Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Boric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Neutron Capture Therapy: A technique for the treatment of neoplasms in which an isotope is introduced into target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Immunoproteins: Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Thiouracil: Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Aminoacylation: A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. TRANSFER RNA AMINOACYLATION is the first step in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Cytoplasmic Structures: Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Deuteroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.EstersCheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.KetonesPetunia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].GluconatesAllyl CompoundsHordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Rats, Inbred F344Porphobilinogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Boronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.

Synthesis and in vivo murine evaluation of Na4[1-(1'-B10H9)-6-SHB10H8] as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. (1/283)

Reaction of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- and the protected thiol anion, [SC(O)OC(CH3)3]-, produces an unexpected isomer of [B20H17SC(O)OC(CH3)3]4- directly and in good yield. The isomer produced under mild conditions is characterized by an apical-apical boron atom intercage connection as well as the location of the thiol substituent on an equatorial belt adjacent to the terminal boron apex. Although the formation of this isomer from nucleophilic attack of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- has not been reported previously, the isomeric assignment has been unambiguously confirmed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 11B NMR spectroscopy. Deprotection of the thiol substituent under acidic conditions produces a protonated intermediate, [B20H18SH]3-, which can be deprotonated with a suitable base to yield the desired product, [B20H17SH]4-. The sodium salt of the resulting [B20H17SH]4- ion has been encapsulated in small, unilamellar liposomes, which are capable of delivering their contents selectively to tumors in vivo, and investigated as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. The biodistribution of boron was determined after intravenous injection of the liposomal suspension into BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinoma. At low injected doses, the tumor boron concentration increased throughout the time-course experiment, resulting in a maximum observed boron concentration of 46.7 micrograms of B per g of tumor at 48 h and a tumor to blood boron ratio of 7.7. The boron concentration obtained in the tumor corresponds to 22.2% injected dose (i.d.) per g of tissue, a value analogous to the most promising polyhedral borane anions investigated for liposomal delivery and subsequent application in boron neutron capture therapy.  (+info)

Chronic feeding of a low boron diet adversely affects reproduction and development in Xenopus laevis. (2/283)

The aims of this work were as follows: 1) to determine whether a purified diet currently used for studies with rats was acceptable for reproductive studies in frogs; and 2) to determine whether frogs are sensitive to a deficit of boron (B) in the diet. Adult Xenopus laevis were fed a nonpurified beef liver and lung (BLL) diet (310 microg B/kg), a purified diet supplemented with boron (+B; 1850 microg B/kg), or a purified diet low in boron (-B; 45 microg B/kg) for 120 d. Frogs fed the BLL and +B diets produced 11.3 and 12.2% necrotic eggs, respectively. Abnormal gastrulation occurred in <4% of the fertilized eggs in both groups, and 96-h larval survival exceeded 75% in both groups. In contrast, frogs fed the -B diet for 120 d produced a high proportion of necrotic eggs (54%). Fertilized embryos from the -B diet-fed frogs showed a high frequency of abnormal gastrulation (26.8%), and >80% of the embryos died before 96 h of development. Mean embryo cell counts at X. laevis developmental stage 7.5 (mid-blastula) were significantly lower in the -B embryos than in the BLL or +B embryos. BLL and -B embryos grown in low boron culture media had a high frequency of malformations compared with embryos grown in boron-supplemented media. These studies show that a purified diet that has been used in rodent studies was acceptable for reproduction studies in X. laevis. This work also demonstrates that a diet low in boron markedly impairs normal reproductive function in adult X. laevis, and that administration of the low boron diet results in an increase in both incidence and severity of adverse effects. In addition, these studies demonstrate the usefulness of the X. laevis model in nutrition studies.  (+info)

Natural treatments for osteoarthritis. (3/283)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. Although OA was previously thought to be a progressive, degenerative disorder, it is now known that spontaneous arrest or reversal of the disease can occur. Conventional medications are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be at least as effective as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of OA, and preliminary evidence suggests some of these compounds may exert a favorable influence on the course of the disease.  (+info)

The physical characteristics of neodymium iron boron magnets for tooth extrusion. (4/283)

