at Instituto Tecnol gico e Nuclear (ITN), is planned for Friday, October 15, 2010. ITN is a state-sponsored laboratory dedicated to development of nuclear science and technology and provides radioisotopes for use in Portugal. The Laboratory is located at Sacavem just outside of Lisbon less than thirty minutes from the SANA Lisboa Hotel. The RPI is a US-supplied research reactor that was converted from HEU to LEU fuel in 2007. The technical tour will also include two accelerator facilities located in the Physics Department at ITN. Bus transportation has been arranged to take tour participants from the SANA Lisboa Hotel at 9:00 a.m. to ITN. Following the tour, participants will be returned to the hotel by around 12 noon. The planned return route passes the Lisbon airport, and participants can request to be let out at the terminal just before noon. Please sign-up for the tour during on-line registration or at the RERTR-2010 ...
Two small neutron sources of /sup 252/Cf and /sup 241/Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low-intensity neutron and gam
The β-delayed neutron emission probability, Pn, of very neutron-rich nuclei allows us to achieve a better understanding of the nuclear structure above the neutron separation energy, Sn. The emission of neutrons can become the dominant decay process in neutron-rich astrophysical phenomena such as the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). There are around 600 accessible isotopes for which β-delayed one-neutron emission (β1n) is energetically allowed, but the branching ratio has only been determined for about one third of them. β1n decays have been experimentally measured up to the mass A ∼ 150, plus a single measurement of 210Tl. Concerning two-neutron emitters (β2n), ∼ 300 isotopes are accessible and only 24 have been measured so far up to the mass A = 100. In this contribution, we report recent experiments which allowed the measurement of β1n emitters for masses beyond A , 200 and N , 126 and identified the heaviest β2n emitter measured so far, 136Sb ...
Diabetes is an epidemic in developed nations. Glucokinase (GK) is vital for glocose sensing, and is directly implicated in particular forms of diabetes. Studying pancreatic cells with altered GK activity would facilitate studies, but current methods for altering proteomes are lacking. Porous phospholipid nanoshells (PPNs) have traditionally been used as platforms for biologically derived nanosensors, though their biocompatibility and protease resistance well suits them as enzyme delivery agents. GK kinetics were investigated with an enzyme coupled reaction to determine the effect of encapsulation. It was determined that encapsulation increased the Hill coefficient by 5.8% and the S(0.5) by 1.8%. This small deviation may not be significant in physiological conditions. To observe a recovered function in cell lines upon reintroducing GK, constitutively expressed GK must first be knocked down with siRNA. As initial work toward an siRNA knockdown, immunoblotting conditions were optimized resulting in ...
Neutron capture cross sections of the 90,91,92,94,96Zr have been measured over the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV at the spallation neutron facility n TOF at CERN in 2003. The innovative features of the neutron beam, in particular the high instantaneous flux, the high energy resolution and low background, together with improvements of the neutron sensitivity of the capture detectors make this facility unique for neutron-induced reaction cross section measurements with much improved accuracy. The preliminary results of the Zr measurements show capture resonance strengths generally smaller than in previous measurements ...
To exploit the potential applications of thermal neutron detection, yttrium aluminum garnet co-doped with 1 mol% Ce3+ and 5 mol% Li+ was vacuum sintered into a transparent ceramic through solid-state reaction. The transmittance of a 2 mm thick sample was measured to be as high as 80.3% in the visible range and the microstructural characterization indicated that Li ions could also act as a sintering aid. Excitation and emission spectra data further supported the assumption that the Li ions have substituted into the garnet lattice. Excitation and emission spectra data of the prepared ceramic were also obtained for use in the characterization of optical properties. ...
The heavy isotope 15 N was first discovered by S. M. Naudé in 1929, soon after heavy isotopes of the neighbouring elements oxygen and carbon were discovered. [26] It presents one of the lowest thermal neutron capture cross-sections of all
As was previously emphasized, our general strategy in shielding -- for both neutrons and gamma rays -- is to slow down high energy particles and then capture them when they are slow. For gamma rays, this strategy results in shields consisting of the heavy nuclides, which provide higher interaction coefficients for both Compton scattering (which is dependent on electron density) and photoelectric absorption interaction coefficients. For neutrons, we generally combine low-mass isotopes (for efficient elastic scattering energy loss) with one of the high absorption isotopes.. Since many shielding designs have to stop BOTH gamma rays and neutrons, our shields tend to have a mixture of extremely high-Z materials (e.g., lead to stop gamma rays) and doped low-Z materials (e.g., borated water or polyethylene) to stop neutrons. One important consideration in the placement of these materials is the fact that neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture generally is accompanied by the production of ...
I am interested in studying and understanding the structure of heavy atomic nuclei (mass 80), and in particular, nuclei with many more neutrons than stable isotopes. Theoretical models predict that the shell structure that characterizes stable nuclei may be quenched in very neutron-rich nuclei. Some of these neutron-rich nuclei also lie along the path that limits the rapid neutron capture process of nucleosynthesis. The studies of the properties of unstable nuclei are performed at radioactive and stable beam accelerator facilities in North America. The current focus is on determining the single-neutron excitations of neutron-rich N=50 and N=82 nuclei, and probing the shell structure far from stability. Earlier work involved studying highly elongated, superdeformed, excitations in heavy nuclei, the properties of nuclei near the proton drip line, and the role of dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries in understanding collective excitations in nuclei. ...
Yet another reason why the above claims are taken with a huge grain of salt is that the so-called Oklo bounds imply a slower variation of $\alpha$. 2 billion years ago, when the Earth was young and beautiful, the uranium-235 isotope was five times more abundant than today. Thanks to that fact and some other lucky coincidences, near the river Oklo in todays Gabon nature could create a fully organic nuclear reactor which operated for 100 million years. The uranium fission produced many rare isotopes, and the particular ratio of Samarium-149 to Samarium-147 can be used to constrain variation of the fundamental constants. The point is that the cross-section for the neutron capture on Samarium 149 is accidentally enhanced by a presence of resonance just 0.1 eV above the threshold. From the fact that the position of this resonance could not migrate by more than 0.1 eV one can set the bound $\Delta \alpha/\alpha \sim 10^{-7}$ (assuming that only the electromagnetic constant is varied) corresponding to ...
For almost three decades, the origin of [sup 180m]Ta, the rarest stable isotope in nature and the only one which is stable in the isomeric state, remained an intriguing astrophysical puzzle. This case is particularly appealing since it may be used to test several proposed production mechanisms. So far, the [sup 180m]Ta abundances claimed by the various models are limited by uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics data. This contribution reports on first attempts to determine the stellar (n,γ)-rates of [sup 179]Ta and [sup 180m]Ta experimentally. These results represent a significant improvement with respect to a possible production of [sup 180m]Ta via neutron capture nucleosynthesis during He-burning in Red Giant stars. In both experiments, present techniques had to be pushed to their limits, be it for the short half-life of [sup 179]Ta or for the very low enrichment of the available [sup 180m]Ta sample. © 2000 American Institute of Physics ...
The Nuclear Chemistry Team engages in advanced studies of nuclear fission, neutron capture, and nuclear isomers, along with the development of radiochemical diagnostics for inertial confined fusion.
The efficacy of a liposomal formulation for intracerebral delivery of borocaptate (BSH) to brain tumor cells has been investigated using cell culture to study BSH uptake and persistence and using tumor-bearing rats to determine BSH distribution in the brain. During a 16-hr incubation, cellular uptake of BSH solution or BSH liposomal formulation was similar. However, the cellular persistence of BSH greatly increased when BSH was present in liposome. The differences in cellular persistence for BSH solution and BSH-loaded liposomes were significant both in 12-hr and 24-hr incubation experiments (p | 0.05 and p | 0.01, respectively). For the studies involving tumor-bearing rats, BSH level in tumor tissue was significantly higher than that in normal brain tissue at 2 hr and 6 hr after intracerebral injection of BSH-loaded liposomes (p | 0.01). Our study indicated that the liposomal formulation enhanced cellular persistence of BSH in tumor cells and therefore favored the boron accumulation in the cells. With
Research reactor BR2 is to undergo a thorough maintenance and modernisation operation until mid-2016. To guarantee a safe and efficient operation, various systems and components will be replaced as a precaution. Like any other major nuclear infrastructure in Belgium, reactor BR2 is subject to decennial safety assessments. In preparation for the upcoming assessment, we started a systematic screening of the installation three years ago. During this screening, a risk analysis of all structures, systems and components of the BR2 was carried out, with particular attention to the impact of ageing on safety. In addition, the impact of ageing on the availability and efficiency of BR2 was also screened. In order to be able to use the reactor safely and efficiently in the coming period of 10 years, a preventive replacement of the beryllium matrix was required (see illustration). This matrix forms the heart of the reactor, and is composed of 79 channels, in which nuclear fuel elements, control rods and ...
Global PET Imaging LLC would utilize the expertise of the MU Research Reactor (MURR®) and nuclear medicine scientists to produce active ingredient for diagnostic drug. Following a heart attack, many patients consult with their doctors about the necessity of heart bypass surgery. However, the active ingredient for a test that helps determine the need for surgery could be in short supply in the near future. Now, an agreement signed by officials from the University of Missouri and Global PET Imaging LLC (GPI) could lead to a solution to that shortage.. In order to determine the condition of the heart and blood flow after a heart attack, doctors usually prescribe two tests or scans of the heart and surrounding area. One of those scans uses a radioisotope known as Rubidium-82, but the supply of the isotope is limited because few facilities have the ability to make it. Today, officials from MU and GPI announced the signing of a Letter of Intent to create a processing facility for this isotope near ...
