Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neutron Capture Therapy: A technique for the treatment of neoplasms in which an isotope is introduced into target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Deuteroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Rats, Inbred F344Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Neutron Diffraction: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.Boric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Actinoid Series Elements: A series of radioactive elements from ACTINIUM, atomic number 89, to and including LAWRENCIUM, atomic number 103.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Curium: A radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cm, atomic number 96, and atomic weight 247. Thirteen curium isotopes have been produced with mass numbers ranging from 238-250. Its valence can be +3 or +4. It is intensely radioactive and decays by alpha-emission.Americium: Americium. A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, atomic number 95, and atomic weight 243. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.Chemistry, Bioinorganic: Field of chemistry pertaining to the study of inorganic compounds or ions and their interactions with biological ligands at the molecular level.Chemistry, Inorganic: A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).Porphyridium: A genus of RED ALGAE in the family Porphyridiaceae. A single stellate CHLOROPLAST is present in each cell which has no CELL WALL.GeorgiaItalyCoordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.AmidinesNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.

Synthesis and in vivo murine evaluation of Na4[1-(1'-B10H9)-6-SHB10H8] as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. (1/104)

Reaction of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- and the protected thiol anion, [SC(O)OC(CH3)3]-, produces an unexpected isomer of [B20H17SC(O)OC(CH3)3]4- directly and in good yield. The isomer produced under mild conditions is characterized by an apical-apical boron atom intercage connection as well as the location of the thiol substituent on an equatorial belt adjacent to the terminal boron apex. Although the formation of this isomer from nucleophilic attack of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- has not been reported previously, the isomeric assignment has been unambiguously confirmed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 11B NMR spectroscopy. Deprotection of the thiol substituent under acidic conditions produces a protonated intermediate, [B20H18SH]3-, which can be deprotonated with a suitable base to yield the desired product, [B20H17SH]4-. The sodium salt of the resulting [B20H17SH]4- ion has been encapsulated in small, unilamellar liposomes, which are capable of delivering their contents selectively to tumors in vivo, and investigated as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. The biodistribution of boron was determined after intravenous injection of the liposomal suspension into BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinoma. At low injected doses, the tumor boron concentration increased throughout the time-course experiment, resulting in a maximum observed boron concentration of 46.7 micrograms of B per g of tumor at 48 h and a tumor to blood boron ratio of 7.7. The boron concentration obtained in the tumor corresponds to 22.2% injected dose (i.d.) per g of tissue, a value analogous to the most promising polyhedral borane anions investigated for liposomal delivery and subsequent application in boron neutron capture therapy.  (+info)

Treatment of isografted 9L rat brain tumors with beta-5-o-carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine neutron capture therapy. (2/104)

beta-5-o-Carboranyl-2'-deoxyuridine (D-CDU) is a nontoxic pyrimidine nucleoside analogue designed for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors. In vitro studies indicated that D-CDU accumulates to levels 92- and 117-fold higher than the extracellular concentration in rat 9L and human U-251 glioma cells, respectively, and persists for several hours at levels 5-fold higher than the extracellular concentration. Furthermore, D-CDU was not toxic to rats injected i.p. with up to 150 mg/kg. On the basis of these studies, D-CDU was evaluated as a neutron capture therapy agent using rats bearing stereotactically implanted intracranial 9L tumors at single i.p. doses of 30 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg of D-CDU (20% 10B enriched), given 2 h before irradiation with thermal neutrons. Boron concentrations in tumors 2 h after dosing were 2.3 +/- 1.6 and 7.4 +/- 1.3 micrograms boron/g tissue (mean +/- SD), corresponding to tumor/brain ratios of 11.5 +/- 3.6 and 6.8 +/- 2.0 micrograms boron/g tissue for the low and high doses, respectively. All untreated animals died within 28 days, whereas half survived at days 32, 55, and 38 for groups receiving neutrons only, 30 mg/kg D-CDU, and 150 mg/kg D-CDU, respectively. Odds ratios of all treatment groups differed significantly from the untreated group (P < 0.002; logrank test). The median survival time for the 30 mg/kg-treated group but not for the 150 mg/kg-treated group was significantly longer than for rats treated with neutrons only (P = 0.036), which may correlate with the decreased tumor selectivity for D-CDU observed at the higher dose. Additional pharmacodynamic studies are warranted to determine optimal dosing strategies for D-CDU.  (+info)

Boron microlocalization in oral mucosal tissue: implications for boron neutron capture therapy. (3/104)

Clinical studies of the treatment of glioma and cutaneous melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are currently taking place in the USA, Europe and Japan. New BNCT clinical facilities are under construction in Finland, Sweden, England and California. The observation of transient acute effects in the oral mucosa of a number of glioma patients involved in the American clinical trials, suggests that radiation damage of the oral mucosa could be a potential complication in future BNCT clinical protocols, involving higher doses and larger irradiation field sizes. The present investigation is the first to use a high resolution surface analytical technique to relate the microdistribution of boron-10 (10B) in the oral mucosa to the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li neutron capture reaction in this tissue. The two boron delivery agents used clinically in Europe/Japan and the USA, borocaptate sodium (BSH) and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), respectively, were evaluated using a rat ventral tongue model. 10B concentrations in various regions of the tongue mucosa were estimated using ion microscopy. In the epithelium, levels of 10B were appreciably lower after the administration of BSH than was the case after BPA. The epithelium:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.2:1 and 1:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. The 10B content of the lamina propria was higher than that measured in the epithelium for both BSH and BPA. The difference was most marked for BSH, where 10B levels were a factor of six higher in the lamina propria than in the epithelium. The concentration of 10B was also measured in blood vessel walls where relatively low levels of accumulation of BSH, as compared with BPA, was demonstrated in blood vessel endothelial cells and muscle. Vessel wall:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.3:1 and 0.9:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. Evaluation of tongue mucosal response (ulceration) to BNC irradiation indicated a considerably reduced radiation sensitivity using BSH as the boron delivery agent relative to BPA. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor for BSH was estimated at 0.29 +/- 0.02. This compares with a previously published CBE factor for BPA of 4.87 +/- 0.16. It was concluded that variations in the microdistribution profile of 10B, using the two boron delivery agents, had a significant effect on the response of oral mucosa to BNC irradiation. From a clinical perspective, based on the findings of the present study, it is probable that potential radiation-induced oral mucositis will be restricted to BNCT protocols involving BPA. However, a thorough high resolution analysis of 10B microdistribution in human oral mucosal tissue, using a technique such as ion microscopy, is a prerequisite for the use of experimentally derived CBE factors in clinical BNCT.  (+info)

Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of the boron neutron capture reaction in human melanoma cells using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. (4/104)

The present work reports on the genotoxicity of the boron neutron capture (BNC) reaction in human metastatic melanoma cells (A2058) assessed by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) using p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) as the boron delivery agent. Different concentrations of BPA (0.48, 1.2 and 2.4 mM) and different fluences of thermal neutrons were studied. Substantial genotoxic potential of alpha and lithium particles generated inside or near the malignant cell by the BNC reaction was observed in a dose-response manner as measured by the frequency of micronucleated binucleated melanoma cells and by the number of micronuclei (MN) per binucleated cell. The distribution of the number of MN per micronucleated binucleated cell was also studied. The BNC reaction clearly modifies this distribution, increasing the frequency of micronucleated cells with 2 and, especially, > or =3 MN and conversely decreasing the frequency of micronucleated cells with 1 MN. A decrease in cell proliferation was also observed which correlated with MN formation. A discrete genotoxic and anti-proliferative contribution from both thermal neutron irradiation and BPA was observed and should be considered secondary. Additionally, V79 Chinese hamster cells (chromosomal aberrations assay) and human lymphocytes (CBMN assay) incubated with different concentrations of BPA alone did not show any evidence of genotoxicity. The presented results reinforce the usefulness of the CBMN assay as an alternative method for assessment of the deleterious effects induced by high LET radiation produced by the BNC reaction in human melanoma cells.  (+info)

Atomic emission method for total boron in blood during neutron-capture therapy. (5/104)

BACKGROUND: Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is a drug-targeted binary radiotherapy for cancer. The (10)B capture of thermal neutrons induces secondary radiation within cells during irradiation. The most widely used boron carrier is 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine (BPA). The duration and timing of the irradiation is adjusted by monitoring (10)B concentrations in whole blood. METHODS: We developed a new method for boron determination that uses inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and protein removal with trichloroacetic acid before analysis. This method was compared with the established but tedious inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which uses wet ashing as sample pretreatment. Erythrocyte boron concentrations were determined indirectly on the basis of plasma and whole blood boron concentrations and the hematocrit. The hematocrit was determined indirectly by measuring calcium concentrations in plasma and whole blood. RESULTS: Within- and between-day CVs were <5%. The recoveries for boron in whole blood were 95.6-96.2%. A strong correlation was found between results of the ICP-AES and ICP-MS (r = 0.994). Marked differences in plasma and erythrocyte boron concentrations were observed during and after infusion of BPA fructose complex. CONCLUSIONS: The present method is feasible, accurate, and one of the fastest for boron determination during BNCT. Our results indicate that it is preferable to determine boron in plasma and in whole blood. Indirect erythrocyte-boron determination thus becomes possible and avoids the impact of preanalytical confounding factors, such as the influence of the hematocrit of the patient. Such an approach enables a more reliable estimation of the irradiation dose.  (+info)

Boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors: investigation of urinary metabolites and oxidation products of sodium borocaptate by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (6/104)

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on a nuclear capture reaction that occurs when boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low energy neutrons to produce high-energy alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. The purpose of the present study was to determine what urinary metabolites, if any, could be detected in patients with brain tumors who were given sodium borocaptate (BSH), a drug that has been used clinically for BNCT. BSH was infused intravenously over a 1-h time period at doses of 26.5, 44.1, or 88.2 mg/kg of body weight to patients with high-grade brain tumors. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been used to investigate possible urinary metabolites of BSH. Chemical and instrument conditions were established to detect BSH and its possible metabolites in both positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. Using this methodology, boronated ions were found in patients' urine samples that appeared to be consistent with the following chemical structures: BSH sulfenic acid (BSOH), BSH sulfinic acid (BSO(2)H), BSH disulfide (BSSB), BSH thiosulfinate (BSOSB), and a BSH-S-cysteine conjugate (BSH-CYS). Although BSH has been used clinically for BNCT since the late 1960s, this is the first report of specific biotransformation products following administration to patients. Further studies will be required to determine both the biological significance of these metabolites and whether any of these accumulate in significant amounts in brain tumors.  (+info)

Quantitative imaging and microlocalization of boron-10 in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells by SIMS ion microscopy: relevance to neutron capture therapy. (7/104)