Impaction and non-eruption of teeth is a common problem encountered in orthodontics and many techniques have been proposed for the management of this condition. It has been advocated that a system utilizing magnets would supply a continuous, directionally sensitive, extrusive force, through closed mucosa and thus provide not only a physiological sound basis for successful treatment, but also reduce the need for patient compliance and appliance adjustment. This ex vivo investigation examined in detail the physical characteristics of neodymium iron boron magnets employed in attraction in order to assess their usefulness in the clinical situation. Attractive force and magnetic flux density measurements were recorded for nine sets of magnet pairs with differing morphologies. The effect of spatial relationship on force was assessed by varying vertical, transverse and horizontal positions of the magnets relative to each other, and by altering the pole face angles. The data obtained suggest that magnets with larger pole face areas and longer magnetic axes provide the best performance with respect to clinical usefulness. It was possible to formulate a specific relationship between force and flux density for each magnet pair. This relationship can be used in the clinical management of unerupted teeth to predict the force between the magnets by measuring the magnetic flux density present at mucosal level. The results indicate that magnetic systems may, indeed, have a place in the treatment of unerupted teeth.  (+info)

Boron stimulates yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) growth. (5/283)

Boron is required for the growth of vascular plants and embryonic development in fish. The molecular basis of boron's essentiality, however, remains unknown for both. The objective of this study was to determine whether yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) could be used as a model for the evaluation of intracellular boron trafficking. Three experiments were conducted to assess the effect of boron supplementation on yeast growth. Cultures were grown in low boron media containing 0.04 micromol B/L. After 24 h, a new flask was inoculated with this culture; it was allowed to reach early log phase growth (9 h) and was then divided between two flasks. One flask was supplemented with ultrapure boric acid to achieve a concentration of 185 micromol B/L (+B); the other was supplemented with an equivalent volume of ultrapure water (NB). Boron significantly stimulated cell growth rate into the stationary phase of growth. Yeast cell boron concentrations decreased in both treatments over the course of the experiment, but analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS) did not detect differences in cellular concentration between the boron supplemented (B) and nonsupplemented (NB) groups. Ethanol concentrations did not differ between the two treatments, demonstrating that boron-stimulated growth was not a secondary effect of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition. The demonstration of boron-dependent growth stimulation in yeast suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as a model system for the study of intracellular boron trafficking.  (+info)

The durability of parylene coatings on neodymium-iron-boron magnets. (6/283)

A parylene coating is frequently used to prevent corrosion of neodymium-iron-boron magnets when they are used intra-orally. This in vitro study was designed to test the durability of parylene coating in a simulated oral environment. Single and double parylene-coated magnets were subjected to grinding and crushing forces in an industrial ball mill. The results demonstrate that abrasion and wear was visible around the edges after 1 hour of testing, with a breach of the coating noted under high magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conclusion of the study is that parylene coating is unlikely to withstand intra-oral forces. The shape of the magnets, the manufacturing process involved in their production, and the thickness of the parylene coating are important factors to consider with respect to the durability of magnets used in the mouth.  (+info)

Boron microlocalization in oral mucosal tissue: implications for boron neutron capture therapy. (7/283)