Moly-99, as its called, is created in just six government-owned nuclear research reactors - none in North America - raising concerns about the reliability of the supply.
Rough surfaces have been used as a tool to enhance heat transfer by increasing the level of turbulence mixing in the flow. In numerically simulating such flows. The main ..
Emisphere Technologies developed a more efficient delivery agent for heparin using its proprietary EMISPHERE® drug delivery system. The delivery agent is known
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G Praveen et al 2012 Nanotechnology 23 095102 doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/9/095102 Blood protein ferries drug -http://www.nature.com/nindia/2012/120309/full/nindi…
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In several radiative proton capture reactions important in novae and XRBs, the resonant parts play the capital role. We use decay spectroscopy techniques to find these resonances and study their properties. We have developed techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei produced and separated with the MARS recoil spectrometer of Texas A&M University. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. This allows us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of 23Al, 27P, 31Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few ...
GENE THERAPY AND MRNA VACCINES: THE DELIVERY SOLUTION FOR GENETIC PAYLOADS. The ability to treat rare and previously undruggable diseases by expressing therapeutic or mutated proteins, silencing pathological genes, or editing the native genome of patients has become a clinical reality. Current examples of nucleic acid therapeutics that have been approved or are in late-stage clinical trials include antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), small interfering RNA (siRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and plasmid DNA (pDNA). The emergence of mRNA vaccines, whereby viral antigens are expressed by host cell machinery before immunization, has allowed researchers to develop solutions to the COVID-19 pandemic with unprecedented speed. This is largely due to the 20+ years of proven clinical and commercial success of LNPs as an effective and safe delivery agent for genetic payloads like mRNA and DNA. Considering any gene in the human genome is druggable, gene therapeutics is poised to become the future of modern ...
Polyplus-transfection® has developed a novel class of cationic modified oligonucleotides (OLIGOPLUS) that require no delivery agent as they act as cell-penetrating oligonucleotides. This is achieved by grafting cationic spermine units onto the oligonucleotide to create a positively charged oligocation-oligonucleotide conjugate.
Learn about Simbadol (buprenorphine injection) for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
used in boron neutron capture therapy ... D2O is more toxic to malignant than normal animal cells ... Protozoa are able to ... Deuterium oxide is used to enhance boron neutron capture therapy, but this effect does not rely on the biological or chemical ... of neutron captures are on oxygen, rising higher as 17O builds up from neutron capture on 16O. Also, 17O may emit an alpha ... With the discovery of nuclear fission in late 1938, and the need for a neutron moderator that captured few neutrons, heavy ...
Boron neutron capture therapy is another, medical use. Pressurized water reactor CANDU reactor NRX TRIGA Ageron, P.; Denielou, ... Beryllium and graphite blocks or plates may be added to the core as neutron reflectors and neutron absorbing rods pierce the ... Pool reactors are used as a source of neutrons and for training, and in rare instances for processing heat but not for ... Evacuated, or helium filled horizontal tubes may also be installed to direct a beam of neutrons to targets situated at a ...
used in boron neutron capture therapy ... D2O is more toxic to malignant than normal animal cells ... Protozoa are able to ... Deuterium oxide is used to enhance boron neutron capture therapy, but this effect does not rely on the biological effects of ... of neutron captures are on oxygen, rising higher as 17O builds up from neutron capture on 16O. Also, 17O may emit an alpha ... and the need for a neutron moderator that captured few neutrons, heavy water became a component of early nuclear energy ...
It was mainly used in boron neutron capture therapy and research. The reactor was permanently shut down on 30 July 2015. The ...
Requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at a Nuclear Research Reactor (PDF). Joint Research Centre. ISBN 978-92- ... When hit by a weak neutron beam, boron will locally emit radiation that will destroy the tumor. This technique is mainly ... This allows use of neutrons for the treatment of tumors after saturation of these tumors with a pharmaceutical containing boron ... The reactor was property of the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) and mainly used for the production of neutrons for ...
C-functionalized carboranes represent a source of boron for boron neutron capture therapy. Some metal complexes exhibit ... "The Chemistry of Neutron Capture Therapy". Chemical Reviews. 98 (4): 1515-1562. doi:10.1021/cr941195u. PMID 11848941. Crowther ... Dicarbaboranes can be prepared from boron hydrides using alkynes as the source of the two carbon centers. In addition to the ... These boron-rich clusters exhibit unique organomimetic properties with chemical reactivity matching classical organic molecules ...
... a new boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 49 (18): 5513-23 ... September 2004). "Boron-containing nucleosides as potential delivery agents for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". ... November 2008). "Thymidine kinase 1 as a molecular target for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". Proceedings of ... March 2006). "3-Carboranyl thymidine analogues (3CTAs) and other boronated nucleosides for boron neutron capture therapy". Anti ...
For applications in boron neutron capture therapy, derivatives of closo-dodecaborate increase the specificity of neutron ... "Spermidinium closo-dodecaborate-encapsulating liposomes as efficient boron delivery vehicles for neutron capture therapy". ... The dodecaborate(12) anion, [B12H12]2−, has the structure of a regular icosahedron of boron atoms, with each boron atom being ... The first boron atom is numbered 1, then the closest ring of five atoms around it is numbered anticlockwise from 2 to 6. The ...
used in boron neutron capture therapy ... D2O is more toxic to malignant than normal animal cells ... Protozoa are able to ... Deuterium oxide is used to enhance boron neutron capture therapy, but this effect does not rely on the biological or chemical ... of neutron captures are on oxygen, rising higher as 17O builds up from neutron capture on 16O. Also, 17O may emit an alpha ... and the need for a neutron moderator that captured few neutrons, heavy water became a component of early nuclear energy ...
One of the treatments pioneered at this reactor was boron neutron capture therapy, or BNCT. This promising treatment was ... the application of neutron radiography to biological materials, thermal neutron irradiation of bacteria, and epithermal neutron ... A neutron reflector surrounded the reactor vessel to improve neutron economy. Control rods entered from the top of the core; a ... It produced a maximum neutron flux of about 20 trillion neutrons per square centimeter per second. Due to a reduction of ...
Salts of B12H122− have been investigated for boron neutron capture therapy and as fuels for airbags. Salts of B12H122− are ... Neutron capture therapy of cancer Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth ... First the borohydride is converted into a triborate anion using the etherate of boron trifluoride: 4 NaBH4 + BF3 → NaB3H8 + 3 ... NaF + 4 H2 Pyrolysis of the triborate gives the twelve boron cluster as the sodium salt, which is then treated with caesium ...
A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility was constructed next to the reactor in the 1990s. Over 300 cancer patient ... After the year 2000, the most significant use of the reactor was boron neutron capture therapy for patients with a cancer in ... International Role in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and Regional Role in Isotope Production, Education and Training" ( ... The reflector scattered back into the core some of the neutrons that escaped from the core. The reactor pool was surrounded by ...
"Investigation on the neutron beam characteristics for boron neutron capture therapy with 3D and 2D transport calculations". ... The reactor core consisted of an internal graphite neutron reflector surrounded by a ring of MTR-type nuclear fuel elements ... with an average 235U enrichment of 92.5% and an external graphite neutron reflector. The highly enriched uranium (93%) was ...
... making it an attractive nanovehicle for the delivery of boron to tumor cells for an effective boron neutron capture therapy in ... Narayan Hosmane and his co-workers have recently developed a new approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the treatment of ... New Approach to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Drug Delivery". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (27): 9875-9880. ... Current cancer therapy primarily involves surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. These methods of treatment are usually ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involves injecting a boron-10 tagged chemical that preferentially binds to tumor cells. ... These thermal neutrons are captured by the injected boron-10, forming excited (boron-11) which breaks down into lithium-7 and a ... Neutrons from a nuclear reactor are shaped by a neutron moderator to the neutron energy spectrum suitable for BNCT treatment. ... The tumor is selectively bombarded with these neutrons. The neutrons quickly slow down in the body to become low energy thermal ...
Boron neutron capture therapy has been tested as an alternative treatment for glioblastoma, but is not in common use. Most ... Alternating electric field therapy is an FDA-approved therapy for newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. In 2015, initial ... Fulci G, Chiocca EA (February 2007). "The status of gene therapy for brain tumors". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 7 (2 ... The tumor cells are resistant to conventional therapies. The brain is susceptible to damage from conventional therapy. The ...
However, after they had read about boron neutron capture therapy, Kawashima underwent the procedure, all the while writing the ...
However, after they had read about boron neutron capture therapy, Kawashima underwent the procedure, all the while writing the ...
Novel therapy methods - accelerator based boron neutron capture therapy of cancer (BNCT) using high therapeutic gain epi- ... Fast neutron based basic and applied research - SARAF can deliver to user a unique fast neutron spectrum that is not available ... Neutron radiography and diffractometry - the high current of SARAF enables generation of thermal neutrons in a quantity, which ... thermal neutrons for malignant tumors therapy. R&D of radiopharmaceuticals - utilization of the high current and high power ...
... reaction with potential applications in neutron imaging, activation analysis and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Cleland, ... They are particularly suited for neutron production via the Lithium (p,n) ... in the UK and Tohoku University in Japan A modern research application for Dynamitrons is as a high intensity neutron source. ...
... where he helped research the application of boron-neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors. In 1979, Pettigrew ... "Imaging's Man at the Top". ADVANCE for Imaging and Radiation Therapy Professionals. July 1, 2002. "Pettigrew takes Helm at ...