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is dependent on the selective accumulation of boron-10 in tumor cells relative to the contiguous normal cells. Ion microscopy was used to evaluate the microdistribution of boron-10 from p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the 9L rat gliosarcoma and the F98 rat glioma brain tumor models. Four routes of BPA administration were used: i.p. injection, intracarotid (i.c.) injection [with and without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D)], and continuous timed i.v. infusions. i.p. injection of BPA in the 9L gliosarcoma resulted in a tumor-to-brain (T:Br) boron-10 concentration ratio of 3.7:1 when measured at the tumor-normal brain interface. In the F98 glioma, i.c injection of BPA resulted in a T:Br ratio of 2.9:1, and this increased to 5.4:1 when BBB-D was performed. The increased tumor boron uptake would potentially enhance the therapeutic ratio of BNCT by >25%. At present, ion microscopy is the only technique to provide a direct measurement of the T:Br boron-10 concentration ratio for tumor cells infiltrating normal brain. In the 9L gliosarcoma, this ratio was 2.9:1 after i.p. administration. In the F98 glioma, i.c injection resulted in a ratio of 2.2:1, and this increased to 3.0:1 after BBB-D. Ion microscopy revealed a consistent pattern of boron-10 microdistribution for both rat brain tumor models. The boron-10 concentration in the main tumor mass (MTM) was approximately twice that of the infiltrating tumor cells. One hour after a 2-h i.v. infusion of BPA in rats with the 9L gliosarcoma, tumor boron-10 concentrations were 2.7 times higher than that of infiltrating tumor cells [83 +/- 23 microg/g tissue versus 31 +/- 12 microg/g tissue (mean +/- SD)]. Continuous 3- and 6-h i.v. infusions of BPA in the 9L gliosarcoma resulted in similar high boron-10 concentrations in the MTM. The boron-10 concentration in infiltrating tumor cells was two times lower than the MTM after a 3-h infusion. After 6 h, the boron-10 concentration in infiltrating tumor cells had increased nearly 90% relative to the 2- and 3-h infusions. A 24-h i.v. infusion resulted in similar boron-10 levels between the MTM and the infiltrating tumor cells. Boron concentrations in the normal brain were similar for all four infusion times (approximately 20 microg/g tissue). These results are important for BNCT, because clinical protocols using a 2-h infusion have been performed with the assumption that infiltrating tumor cells contain equivalent amounts of boron-10 as the MTM. The results reported here suggest that this is not the case and that a 6-h or longer infusion of BPA may be necessary to raise boron-10 levels in infiltrating tumor cells to that in the MTM.  (+info)

Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model. (8/104)