Clinical studies of the treatment of glioma and cutaneous melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are currently taking place in the USA, Europe and Japan. New BNCT clinical facilities are under construction in Finland, Sweden, England and California. The observation of transient acute effects in the oral mucosa of a number of glioma patients involved in the American clinical trials, suggests that radiation damage of the oral mucosa could be a potential complication in future BNCT clinical protocols, involving higher doses and larger irradiation field sizes. The present investigation is the first to use a high resolution surface analytical technique to relate the microdistribution of boron-10 (10B) in the oral mucosa to the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li neutron capture reaction in this tissue. The two boron delivery agents used clinically in Europe/Japan and the USA, borocaptate sodium (BSH) and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), respectively, were evaluated using a rat ventral tongue model. 10B concentrations in various regions of the tongue mucosa were estimated using ion microscopy. In the epithelium, levels of 10B were appreciably lower after the administration of BSH than was the case after BPA. The epithelium:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.2:1 and 1:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. The 10B content of the lamina propria was higher than that measured in the epithelium for both BSH and BPA. The difference was most marked for BSH, where 10B levels were a factor of six higher in the lamina propria than in the epithelium. The concentration of 10B was also measured in blood vessel walls where relatively low levels of accumulation of BSH, as compared with BPA, was demonstrated in blood vessel endothelial cells and muscle. Vessel wall:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.3:1 and 0.9:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. Evaluation of tongue mucosal response (ulceration) to BNC irradiation indicated a considerably reduced radiation sensitivity using BSH as the boron delivery agent relative to BPA. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor for BSH was estimated at 0.29 +/- 0.02. This compares with a previously published CBE factor for BPA of 4.87 +/- 0.16. It was concluded that variations in the microdistribution profile of 10B, using the two boron delivery agents, had a significant effect on the response of oral mucosa to BNC irradiation. From a clinical perspective, based on the findings of the present study, it is probable that potential radiation-induced oral mucositis will be restricted to BNCT protocols involving BPA. However, a thorough high resolution analysis of 10B microdistribution in human oral mucosal tissue, using a technique such as ion microscopy, is a prerequisite for the use of experimentally derived CBE factors in clinical BNCT.  (+info)

Boron supplementation of a semipurified diet for weanling pigs improves feed efficiency and bone strength characteristics and alters plasma lipid metabolites. (8/283)

Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of dietary boron (B) on performance, plasma minerals and metabolites, and bone characteristics in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 48 pigs (24 males, 24 females; 21 d old) were allotted to pens, which were randomly assigned to one of the following dietary treatments: 1) control (natural ingredient diet; 6.7 mg B/kg diet), 2) control + 5 mg B/kg diet and 3) control + 15 mg B/kg diet. Boron was supplemented as sodium borate. In Experiment 2, 48 pigs (24 males, 24 females; 21 d old) were assigned to the same treatments described in Experiment 1; however, the basal diet was a semipurified diet (0.98 mg B/kg diet). Diets were fed for 40 d; on d 40, blood samples were obtained for determination of plasma mineral and metabolite concentrations. Femurs were harvested from 8 pigs per treatment on d 40 for determination of mechanical properties, ash and lipid percentage. In Experiment 1, B did not affect performance, plasma minerals or metabolites or bone properties. In Experiment 2, B supplementation improved (P: < 0.05) the gain:feed ratio and increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. There was a treatment x sex interaction (P: < 0.05) in Experiment 2 for bone lipid to be lower and bending moment to be higher, with the response occurring in male pigs. Other dependent variables in Experiment 2 were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, B supplementation of a low B diet elicited responses of physiologic importance to pigs. However, B supplementation of a natural ingredient diet did not elicit a response.  (+info)