... slab that serves the purpose of diffusing neutrons from the reactor which can then be used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ( ... Thermal hydraulics of nuclear steam systems Radiation sterilization Radiation dosimeter testing Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ... Neutron activation analysis Radiotracer techniques Medical isotope development and production Geological age dating Neutron ... The reactor has also used Neutron activation analysis to help with the forensic analysis in a high-profile serial killer case ( ...
40 million to spin off a subsidiary focused on refining boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer treatment. The ... fuels with primary reactions that do not produce neutrons, such as hydrogen and boron-11. FRC fusion products are all charged ... 2.7 for hydrogen and boron-11 Q = 4.3 for polarized hydrogen and boron-11. The spin polarization enhances the fusion cross ... The hydrogen and boron-11 fuel used in this type of reaction is also much more abundant. TAE Technologies relies on the clean ...
Ongoing projects include Boron-Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) research, especially that research for a cure for brain tumors, ... although the beam can be used for any neutron-capture therapy. This beam can also be used for neutron radiography, a non- ... Inside the core box there is a bottom grid-plate into which 3 and 4-rod clusters of TRIGA fuel sit separated by boron-aluminum ... The primary use for the WSUR is to generate neutrons which can be used for a multitude of experimental purposes. There are ...
... accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture cancer therapy experiments From 1993 to 2001, BINP contributed ...
The MURR contributes to research in boron neutron capture therapy, neutron scattering and neutron interferometry, neutron ... The neutron scattering program at MURR has a long and productive history. On the one hand, many prominent scientists have ... The neutron activation capabilities are used to characterize over 30 major, minor, and trace elements in archaeological and ... In addition to neutron activation, the laboratory maintains and operates several X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, multiple ICP ...
... high-LET and proton therapy, boron capture neutron therapy and tissue inhomogeneities. A significant development in the field ... Tattam D and Green S 2000 The potential use of polymer gel dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy Phys Med Biol 45 N9-N14 ... Pirola L and Rosi G 2004 In-phantom imaging of all dose components in boron neutron capture therapy by means of gel dosimeters ... Authors continued to investigate clinical aspects of polymer gel dosimetry using MRI including conformal therapy, IMRT and IMAT ...
MITR is one of only six facilities in the world that was engaged in patient trials for the use of boron neutron capture therapy ... Power is controlled by 6 manual boron-stainless steel blade-type control rods and one aluminum with cadmium control rod which ... K J Riley; P J Binns; O K Harling (2003). "Performance characteristics of the MIT fission converter based epithermal neutron ... Some of these activities are: Neutron activation analysis for the identification of trace elements and isotope ratios in ...
Boron neutron capture therapy - boronophenylalanine-fructose complex - bortezomib - Bowen's disease - BPH - brachial plexopathy ... unsealed internal radiation therapy-see radiation therapy - upper GI series - urachus - uracil - urea nitrogen-see blood urea ... hormone replacement therapy - hormone responsive - hormone therapy - Horner's syndrome - host cell - hot nodule - HPPH - HPV - ... ultraviolet radiation therapy-see ultraviolet radiation and radiation therapy - uncontrolled study-see clinical trial - ...
... neutron diffraction, shielding, gamma spectroscopy, boron neutron capture therapy, neutron radiography and Neutron Activation ... 2017). "Modeling of neutron diffractometry facility of Tehran research reactor using vitess 3.3a and mcnpx codes". Nuclear ... 2014). "Design of an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in thermal column of Tehran research reactor". Annals of Nuclear Energy. ... Tehran research reactor can be utilized for laboratory work involving studies of the reactor core and experiments on neutron ...
Caesium-137 has a very low rate of neutron capture and cannot be feasibly disposed of in this way, but must be allowed to decay ... The alkali metal borides tend to be boron-rich, involving appreciable boron-boron bonding involving deltahedral structures,[10] ... Sartori, H. E. (1984). "Cesium therapy in cancer patients". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 21 (Suppl 1): 11-13. doi:10.1016/0091-3057 ... Various phases are known, such as LiB10, NaB6, NaB15, and KB6.[111][112] Under high pressure the boron-boron bonding in the ...
Experimental treatments include targeted therapy, gamma knife radiosurgery,[45] boron neutron capture therapy and gene therapy. ... Radiation therapyEdit. The goal of radiation therapy is to kill tumor cells while leaving normal brain tissue unharmed. In ... "Molecular Therapy. 12 (5): 842-51. doi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.03.017. PMID 16257382. Archived from the original on 12 September ... Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.[1] Anticonvulsant medication may be ...
Therapy. *Fast-neutron. *Neutron capture therapy of cancer. *Targeted alpha-particle. *Proton-beam ... Charged particles such as protons and boron, carbon, and neon ions can cause direct damage to cancer cell DNA through high-LET ... Particle therapy[edit]. Main article: Particle therapy. In particle therapy (proton therapy being one example), energetic ... Auger therapy[edit]. Main article: Auger therapy. Auger therapy (AT) makes use of a very high dose[62] of ionizing radiation in ...
The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars.[48] Germanium has been detected ... 2009). "Germanium". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). ... Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon ... decaying by electron capture with a half-life of 7007234100800000000♠270.95 days. The least stable is 60. Ge. , with a half- ...
The number of neutrons varies according to the isotope: the stable isotopes have 8, 9, or 10 neutrons. Oxygen is a member of ... Main article: Oxygen therapy. Uptake of O. 2 from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation is ... captures a 4He nucleus, making 18O common in the helium-rich zones of evolved, massive stars.[52] ... Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon ...
... involving rapid neutron capture by starting 56Fe nuclei.[22]. In the far future of the universe, assuming that proton decay ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, ... for which intravenous iron therapy is used to restore iron levels.[177] Iron overload, which may occur from high consumption of ... The nuclide 54Fe theoretically can undergo double electron capture to 54Cr, but the process has never been observed and only a ...
Therapy. *Fast-neutron. *Neutron capture therapy of cancer. *Targeted alpha-particle. *Proton-beam ... Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon ... Further neutron capture followed by β−-decay produces the 241Am isotope of americium which further converts into 242Cm: Pu. 94 ... In the first chain, 238U captures a neutron and converts into 239U, which via β− decay transforms into 239Np and 239Pu. ...
Because of the low capture rate, disposing of 137Cs through neutron capture is not feasible and the only current solution is to ... "Radiation therapy planning. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 22-23. ISBN 978-0-07-005115-7. . Retrieved 2010-09-26.. ... Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon ... Several of these are synthesized from lighter elements by the slow neutron capture process (S-process) inside old stars[44] and ...
The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars.[26] ... Radioembolization is a low toxicity, targeted liver cancer therapy that uses millions of tiny beads made of glass or resin ... Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon ... This stability is thought to result from their very low neutron-capture cross-section. (Greenwood 1997, pp. 12-13). Electron ...
Therapy. *Fast-neutron. *Neutron capture therapy of cancer. *Targeted alpha-particle. *Proton-beam ... These systems insert large amounts of poison (often boron in the form of boric acid) into the reactor to shut the fission ... On the other hand, U-238 is more likely to capture a neutron when the neutron is moving very fast. This U-239 atom will soon ... Fast neutron reactors use fast neutrons to cause fission in their fuel. They do not have a neutron moderator, and use less- ...
177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy (see Nuclear medicine) on neuroendocrine tumours. Lutetium has the highest ... using lutetium which has been exposed to neutron activation, and in lutetium-hafnium dating to date meteorites.[39] The ... Isotopes lighter than the stable lutetium-175 decay via electron capture (to produce isotopes of ytterbium), with some alpha ... Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon ...
... is known to bind to boron,[62] carbon, and nitrogen.[63] Various boron cage compounds have been prepared with At-B ... Neutrons may be considered as nuclei with the atomic mass of 1 and the atomic charge of 0, with the symbol being n.) With the ... Polonium X-rays emitted as a result of the electron capture branch, in the range of 77-92 keV, enable the tracking of astatine ... Stigbrand, T.; Carlsson, J.; Adams, G. P. (2008). Targeted Radionuclide Tumor Therapy: Biological Aspects. Springer. p. 150. ...
Fundamental research with neutrons: Ultracold neutrons · Interferometry. *Fast neutron therapy. *Neutron capture therapy ... Helium is a gas and it requires special design to achieve sufficient density; lithium-6 and boron-10 absorb neutrons. ... Neutron sources: Research reactor · Spallation · Neutron moderator. *Neutron optics: Reflector · Guide · Supermirror · ... In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, ideally without capturing any ...
... future of boron neutron capture therapy will depend on the clinical trials of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy ... New Challenges in Neutron Capture Therapy 2010: Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy. ... Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy Proc. 10th Intl. Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy. pp. 1117-22.. ... Boron neutron capture therapyEdit. HistoryEdit. After the initial discovery of the neutron in 1932 by Sir James Chadwick, H. J ...
Boron-10 is used in boron neutron capture therapy as an experimental treatment of some brain cancers. "Atomic Weights and ... Boron (5B) naturally occurs as isotopes 10B and 11B, the latter of which makes up about 80% of natural boron. There are 13 ... M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of ... Has 2 halo neutrons Neutrinos from boron-8 beta decays within the sun are an important background to dark matter direct ...
In addition, 7Li, Be, and F are among the few nuclides with low enough thermal neutron capture cross-sections not to poison the ... Although it was synthesized in the Big Bang, lithium (together with beryllium and boron) is markedly less abundant in the ... Shorter, Edward (June 2009). "The history of lithium therapy". Bipolar Disorders. 11 (Suppl 2): 4-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... are the only nuclides with low enough thermal neutron capture cross sections aside from actinides to serve as major ...