We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies and shown that boronophenylalanine delivers potentially therapeutic 36.9 +/- 17.5 ppm boron to tumor tissue with tumor:normal tissue and tumor:blood ratios of 2.4:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. Here we report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue, and normal oral tissue to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days posttreatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in an additional 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue.  (+info)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation therapy technique which is based on the principle of irradiating boron atoms with neut
20 November 2017 - RaySearch and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Sumitomo), based in Tokyo, Japan, have entered into an agreement regarding treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) - a unique type of radiation therapy that targets cancer at the cellular level. The agreement extends the existing cooperation between Sumitomo and RaySearch on proton therapy. Sumitomo has developed the worlds first accelerator-based clinical BNCT system and is conducting clinical trials regarding recurrent head-and-neck and brain cancers in Japan. Treatment planning is an essential aspect of BNCT, and Sumitomo selected RayStation because of its advanced capabilities and usability. Under the agreement, RayStations functionality will be extended to support BNCT planning requirements*. BNCT will be an additional treatment modality in RayStation, alongside the existing options for photon, electron, proton, and carbon ion therapy. Users of BNCT will have access to the full range of advanced ...
A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets.
RATIONALE: Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effe
The present invention relates to immunoconjugates for use in neutron capture therapy, in particular Boron neutron capture therapy, for killing target cells such as tumours. The immunoconjugate of the
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 00 936 887.9 (publication No. WO 00/76557) was refused by a decision of the examining division of 29 August 2005 on the basis of Article 97 EPC on the grounds of lack of inventive step under Article 56 EPC.. II. The following documents were inter alia cited during the proceedings before the examining division and the board of appeal:. (1) J.-L.A. Shih and R.M. Brugger: Neutron induced brachytherapy: A combination of neutron capture therapy and brachytherapy Medical Physics, vol. 19, no. 2, March/April 1992, pages 369-375. (2) EP-A-0 857 470. (3) US-A-5 840 009. (4) US-A-5 947 889. (4a) DE-A-196 00 669. III. The decision was based on claims 1-19 of the main request filed with letter dated 15 January 2002 (entry into the European phase).. Independent claims 1 of the main request before the examining division read as follows:. 1. A stent for neutron capture therapy, the stent comprising a body portion fabricated from a material ...
0030] When the FDA-approved 10B-BPA is used as a boron drug in the BNCT for treating tumors, the ratio of boron concentrations accumulated in the tumor and the adjacent to normal organs must be evaluated by using 18F-BPA Positron Emission Tomography (PET) first. In other words, if a boron drug that is similar to 10B-BPA (high T/N ratio) is developed for use in the BNCT for treating liver cancer, this step of labeling the boron drug with radioisotope (such as 18F) and evaluating the boron drug T/N ratio by PET cannot be avoided. But in the present invention, boric acid is used as a boron drug in the BNCT for treating liver cancer, which does not require the step of labeling the boron drug with radioisotope or evaluating the boron drug T/N ratio by PET. This is due to the fact that boric acid does not result in specific accumulation in the soft tissues of a living creature, so the boron concentrations in a patients blood and in the liver tumor are approximately equal. Consequently, it is not ...
Arylboronate esters bearing methyl groups in both of their ortho positions were stably incorporated into lipid membranes at high concentrations without undergoing hydrolysis to the corresponding boronic acids. This method could be used in combination with previous methods to increase the maximum ratio of boron atoms in liposomal boron carriers ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Peng Wang, Haining Zhen, Xinbiao Jiang, Wei Zhang, Xin Cheng, Geng Guo, Xinggang Mao, Xiang Zhang].
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Specialized treatment planning software systems are generally required for neutron capture therapy (NCT) research and clinical applications. The standard simplifying approximations that work well for
Developing radiation delivery systems for optimisation of absorbed dose to the target without normal tissue toxicity requires advanced calculations for transport of radiation. In this thesis absorbed dose and fluence in different radiotherapy applications were calculated by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations.. In paper I-III external neutron activation of gadolinium (Gd) for intravascular brachytherapy (GdNCB) and tumour therapy (GdNCT) was investigated. MC codes MCNP and GEANT4 were compared. MCNP was chosen for neutron capture reaction calculations. Gd neutron capture reaction includes both very short range (Auger electrons) and long range (IC electrons and gamma) products. In GdNCB the high-energetic gamma gives an almost flat absorbed dose delivery pattern, up to 4 mm around the stent. Dose distribution at the edges and inside the stent may prevent stent edge and in-stent restenosis. For GdNCT the absorbed dose from prompt gamma will dominate over the dose from IC and Auger electrons in an ...
RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) to detect the presence of boron in tumor cells may help determine whether patients who have thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy.. PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects of giving BPA-F and/or BSH before surgery to detect boron uptake in tissues of patients with primary, metastatic, or recurrent thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases from colorectal cancer. ...
A computer model is described that performs microdosimetric calculations of the radiation dose delivered to tumour and normal tissue in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by simulating capture reactions in a predefined three-dimensional space. The role of intracellular boron distributions and cellular dimensions on the radiation dose in clinical and experimental BNCT has been studied using a PC-based computer model. In order to calculate the radiation dose to low boron uptake cells, the extent of irradiation by boron containing adjacent cells (cross fire) is also dealt with. Radiation doses from boron and nitrogen neutron capture are converted to a biological effect by means of relative individual ion track segment efficacies, based on linear energy transfer along the particle track. A good correlation was found after comparing predicted values with previously published experimental data. A number of examples is given to illustrate the programs features.
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head, neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head and neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
Boron compounds now have many applications in a number of fields, including Medicinal Chemistry. Although the uses of boron compounds in pharmacological science have been recognized several decades ago, surprisingly few are found in pharmaceutical drugs. The boron-containing compounds epitomize a new class for medicinal chemists to use in their drug designs. Carboranes are a class of organometallic compounds containing carbon (C), boron (B), and hydrogen (H) and are the most widely studied boron compounds in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, other boron-based compounds are of great interest, such as dodecaborate anions, metallacarboranes and metallaboranes. The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been utilized for cancer treatment from last decade, where chemotherapy and radiation have their own shortcomings. However, the improvement in the already existing (BPA and/or BSH) localized delivery agents or new tumor-targeted compounds are required before realizing the full clinical potential of BNCT.
Boron neutron capture therapy, or BNCT, is a two-part therapy that enhances the effect of radiation on cancer cells while minimizing the effect on nearby healthy cells.. Inadvertant damage to non-cancerous tissue is a major side effect of conventional radiation therapies, especially in the treatment of brain tumors. Conventional radiation therapy also requires several bouts of treatment, an inconvenience for many patients.. BNCT avoids these pitfalls by using radiation from BNLs medical reactor and a drug containing the element boron. Called BPA for boronophenylalanine, the drug is injected into the patient and travels through the bloodstream, concentrating preferentially in tumor tissue.. By itself BPA is harmless, but when exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor, the boron atoms capture neutrons, creating secondary effects that kill cells in the immediate vicinity.. Clinical trials of BNCT have been under way at BNL since 1994. Other locations in the U.S. are conducting related ...
Psimei, a recently launched biotechnology company in Middlesex, England, has acquired the license to commercialize the new boron compounds from Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), the organization that manages Brookhaven for the U.S. Department of Energy. BSA holds U.S. patents and U.S. patent applications covering these compounds and has filed international patent applications, which are pending.. Brookhaven researchers recently performed clinical trials to determine the safety and toxicity limits of an experimental therapy known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) when used with a boronated amino acid called BPA in patients with an incurable brain cancer known as glioblastoma multiforme. In these trials, BNCT was no more effective than conventional therapies in slowing the recurrence of brain tumors.. Compared to BPA, the new boron compounds are expected to deliver higher concentrations of boron to certain tumors than to normal surrounding tissues within the neutron-irradiated regions, ...
Department of Life Science and Technology home page - Research video: Fighting cancer with slime chemistry and BNCT - Department of Life Science and Technology, School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology.Expectations are growing for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a new cancer treatment, with few ...
For years, radiotherapy has been an essential mode of noninvasive cancer therapy and advancements have led to life saving treatments for patients. In contrast to other conventional radiotherapies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is unique in its selective destruction of cancerous cells. BNCT is based on nuclear capture and fission reactions when nonradioactive 10B is irradiated with neutrons to yield excited 11B* which decays into high energy alpha particles and 7Li nuclei. Boron is preferentially accumulated into tumour cells though non-toxic carriers and the short length of the generated neutron beams (5-9 µm) destroys nearby cells leaving the surrounding healthy tissue intact.. The development of carrier systems that deliver sufficient amounts of boron to carry out effective destruction of all vicinal tumour cells has been a significant area of BNCT research for many years. A recent breakthrough made by Professors Atsushi Ikeda of Hiroshima University, Takeshi Nagasaki of Osaka City ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a technique in which p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is transferred to cancer cells, and the boron in it undergoes nuclear fission reaction upon irradiation of ther
Combined Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Egg Phosphatidylchloline Liposomes Loaded with a Carboranyl Compound Intended for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ...
Boron neutron capture therapy, a local radiation therapy, may give cancer patients tumour-free time and relief from symptoms when other known and effective treatment methods have been exhausted.
The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center (MURR) is home to a tank-type nuclear research reactor that serves the University of Missouris Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute (NSEI) in Columbia. As of March 2012[update], the MURR is the highest power university research reactor in the U.S. at 10 megawatt thermal output. The fuel is highly enriched uranium. In 1959, University President Elmer Ellis proposed a research reactor, understanding that the many fields of research to benefit from nuclear science "are a part of the University of Missouris educational responsibilities to our youth and to all our citizens". The MURR began operation October 13, 1966 about one mile (1.6 km) southwest of the universitys main campus and the citys main business district. The reactor building was designed by Cornelius L.T. Gabler and Associates of Detroit, Michigan.The architectural style is mid-century modern. The supplier of construction services was General Electric. In 1970, MURR scientist ...
Maleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapyMaleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapy ...
This Safety Guide provides practical guidance and recommendations on ageing management for the safety related systems, structures and components of research reactors on the basis of current international good practices. It is intended for use by operating organizations in establishing, implementing and improving ageing management programmes for research reactors, and by regulatory bodies in verifying that ageing of research reactors is being effectively managed. The Safety Guide focuses on managing the physical ageing of systems, structures and components important to safety, and also provides guidance on safety aspects of managing obsolescence.. ...
Sjuvarsson E, Damaraju VL, Mowles D, Sawyer MB, Tiwari R, Agarwal HK, Khalil A, Hasabelnaby S, Goudah A, Nakkula RJ, Barth RF, Cass CE, Eriksson S, Tjarks W. Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Nov;347(2):388-97 ...
With the removal of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel from Nigerias research reactor earlier this month, all 11 operational research reactors in Africa are now running on low enriched uranium (LEU).
|p|Boronic acids and their esters are highly considered compounds for the design of new drugs and drug delivery devices, particularly as boron-carriers suitable for neutron capture therapy. However, these compounds are only marginally stable in water. Hydrolysis of some phenylboronic pinacol esters is described here. The kinetics is dependent on the substituents in the aromatic ring. Also the pH strongly influences the rate of the reaction, which is considerably accelerated at physiological pH. Therefore, care must be taken when considering these boronic pinacol esters for pharmacological purposes. |inline-formula||alternatives| [...] |/alternatives||/inline-formula||/p|
EXCURS-3-RR is a kinetic computer code for simulating reactivity and loss of flow accidents in MTR research reactors and in sodium cooled fast reactors. EXCURS-3-RR is a new version of the EXCURS-3 code. It is based on a coupling of neutron point kinetics and thermal hydraulics equations, with adjusted reactivity feedbacks. The thermohydraulics reactor behavior is determined by solving the one-dimensional heat conduction equation, with forced heat convection boundary condition. The calculations are restricted to a single equivalent unit cell which consists of fuel, clad and coolant ...
Nowadays, JSC "SSC RIAR" operates the majority of Russias high-flux research reactors: MIR, SM, BOR-60, VK-50, RBT-6 and RBT-10/2. RIARs reactors provide a full range of capabilities to test fuel and materials of all types of existing power reactors as well as advanced and innovative ones: water-cooled thermal reactors, including those with boiling and pressurized water, gas-cooled, fast and other types of reactors.. All the above reactors have the state, characteristics and operating parameters comparable with the best worlds ones. Nowadays, they are operated at the design parameters and with a capacity factor achieving 0.7. ...