A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2014 at Main Agriculture Research Station (MARS), University of Agriculture Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka) to study the influence of foliar application of nutrients on morpho-physiological traits, yield and yield components in greengram. Nine treatments comprising of KNO3 (0.1 %), MnSO4 (0.3 %), ZnSO4 (0.5 %), KNO3 (1.0 %) + MnSO4 (0.3 %), KNO3 (1.0 %) + ZnSO4 (0.5 %), MnSO4 (0.3 %) + ZnSO4 (0.5 %), KNO3 (1.0 %) + MnSO4 (0.3 %) + ZnSO4 (0.5 %), Propiconazole (0.1 %) and Control (unsprayed) were laid out in randomized completely block design(RCBD) with three replications. Foliar application was done at two stages 35 and 50 days after sowing (DAS). Among these treatments, KNO3 (1.0 %) + MnSO4 (0.3 %) + ZnSO4 (0.5 %) recorded increased chlorophyll, phenol content and peroxidase activity. The seed yield parameters like number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed yield per plant, seed yield per hectare and also harvest index were ...
Safeguards: Boron appears to raise estrogen concentrations in write-up-menopausal women (and more mature males). Due to this, stay away from boron supplementation In case you have hormone-sensitive ailments like cancers in the breast, uterus, or ovaries, and conditions like endometriosis or uterine fibroids. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take in more than 20 mg/day ...
Relative Efficiency of Zinc-Coated Urea and Soil and Foliar Application of Zinc Sulphate on Yield, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Zinc and Iron Biofortification in Grains and Uptake by Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
If a pesticide or fertilizer says that you need to do a foliar application, you are being advised to put it directly on the foliage. Learn more here.
Read "Effect of boron deficiency on photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of young tea plantlets, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
There have been all kinds of boronic acid-based enzyme inhibitors over the years, but theyve been mostly locked in the spacious closet labeled tool compounds. Thats as opposed to drugs. After all these years, Velcade is still the only marketed boron-containing drug that I know of. Theres been a good attempt to
Inhibition of Adventitious Root Growth in Boron-Deficient or Aluminum-Stressed Sunflower Cuttings - Adventitious roots;Aluminum;Ascorbate;Boron;Cuttings;Sunflower;
Zinc (Zn) deficiency associated with low dietary intake is a well-documented public health problem, resulting in serious health and socioeconomic problems. Field experiments were conducted with wheat to test the role of both soil and foliar application of ZnSO4 in Zn concentration of whole grain and grain fractions (e.g., bran, embryo and endosperm) in 3 locations. Foliar application of ZnSO4 was realized at different growth stages (e.g., stem elongation, boot, milk, dough stages) to study the effect of timing of foliar Zn application on grain Zn concentration. The rate of foliar Zn application at each growth stage was 4 kg of ZnSO4·7H2O ha-1. Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was used to follow the localization of Zn within grain. Soil Zn application at a rate of 50 kg of ZnSO4·7H2O ha-1 was effective in increasing grain Zn concentration in the Zn-deficient location, but not in the locations without soil Zn deficiency. In all locations, foliar application of Zn significantly increased Zn ...
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Boron is the most widely deficient minor nutrient in vegetable crop soils. It is needed for protein synthesis and increases flower set, crop yield and quality. In combination with adequate phosphorus, boron increases pollination, fruit set and seed development. Boron deficiency causes growth reduction at the growing tips. Plants have small, crinkled, deformed leaves with large areas of discoloration. Boron deficiency is often caused by application of too much lime. While boron is essential for root growth and fruit development, it can become toxic if over-applied. Always test the soil and apply only the recommended amount. The deformed fruit of these strawberries is due to a deficiency of boron, which also deforms the plants leaves and roots. Bushy, drooping, crinkled leaves indicate boron deficiency in potato plants.
In this paper, we investigate the effect of heterogeneous boron concentration and coolant density distribution on nodal macroscopic cross sections, which could potentially arise in an Anticipated Transient Without Control rods of a boiling water reactor. All calculations are made with the 2-D transport code PHOENIX4. Full core simulators, such as POLCA7, often have simple models for handling such heterogeneities with the basic requirement that conservative results are obtained simulating such core conditions. We have found that this is not always the case and that the errors can potentially be quite high.