Particle therapy Charged particle therapy Hadron Microbeam Fast neutron therapy Boron neutron capture therapy Linear energy ... Proton Beam Therapy Proton therapy - MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Proton Therapy What is Proton Therapy. ... "Proton Therapy Centers in the United States". Proton Beam Therapy. Retrieved 2020-08-01. "Particle therapy facilities in ... "Best proton therapy centers - IBA proton therapy". iba-worldwide.com. Retrieved 2018-03-16. "Proton Therapy Jacksonville , ...
Hence, elements heavier than iron require a supernova for their formation, involving rapid neutron capture by starting 56Fe ... People having chemotherapy may develop iron deficiency and anemia, for which intravenous iron therapy is used to restore iron ... Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Iron. National Academy Press. pp. ... The nuclide 54Fe theoretically can undergo double electron capture to 54Cr, but the process has never been observed and only a ...
Allotropes of boron Boron deficiency Boron oxide Boron nitride Boron neutron capture therapy Boronic acid Hydroboration- ... "Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer". Cancer Research. 50 (4): 1061-1070. PMID 2404588. "Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - An ... A number of potential boronated pharmaceuticals using boron-10, have been prepared for use in boron neutron capture therapy ( ... amounts of boron to other biochemicals in order to synthesize boron-containing compounds for boron neutron capture therapy for ...
... high neutron capture) and its tendency to interact with other particles (high neutron cross-section). Californium-252 is a very ... Neutrons from californium are employed as a treatment of certain cervical and brain cancers where other radiation therapy is ... was first synthesized in 1961 by bombarding californium with boron nuclei. Californium that bioaccumulates in skeletal tissue ... and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. ...
Chemical Behavior of Boron-Containing Amino Acids for Neutron Capture Therapy in Aqueous Solutions. ... Kobayashi M., Kitaoka Y. (1996) Chemical Behavior of Boron-Containing Amino Acids for Neutron Capture Therapy in Aqueous ... Oxalic Acid Boron Atom Calcium Fluoride Paper Electrophoresis Thermal Neutron Capture These keywords were added by machine and ... Y. Mishima, C. Honda, M. Ichihashi, and M. Shiono, Cure of human malignant melanoma by thermal neutron capture therapy, KURRI- ...
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Treating Patients With Melanoma. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... RATIONALE: Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. ... PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy in treating patients who have melanoma. ... in patients with melanoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy.. *Determine the time course, uniformity, and severity of ...
Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue.PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study ... Patients undergo boron neutron capture therapy.. Patients are followed for 3 years.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 36 patients ... melanoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy.. - Determine the time course, uniformity, and severity of acute dermal ... A Phase II Trial For Neutron Capture Therapy In Melanoma. Trial Phase:. Phase 2. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. N/A ...
... and the microdistribution of boron. Tests of the model against results from published experiments with and without boron show ... The multiscale model is tested against published in vitro and in vivo measurements of cell survival with and without boron. The ... good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined cell survival for neutrons alone and in combination with boron. ... of several neutron sources as applied to BNCT using boronophenylalanine (BPA) and a potential monoclonal antibody (mAb) that ...
Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax.. [Peng Wang, Haining Zhen, Xinbiao Jiang, ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was ... γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. The neutron beam was obtained from the Xian Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were ... Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines) were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the ...
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets ... to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV ... A new target concept for proton accelerator driven boron neutron capture therapy applications ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets ...
... combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated ... BNCT Boron neutron capture therapy Liposomes Biodistribution Experimental oral cancer Boron This is a preview of subscription ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron ... Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of ...
RaySearch enters agreement with Sumitomo for boron neutron capture therapy. 20 November 2017 - RaySearch and Sumitomo Heavy ... Sumitomo), based in Tokyo, Japan, have entered into an agreement regarding treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy ... In the second step, the target area is exposed to a beam of low-energy neutrons, many of which are absorbed by the boron-10. ... BNCT is a promising radiation therapy technique based on a two-step process. First, the patient is injected with a tumor- ...
Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study ... BPA-F over 1 hour is followed by neutron irradiation. Groups of 3 patients receive escalated. doses of neutron irradiation ... study, provided at least 6 months has elapsed since the completion of prior therapy and the. field boundary for the new ... OBJECTIVES: I. Estimate the maximum tolerated dose of neutron irradiation that can be given. in combination with ...
Improving liposomal boron carriers for effective boron neutron capture therapy. 15 Dec 2016 ... Lipid-membrane-incorporated arylboronate esters as agents for boron neutron capture therapy. Masafumi Ueda, Kengo Ashizawa, ... In contrast to other conventional radiotherapies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is unique in its selective destruction ... Boron is preferentially accumulated into tumour cells though non-toxic carriers and the short length of the generated neutron ...
To date, two low molecular weight boron-containing drugs have been used clinically for boron neutron capture therapy of brain ... Cellular uptake of the boron compounds in sufficient amounts is an essential requirement for boron neutron capture therapy, and ... Boron neutron capture therapy is one of these strategies (5 , 6) . It is based on the nuclear capture reaction that occurs when ... of the results from the Harvard-MIT neutron capture therapy program phase I clinical trial of neutron capture therapy for ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission ... Keywords: boron neutron capture therapy, malignant glioma, glioblastoma, high-grade meningioma, positron emission tomography ... which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy ... Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 ...
Clinical Studies of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Brain Tumors. *Clinical Studies of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects. Rolf F. Barth, Jeffrey A. Coderre, M. Graça H. ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects. Rolf F. Barth, Jeffrey A. Coderre, M. Graça H. ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects. Rolf F. Barth, Jeffrey A. Coderre, M. Graça H. ...
Evaluation of Human Thymidine Kinase 1 Substrates as New Candidates for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Ashraf S. Al-Madhoun, ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary chemoradiotherapeutic system that has been used clinically to treat patients ... Tjarks W. The use of boron clusters in the rational design of boronated nucleosides for neutron capture therapy of cancer. J ... Capala J, Stensam BH, Sköld K., et al Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme: Clinical studies in Sweden. J ...
Vehicles for Neutron Capture TherapyHighly Boronated Liposomes as Efficient Boron Delivery Vehicles for Neutron Capture Therapy ... Highly Boronated Liposomes as Efficient Boron Delivery Vehicles for Neutron Capture Therapy. Highly Boronated Liposomes as ... Highly Boronated Liposomes as Efficient Boron Delivery ... Efficient Boron Delivery Vehicles for Neutron Capture Therapy. ...
... of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Murine MesotheliomaNovel Hyaluronan Formulation Enhances the Efficacy of Boron Neutron ... Capture Therapy for Murine Mesothelioma. Novel Hyaluronan Formulation Enhances the Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ... Novel Hyaluronan Formulation Enhances the Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Murine Mesothelioma. ...
... the science driving medicinal chemistry and the translation of these sciences to therapies ... The early promise of boron neutron capture therapy as a method for the treatment of cancer has been inhibited by the inherent ... The formulation of polyhedral boranes for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. 19 November 2012. Download Type: Adobe ... The formulation of polyhedral boranes for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer ...
... fluoro-l-phenylalanine with quality assurance for boron neutron capture therapy-oriented diagnosis, Annals of Nuclear Medicine ... Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) ... Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy. Nucl ... Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy. Nucl ...
China Builds First Accelerator-based Facility for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Experiments. 2020-08-13 ... The successful development of Chinas first accelerator-based facility for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) experiments was ... When Neutron Meets Boron. BNCT is regarded as one of the most cutting-edge techniques for cancer treatment in the world. It ... When the boron in the cancer cells is hit by the neutron beam, a nuclear reaction occurs that creates alpha particles and ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) / ^,10,B-compound / Thermal neutron / Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody / Immunoliposome / ... Application of monoclonal antibody against solid tumor to boron neutron capture therapy model. Research Project ... B compound has been examined as a selective drug delivery system in boron neutron capture therapy.. Immunoliposome was prepared ... The tumor growth of inplanted AsPC-1 cells after injection of ^,10,B-immunoliposome was suppressed upone thermal neutron ...
Pathological study of eight patients with glioblastoma multiforme treated by neutron-capture therapy using boron 10. by Jean ... A critical assessment of boron target compounds for boron neutron capture therapy. *M. Frederick Hawthorne, Mark W Lee ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy : Delivery Agents Used in Boron Administration Therapeutical Practice. *Galeş N. Laurenţia, ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Glioblastoma : A Phase-I / II Clinical Trial at JRR-4. *Kei Nakai, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Hiroaki ...
Synthesis and characterization of azanonaborane-containing purine derivatives for boron neutron capture therapy. ... for possible use as powerful agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesis was carried out via a ligand ... 24] A. R. Genady, D. Gabel, In: Sauerwein W., Moss R., Wittig A. (Ed.), In Research and Development In Neutron Capture Therapy ... In Research and Development In Neutron Capture Therapy (Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, Italy, 2002) 62 ...
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer. A twofold treatment brings together boron and neutrons to create a lethal radiation ...
Developing targeted drugs for boron neutron capture therapy to treat refractory cancers *TAE Life Sciences ... Gene therapy company FerGene Inc. is developing products for the treatment of urologic cancers, the companys lead product, ... Maximizing synergy and mitigating resistance: novel dual-targeted natural killer cell therapies for cancer *ONK Therapeutics ... With its plug-and-play cell therapy platform and complementary bispecific NK cell engagers, Cytovia aims to create both single ...