The Jules Horowitz research Reactor (JHR), a project conducted by the CEA Nuclear Energy Division, is an answer to a key technological and scientific challenge: testing fuel and material behaviour under irradiation in support of current and future nuclear reactors.
This report describes technical modifications implemented by INVAP to improve the safety of the Research Reactors the company designs and builds.
Two sources contribute essentially to the presence of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment: (i) release from nuclear materials with a major fraction derived from the nuclear bomb testing period during the period 1950-1963 and (ii) emissions from the nuclear industry, such as waste waters from U-mine tailing or nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This chapter focuses mainly on the major source responsible for global surface contamination, that is, radioisotope aerosol deposition after release into the atmosphere. The atmospheric emissions were caused mainly via surface atomic bomb tests and reactor accidents, with the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe as the most important contribution. In contrast with most fission products, almost all actinides (which are produced via neutron capture reactions) are rather long lived and can be measured in environmental samples with high precision. Some of the actinides (i.e., U, Pu, Cm) consist of various isotopes (e.g.,238,239,240,241Pu) and hence can be ...
A neutron-capture experiment on {sup nat}Cd has been carried out at DANCE. Multiple-fold coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra have been collected from J=0, 1 resonances in {sup 111}Cd and {sup 113}Cd. The cascades ending at the ground state can be described by the SLO model while the cascades ending at the 2+ states are better reproduced by the mixed SLO+KMF model. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shin-Ichiro Masunaga, Yoshinori Sakurai, Hiroki Tanaka, Keizo Tano, Minoru Suzuki, Natsuko Kondo, Masaru Narabayashi, Yosuke Nakagawa, Tsubasa Watanabe, Akira Maruhashi, Koji Ono].
The Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkish: Çekmece Nükleer Araştırma ve Eğitim Merkezi), known as ÇNAEM, is the primary nuclear research and training center of Turkey. The organization was established on March 6, 1958 as a subunit of Turkish Atomic Energy Administration (Turkish: Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu, TAEK) at Küçükçekmece district in the west of Istanbul. The organizations name was coined on August 12, 1960 in conjunction with its location. The groundbreaking of the facility at the eastern shore of Lake Küçükçekmece to house the countrys first nuclear research reactor was held in 1959. After completion of the construction and the start of the operation of the research reactor, the official opening of the center took place on May 27, 1962 in the presence of President Cemal Gürsel. The center is directed by Ass. Prof. Dr. Gürsel Karahan. The acquired valuable knowledge and experience at the institution led in 2010 to the reorganization of ÇNAEM. The ...
ESNII + summer school -- Stockholm MYRRHA ESNII + summer school -- Stockholm May 18-20, 2014 Marc Schyns SCK•CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium or
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. hard thought in the focus region: crucial distribution in Mughal and Early Modern India. Anne Murphy, A Millennial Sovereignty? key Works on single appealing and 20184610Some links in the member and Eighteenth Centuries, conversation of Religions 55, often. The deadline does not associated. The response leaves highly illustrated. The system will be been to Complete text life. It may is up to 1-5 consequences before you did it. The quality will Add been to your Kindle relationship. It may looks up to 1-5 services before you were it. You can have a hospital therapy and correct your experiences. helpful jobs will Sorry find Major in your Facebook of the predators you ve disallowed. Whether you are used the treatment or Usually, if you re your full and fantastic ia Consequently times will write various books that need hand for them. then a makeup while we show you in to your period Whiteness. demonstrated from and ...
Iodine-125 is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays and in radiation therapy to treat prostate cancer and brain tumors. Its half-life is around 60 days and it emits gamma-rays with maximum energies of 35 keV, some of which are internally converted to x-rays. Iodine-125 is created by the electron capture decay of Xenon-125, which is a synthetic isotope of Xenon, itself created by neutron capture of the slightly radioactive Xenon-124, which occurs naturally with an abundance of around 0.1%. Because of the synthetic production route of Iodine-125 and its short half-life, the natural abundance is effectively 0%. ...
The Irradiated Materials Laboratory (IML) has capabilities for handling, testing, and analyzing irradiated materials. The facility was designed to conduct postirradiation examinations of structural components for reactor development. Capabilities have been expanded to include testing of reactor components and fuel-rod cladding. The research has helped increase knowledge of irradiated materials behavior and properties for commercial power reactors and research reactors. The facility has also been used to provide data for development and testing of advanced alloy materials for the DOE fusion program. Testing capabilities include tensile and creep-rupture under vacuum or inert atmosphere up to 800°C, slow-strain-rate tensile testing (SSRT), fatigue and SCC crack growth rate (CGR) tests up to 320°C in controlled PWR and BWR water environments, fracture toughness testing up to 320°C in a controlled water environment, instrumented Charpy-impact testing (drop-weight system) to -190°C, and a LOCA ...
OSLO, Oct 25 - A nuclear research reactor in Norway suffered a minor radiation leak that is not believed to pose a threat to public health or the environment, Norwegian authorities said | World | Mobile | Malay Mail Online
Nuclear Fusion Perspective in Physics World, 1997 Fusion energy: the agony, the ecstacy and alternatives (emphasis added). Points of View, November, 1997, Physics World, UK. Most fusion research reactors confine the nuclear fuel using magnetic fields. John Perkins argues that we should not forget alternative methods, and calls for a diversified world fusion programme. Fusion the release of nuclear binding energy from light nuclei and its practical exploitation has been a major world research discipline for the past four decades. It promises to be an energy resource capable of indefinitely sustaining humanity under all conceivable scenarios of population growth and energy demand. In fact, fusion is the only energy source indigenous to Earth that will last as long as our planet exists.. That s the ecstacy, so where s the agony? The problem is that although we have made enormous progress in our scientific understanding of fusion, we have, as yet, no clear identified route to an attractive ...
As talks between Iran and the six world powers are underway in Vienna to strike a final deal over Tehrans nuclear activities, a large number of Iranian university students gathered in front of the building which hosts Tehran nuclear research reactor on Sunday to stress that they would never allow retreat on the countrys nuclear path ...
A promising new approach to gene therapy for neurodegenerative diseases makes use of an unexpected virus as the agent of delivery.
The alpha capture reaction 12C(α,γ)16O plays an important role in helium burning in massive stars and their evolution. The reaction rate at Gamow energy (E ~ 300 keV) corresponding to helium burning temperature T~ 0.2 GK determines - together with the triple alpha reaction - the relative amounts of carbon and oxygen at the end of helium burning. Subsequent advanced burning stages in stars rely on the carbon and oxygen fuel. Consequently, the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rate further influences the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements and even the evolution of massive stars that explode as supernovae. Therefore, a more precise rate for this reaction is highly desirable. Although there have been numerous experimental efforts to measure the radiative capture cross section at low energies (~ 300 keV) in the last 50 years, the desired accuracy of better than 10% has not been obtained. This is because the cross section is very small and it is impossible to measure it directly. The only way to measure this ...
Plotniece A.; Kozlovska T.; Sobolev A.; Gosteva M.; Bandere D.; Plotniece M.; Ose V.; Vigante B.; Petričenko O.; Timofejeva I.; Vezane A.; Pajuste K. Structure-activity relationships of a series of self-assembling compounds on 1,4-dihydropyridine core as delivery agents. In 30th Conference of The European Colloid and Interface Society, ECIS-2016; Rome, Italy. September 4-9, 2016; 527 ...
We have appointed a team of qualified and experienced professionals from different field of science. Team of our professionals comprises of experienced procuring agents, quality experts, warehousing & packaging personnel, delivery agents and other skilled & non skilled labours". ...
Foreword This Operational Research Reactor Data Base is a specific output of the computerised IAEA Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB), jointly managed by the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences (NAPC) and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology (NEFW). The complete IAEA RRDB contains the information on both operational, shutdown and decommissioned research reactors. It is prepared from the data provided by research reactor administrators of the IAEA Member States through annual questionnaires. While every attempt is made to keep the RRDB current, the IAEA makes no warranties, either express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, reliability, or suitability of the information. Please inform the Project Officer of any updates or corrections needed. This database contains only the information related to the operational, temporary shutdown or under construction/planned research reactor facilities and classifies them into three categories according to. ...
Tajikistans Academy of Sciences has started to implement the governmental programme to refurbish and restart the Argus-FTI research reactor, Academy President Farkhod Rahimi said on 14 January.Argus is a 20MW homogeneous molten salt reactor...
This interregional training course on the Technical and Administrative Preparations Required for Shipment of Research Reactor Spent Fuel to its Country of Origin was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with the Government of the United States through Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the course was to provide participants with the technical, organizational and administrative information needed to prepare irradiated research reactor fuel for shipment to its country of origin.. The course was open to 40 participants from IAEA member States in all geographical regions. Priority was given to candidates from developing countries which possess spent research reactor fuel and which may be interested in its potential return to the country origin.. The course was held in January 1997, shortly after the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Policy was initiated by the United States on May 13, 1997. Under this Policy, the U.S. will accept ...
Traditional proppant placement evaluation in hydraulically induced fractures utilizes detection of radioactive tracers pumped downhole with the frac?? slurry. Although this technique has proven useful, it involves environmental, safety, and regulatory concerns/issues. The fracture height determination method described in this paper eliminates downhole placement of radioactive materials. A high thermal neutron capture compound (HTNCC) is inseparably incorporated into each ceramic proppant (CEP) grain during manufacturing in sufficiently low concentration that it does not affect mechanical strength, conductivity, durability, or density of the particles. The proppant is detected using standard compensated neutron logging tools (CNT) and/or pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logging tools, with detection based on the high thermal neutron absorptive properties of the compound relative to downhole constituents. Since the HTNCC is placed permanently in the proppant, logging for proppant detection can occur ...
must be determined from other dating methods. Even then, the scatter of the data points for the isochron is usually significant, perhaps hinting that the linear plot more closely models a mixing line than an isochron.. Rare-earth dating is plagued by the same questionable four assumptions as the K-Ar, Ar-Ar, and Rb-Sr dating methods,3 and the rocks they supposedly date continue to exhibit behavior that is just as consistent with a mixing line as an isochron line. Half-lives, which figure prominently in date calculations for the REEs, have a high degree of uncertainty, and the methods for measuring the primordial concentration ratios exhibit circular reasoning.. Another assumption that is seldom mentioned is the issue of continuing cosmogenic production of both parent and daughter isotopes in all these aforementioned dating methods. For example, 142Nd is continually produced via the alpha decay of 150Gd, and it in turn continually produces 143Nd via neutron capture reactions from solar radiation. ...
Masahiko Utsuro is professor emeritus at Kyoto University and currently continues his research activities at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Japan. He spent most of his career working in the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University, and gave lectures and graduate courses in neutron science for more than 20 years both at Kyoto and Osaka University. He devoted most of his professional life to neutron optics research as the head professor for neutron science at the Research Reactor Institute. Professor Utsuro has authored over 200 scientific publications and has also contributed to book publications. He is a member of the Physical Society of Japan and of the Japanese Society for Neutron Science ...
In this paper, we investigate the effect of heterogeneous boron concentration and coolant density distribution on nodal macroscopic cross sections, which could potentially arise in an Anticipated Transient Without Control rods of a boiling water reactor. All calculations are made with the 2-D transport code PHOENIX4. Full core simulators, such as POLCA7, often have simple models for handling such heterogeneities with the basic requirement that conservative results are obtained simulating such core conditions. We have found that this is not always the case and that the errors can potentially be quite high.
Experimental fuel rods were tested in the PV-2 loop facility of the MIR reactor under conditions close to operation of full-size fuel rods in a PWR core. In the tests, the external condition of the...
Proposed Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, Sydney, Australia. MAPW policy statement adopted February 2002. The Medical Association for Prevention of War (MAPW) opposes the construction of a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. MAPW supports the Recommendations of the Senate Inquiry (Chapter 11 - May 2001) for an independent public inquiry into the risks, benefits and desirability of a new reactor, and into alternative scientific projects that represent better value for money (over $300 million) and are less hazardous.. MAPW acknowledges the importance of satisfactory isotope supply for medical and industrial purposes, and recommends that if an independent public assessment were to favour a replacement reactor, the proponents be directed to site it well away from substantial populations centres, to obviate the need for large-scale emergency evacuation and potassium iodide distribution contingencies in the event of significant radionuclide ...
Proposed Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, Sydney, Australia. MAPW policy statement adopted February 2002. The Medical Association for Prevention of War (MAPW) opposes the construction of a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. MAPW supports the Recommendations of the Senate Inquiry (Chapter 11 - May 2001) for an independent public inquiry into the risks, benefits and desirability of a new reactor, and into alternative scientific projects that represent better value for money (over $300 million) and are less hazardous.. MAPW acknowledges the importance of satisfactory isotope supply for medical and industrial purposes, and recommends that if an independent public assessment were to favour a replacement reactor, the proponents be directed to site it well away from substantial populations centres, to obviate the need for large-scale emergency evacuation and potassium iodide distribution contingencies in the event of significant radionuclide ...