Boron biochemical functions are yet uncertain, but evidence suggests it is involved in the synthesis of one of the bases for nucleic acid (RNA uracil) formation. It may also be involved in some cellular activities such as division, differentiation, maturation and respiration. It is associated with pollen germination.. Boron Deficiency. Plants deficient in boron exhibit brittle abnormal growth at shoot tips and one of the earliest symptoms is failure of root tips to elongate normally. Stem and root apical meristems often die. Root tips often become swollen and discolored. Internal tissues may rot and become host to fungal disease. Leaves show various symptoms which include drying, thickening, distorting, wilting, and chlorotic or necrotic spotting.. Boron Toxicity. Yellowing of leaf tip followed by necrosis of the leaves beginning at tips or margins and progressing inward before leaves die and prematurely fall off. Some plants are especially sensitive to boron accumulation.. Copper. Copper is a ...
Boron is needed by life. In 2013, a hypothesis suggested it was possible that boron and molybdenum catalyzed the production of RNA on Mars with life being transported to Earth via a meteorite around 3 billion years ago.[115]. There exists one known boron-containing natural antibiotic, boromycin, isolated from streptomyces.[116][117]. Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls. However, high soil concentrations of , 1.0 ppm lead to marginal and tip necrosis in leaves as well as poor overall growth performance. Levels as low as 0.8 ppm produce these same symptoms in plants that are particularly sensitive to boron in the soil. Nearly all plants, even those somewhat tolerant of soil boron, will show at least some symptoms of boron toxicity when soil boron content is greater than 1.8 ppm. When this content exceeds 2.0 ppm, few plants will perform well and some may not survive. When boron levels in plant tissue exceed 200 ppm, symptoms of boron ...
A method for preparing a copper pad surface for electrical connection that has superior diffusion barrier and adhesion properties is provided. In the method, a copper pad surface is first provided that has been cleaned by an acid solution, a protection layer of a phosphorus or boron-containing metal alloy is then deposited on the copper pad surface, and then an adhesion layer of a noble metal is deposited on top of the protection layer. The protection layer may be a single layer, or two or more layers intimately joined together formed of a phosphorus or boron-containing metal alloy such as Ni-P, Co-P, Co-W-P, Co-Sn-P, Ni-W-P, Co-B, Ni-B, Co-Sn-B, Co-W-B and Ni-W-B to a thickness between about 1,000 Å and about 10,000 Å. The adhesion layer can be formed of a noble metal such as Au, Pt, Pd and Ag to a thickness between about 500 Å and about 4,000 Å.
A method of forming a boride layer for integrated circuit fabrication is disclosed. In one embodiment, the boride layer is formed by chemisorbing monolayers of a boron-containing compound and one refractory metal compound onto a substrate. In an alternate embodiment, the boride layer has a composite structure. The composite boride layer structure comprises two or more refractory metals. The composite boride layer is formed by sequentially chemisorbing monolayers of a boron compound and two or more refractory metal compounds on a substrate.
Cash On Delivery is not available for this product Much effective on mites as compared with chemical acaricides. Controls insects that have developed resistance to poisonous insecticides. Should be used in integrated pest managements Leaves no chemical residue on plants Use 1-2 ml/lt. water or foliar application
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2 ...
Optically gathering organoboron composites are principal ingredients for pharmaceuticals and running materials such as fluid crystals. In rare, because heightens with an oxygen atom be bountying very penny-pinching to a boron atom can mellow the basic systematize for panaceas, researchers there the universe receive contended to broaden a method to synthesize such fusions. However, famed eluded them because of tribulations associated with depicting catalysts.. The inquiry team led by Professor Hajime Ito of Hokkaido Universitys Graduate Commence of Engineering, who struggled in synthesizing optically occupied organoboron coalesces by the borylation of aldehydes a few years ago, acclimated to ketone exacerbates in this delve into. Ketone systematizes are considered to be assorted difficult than aldehydes to use in asymmetric combinations.. The band has been recapturing catalysts to synthesize optically capable organoboron paratheses since it described a method for the borylation of intrinsic ...
Methods to modulate Rac1 import and to treat pulmonary fibrosis | Phosphorus compound and transition metal complex of the same | Preparation of silazane compound | Boron-containing small molecules as anti-inflammatory agents | Compositions and methods for inhibiting activity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor complex and its use... |
The high boron (B) content in desalinated seawater is a concern for crop development. However, in spite of the importance of the soil microbial community in soil fertility, the below-ground impacts of B are still unknown. Here, in a soil-ryegrass model system, the activity, biomass and diversity of the soil microbial community were evaluated in response to irrigation with: i) 0.3 mg B L−1; ii) 1 m ...
We have taken care to ensure that ourGlucosamine Chondroitin + Boron supplements are complete nutritional supplements, with the addition of specific vitamins, minerals, herbs and bioflavonoids. For more information, contact our Burleigh Heads Warehouse on the Gold Coast 07 5593 6767.
In the preparation of C18-bonded phases higher coverage densities were obtained using dimethylaminodimethyl-n-octadecylsilane than chlorodimethyl-n-octadec