Developing targeted drugs for boron neutron capture therapy to treat refractory cancers *TAE Life Sciences ... Lemonex is opening a new era of safe and highly effective immunotherapy and RNA therapy with a pipeline of candidates based on ... Maximizing synergy and mitigating resistance: novel dual-targeted natural killer cell therapies for cancer *ONK Therapeutics ...
Accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy  Howard, William Bruce (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1997) ... The feasibility of a new modality of radiation therapy, Accelerator-Based Neutron Brachytherapy (ABNBT), has been demonstrated ... Accretion flows and neutron star heating in low-mass X-ray binaries  Allen, Jessamyn Leigh (Massachusetts Institute of ... The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries  Lin, Dacheng (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009) ...
... future of boron neutron capture therapy will depend on the clinical trials of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy ... New Challenges in Neutron Capture Therapy 2010: Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy. ... Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy Proc. 10th Intl. Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy. pp. 1117-22.. ... Boron neutron capture therapyEdit. HistoryEdit. After the initial discovery of the neutron in 1932 by Sir James Chadwick, H. J ...
0010] A primary objective of the present invention is to provide a novel boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) ... 0001] The present invention relates to a boron drug of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating liver cancer, and ... The present invention provides a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for liver cancer, which is an aqueous solution of ... Method for treating osteosarcoma by boron neutron capture therapy using boric acid as a boron drug. ...
Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report Description: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [ ... BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [{sup 10}B]. Cytotoxic {sup 7}Li ... B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric ... Malignant transformation of human fibroblasts by neutrons and by gamma radiation: Relationship to mutations induced] ...
... boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was a special type of radiotherapy for treatment of cancer and with focus mainly on glioma ... This procedure requires the selective accumulation of boron into the tumoral cells, and due to this requirement, different ... have been to driving force behind the medicinal chemistry field in boron-based compounds. In this regard, a wide diversity of ... boron-enriched compounds have been designed and developed. Efforts to circumvent the selectivity-uptake challenge and other ...
  • Accurate dosimetry and determination of the biological effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is challenging because of the mix of different types and energies of radiation at the cellular and subcellular levels. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we present a computational, multiscale system of models to better assess the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and compound biological effectiveness (CBE) of several neutron sources as applied to BNCT using boronophenylalanine (BPA) and a potential monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets HER-2-positive cells with Trastuzumab. (mdpi.com)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been investigated as a potential treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), head and neck cancers, melanoma, and other tumor sites for many decades. (mdpi.com)
  • Although efforts to develop neutron sources and new boron delivery agents for BNCT are ongoing [ 1 ], boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium borocaptate (BSH) are currently the only boron compounds approved for use in clinical trials [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Some clinical trials of BNCT with low-energy neutrons report confirmed radiation necrosis in non-tumor brain tissue [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Compared with γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation, a higher RBE can be achieved upon treatment of glioma cells with BNCT. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (unt.edu)
  • In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. (unt.edu)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10 B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. (springer.com)
  • Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3. (springer.com)
  • 20 November 2017 - RaySearch and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Sumitomo), based in Tokyo, Japan, have entered into an agreement regarding treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) - a unique type of radiation therapy that targets cancer at the cellular level. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • BNCT will be an additional treatment modality in RayStation, alongside the existing options for photon, electron, proton, and carbon ion therapy. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • BNCT is a promising radiation therapy technique based on a two-step process. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • In contrast to other conventional radiotherapies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is unique in its selective destruction of cancerous cells. (rsc.org)
  • BNCT is based on nuclear capture and fission reactions when nonradioactive 10 B is irradiated with neutrons to yield excited 11 B* which decays into high energy alpha particles and 7 Li nuclei. (rsc.org)
  • The development of carrier systems that deliver sufficient amounts of boron to carry out effective destruction of all vicinal tumour cells has been a significant area of BNCT research for many years. (rsc.org)
  • Liposomes have been studied extensively as boron carriers and are promising candidates for BNCT as lipids display low toxicity. (rsc.org)
  • This result will no doubt enhance BNCT and lead to critical, life saving therapies for cancer patients. (rsc.org)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. (go.jp)
  • Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. (go.jp)
  • This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. (go.jp)
  • Recently, a cyclotron that acts as an epithermal- Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan neutron source for BNCT and that can be installed in the Frontier Laboratories, Koriyama, Japan hospitals has been developed [14, 15]. (deepdyve.com)
  • The successful development of China's first accelerator-based facility for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) experiments was announced on Aug. 13 by the Dongguan Campus of the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (cas.cn)
  • The world's first accelerator-based BNCT facility and boron-containing drug were approved by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in March. (cas.cn)
  • Accelerator technology from the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), also housed on IHEP's Dongguan Campus, has been key to the development of the new BNCT facility. (cas.cn)
  • In past decades, the source of neutron beams for BNCT was often a nuclear reactor, thus slowing the development of this therapy. (cas.cn)
  • Prof. FU Shinian, deputy manager of CSNS, said the development of BNCT was constrained for decades because most high-power neutron sources are installed in large-scale scientific laboratories, and only around 1,400 clinical trials using reactor-based BNCT have been conducted worldwide. (cas.cn)
  • He said the BNCT experimental facility successfully obtained its first neutron beam last year. (cas.cn)
  • The BNCT facility offers an experimental environment for the research and development of a new generation of boron-containing drugs. (cas.cn)
  • Derivatives of purine, adenine, guanine, and 2,6-diaminopurine linked to the azanonaborane (B8N cluster) have been prepared, for possible use as powerful agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). (edu.pl)
  • After losing energy as they penetrate tissue, the neutrons are captured by the 10 B, which subsequently emits high-energy alpha particles that can selectively kill those tumor cells that have taken up sufficient quantities of 10 B. All of the clinical experience to date with NCT is with the non-radioactive isotope boron-10 , and this is known as boron neutron capture therapy ( BNCT ). (wikipedia.org)
  • BNCT has been evaluated clinically as an alternative to conventional radiation therapy for the treatment of high grade gliomas , meningiomas, and recurrent, locally advanced cancers of the head and neck region and superficial cutaneous and extracutaneous melanomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • W. H. Sweet, from Massachusetts General Hospital, first suggested the technique for treating malignant brain tumors and a trial of BNCT against the most malignant of all brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme, using borax as the boron delivery agent in 1951. (wikipedia.org)
  • BNCT is based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10 , which makes up approximately 20% of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with neutrons of the appropriate energy to yield excited boron-11 ( 11 B*). This undergoes instantaneous nuclear fission to produce high energy alpha particles ( 4 He nuclei) and high energy lithium-7 ( 7 Li) nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • BNCT, therefore, can be regarded as both a biologically and a physically targeted type of radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A BNCT method for treating a liver cancer in a subject comprising administering boric acid to said subject, and subjecting said liver cancer in the subject to neutron irradiation. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. The BNCT method of claim 1 wherein boron of said boric acid is composed of a major portion of 10 B stable isotope. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The BNCT method according to claim 1 wherein said neutron irradiation is carried out with a physical dose of 5-12 Gy. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. The BNCT method according to claim 6 further comprising measuring a concentration of 10 B stable isotope in the subject's blood, wherein said neutron irradiation is carried out when the measured concentration drops to a desired value. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • [0001] The present invention relates to a boron drug of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating liver cancer, and particularly to a new use of using boric acid as the boron drug of BNCT for treating liver cancer. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Since its first description, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was a special type of radiotherapy for treatment of cancer and with focus mainly on glioma therapeutic. (intechopen.com)
  • One year later in the USA, Gordon Locher introduced the concept of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of cancer therapy based on the interaction of low-energy thermal neutrons and boron-10 (10-B) to produce alpha radiation from He-4 and Li-7 with a high linear energy transfer. (ajstd.org)
  • Two boron drugs have been used clinically in BNCT, boron sodium captate (BSH) and borophenylalanine (BPA), while a third, pentagamaboronon-0 (PGB-0), is currently under development in the Faculty of Pharmacy of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. (ajstd.org)
  • 2014. Complexion of boric acid with 2-deoxy- d-glucose (DG) as a novel boron carrier for BNCT. (ajstd.org)
  • Here, we describe four patients with genital malignancies who were treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • They underwent BNCT at the Kyoto University Research Reactor between 2005 and 2014 using para-boronophenylalanine as the boron delivery agent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been utilized for cancer treatment from last decade, where chemotherapy and radiation have their own shortcomings. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we have focused on the possible clinical implications of the new and improved boron-based biologically active compounds for BNCT that are reported to have in vivo and/or in vitro efficacy. (mdpi.com)
  • Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), an experimental radiotherapy, was investigated as a treatment that could allow a less aggressive surgery by killing infiltrated tumour cells in the surrounding healthy tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BNCT requires an intense neutron beam to ensure irradiation times of the order of 1 h. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Italy, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) proton accelerator has been designed and constructed for BNCT, and a suitable neutron spectrum was tailored by means of Monte Carlo calculations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper explores the feasibility of BNCT to treat osteosarcoma using this neutron source based on accelerator. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, a new application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatment has been introduced. (nih.gov)
  • Preliminary simulations of the applicability of 2.45 MeV D-D fusion and 14.1 MeV D-T fusion neutrons for in vivo liver tumor BNCT, without removing the liver from the body, have been carried out. (nih.gov)