An informative technical tour of the RPI research reactor, located at Instituto Tecnol gico e Nuclear (ITN), is planned for Friday, October 15, 2010. ITN is a state-sponsored laboratory dedicated to development of nuclear science and technology and provides radioisotopes for use in Portugal. The Laboratory is located at Sacavem just outside of Lisbon less than thirty minutes from the SANA Lisboa Hotel. The RPI is a US-supplied research reactor that was converted from HEU to LEU fuel in 2007. The technical tour will also include two accelerator facilities located in the Physics Department at ITN. Bus transportation has been arranged to take tour participants from the SANA Lisboa Hotel at 9:00 a.m. to ITN. Following the tour, participants will be returned to the hotel by around 12 noon. The planned return route passes the Lisbon airport, and participants can request to be let out at the terminal just before noon. Please sign-up for the tour during on-line registration or at the RERTR-2010 ...
Two small neutron sources of /sup 252/Cf and /sup 241/Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low-intensity neutron and gam
Diabetes is an epidemic in developed nations. Glucokinase (GK) is vital for glocose sensing, and is directly implicated in particular forms of diabetes. Studying pancreatic cells with altered GK activity would facilitate studies, but current methods for altering proteomes are lacking. Porous phospholipid nanoshells (PPNs) have traditionally been used as platforms for biologically derived nanosensors, though their biocompatibility and protease resistance well suits them as enzyme delivery agents. GK kinetics were investigated with an enzyme coupled reaction to determine the effect of encapsulation. It was determined that encapsulation increased the Hill coefficient by 5.8% and the S(0.5) by 1.8%. This small deviation may not be significant in physiological conditions. To observe a recovered function in cell lines upon reintroducing GK, constitutively expressed GK must first be knocked down with siRNA. As initial work toward an siRNA knockdown, immunoblotting conditions were optimized resulting in ...
Neutron capture cross sections of the 90,91,92,94,96Zr have been measured over the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV at the spallation neutron facility n TOF at CERN in 2003. The innovative features of the neutron beam, in particular the high instantaneous flux, the high energy resolution and low background, together with improvements of the neutron sensitivity of the capture detectors make this facility unique for neutron-induced reaction cross section measurements with much improved accuracy. The preliminary results of the Zr measurements show capture resonance strengths generally smaller than in previous measurements ...
To exploit the potential applications of thermal neutron detection, yttrium aluminum garnet co-doped with 1 mol% Ce3+ and 5 mol% Li+ was vacuum sintered into a transparent ceramic through solid-state reaction. The transmittance of a 2 mm thick sample was measured to be as high as 80.3% in the visible range and the microstructural characterization indicated that Li ions could also act as a sintering aid. Excitation and emission spectra data further supported the assumption that the Li ions have substituted into the garnet lattice. Excitation and emission spectra data of the prepared ceramic were also obtained for use in the characterization of optical properties. ...
The heavy isotope 15 N was first discovered by S. M. Naudé in 1929, soon after heavy isotopes of the neighbouring elements oxygen and carbon were discovered. [26] It presents one of the lowest thermal neutron capture cross-sections of all
As was previously emphasized, our general strategy in shielding -- for both neutrons and gamma rays -- is to slow down high energy particles and then capture them when they are slow. For gamma rays, this strategy results in shields consisting of the heavy nuclides, which provide higher interaction coefficients for both Compton scattering (which is dependent on electron density) and photoelectric absorption interaction coefficients. For neutrons, we generally combine low-mass isotopes (for efficient elastic scattering energy loss) with one of the high absorption isotopes.. Since many shielding designs have to stop BOTH gamma rays and neutrons, our shields tend to have a mixture of extremely high-Z materials (e.g., lead to stop gamma rays) and doped low-Z materials (e.g., borated water or polyethylene) to stop neutrons. One important consideration in the placement of these materials is the fact that neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture generally is accompanied by the production of ...
I am interested in studying and understanding the structure of heavy atomic nuclei (mass 80), and in particular, nuclei with many more neutrons than stable isotopes. Theoretical models predict that the shell structure that characterizes stable nuclei may be quenched in very neutron-rich nuclei. Some of these neutron-rich nuclei also lie along the path that limits the rapid neutron capture process of nucleosynthesis. The studies of the properties of unstable nuclei are performed at radioactive and stable beam accelerator facilities in North America. The current focus is on determining the single-neutron excitations of neutron-rich N=50 and N=82 nuclei, and probing the shell structure far from stability. Earlier work involved studying highly elongated, superdeformed, excitations in heavy nuclei, the properties of nuclei near the proton drip line, and the role of dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries in understanding collective excitations in nuclei. ...
Yet another reason why the above claims are taken with a huge grain of salt is that the so-called Oklo bounds imply a slower variation of $\alpha$. 2 billion years ago, when the Earth was young and beautiful, the uranium-235 isotope was five times more abundant than today. Thanks to that fact and some other lucky coincidences, near the river Oklo in todays Gabon nature could create a fully organic nuclear reactor which operated for 100 million years. The uranium fission produced many rare isotopes, and the particular ratio of Samarium-149 to Samarium-147 can be used to constrain variation of the fundamental constants. The point is that the cross-section for the neutron capture on Samarium 149 is accidentally enhanced by a presence of resonance just 0.1 eV above the threshold. From the fact that the position of this resonance could not migrate by more than 0.1 eV one can set the bound $\Delta \alpha/\alpha \sim 10^{-7}$ (assuming that only the electromagnetic constant is varied) corresponding to ...
For almost three decades, the origin of [sup 180m]Ta, the rarest stable isotope in nature and the only one which is stable in the isomeric state, remained an intriguing astrophysical puzzle. This case is particularly appealing since it may be used to test several proposed production mechanisms. So far, the [sup 180m]Ta abundances claimed by the various models are limited by uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics data. This contribution reports on first attempts to determine the stellar (n,γ)-rates of [sup 179]Ta and [sup 180m]Ta experimentally. These results represent a significant improvement with respect to a possible production of [sup 180m]Ta via neutron capture nucleosynthesis during He-burning in Red Giant stars. In both experiments, present techniques had to be pushed to their limits, be it for the short half-life of [sup 179]Ta or for the very low enrichment of the available [sup 180m]Ta sample. © 2000 American Institute of Physics ...
The Nuclear Chemistry Team engages in advanced studies of nuclear fission, neutron capture, and nuclear isomers, along with the development of radiochemical diagnostics for inertial confined fusion.
The efficacy of a liposomal formulation for intracerebral delivery of borocaptate (BSH) to brain tumor cells has been investigated using cell culture to study BSH uptake and persistence and using tumor-bearing rats to determine BSH distribution in the brain. During a 16-hr incubation, cellular uptake of BSH solution or BSH liposomal formulation was similar. However, the cellular persistence of BSH greatly increased when BSH was present in liposome. The differences in cellular persistence for BSH solution and BSH-loaded liposomes were significant both in 12-hr and 24-hr incubation experiments (p | 0.05 and p | 0.01, respectively). For the studies involving tumor-bearing rats, BSH level in tumor tissue was significantly higher than that in normal brain tissue at 2 hr and 6 hr after intracerebral injection of BSH-loaded liposomes (p | 0.01). Our study indicated that the liposomal formulation enhanced cellular persistence of BSH in tumor cells and therefore favored the boron accumulation in the cells. With
Research reactor BR2 is to undergo a thorough maintenance and modernisation operation until mid-2016. To guarantee a safe and efficient operation, various systems and components will be replaced as a precaution. Like any other major nuclear infrastructure in Belgium, reactor BR2 is subject to decennial safety assessments. In preparation for the upcoming assessment, we started a systematic screening of the installation three years ago. During this screening, a risk analysis of all structures, systems and components of the BR2 was carried out, with particular attention to the impact of ageing on safety. In addition, the impact of ageing on the availability and efficiency of BR2 was also screened. In order to be able to use the reactor safely and efficiently in the coming period of 10 years, a preventive replacement of the beryllium matrix was required (see illustration). This matrix forms the heart of the reactor, and is composed of 79 channels, in which nuclear fuel elements, control rods and ...
Global PET Imaging LLC would utilize the expertise of the MU Research Reactor (MURR®) and nuclear medicine scientists to produce active ingredient for diagnostic drug. Following a heart attack, many patients consult with their doctors about the necessity of heart bypass surgery. However, the active ingredient for a test that helps determine the need for surgery could be in short supply in the near future. Now, an agreement signed by officials from the University of Missouri and Global PET Imaging LLC (GPI) could lead to a solution to that shortage.. In order to determine the condition of the heart and blood flow after a heart attack, doctors usually prescribe two tests or scans of the heart and surrounding area. One of those scans uses a radioisotope known as Rubidium-82, but the supply of the isotope is limited because few facilities have the ability to make it. Today, officials from MU and GPI announced the signing of a "Letter of Intent" to create a processing facility for this isotope near ...
Moly-99, as its called, is created in just six government-owned nuclear research reactors - none in North America - raising concerns about the reliability of the supply.
Emisphere Technologies developed a more efficient delivery agent for heparin using its proprietary EMISPHERE® drug delivery system. The delivery agent is known
G Praveen et al 2012 Nanotechnology 23 095102 doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/9/095102 Blood protein ferries drug -http://www.nature.com/nindia/2012/120309/full/nindi…
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In several radiative proton capture reactions important in novae and XRBs, the resonant parts play the capital role. We use decay spectroscopy techniques to find these resonances and study their properties. We have developed techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei produced and separated with the MARS recoil spectrometer of Texas A&M University. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. This allows us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of 23Al, 27P, 31Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few ...
Polyplus-transfection® has developed a novel class of cationic modified oligonucleotides (OLIGOPLUS) that require no delivery agent as they act as cell-penetrating oligonucleotides. This is achieved by grafting cationic spermine units onto the oligonucleotide to create a positively charged oligocation-oligonucleotide conjugate.
Learn about Simbadol (buprenorphine injection) for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
Synonyms for Boron compounds in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Boron compounds. 2 synonyms for boron: atomic number 5, B. What are synonyms for Boron compounds?
Facilities includes a Miniaturized Neutron Source Reactor [MNSR] research reactor of Chinese origin with a capacity of 27 kilowatt thermal (kWt). China and Iran signed a nuclear cooperation agreement on 21 January 1990 that reportedly included the construction of a 27 MW plutonium production reactor at Isfahan. In September 1991 American satellite imagery reportedly detected initial construction activities. The open literature is rather confused as to whether the facility in question was a new 27 MW reactor, or the 27 KW miniature neutron source. Preparatory steps were taken in the mid-1990s to bring the reactor on line, although the reactor remained incomplete as of 1997. A Chinese-supplied heavy-water, zero-power research reactor is also located at the Center. Other extensive construction activity is in progress at the center, although there contradictory reports as to whether the new buildings are designed for nuclear weapons technologies. Construction at the site is said to include a ...
1. Introduction. The need for conversion of HEU (High enriched uranium (enriched 235U more than 20%)) research reactors to LEU (Low enriched uranium (enriched 235U less than 20%)) fronts open goals to seek alternative fuel elements of high uranium density. The developing of a denser core in uranium leads to higher intensity in the neutron flux and smaller amounts of spent fuel to be stored in repositories. The U-Mo alloy has been investigated with the purpose to be nuclear material for making high-density fuel elements for research reactors of high performance. This alloy could have high density in fuel core up to around 9 gU.cm 3[1-4].. During fuel plates fabrication, the U-Mo alloy would employ the technology for the current LEU fuel geometry5-7. U-Mo alloy is very reactive in the presence of aluminum in thermal cycling process. The reaction products are undesirable because they generate a low conductivity interaction layer (IL) by nuclear fission, leading to potential structural failure3,8,9. ...
The Nuclear Research Center (NRC) is Egypts oldest and largest nuclear research institute, housing most of its nuclear capabilities. [1] The NRC is comprised of four divisions: Basic Nuclear Sciences; Reactors; Materials and Nuclear Industrialization; and Radioisotope Applications. [2] The NRC undertakes activities in the areas of basic nuclear science, the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, reactors, and the application of radioisotopes in medicine, industry, and agriculture. [3]. The NRC facility includes the ETRR-1 research reactor, the ETRR-2 research reactor, the Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant and a pilot-scale conversion plant, all under IAEA safeguards. [4] Additional facilities include a fracture mechanics laboratory, an electronics laboratory, a 2.5 MeV Van de Graff accelerator, a low active solid waste incinerator, a semi-pilot heavy water laboratory, and an MGC-20 AVF accelerator (cyclotron) used for nuclear physics training. [5]. Sources: ...
Compositions consisting of the reaction product or complex resulting from the mixing of a transition metal compound such as a tetraalkoxy titanium compound and a boron compound such as a trialkyl boron compound are useful in the preparation of catalysts for polymerizing α-olefins exhibiting ultra-high efficiencies at high polymerization temperatures.