I know these tests, can be semi-useless, and even more so if using supplementation, but I was curious of where my levels were so I had the bloodwork...
Prostrate cancer is a big killer in the male population and still gets relatively low exposure. Feel free to add your stories of Prostrate cancer and the treatments that have been endured/recommended on this thread. Breaking Medical News *Milk and Prostate Cancer: New Evidence * A new study in the //International Journal of Cancer// highlights the
Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation therapy technique which is based on the principle of irradiating boron atoms with neut
20 November 2017 - RaySearch and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Sumitomo), based in Tokyo, Japan, have entered into an agreement regarding treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) - a unique type of radiation therapy that targets cancer at the cellular level. The agreement extends the existing cooperation between Sumitomo and RaySearch on proton therapy. Sumitomo has developed the worlds first accelerator-based clinical BNCT system and is conducting clinical trials regarding recurrent head-and-neck and brain cancers in Japan. Treatment planning is an essential aspect of BNCT, and Sumitomo selected RayStation because of its advanced capabilities and usability. Under the agreement, RayStations functionality will be extended to support BNCT planning requirements*. BNCT will be an additional treatment modality in RayStation, alongside the existing options for photon, electron, proton, and carbon ion therapy. Users of BNCT will have access to the full range of advanced ...
A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its {approximately}MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets.
RATIONALE: Boron neutron capture therapy may selectively kill tumor cells without harming normal tissue. PURPOSE: Phase I trial to study the effe
The present invention relates to immunoconjugates for use in neutron capture therapy, in particular Boron neutron capture therapy, for killing target cells such as tumours. The immunoconjugate of the
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 00 936 887.9 (publication No. WO 00/76557) was refused by a decision of the examining division of 29 August 2005 on the basis of Article 97 EPC on the grounds of lack of inventive step under Article 56 EPC.. II. The following documents were inter alia cited during the proceedings before the examining division and the board of appeal:. (1) J.-L.A. Shih and R.M. Brugger: Neutron induced brachytherapy: A combination of neutron capture therapy and brachytherapy Medical Physics, vol. 19, no. 2, March/April 1992, pages 369-375. (2) EP-A-0 857 470. (3) US-A-5 840 009. (4) US-A-5 947 889. (4a) DE-A-196 00 669. III. The decision was based on claims 1-19 of the main request filed with letter dated 15 January 2002 (entry into the European phase).. Independent claims 1 of the main request before the examining division read as follows:. 1. A stent for neutron capture therapy, the stent comprising a body portion fabricated from a material ...
Developing radiation delivery systems for optimisation of absorbed dose to the target without normal tissue toxicity requires advanced calculations for transport of radiation. In this thesis absorbed dose and fluence in different radiotherapy applications were calculated by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations.. In paper I-III external neutron activation of gadolinium (Gd) for intravascular brachytherapy (GdNCB) and tumour therapy (GdNCT) was investigated. MC codes MCNP and GEANT4 were compared. MCNP was chosen for neutron capture reaction calculations. Gd neutron capture reaction includes both very short range (Auger electrons) and long range (IC electrons and gamma) products. In GdNCB the high-energetic gamma gives an almost flat absorbed dose delivery pattern, up to 4 mm around the stent. Dose distribution at the edges and inside the stent may prevent stent edge and in-stent restenosis. For GdNCT the absorbed dose from prompt gamma will dominate over the dose from IC and Auger electrons in an ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Peng Wang, Haining Zhen, Xinbiao Jiang, Wei Zhang, Xin Cheng, Geng Guo, Xinggang Mao, Xiang Zhang].
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Specialized treatment planning software systems are generally required for neutron capture therapy (NCT) research and clinical applications. The standard simplifying approximations that work well for
A computer model is described that performs microdosimetric calculations of the radiation dose delivered to tumour and normal tissue in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by simulating capture reactions in a predefined three-dimensional space. The role of intracellular boron distributions and cellular dimensions on the radiation dose in clinical and experimental BNCT has been studied using a PC-based computer model. In order to calculate the radiation dose to low boron uptake cells, the extent of irradiation by boron containing adjacent cells (cross fire) is also dealt with. Radiation doses from boron and nitrogen neutron capture are converted to a biological effect by means of relative individual ion track segment efficacies, based on linear energy transfer along the particle track. A good correlation was found after comparing predicted values with previously published experimental data. A number of examples is given to illustrate the programs features.