  • Because there were such high boron levels in the U373, and because xenografted U373 is similar to spontaneous intracerebral human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) microscopically, CuTCPH could prove useful as a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) of GBM and of other human malignant gliomas. (nih.gov)
  • In clinical BNCT, the radiation dose contribution from the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction must be calculated using blood boron concentrations mainly because there are no techniques available at present that can measure boron concentrations in tumors at the time a patient undergoes neutron irradiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head, neck, and surrounding tissue. (google.es)
  • This process, schematically depicted below left, is known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). (niu.edu)
  • Boron tissue distributions of a BNCT compound incorporating a substituted carborane cage appended to a single‑walled carbon nanotube (image from Zhu, et al. (niu.edu)
  • Lipids are being developed for treatment of cancer by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). (jacobs-university.de)
  • TAE Life Sciences is leveraging TAE Technologies' unique accelerator-based neutron beam technology for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) to bring promising treatment potential for head and neck, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other cancers that are difficult or impossible to treat with traditional methods. (medindia.net)
  • BNCT has shown effectiveness in isolated research settings, although not widely available as a complementary cancer treatment option because of the lack of patient access to a convenient therapeutic neutron source. (medindia.net)
  • Utilizing their accelerator-based beam technology, TAE Life Sciences is developing a holistic clinical platform for the next generation of BNCT: low energy neutron beams capable of catering to unique clinical treatment protocols with a precise ability to modulate beam spectrum and intensity, coupled with a practical footprint for typical hospital radiation treatment settings. (medindia.net)
  • TAE Life Sciences will work with leading clinical research partners to investigate the use of accelerator-based BNCT, become a primary supplier of neutron beams for BNCT, and speed the development of its own proprietary beam systems toward regulatory clearance allowing for routine patient treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of boron by the tumor and its activation by a neutron beam, releasing lithium-7 and an alpha particle that will kill the tumor cells by their high linear energy transfer (LET). (scielo.org.ar)
  • The application of BNCT using the combination of boron compounds showed a 100% of complete remission in tumors with initial volumes under 50 mm 3 . (scielo.org.ar)
  • receptors, overproduced by unhealthy cell, provokes its accumulation in the tissue enriching with boron for further BNCT. (icmab.es)
  • Boron neutron capture theory (BNCT) is a binary therapy applied in malignant tumours, resis-tant to other treatment methods, namely chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (terapeutica.ro)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Estimate the maximum tolerated dose of neutron irradiation that can be given in combination with borophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) in patients with stage III melanoma. (knowcancer.com)
  • Later, a treatment dose of BPA-F over 1 hour is followed by neutron irradiation. (knowcancer.com)
  • Groups of 3 patients receive escalated doses of neutron irradiation until the maximum tolerated dose is determined. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients who complete protocol treatment and continue to meet the eligibility criteria may re-enter the study, provided at least 6 months has elapsed since the completion of prior therapy and the field boundary for the new irradiation site is seperated from the boundary of the previously irradiated site. (knowcancer.com)
  • The fission converter-based epithermal neutron irradiation ( FCB ) facility is housed in the experimental hall of the MITR and operates in parallel with other user applications. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Boronated anti-CEA immunoliposome exhibited the suppression of tumor cell growth in vitro selectively upon thermal neutron irradiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • B-immunoliposome was suppressed upone thermal neutron irradiation in in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • B-compound solutions or MoAb-free 10B containing liposome upon thermal neutron irradiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • B atoms to the tumor cells selectively and exert cytotoxicity and tumor growth suppression on them upon thermal neutron irradiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • and intravenously injecting said aqueous solution of boric acid to said patient in a dose of about 5-60 mg of 10 B stable isotope per kilogram of patient body weight within a period of 10-120 minutes prior to neutron irradiation being conducted to said patient. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and monitoring a concentration of 10 B stable isotope in the patient's blood to decide when neutron irradiation is conducted to said patient. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 17. The method of claim 16 wherein said monitoring comprises measuring concentrations of 10 B stable isotope in the patient's blood and comparing the measured concentrations to a desired value to decide when neutron irradiation is conducted to said patient, wherein said desired value is more than 20-35 μg 10 B stable isotope/mL. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In vitro neutron irradiation of glioma and en- dothelial cultured cells. (ajstd.org)
  • Immediately after reactor neutron beam irradiation, during which intratumor (10) B concentrations were kept at levels similar to each other, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Coderre, J.A. and Morris, G.M. (1999) The Irradiation Biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. (scirp.org)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy involves thermal neutron irradiation following preferential incorporation of boron by 10 B-loaded tumor-seeking drugs. (astm.org)
  • Recently, we have reported the generation of superoxide anion-radicals by neutron irradiation and UV light irradiation of mercaptoborates in water solutions at room temperature 1 . (springer.com)
  • The neutron beam was obtained from the Xi'an Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were obtained from [60Co] γ source of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) in China. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the second step, the target area is exposed to a beam of low-energy neutrons, many of which are absorbed by the boron-10. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • A shielded horizontal beam line contains an aluminum and Teflon filter moderator to tailor the neutron energy spectrum into the desired epithermal energy range. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A RBE of 3.2 is used for the high LET component of the beam dose: protons from the 14 N(n,n) 14 C reaction and the recoil protons from fast neutron collisions with hydrogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The patient is then irradiated with a neutron beam for less than an hour. (cas.cn)
  • When the boron in the cancer cells is hit by the neutron beam, a nuclear reaction occurs that creates alpha particles and lithium nuclei that destroy cancer cells precisely, without destroying surrounding healthy tissue. (cas.cn)
  • 1) Boron compound (b) is selectively absorbed by cancer cell(s). 2) Neutron beam (n) is aimed at cancer site. (wikipedia.org)
  • He hypothesized that if boron could be selectively concentrated in a tumoral tissue and then exposed to a neutrons beam, a higher radiation dose to the tumor relative to surrounding normal cells would result. (intechopen.com)
  • A beam of neutrons irradiates a boron drug injected into the tumor, resulting in the boron-injected cancer cells receiving a lethal dose of radiation with the surrounding, healthy cells being minimally affected. (ajstd.org)
  • They were irradiated with an epithermal neutron beam between the curative tumor dose and the tolerable skin/mucosal doses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MCNP simulations were performed in order to find a moderator configuration for creating a neutron beam of optimal neutron energy and to create a source model for dose calculations with the simulation environment for radiotherapy applications (SERA) treatment planning program. (nih.gov)
  • In this paper, the beam shaping assemblies for D-D and D-T neutron generators and dose calculation results are presented. (nih.gov)
  • External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is the conventional technique for administering radiation therapy to the brain, but stereotactic radiosurgery has also become a standard treatment. (texasoncology.com)
  • TAE Life Sciences will deliver its neutron beam system to Neuboron for its first installation in a medical application. (medindia.net)
  • The proprietary TAE Life Sciences' accelerator-based platform offers strong potential advantages including a tunable neutron beam, compact size, high reliability and relatively low total cost of ownership. (medindia.net)
  • I am pleased to be publicly launching TAE Life Sciences, and for the opportunity to provide solutions for aggressive and late-stage cancer with promising new applications of accelerator-based neutron beam technology," said Bauer. (medindia.net)
  • When these animals were injected with BPA and irradiated with an appropriated neutron beam, we observed a 100% of tumor growth control and a 50 % of histological cure when the initial tumor volume was 50 mm 3 or less. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Following irradiations of various biological cell lines in vitro with and without boron perfusion in our iron-filtered 24.5 keV beam, we have developed an argon/aluminum/sulfur/filtered broad spectrum beam. (astm.org)
  • A new initiative in neutron beam tube research has been initiated and, as a first step, a neutron reflectometry system has been designed by a faculty team headed by Professor X.-L. Zhou (Department of Nuclear Engineering). (mit.edu)
  • The quantity of generated radicals depend on initial oxygen concentration in irradiated solutions and on the energy of used neutron beam. (springer.com)
  • Feakes DA, Shelly K, Hawthorne MF (1995) Selective boron delivery to murine tumors by lipophilic species incorporated in the membranes of unilamellar liposomes. (springer.com)
  • Boron values at 4 hours after convection-enhanced delivery of N5-2OH to mice bearing intracerebral implants of L929 (wt) or L929 thymidine kinase-1(−) tumors were 39.8 ± 10.8 and 12.4 ± 1.6 μg/g, respectively, and the corresponding normal brain values were 4.4 and 1.6 μg/g, thereby indicating that there was selective retention by the thymidine kinase-1(+) tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the basis of previous studies, 12 of these were identified as potential delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy, a therapeutic method used for the treatment of high-grade brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that compound 10 is a promising candidate for selective delivery of boron-10 to malignant cells, and additional in vivo studies are planned to evaluate it for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neutron capture therapy ( NCT ) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as primary brain tumors , recurrent head and neck cancer , and cutaneous and extracutaneous melanomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact coupled with the observation of a sensitization in an in vivo system where the anoxia so prevalent in well developed tumors was present, suggests the possibility of clinical usefulness of iodoacetamide in cancer radiation therapy. (unt.edu)
  • The values for neutron capture agents that deliver into solid tumors more dependently on uptake capacity of tumor cells became more changeable. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of melanoma cells and solid tumors with the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Gadobutrol. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identify additional solid tumors that may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Radiation therapy may be used alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy in the treatment of primary or metastatic brain cancers, which are also called brain tumors. (texasoncology.com)
  • The following is a general overview of radiation therapy for brain tumors. (texasoncology.com)
  • The three primary techniques for delivering radiation therapy-external, internal, and stereotactic-have each been evaluated in the treatment of patients with brain tumors and may be utilized in different circumstances. (texasoncology.com)
  • Since the incidence of brain tumors in the elderly is rising and the size of the elderly population is increasing, it is appropriate to investigate the role of less aggressive therapy for what will be a growing number of malignant glioma patients with a poor prognosis. (cancernetwork.com)
  • PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. (go.jp)