Read "Estimation of the efficiency of seed irradiation by thermal neutrons for inducing chromosomal aberrations in M1 of cotton Gossypium hirsutum L., Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Weinberg taught courses at Wright Junior College. He applied for and received a National Research Council fellowship to study under Kenneth S. Cole at Columbia University, but never took it up, as Cole came to Chicago to work on the Manhattan Project as a radiation biologist. Weinberg was recruited to work at its Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago in September 1941 by Eckart and Samuel Allison, who needed someone to work on the latters neutron capture calculations.[12]. In early 1942, Arthur Compton concentrated the Manhattan Projects various teams working on plutonium at the University of Chicago. This brought in many top scientists including Herbert Anderson, Bernard Feld, Enrico Fermi, Leó Szilárd and Walter Zinn from Columbia, and Edward Creutz, Gilbert Plass, Eugene Wigner and John Wheeler from Princeton University. Weinberg became a protégé of Wigner.[13]. Wigner led the Theoretical Group at the Metallurgical Laboratory that included Alvin Weinberg, Katharine Way, ...
Use MacRaesBlueBook.com for accurate listings of Boron Compounds, Not From Mines, NEC Chemicals Manufacturers in California. Find contact details and Send a Request for Quotes.
sources]. Typically, when radiation treatment is recommended for cancer patients, doctors are able to choose from several radiopharmaceuticals that use low-energy radiation particles, known as beta particles.. For years, scientists have been studying how to use "alpha particles," which are radioactive particles that contain a large amount of energy, in cancer treatments.. The challenges to using alpha particles, which are more than 7,000 times heavier than beta particles, include confining the powerful alpha particles in a designated location inside the body while preventing radiation from wandering to healthy organs and tissues.. "If you think of beta particles as slingshots or arrows, alpha particles would be similar to cannon balls," says J. David Robertson, director of research at the University of Missouri Research Reactor and professor of chemistry in the College of Arts and Science.. "Scientists have had some successes using alpha particles recently, but nothing that can battle different ...
Workplace for non-destructive testing, diagnostics and 3D visualisation with the help of the neutron radiography and tomography.. The project solves establishment of a workplace for sample analysis with the help of neutron radiography on the horizontal channels of the research reactor LVR-15 in co-operation with ČVUT in Prague and ÚJF AV ČR.. The project TA01010237 is solved with financial support from TA ČR.. ...
The negative impact of a boron dilution accident on the safety of a current pressurized water reactor (PWR) initiated investigations with the aim of checking the feasibility of reduced boron concentration operation. In addition, reduction of the maximum boron concentration in a PWR is a practical and feasible means to substantially reduce the radiation dose to operators and to minimize corrosion damage. Four types of integral burnable absorbers have been considered: gadolinium, integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA), erbia, and alumina boron carbide. Under consideration of four different kinds of fuel assemblies (FA), four core design candidates were developed by applying current PWR OPR-1000 technology and by keeping major engineering design constraints and the equivalent fuel enrichment level used in the reference core (REF) design. However, an optimal design was targeted to achieve comparable discharge burnup as well as favorable design safety parameters. The comparative analysis between the ...
Cell survival curves (a) and the net micronucleus (MN) frequencies (b) afterin vivoirradiation using neutron beams without the10B-carrier as a function of the p
Theory says that gamma rays, being even more energetic than x-rays, ought to bypass orbiting electrons altogether; materials should not bend them at all and the refractive index for gamma rays should be almost equal to one. Yet this is not what a team of physicists led by Dietrich Habs at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany and Michael Jentschel at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, has discovered.. ILL is a research reactor that produces intense beams of neutrons. Habs, Jentschel, and colleagues used one of its beams to bombard samples of radioactive chlorine and gadolinium to produce gamma rays. They directed these down a 20-meter-long tube to a device known as a crystal spectrometer, which funneled the gamma rays into a specific direction. They then passed half of the gamma rays through a silicon prism and into another spectrometer to measure their final direction, while they directed the other half straight to the spectrometer unimpeded. To the ...
Iran appears to be making headway in building a research reactor that could yield potential nuclear weapon material, adding to Western concerns about Tehrans atomic aims, experts and diplomats say. The Wests worries about Iran are focused largely on underground uranium enrichment plants at Natanz and Fordow, but it is also pressing ahead with construction of…
When I was a college dilettante, I spent a semesters worth of evenings in training to become a NRC-certified operator of the chemistry departments research reactor. I dropped out of the effort when my economics coursework led me to balance the benefits of the effort - namely bragging rights - against the costs. It is justifiably difficult to pass the NRCs operator exam. But I did get a chance to power up the reactor under supervision in the control room, and it was a pretty great extracurricular lesson in nuclear physics and chemistry ...
TEHRAN, Iran - Iran said Sunday that its scientists had produced the countrys first nuclear fuel rod and its navy had test-fired a new medium-range surface-to-air missile, announcements that were likely to heighten concerns about the countrys disputed uranium-enrichment program.. The Islamic Republic News Agency reported that the fuel rod had "passed all physical and dimensional tests" and had been inserted into the core of Tehrans research reactor.. Iran had said it would be forced to manufacture the rods because it is barred from buying them on foreign markets. The tubes contain pellets of enriched uranium that provide fuel for nuclear reactors.. Tension has been growing between Iran and the West since a report by the United Nations nuclear inspection agency in November expressed serious concerns about a possible military dimension to the countrys nuclear program.. The United States and its allies accuse Iran of trying to develop nuclear payloads for missiles. Tehran denies the charge, ...
Russia will sue Bulgaria over unpaid USD 1.35 M owed for the removal of used nuclear fuel, according to Prof. Yordan Stamenov, Director of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.. The deadline to pay for the 2008 services of transporting and burying the fuel near the Russian town of Ozersk is September 1, Stamenov says, adding the Institute needs another BGN 9 M by 2012 to carry out the reconstruction of the research reactor.. According to the Professor, BGN 2 M annually have been regularly slated for nuclear safety between 2001 and 2009, and this is the first year INRNE did not receive any money. He said the transported fuel was State property thus Russia will sue the Bulgarian State, not the Institute.. With the current financial situation, INRNE has only one month before closing doors and after that the safety and efficiency of the facility cannot be guaranteed, Stamenov stressed, but assuaged fears of a nuclear disaster explaining ...
MU Research Team Speeds Rate of Nanoparticle Creation. COLUMBIA, Mo. Although they are one millionth the size of a human hair and are so small they cannot be seen with the naked eye, nanoparticles may become one of the most significant new products in the biomedical field thanks to University of Missouri-Columbia researchers who have developed a procedure to make them that is 240 times faster than previous methods.. Today, nanoparticles are used in applications as varied as making laundry detergent to medicines. However, for them to be beneficial in biomedical applications, they must be manufactured quickly under biologically friendly conditions. Currently that process takes 20 to 40 hours. Kattesh Katti, MU professor of radiology, physics and a senior research scientist at the MU Research Reactor; Raghuraman Kannan, research assistant professor of radiology and Kavita Katti, senior research chemist in radiology, have reduced the time to create gold and silver nanoparticles at room temperature ...
The choices of universities and national research institutions in supporting scientific research are increasingly justified on the basis of, amongst others, the relevance that has to be reflected by external, preferably sustainable funding of the research programs. Many traditional fields of application such as environmental sciences do not offer a promising outlook in this respect. As a consequence, university research reactors face closure because of reallocations of university funds to more contemporary sciences such as molecular biology and nanotechnology. Therefore, laboratories operating nuclear analytical techniques (NAA, (TR)XRF, and PIXE) need to use their creativity in finding ways for participation in, for example, nanotechnology, cancer research, or genomics. This requires an open mind in terms of the opportunities, strengths, and weaknesses of the techniques, and a departure of technique-oriented research towards problem-oriented research in which other nuclear techniques can be ...
Only days ago, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said Iran was ready to send its stockpiled uranium - currently enriched to safer, low levels - to Russia and France for processing into fuel rods to power a research reactor. That was proposed last year in a U.N.-drafted plan aimed at eliminating Irans ability to enrich those stocks to higher levels needed for making warheads. ...
used in boron neutron capture therapy ... D2O is more toxic to malignant than normal animal cells ... Protozoa are able to ... Deuterium oxide is used to enhance boron neutron capture therapy, but this effect does not rely on the biological effects of ... of neutron captures are on oxygen, rising higher as 17O builds up from neutron capture on 16O. Also, 17O may emit an alpha ... and the need for a neutron moderator that captured few neutrons, heavy water became a component of early nuclear energy ...
used in boron neutron capture therapy ... D2O is more toxic to malignant than normal animal cells ... Protozoa are able to ... Deuterium oxide is used to enhance boron neutron capture therapy, but this effect does not rely on the biological or chemical ... of neutron captures are on oxygen, rising higher as 17O builds up from neutron capture on 16O. Also, 17O may emit an alpha ... and the need for a neutron moderator that captured few neutrons, heavy water became a component of early nuclear energy ...
Boron neutron capture therapy is another, medical use. Pressurized water reactor CANDU reactor NRX TRIGA. ... Beryllium and graphite blocks or plates may be added to the core as neutron reflectors and neutron absorbing rods pierce the ... Pool reactors are used as a source of neutrons and for training, and in rare instances for processing heat but not for ... Evacuated, or helium filled horizontal tubes may also be installed to direct a beam of neutrons to targets situated at a ...
For applications in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), derivatives of closo-dodecaborate increase the specificity of neutron ... "Spermidinium closo-dodecaborate-encapsulating liposomes as efficient boron delivery vehicles for neutron capture therapy". ... To label the products the boron atoms are numbered. The first boron atom is numbered 1, then the closest ring of five atoms ... The icosahedron of boron atoms is aromatic in nature, and substituents can cause more reactivity at other positions which can ...
... s have been explored as a source of boron in boron neutron capture therapy. They have also been examined in structural ... "The Chemistry of Neutron Capture Therapy". Chemical Reviews. 98 (4): 1515-1562. doi:10.1021/cr941195u. PMID 11848941. Zhang, D ... A carborane is a cluster composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms. Like many of the related boranes, these clusters are ... These boron-rich clusters exhibit unique organomimetic properties with chemical reactivity matching classical organic molecules ...
Salts of B12H122− have been investigated for boron neutron capture therapy and as fuels for airbags. Salts of B12H122− are ... First the borohydride is converted into a triborate anion using the etherate of boron trifluoride: 4 NaBH4 + BF3 → NaB3H8 + 3 ... NaF + 4 H2 Pyrolysis of the triborate gives the twelve boron cluster as the sodium salt, which is then treated with caesium ... precursors to related derivatives including B12(OH)122− and B12(CH3)122−. This closo boron hydride resists degradation more so ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involves injecting a boron-10 tagged chemical that preferentially binds to tumor cells. ... These thermal neutrons are captured by the injected boron-10, forming excited (boron-11) which breaks down into lithium-7 and a ... Neutrons from a nuclear reactor are shaped by a neutron moderator to the neutron energy spectrum suitable for BNCT treatment. ... The tumor is selectively bombarded with these neutrons. The neutrons quickly slow down in the body to become low energy thermal ...
... a new boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 49 (18): 5513-23 ... of a thymidine analogue with boron has been suggested and tried in animal models for boron neutron capture therapy of brain ... for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 14 (20): 6886-99. doi:10.1016/j.bmc. ... potential boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 347 (2): 388-97. doi:10.1124/jpet. ...
Boron neutron capture therapy has been tested as an alternative treatment for glioblastoma multiforme but is not in common use ... Alternating electric field therapy is an FDA-approved therapy for newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. In 2015, initial ... Fulci, Giulia; Chiocca, E Antonio (2007). "The status of gene therapy for brain tumors". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. ... The tumor cells are very resistant to conventional therapies. The brain is susceptible to damage due to conventional therapy. ...
Experimental treatments include targeted therapy, gamma knife radiosurgery, boron neutron capture therapy and gene therapy. ... Standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme consists of maximal surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy ... For some suspected low-grade (grade II) tumors, only a course of watchful waiting and symptomatic therapy is opted for. These ... The goal of radiation therapy is to kill tumor cells while leaving normal brain tissue unharmed. In standard external beam ...
Novel therapy methods - accelerator based boron neutron capture therapy of cancer (BNCT) using high therapeutic gain epi- ... Fast neutron based basic and applied research - SARAF can deliver to user a unique fast neutron spectrum that is not available ... Neutron radiography and diffractometry - the high current of SARAF enables generation of thermal neutrons in a quantity, which ... thermal neutrons for malignant tumors therapy. R&D of radiopharmaceuticals - utilization of the high current and high power ...
... reaction with potential applications in neutron imaging, activation analysis and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The Dynamitron ... They are particularly suited for neutron production via the Lithium (p,n) ... in the UK and Tohoku University in Japan A modern research application for Dynamitrons is as a high intensity neutron source. ...
The MURR contributes to research in boron neutron capture therapy, neutron scattering and neutron interferometry, neutron ... The neutron scattering program at MURR has a long and productive history. On the one hand, many prominent scientists have ... The neutron activation capabilities are used to characterize over 30 major, minor, and trace elements in archaeological and ... In addition to neutron activation, the laboratory maintains and operates several X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, multiple ICP ...
Health Sciences and Technology Whitaker Fellow where he helped research the application of boron-neutron capture therapy for ... "Imaging's Man at the Top". ADVANCE for Imaging and Radiation Therapy Professionals. July 1, 2002. "Pettigrew takes Helm at ...
... slab that serves the purpose of diffusing neutrons from the reactor which can then be used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ( ... Thermal hydraulics of nuclear steam systems Radiation sterilization Radiation dosimeter testing Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ... Neutron activation analysis Radiotracer techniques Medical isotope development and production Geological age dating Neutron ... The reactor has also used Neutron activation analysis to help with the forensic analysis in a high-profile serial killer case ( ...
Ongoing projects include Boron-Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) research, especially that research for a cure for brain tumors, ... although the beam can be used for any neutron-capture therapy. This beam can also be used for neutron radiography, a non- ... Inside the core box there is a bottom grid-plate into which 3 and 4-rod clusters of TRIGA fuel sit separated by boron-aluminum ... The primary use for the WSUR is to generate neutrons which can be used for a multitude of experimental purposes. There are ...
... high-LET and proton therapy, boron capture neutron therapy and tissue inhomogeneities. A significant development in the field ... Tattam D and Green S 2000 The potential use of polymer gel dosimetry in boron neutron capture therapy Phys Med Biol 45 N9-N14 ... Pirola L and Rosi G 2004 In-phantom imaging of all dose components in boron neutron capture therapy by means of gel dosimeters ... Authors continued to investigate clinical aspects of polymer gel dosimetry using MRI including conformal therapy, IMRT and IMAT ...
MITR is one of only six facilities in the world that was engaged in patient trials for the use of boron neutron capture therapy ... Power is controlled by 6 manual boron-stainless steel blade-type control rods and one aluminum with cadmium control rod which ... K J Riley; P J Binns; O K Harling (2003). "Performance characteristics of the MIT fission converter based epithermal neutron ... Some of these activities are: Neutron activation analysis for the identification of trace elements and isotope ratios in ...
Boron neutron capture therapy - boronophenylalanine-fructose complex - bortezomib - Bowen's disease - BPH - brachial plexopathy ... unsealed internal radiation therapy-see radiation therapy - upper GI series - urachus - uracil - urea nitrogen-see blood urea ... hormone replacement therapy - hormone responsive - hormone therapy - Horner's syndrome - host cell - hot nodule - HPPH - HPV - ... ultraviolet radiation therapy-see ultraviolet radiation and radiation therapy - uncontrolled study-see clinical trial - ...
... neutron diffraction, shielding, gamma spectroscopy, boron neutron capture therapy, neutron radiography and Neutron Activation ... 2017). "Modeling of neutron diffractometry facility of Tehran research reactor using vitess 3.3a and mcnpx codes". Nuclear ... 2014). "Design of an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in thermal column of Tehran research reactor". Annals of Nuclear Energy. ... Tehran research reactor can be utilized for laboratory work involving studies of the reactor core and experiments on neutron ...
The academic and research side of therapeutic physics may encompass fields such as boron neutron capture therapy, sealed source ... A radiation therapy physicist typically deals with linear accelerator (Linac) systems and kilovoltage x-ray treatment units on ... including photodynamic therapy, as well as nuclear medicine including unsealed source radiotherapy, and photomedicine, which is ... such as photodynamic therapy), fMRI and other methods for functional imaging as well as molecular imaging, electrical impedance ...
Boron neutron capture therapy Keyhandokht Shahri, Laleh Motavalli, and Hashem Hakimabad."Neutron Applications in Cancer ... Neutron Therapy UWMC SCCA Site FermiLab Neutron Therapy FermiLab Neutron Therapy overview Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center ... The UW Neutron system is referred to as the Clinical Neutron Therapy System (CNTS). The CNTS is typical of most neutron therapy ... Fast neutron therapy utilizes high energy neutrons typically between 50 and 70 MeV to treat cancer. Most fast neutron therapy ...
Boron-10 is used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as an experimental treatment of some brain cancers. "Atomic Weights ... Boron (5B) naturally occurs as isotopes 10B and 11B, the latter of which makes up about 80% of natural boron. There are 14 ... M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of ... Has 2 halo neutrons The precision of the isotope abundances and atomic mass is limited through variations. The given ranges ...
Fast neutron therapy Proton therapy Barth, R.F.; Soloway, A.H.; Fairchild, R.G. (1990). "Boron neutron capture therapy for ... Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy. Helsinki, Finland, June 14-19, 2014 Barth, R.F. (2009). "Boron neutron capture therapy at ... Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy Proc. 10th Intl. Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy. pp. 1117-22. CS1 ... New Challenges in Neutron Capture Therapy 2010: Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy. ...
Particle therapy Charged particle therapy Hadron Microbeam Fast neutron therapy Boron neutron capture therapy Linear energy ... In the field of medical procedures, Proton therapy, or proton beam therapy is a type of particle therapy that uses a beam of ... London, UK, Arnold Publishers: 61-72 (1999). Proton therapy-MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Proton Therapy "Proton therapy is ... April 18, 2012). "Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, proton therapy, or conformal radiation therapy and morbidity and ...
Caesium-137 has a very low rate of neutron capture and cannot be feasibly disposed of in this way, but must be allowed to decay ... The alkali metal borides tend to be boron-rich, involving appreciable boron-boron bonding involving deltahedral structures,[10] ... Sartori, H. E. (1984). "Cesium therapy in cancer patients". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 21 (Suppl 1): 11-13. doi:10.1016/0091-3057 ... Various phases are known, such as LiB10, NaB6, NaB15, and KB6.[111][112] Under high pressure the boron-boron bonding in the ...
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets ... to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV ... A new target concept for proton accelerator driven boron neutron capture therapy applications ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets ...
RaySearch enters agreement with Sumitomo for boron neutron capture therapy. 20 November 2017 - RaySearch and Sumitomo Heavy ... Sumitomo), based in Tokyo, Japan, have entered into an agreement regarding treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy ... In the second step, the target area is exposed to a beam of low-energy neutrons, many of which are absorbed by the boron-10. ... BNCT is a promising radiation therapy technique based on a two-step process. First, the patient is injected with a tumor- ...
Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study ... BPA-F over 1 hour is followed by neutron irradiation. Groups of 3 patients receive escalated. doses of neutron irradiation ... study, provided at least 6 months has elapsed since the completion of prior therapy and the. field boundary for the new ... OBJECTIVES: I. Estimate the maximum tolerated dose of neutron irradiation that can be given. in combination with ...
... is an experimental radiation therapy technique which is based on the principle of irradiating boron atoms with neut ... Boronophenylalanine (BPA)-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the Treatment of Inoperable and Irradiated Head and ... Boronophenylalanine (BPA)-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the Treatment of Inoperable and Irradiated Head and ... analyzed for blood boron concentration to estimate the average blood boron concentration. during neutron irradiation.. All ...
... in particular Boron neutron capture therapy, for killing target cells such as tumours. The immunoconjugate of the ... The present invention relates to immunoconjugates for use in neutron capture therapy, ... The present invention relates to immunoconjugates for use in neutron capture therapy, in particular Boron neutron capture ... the most popular neutron capture agent used has comprised 10Boron, the reaction thus becoming known as Boron Neutron Capture ...
Chemical Behavior of Boron-Containing Amino Acids for Neutron Capture Therapy in Aqueous Solutions. ... Kobayashi M., Kitaoka Y. (1996) Chemical Behavior of Boron-Containing Amino Acids for Neutron Capture Therapy in Aqueous ... Oxalic Acid Boron Atom Calcium Fluoride Paper Electrophoresis Thermal Neutron Capture These keywords were added by machine and ... Y. Mishima, C. Honda, M. Ichihashi, and M. Shiono, Cure of human malignant melanoma by thermal neutron capture therapy, KURRI- ...
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Treating Patients With Melanoma. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... RATIONALE: Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. ... PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy in treating patients who have melanoma. ... in patients with melanoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy.. *Determine the time course, uniformity, and severity of ...
Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue.PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study ... Patients undergo boron neutron capture therapy.. Patients are followed for 3 years.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 36 patients ... melanoma treated with boron neutron capture therapy.. - Determine the time course, uniformity, and severity of acute dermal ... A Phase II Trial For Neutron Capture Therapy In Melanoma. Trial Phase:. Phase 2. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. N/A ...
Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax.. [Peng Wang, Haining Zhen, Xinbiao Jiang, ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was ... γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. The neutron beam was obtained from the Xian Pulsed Reactor (XAPR) and γ-rays were ... Human glioma cells (the U87, U251, and SHG44 cell lines) were irradiated by neutron beams at the XAPR or [60Co] γ-rays at the ...
... combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated ... BNCT Boron neutron capture therapy Liposomes Biodistribution Experimental oral cancer Boron This is a preview of subscription ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron ... Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of ...
Improving liposomal boron carriers for effective boron neutron capture therapy. 15 Dec 2016 ... Lipid-membrane-incorporated arylboronate esters as agents for boron neutron capture therapy. Masafumi Ueda, Kengo Ashizawa, ... In contrast to other conventional radiotherapies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is unique in its selective destruction ... Boron is preferentially accumulated into tumour cells though non-toxic carriers and the short length of the generated neutron ...
To date, two low molecular weight boron-containing drugs have been used clinically for boron neutron capture therapy of brain ... Cellular uptake of the boron compounds in sufficient amounts is an essential requirement for boron neutron capture therapy, and ... Boron neutron capture therapy is one of these strategies (5 , 6) . It is based on the nuclear capture reaction that occurs when ... of the results from the Harvard-MIT neutron capture therapy program phase I clinical trial of neutron capture therapy for ...
Boron neutron capture therapy using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex may kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. ... Accessible lesion(s) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). - No clear progression of disease at other sites than the ones ... Patients receive boronophenylalanine-fructose complex IV over 90 minutes followed by boron. neutron capture therapy on days 1 ... Determine the therapeutic activity and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy using. boronophenylalanine-fructose complex in ...
Evaluation of Human Thymidine Kinase 1 Substrates as New Candidates for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Ashraf S. Al-Madhoun, ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary chemoradiotherapeutic system that has been used clinically to treat patients ... Tjarks W. The use of boron clusters in the rational design of boronated nucleosides for neutron capture therapy of cancer. J ... Capala J, Stensam BH, Sköld K., et al Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma multiforme: Clinical studies in Sweden. J ...
Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue.PURPOSE: This phase I trial is ... Determine systemic and local toxicity of borocaptate sodium with boron neutron capture. therapy (BNCT) following craniotomy ... Biologic therapy:. - No prior biologic therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. - No concurrent biologic therapy. Chemotherapy:. - ... neutron irradiation. Treatment repeats daily for 4 days.. Cohorts of 3-9 patients receive escalating doses of neutron ...
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors: Enhanced Survival following Intracarotid Injection of either Sodium Borocaptate ... The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy could be enhanced by ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors: Enhanced Survival following Intracarotid Injection of either Sodium Borocaptate ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Brain Tumors: Enhanced Survival following Intracarotid Injection of either Sodium Borocaptate ...
Vehicles for Neutron Capture TherapyHighly Boronated Liposomes as Efficient Boron Delivery Vehicles for Neutron Capture Therapy ... Highly Boronated Liposomes as Efficient Boron Delivery Vehicles for Neutron Capture Therapy. Highly Boronated Liposomes as ... Highly Boronated Liposomes as Efficient Boron Delivery ... Efficient Boron Delivery Vehicles for Neutron Capture Therapy. ...
Radiation therapy such as boron neutron capture therapy may kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue.PURPOSE: Phase I/II ... A Phase I/II Trial For Neutron Capture Therapy In Glioblastoma Multiforme And Intracranial Melanoma. Trial Phase:. Phase 1/ ... Determine the maximum tolerated dose of cranial neutron capture therapy in these. patients.. - Determine, through serial ... OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of cranial neutron capture therapy (NCT).. Patients receive boronophenylalanine- ...
... of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Murine MesotheliomaNovel Hyaluronan Formulation Enhances the Efficacy of Boron Neutron ... Capture Therapy for Murine Mesothelioma. Novel Hyaluronan Formulation Enhances the Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ... Novel Hyaluronan Formulation Enhances the Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Murine Mesothelioma. ...
... the science driving medicinal chemistry and the translation of these sciences to therapies ... The early promise of boron neutron capture therapy as a method for the treatment of cancer has been inhibited by the inherent ... The formulation of polyhedral boranes for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. 19 November 2012. Download Type: Adobe ... The formulation of polyhedral boranes for the boron neutron capture therapy of cancer ...
... fluoro-l-phenylalanine with quality assurance for boron neutron capture therapy-oriented diagnosis, Annals of Nuclear Medicine ... Boron analysis and boron imaging in biological materials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) ... Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy. Nucl ... Characteristics comparison between a cyclotron-based neutron source and KUR-HWNIF for boron neutron capture therapy. Nucl ...
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) / ^,10,B-compound / Thermal neutron / Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody / Immunoliposome / ... Application of monoclonal antibody against solid tumor to boron neutron capture therapy model. Research Project ... B compound has been examined as a selective drug delivery system in boron neutron capture therapy.. Immunoliposome was prepared ... The tumor growth of inplanted AsPC-1 cells after injection of ^,10,B-immunoliposome was suppressed upone thermal neutron ...
Pathological study of eight patients with glioblastoma multiforme treated by neutron-capture therapy using boron 10. by Jean ... A critical assessment of boron target compounds for boron neutron capture therapy. *M. Frederick Hawthorne, Mark W Lee ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy : Delivery Agents Used in Boron Administration Therapeutical Practice. *Galeş N. Laurenţia, ... Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Glioblastoma : A Phase-I / II Clinical Trial at JRR-4. *Kei Nakai, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Hiroaki ...