  • Pathological study of eight patients with glioblastoma multiforme treated by neutron-capture therapy using boron 10. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ion microscopy was used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy to investigate the subcellular locations of fluorine and boron from fluorinated p -boronophenylalanine (F-BPA) in human glioblastoma T98G cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because of boron's ability to absorb electromagnetic radiation, boron-based compounds are used in conjunction with radiation therapy to enhance the selective killing of neoplastic cells, particularly those of resistant neoplasia such as glioblastoma. (drugs.com)
  • Standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme consists of maximal surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy between two and four weeks after the surgical procedure to remove the cancer, then by chemotherapy. (ipl.org)
  • For years, radiotherapy has been an essential mode of noninvasive cancer therapy and advancements have led to life saving treatments for patients. (rsc.org)
  • Investments in radiotherapy can be maximized by strengthening health systems to deliver affordable and effective preventative, diagnostic, treatment and palliative care services, said Nelly Enwerem-Bromson, Director of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy. (iaea.org)
  • Even when aggressive multimodality therapy consisting of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgical excision is used, median survival is only 12-17 months. (ipl.org)
  • Radiation therapy, or radiotherapy, uses high-energy rays to damage or kill cancer cells and prevent them from growing and dividing. (texasoncology.com)
  • In the first of these studies, the four treatment arms included surgery plus: supportive therapy alone, carmustine alone, 50 to 60 Gy of whole-brain radiotherapy alone, and carmustine plus radiotherapy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Although doses of BPA are non-toxic at levels as high as 250 mg BPA/kg of body weight and tumor to blood ratios up to 3.5:1 [ 3 ], the use of non-conformal thermal and epithermal neutron beams is limited by the dose to normal brain tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • Boron is preferentially accumulated into tumour cells though non-toxic carriers and the short length of the generated neutron beams (5-9 µm) destroys nearby cells leaving the surrounding healthy tissue intact. (rsc.org)
  • Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. (go.jp)
  • In: Mishima Y. (eds) Cancer Neutron Capture Therapy. (springer.com)
  • B compound has been examined as a selective drug delivery system in boron neutron capture therapy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This procedure requires the selective accumulation of boron into the tumoral cells, and due to this requirement, different boron-enriched compounds have been designed and developed. (intechopen.com)
  • Biopolymer-based boron delivery system was also developed for selective and efficient delivery of boron to tumor in vivo based on the EPR effect. (nii.ac.jp)
  • PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area. (go.jp)
  • RATIONALE: Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The combined dosimetric and radiobiological model includes an analytical formulation that accounts for the type of neutron source, the tissue- or cancer-specific dose-response characteristics, and the microdistribution of boron. (mdpi.com)
  • Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (springer.com)
  • Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. (springer.com)
  • Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. (springer.com)
  • The measured specific absorbed doses are constant for all field sizes and are well below the inherent background of 2.8 × 10 −12 C+y(w) m 2 /n produced by epithermal neutrons in tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The early promise of boron neutron capture therapy as a method for the treatment of cancer has been inhibited by the inherent toxicity associated with therapeutically useful doses of 10B-containing pharmacophores, the need for target-tissue specificity and the challenges imposed by biological barriers. (drugdiscoverytoday.com)
  • When 190 mg CuTCPH/kg body weight was given to the rats by i.v. infusion, median tissue boron concentrations (microg/g) 3 days after the end of infusion were: 64 in subcutaneous tumor, 13 in intracranial tumor, 1 in blood and 3 in brain. (nih.gov)
  • Determine the feasibility of using these drugs to obtain a favorable absolute boron-10 concentration in the tumor and optimal tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-healthy tissue boron-10 rates in these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Attention is now being focused on epithermal/intermediate neutrons subsequently moderated in tissue to give a more uniform flux distribution, suitable for brain tumor therapy. (astm.org)
  • While the concentration of boron within the lipid membrane was not particularly high, this study has unlocked yet another avenue through which non-toxic liposomal boron carrier concentrations can be improved and when used with previous boron loading methods, produces liposomes with sufficient boron concentrations to carry out BCNT. (rsc.org)
  • Using these cholesterol, high content boron liposomes were developed for new generation neutron capture therapy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A counter cation of boron ion clusters (closo-dodecaborates) was found to be essential for the encapsulation efficacy of boronated liposomes: a sperimidinium form of closo-dodecaborates was highly encapsulated into liposomes prepared from phospholipids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chapter Eight covers the use of thermosensitive liposomes for drug delivery and cancer therapy, because the side-effects of anticancer drugs are restrained and drug release can be controlled in combination with local hyperthermia. (novapublishers.com)
  • The other important developments such as use of genetic components as therapeutic molecules have further enhanced the scope of Liposomes based therapy. (researchimpact.com)
  • A prerequisite is the preferential accumulation of 10 B in tumor cells, which are then irradiated with low-energy neutrons. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This results in nuclear fission of the boron-11 nuclei into stripped down helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) and lithium-7 ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Thus, normal tissues, if they have not taken up sufficient amounts of boron-10, can be spared from the nuclear capture and fission reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] With the discovery of nuclear fission in late 1938, and the need for a neutron moderator that captured few neutrons, heavy water became a component of early nuclear energy research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Too many neutrons can cause a fission reaction to get out of control. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Too few neutrons and a fission reaction stops. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When the 10 B nuclei are bombarded by thermal or epithermal neutrons, they undergo a fission reaction that produces high energy α particles. (niu.edu)
  • Authors: Arimura K, Iihara K, Satow T, Nishimura A, Tokunaga S, Sakai N, JR-NET investigators Abstract Japan has a rapidly aging population and the application of neuroendovascular therapy (NET) for cerebrovascular diseases among elderly patients has increased, but feasibility and safety of NET for elderly patients are still debated. (medworm.com)
  • The multiscale model is tested against published in vitro and in vivo measurements of cell survival with and without boron. (mdpi.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo a series of boron-containing nucleosides that potentially could be used as delivery agents for neutron capture therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on these favorable in vitro and in vivo data, neutron capture therapy studies will be initiated using N5-2OH in combination with two non-cell cycle dependent boron delivery agents, boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mixed field dosimetry was assessed with two different formalisms whose parameters were specifically derived from radiobiological experiments involving in vitro UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell survival assays and boron concentration assessments in an animal model of osteosarcoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calabrese, Gianpiero , Gomes, Ana C. N. M. , Barbu, Eugen , Nevell, Thomas G. and Tsibouklis, John (2008) Carborane-based derivatives of delocalised lipophilic cations for boron neutron capture therapy: synthesis and preliminary in vitro evaluation. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • A preliminary in vitro evaluation in human cell lines indicated the propensity of these agents to target tumour cells, and to deliver therapeutically relevant quantities of boron. (port.ac.uk)
  • It is based on the nuclear capture reaction that occurs when boron-10, which is a non-radioactive constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield high-linear energy transfer α-particles ( 4 He) and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order for boron neutron capture therapy to be successful, a sufficient number of 10 B atoms must be selectively delivered to neoplastic cells, and enough thermal neutrons must be absorbed by them to sustain a lethal 10 B(n,α) 7 Li capture reaction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The lethality of the capture reaction is limited to boron containing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal Article] Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As the rods are lowered into the core, the boron absorbs neutrons, slowing the reaction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Boron trioxide forms a thin film on the surface that prevents further reaction with oxygen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The present invention provides a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for liver cancer, which is an aqueous solution of boric acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A mere 2 years later, Goldhaber, Hall, and Kruger performed the first radiobiological studies using boric acid and slow neutrons in a murine tumoral model [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • By oxidizing boron with air, they showed that boric acid is an oxidation product of boron. (wikipedia.org)
  • While boric acid, borates, and other compounds containing boron are used medicinally, they are potentially toxic if ingested or absorbed through nonintact skin. (drugs.com)
  • In medicine, boron is most commonly found in the form of boric acid, which is used as a topical astringent and anti-infective, as well as an ophthalmologic irrigant. (drugs.com)
  • They heated boracic acid (also known as boric acid , H 3 BO 3 ) with potassium metal to produce impure boron. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It combines unique features such as multi-criteria optimization tools with full support for 4D adaptive radiation therapy. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • The feasibility of a new modality of radiation therapy, Accelerator-Based Neutron Brachytherapy (ABNBT), has been demonstrated through simulations and experimental work. (mit.edu)
  • The same is concluded when the comparison is carried out taking into account osteosarcoma irradiations with photon radiation therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although a considerable investment, proper radiation therapy brings many economic benefits in the long run, he said. (iaea.org)
  • Boron compounds are used to enhance the cell selectivity of radiation therapy. (drugs.com)
  • This issue of Radiation Medicine Rounds discusses the more salient topics surrounding the role of radiation therapy for malignant gliomas. (springerpub.com)
  • The specialty of radiation therapy has increased in complexity over the years, yet as technology improves, the goal of improving outcomes while decreasing toxicity remains critical. (springerpub.com)
  • A recent advance in brachytherapy includes the FDA-approved GliaSite ® radiation therapy system that involves passing a radioactive material into an implanted balloon. (texasoncology.com)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is associated with greater side effects without improvements in control of the cancer when compared to SRT in individuals with limited metastatic cancer to the brain. (texasoncology.com)
  • When a cancerous tumor is localized and accessible, it can be surgically removed or treated with radiation therapy. (google.com)
  • One property of special importance is boron's ability to absorb neutrons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The highest boron uptake was seen with N7-2OH by the MRA 27 melanoma and L929 wild-type (wt) cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Efforts to circumvent the selectivity-uptake challenge and other problems, such as solubility, stability, and toxicity, have been to driving force behind the medicinal chemistry field in boron-based compounds. (intechopen.com)
  • PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects of giving BPA-F and/or BSH before surgery to detect boron uptake in tissues of patients with primary, metastatic, or recurrent thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases from colorectal cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Further studies with BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-(a, b-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) showed that when this porphyrin was injected 5-7 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the i.p. injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (45-38 ppm with both compounds vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). (scielo.org.ar)
  • Aimed towards the development and effective delivery of highly boronated antitumour agents for use in the neutron capture therapy of cancer, closo-carboranyl derivatives of Nile blue and salts of dequalinium, rhodamine-123 and tetraphenyl phosphonium incorporating nido-carborane counterions have been synthesized and characterized. (port.ac.uk)
  • RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) to detect the presence of boron in tumor cells may help determine whether patients who have thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine the boron concentration in the tumor, surrounding tissues, and blood of patients with operable thyroid cancer, squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, or liver metastases secondary to colorectal adenocarcinoma who receive boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) before surgical resection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The fluorinated compound was also compared with p -boronophenylalanine (BPA) for delivery of boron after a clinically relevant 6-h exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The treatment of high-grade gliomas and anaplastic astrocytomas remains refractory to conventional existing therapies, and new therapeutic modalities to improve the treatment are needed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 1936, G.L. Locher, a scientist at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, recognized the therapeutic potential of this discovery and suggested that neutron capture could be used to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the program in Japan has transitioned from a reactor neutron source to accelerators, and now a Phase I/II trial is underway to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the accelerator neutron sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutron capture therapy is a binary system that consists of two separate components to achieve its therapeutic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutron capture nuclei-containing carbon nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After the initial discovery of the neutron in 1932 by Sir James Chadwick, H. J. Taylor in 1935 showed that boron-10 nuclei had a propensity to capture thermal neutrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells treated with F-BPA, the mitochondria-rich perinuclear cytoplasmic region exhibited significantly lower fluorine and boron signals than the remaining cytoplasm and the nuclei. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Y. Mishima, C. Honda, M. Ichihashi, and M. Shiono, Cure of human malignant melanoma by thermal neutron capture therapy, KURRI-TR-357 (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute-Technical Report-357): 40-45, 1991 (in Japanese). (springer.com)
  • In the second step, the patient is radiated with epithermal neutrons , the source of which is either a nuclear reactor or, more recently, an accelerator. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a nuclear reactor , it is essential that just the right number of neutrons are present. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Now, we have irradiated 2.10 -3 molar aqueous solutions of two types of mercaptoborates: Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, [N(CH 3 ) 4 ] 2 B 12 H 11 SH and, for comparison Na 2 B 4 O 7 by thermal neutron flux on LVR-15 reactor in Řež/Czech Rep./ with total doses 5 Gy and 18 Gy, respectively. (springer.com)
  • A small amount of boron is used as a dopant in semiconductors, and reagent intermediates in the synthesis of organic fine chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are also engaged in the synthesis and chemistry of cage compounds composed of boron, carbon, transition, lanthanide and main‐group elements. (niu.edu)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • At 2.5 hours after convection-enhanced delivery, the boron values for the F98 glioma and normal brain were 16.2 ± 2.3 and 2.2 μg/g, respectively, and the tumor to brain ratio was 8.5. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The dependency of compound biological effectiveness factors on the type and the concentration of administered neutron capture agents in boron neutron capture therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To examine the effect of the type and the concentration of neutron capture agents on the values of compound biological effectiveness (CBE) in boron neutron capture therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1), where, N th and N max are the threshold value of boron concentration of N and saturation boron density and CBE 0 , F and n are given as 0.5, 8 and 3, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • Determine the clinical response, by serial objective measurements, in patients with melanoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Boron has been studied in several clinical studies at a wide range of doses. (drugs.com)
  • The therapy of disseminated cancer is a fundamental problem in clinical medicine. (google.com)
  • The clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy were continued successfully with no observed toxicity and with clear indications of tumor regression in several cases. (mit.edu)
  • The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis facility was used both for research and in support of the neutron capture therapy clinical trials. (mit.edu)
  • These observations provide strong support for the use of F-BPA in positron emission tomography biodistribution studies for boron neutron capture therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prospects for the application of fast neutrons in cancer therapy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Boron as sodium perborate is used as a bleach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. (go.jp)
  • These observations provide the first direct evidence that fluorine and boron from fluorinated BPA are cocompartmentalized in cells and that the fluorinated compound is as efficient for boron delivery as the nonfluorinated BPA at a clinically relevant time point. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and ( b ) the fluorinated compound delivers boron to the subcellular compartments in concentrations comparable with the nonfluorinated compound. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Borax, a boron compound, has long been used to make glass and glazes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although the uses of boron compounds in pharmacological science have been recognized several decades ago, surprisingly few are found in pharmaceutical drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • There is a clear need for a technique that provides subcellular locations of fluorine and boron atoms from fluorinated neutron capture agents because positron emission tomography is being tested as a tool for providing tumor boron concentrations in boron neutron capture therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neutrons are subatomic particles with no charge that occur in the nucleus of nearly all atoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Boron atoms are able to absorb a large number of neutrons. (encyclopedia.com)
  • today this remains a commercially important way to produce impure boron. (drugs.com)
  • Carboranes are a class of organometallic compounds containing carbon (C), boron (B), and hydrogen (H) and are the most widely studied boron compounds in medicinal chemistry. (mdpi.com)
  • PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy in treating patients who have melanoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Biomolecules and drugs containing 10 B‐enriched carborane and borane substituents (which preferentially localize in tumor cells and rapidly clear from normal cells) can thus be used for cancer therapy. (niu.edu)
  • It also includes functionality such as RaySearch's market-leading algorithms for IMRT and VMAT optimization and highly accurate dose engines for photon, electron, proton and carbon ion therapy. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • 10 B physical dose component at the depth of the thermal neutron fluence maximum. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unlike the first one, a higher dose of 10 B was used, and a higher fluency of incident thermal neutron was applied [ 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The joint is then given a brief dose of low-energy neutrons, which makes the boron briefly radioactive. (newscientist.com)
  • One of the unusual properties of boron is the many physical forms, called allotropes, in which it occurs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Industrially, very pure boron is produced with difficulty because of refractory contamination by carbon or other elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary use of elemental boron is as boron filaments with applications similar to carbon fibers in some high-strength materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word boron was coined from borax, the mineral from which it was isolated, by analogy with carbon, which boron resembles chemically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boron is similar to carbon in its capability to form stable covalently bonded molecular networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additive effect of BPA and Gd-DTPA for application in accelerator-based neutron source. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For a therapy to work, you need patient treatment planning which requires diagnostic equipment, CT scanners, patient set-up devices, computers and then, finally, the machines. (iaea.org)
  • There is widespread awareness of the use of radiation and radioisotopes in medicine, particularly for diagnosis (identification) and therapy (treatment) of various medical conditions. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Their inclusion should not be viewed as an endorsement of the content of the websites, or of any treatment or product, by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board or the National Cancer Institute . (cancer.gov)
  • Attenuation precludes deep-seated tumor treatment using incident thermal neutrons. (astm.org)
  • IN a neat piece of technology transfer, the neutron therapy already used to treat deep-seated cancers could provide a treatment for the debilitating inflammation of the joints seen in rheumatoid arthritis. (newscientist.com)
  • An especially noteworthy development was the continued program in joint research with Beth Israel-Deaconess Medical Center on the treatment of cancer utilizing the boron neutron capture method. (mit.edu)
  • Elemental boron is a metalloid that is found in small amounts in meteoroids but chemically uncombined boron is not otherwise found naturally on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest routes to elemental boron involved the reduction of boric oxide with metals such as magnesium or aluminium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of boron compounds does not involve the formation of elemental boron, but exploits the convenient availability of borates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients undergo boron neutron capture therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For suspected low-grade oligodendrogliomas in select patients, some neuron-oncologists opt for a course of watchful waiting, with only symptomatic therapy. (ipl.org)
  • It is only in the subgroup of patients with more favorable prognostic signs that selection of therapy has any impact on survival [7]. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Safety and Feasibility of Neuroendovascular Therapy for Elderly Patients: Analysis of Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 3. (medworm.com)
  • If you can use accelerators to produce neutrons, it's easier to apply the technique in hospitals," said FU. (cas.cn)
  • First, the patient is injected with a tumor-localizing drug containing the non-radioactive isotope boron-10. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • first , the patient is injected with a tumor-localizing drug containing the non-radioactive isotope boron-10 ( 10 B), which has a high propensity to capture thermal neutrons [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. A method for cancer therapy and/or diagnostics, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically and/or diagnostically efficient amount of the drug delivery system according to claim 1 in which the drugs are radioactive. (google.com)
  • We're hoping to inject something into the joints that is not already radioactive but that will become radioactive for a very short time when it is bombarded with neutrons," says Jacquelyn Yanch of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (newscientist.com)
  • Boron compounds were relatively rarely used until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized and produced them in volume at low cost. (wikipedia.org)