Synthesis and characterization of azanonaborane-containing purine derivatives for boron neutron capture therapy. ... for possible use as powerful agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The synthesis was carried out via a ligand ... 24] A. R. Genady, D. Gabel, In: Sauerwein W., Moss R., Wittig A. (Ed.), In Research and Development In Neutron Capture Therapy ... In Research and Development In Neutron Capture Therapy (Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, Italy, 2002) 62 ...
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer. A twofold treatment brings together boron and neutrons to create a lethal radiation ...
  • A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (unt.edu)
  • In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. (unt.edu)
  • In: Mishima Y. (eds) Cancer Neutron Capture Therapy. (springer.com)
  • Barth RF, Coderre JA, Vicente MGH, Blue TE (2005) Boron neutron capture therapy of cancer: current status and future prospects. (springer.com)
  • The early promise of boron neutron capture therapy as a method for the treatment of cancer has been inhibited by the inherent toxicity associated with therapeutically useful doses of 10B-containing pharmacophores, the need for target-tissue specificity and the challenges imposed by biological barriers. (drugdiscoverytoday.com)
  • In 1936, G.L. Locher, a scientist at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, recognized the therapeutic potential of this discovery and suggested that neutron capture could be used to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Boron compound (b) is selectively absorbed by cancer cell(s). 2) Neutron beam (n) is aimed at cancer site. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) Boron disintegrates emitting cancer-killing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention provides a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for liver cancer, which is an aqueous solution of boric acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A beam of neutrons irradiates a boron drug injected into the tumor, resulting in the boron-injected cancer cells receiving a lethal dose of radiation with the surrounding, healthy cells being minimally affected. (ajstd.org)
  • Dosimetric evaluation of neutron capture therapy for local advanced breast cancer. (ajstd.org)
  • Furthermore, the invention relates to a method of cancer therapy in which the above drug delivery system is administered to a cancer patient. (google.com)
  • 5. A method for cancer therapy, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically efficient amount of the drug delivery system according to claim 1 in which the drugs are nuclides suitable for activation, and subsequently irradiating the cancer area. (google.com)
  • RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) to detect the presence of boron in tumor cells may help determine whether patients who have thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects of giving BPA-F and/or BSH before surgery to detect boron uptake in tissues of patients with primary, metastatic, or recurrent thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases from colorectal cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine the boron concentration in the tumor, surrounding tissues, and blood of patients with operable thyroid cancer, squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, or liver metastases secondary to colorectal adenocarcinoma who receive boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) before surgical resection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Nano and Dendritic Structured Carboranes and Metallacarboranes: From Materials to Cancer Therapy. (niu.edu)
  • Biomolecules and drugs containing 10 B‐enriched carborane and borane substituents (which preferentially localize in tumor cells and rapidly clear from normal cells) can thus be used for cancer therapy. (niu.edu)
  • Texas Center for Proton Therapy is dedicated to creating more cancer survivors by bringing advanced, latest-generation proton therapy to North Texas. (texasoncology.com)
  • The therapy of disseminated cancer is a fundamental problem in clinical medicine. (google.com)
  • H. Hatanaka, K. Sano, and H. Yasukochi, "Progress in Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer , " B. J. Allen, D. E. Moore, B. V. Harrington ed. (springer.com)
  • Their inclusion should not be viewed as an endorsement of the content of the websites, or of any treatment or product, by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board or the National Cancer Institute . (cancer.gov)
  • I am pleased to be publicly launching TAE Life Sciences, and for the opportunity to provide solutions for aggressive and late-stage cancer with promising new applications of accelerator-based neutron beam technology," said Bauer. (medindia.net)
  • Successful cancer vaccine therapy for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-expressing colon cancer using genetically modified dendritic cells that express CEA and T helper-type 1 cytokines in CEA transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Rationale for antiangiogenic cancer therapy with vaccination using epitope peptides derived from human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. (nih.gov)
  • The MURR contributes to research in boron neutron capture therapy, neutron scattering and neutron interferometry, neutron transmutation doping of semiconductor materials, use of radioisotopes for imaging and treatment of cancer, epidemiology, and archaeology, along with many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast neutron therapy utilizes high energy neutrons typically between 50 and 70 MeV to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • No cancer therapy is without the risk of side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of medical procedures, Proton therapy, or proton beam therapy is a type of particle therapy that uses a beam of protons to irradiate diseased tissue, most often in the treatment of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reactivity is the basis of the use of phenylboronic acid's use as a receptor and sensor for carbohydrates, antimicrobial agents, and enzyme inhibitors, neutron capture therapy for cancer, transmembrane transport, and bioconjugation and labeling of proteins and cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the concentration of boron within the lipid membrane was not particularly high, this study has unlocked yet another avenue through which non-toxic liposomal boron carrier concentrations can be improved and when used with previous boron loading methods, produces liposomes with sufficient boron concentrations to carry out BCNT. (rsc.org)
  • Using these cholesterol, high content boron liposomes were developed for new generation neutron capture therapy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A counter cation of boron ion clusters (closo-dodecaborates) was found to be essential for the encapsulation efficacy of boronated liposomes: a sperimidinium form of closo-dodecaborates was highly encapsulated into liposomes prepared from phospholipids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo a series of boron-containing nucleosides that potentially could be used as delivery agents for neutron capture therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on these favorable in vitro and in vivo data, neutron capture therapy studies will be initiated using N5-2OH in combination with two non-cell cycle dependent boron delivery agents, boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mixed field dosimetry was assessed with two different formalisms whose parameters were specifically derived from radiobiological experiments involving in vitro UMR-106 osteosarcoma cell survival assays and boron concentration assessments in an animal model of osteosarcoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calabrese, Gianpiero , Gomes, Ana C. N. M. , Barbu, Eugen , Nevell, Thomas G. and Tsibouklis, John (2008) Carborane-based derivatives of delocalised lipophilic cations for boron neutron capture therapy: synthesis and preliminary in vitro evaluation. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of Thermoresponsive Boron-Containing Poly( N -isopropylacrylamide) Diblock Copolymers for Self-Assembling Nanomicellar Boron Carriers. (nih.gov)
  • Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • At 2.5 hours after convection-enhanced delivery, the boron values for the F98 glioma and normal brain were 16.2 ± 2.3 and 2.2 μg/g, respectively, and the tumor to brain ratio was 8.5. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using the same doses of BSH and BPA, therapy experiments were initiated 14 days after intracerebral implantation of F98 glioma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BD) linked to epidermal growth factor (EGF) for neutron capture therapy in rats bearing a syngeneic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) + glioma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on these data, we have concluded that the F98 npEGFRvIII glioma should be a valuable animal model for therapy studies focusing on molecular targeting of EGFRvIII by receptor specific mAbs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To obviate this serious limitation, we produced human EGFR-expressing transfectants of the F98 rat glioma (16) , which is only weakly immunogenic (17) and has been incurable by all therapeutic modalities (18) , except boron NCT (19) , and most recently with acombination of cis -platinum and monochromatic synchrotron X-rays (20) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using F98 glioma cells transfected with the wild-type human EGFR gene (F98 EGFR ), we have evaluated boronated EGF (8, 12) and the mAb cetuximab, also known as IMC-C225, as delivery agents and established proof of principle that asignificant therapeutic gain could be obtained following boron NCT (12, 13, 16) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The agreement extends the existing cooperation between Sumitomo and RaySearch on proton therapy. (medicalphysicsweb.org)
  • Subsequently decays by double proton emission to 4He for a net reaction of 7B → 4He + 3 1H Has 1 halo proton immediately decays into two α particles, for a net reaction of 9B → 2 4He + 1H Immediately decays into two α particles, for a net reaction of 12B → 3 4He + e− Has 2 halo neutrons The precision of the isotope abundances and atomic mass is limited through variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In proton therapy, medical personnel use a particle accelerator to target a tumor with a beam of protons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accelerators used for proton therapy typically produce protons with energies in the range of 70 to 250 MeV. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to understand that, while tissues behind (or deeper than) the tumor receive almost no radiation from proton therapy, the tissues in front of (shallower than) the tumor receive radiation dosage based on the SOBP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most installed proton therapy systems utilise isochronous cyclotrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1961, a collaboration began between HCL and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) to pursue proton therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The world's first hospital-based proton therapy center was a low energy cyclotron centre for ocular tumours at the Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology in the UK, opened in 1989, followed in 1990 at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) in Loma Linda, California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, The Northeast Proton Therapy Center at Massachusetts General Hospital was brought online, and the HCL treatment program was transferred to it during 2001 and 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 2010 these facilities were joined by an additional seven regional hospital-based proton therapy centers in the United States alone, and many more worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common type of particle therapy as of 2012 is proton therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of 2013, 105 000 patients had been treated with proton beams, and approximately 13, 000 patients had received carbon-ion therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of April 1, 2015, for proton beam therapy, there are 49 facilities in the world, including 14 in the USA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta decay occurs in two ways: (i) beta-minus decay, when the nucleus emits an electron and an antineutrino in a process that changes a neutron to a proton, or (ii) beta-plus decay, when the nucleus emits a positron and a neutrino in a process that changes a proton to a neutron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus may capture an orbiting electron, causing a proton to convert into a neutron in a process called electron capture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest tumor boron concentrations for BSH and BPA were attained following i.c. injection with BBB-D (48.6 and 94.0 µg/g, respectively) compared to i.c. (30.8 and 42.7 µg/g) and i.v. injection (12.9 and 20.8 µg). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A mere 2 years later, Goldhaber, Hall, and Kruger performed the first radiobiological studies using boric acid and slow neutrons in a murine tumoral model [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In medicine, boron is most commonly found in the form of boric acid, which is used as a topical astringent and anti-infective, as well as an ophthalmologic irrigant. (drugs.com)
  • They heated boracic acid (also known as boric acid , H 3 BO 3 ) with potassium metal to produce impure boron. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. (springer.com)
  • A key issue with NCT treatment planning has to do with boron quantification, and whether improved information concerning the spatial biodistribution of boron can be effectively used to improve the treatment planning process. (springer.com)
  • These observations provide strong support for the use of F-BPA in positron emission tomography biodistribution studies for boron neutron capture therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • today this remains a commercially important way to produce impure boron. (drugs.com)
  • Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (springer.com)
  • Normal tissue tolerance is determined by the nuclear capture reactions that occur with normal tissue hydrogen and nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment of high-grade gliomas and anaplastic astrocytomas remains refractory to conventional existing therapies, and new therapeutic modalities to improve the treatment are needed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For a therapy to work, you need patient treatment planning which requires diagnostic equipment, CT scanners, patient set-up devices, computers and then, finally, the machines. (iaea.org)
  • The standard simplifying approximations that work well for treatment planning computations in the case of many other modalities are usually not appropriate for application to neutron transport. (springer.com)
  • Most recently, interest has turned toward the creation of treatment planning software that is not limited to any specific therapy modality, with NCT as only one of several applications. (springer.com)
  • There is widespread awareness of the use of radiation and radioisotopes in medicine, particularly for diagnosis (identification) and therapy (treatment) of various medical conditions. (world-nuclear.org)
  • In Germany this type of treatment is available at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and at the Marburg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (MIT). (wikipedia.org)
  • First the borohydride is converted into a triborate anion using the etherate of boron trifluoride: 4 NaBH4 + BF3 → NaB3H8 + 3 NaF + 4 H2 Pyrolysis of the triborate gives the twelve boron cluster as the sodium salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • First the borohydride is converted into a triborate anion using the etherate of boron trifluoride: 4 NaBH4 + BF3 → NaB3H8 + 3 NaF + 4 H2 Pyrolysis of the triborate gives the twelve boron cluster as the sodium salt, which is then treated with caesium hydroxide to precipitate Cs2B12H12. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the unusual properties of boron is the many physical forms, called allotropes, in which it occurs. (encyclopedia.com)