Boron compounds now have many applications in a number of fields, including Medicinal Chemistry. Although the uses of boron compounds in pharmacological science have been recognized several decades ago, surprisingly few are found in pharmaceutical drugs. The boron-containing compounds epitomize a new class for medicinal chemists to use in their drug designs. Carboranes are a class of organometallic compounds containing carbon (C), boron (B), and hydrogen (H) and are the most widely studied boron compounds in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, other boron-based compounds are of great interest, such as dodecaborate anions, metallacarboranes and metallaboranes. The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been utilized for cancer treatment from last decade, where chemotherapy and radiation have their own shortcomings. However, the improvement in the already existing (BPA and/or BSH) localized delivery agents or new tumor-targeted compounds are required before realizing the full clinical potential of BNCT.
RATIONALE: Diagnostic procedures using boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) and/or sodium borocaptate (BSH) to detect the presence of boron in tumor cells may help determine whether patients who have thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases may benefit from boron neutron capture therapy.. PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects of giving BPA-F and/or BSH before surgery to detect boron uptake in tissues of patients with primary, metastatic, or recurrent thyroid cancer, head and neck cancer, or liver metastases from colorectal cancer. ...
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrodes were use to electrochemically destroy N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates. Batch experiments were conducted ito investigate the effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chloride (Cl(-)), bicarbonate (HCO(3-) and hardness on r.... Full description. ...
Psimei, a recently launched biotechnology company in Middlesex, England, has acquired the license to commercialize the new boron compounds from Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), the organization that manages Brookhaven for the U.S. Department of Energy. BSA holds U.S. patents and U.S. patent applications covering these compounds and has filed international patent applications, which are pending.. Brookhaven researchers recently performed clinical trials to determine the safety and toxicity limits of an experimental therapy known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) when used with a boronated amino acid called BPA in patients with an incurable brain cancer known as glioblastoma multiforme. In these trials, BNCT was no more effective than conventional therapies in slowing the recurrence of brain tumors.. Compared to BPA, the new boron compounds are expected to deliver higher concentrations of boron to certain tumors than to normal surrounding tissues within the neutron-irradiated regions, ...
Boron neutron capture therapy, or BNCT, is a two-part therapy that enhances the effect of radiation on cancer cells while minimizing the effect on nearby healthy cells.. Inadvertant damage to non-cancerous tissue is a major side effect of conventional radiation therapies, especially in the treatment of brain tumors. Conventional radiation therapy also requires several bouts of treatment, an inconvenience for many patients.. BNCT avoids these pitfalls by using radiation from BNLs medical reactor and a drug containing the element boron. Called BPA for boronophenylalanine, the drug is injected into the patient and travels through the bloodstream, concentrating preferentially in tumor tissue.. By itself BPA is harmless, but when exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor, the boron atoms capture neutrons, creating secondary effects that kill cells in the immediate vicinity.. Clinical trials of BNCT have been under way at BNL since 1994. Other locations in the U.S. are conducting related ...
Maleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapyMaleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapy ...
For years, radiotherapy has been an essential mode of noninvasive cancer therapy and advancements have led to life saving treatments for patients. In contrast to other conventional radiotherapies, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is unique in its selective destruction of cancerous cells. BNCT is based on nuclear capture and fission reactions when nonradioactive 10B is irradiated with neutrons to yield excited 11B* which decays into high energy alpha particles and 7Li nuclei. Boron is preferentially accumulated into tumour cells though non-toxic carriers and the short length of the generated neutron beams (5-9 µm) destroys nearby cells leaving the surrounding healthy tissue intact.. The development of carrier systems that deliver sufficient amounts of boron to carry out effective destruction of all vicinal tumour cells has been a significant area of BNCT research for many years. A recent breakthrough made by Professors Atsushi Ikeda of Hiroshima University, Takeshi Nagasaki of Osaka City ...
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Department of Life Science and Technology home page - Research video: Fighting cancer with slime chemistry and BNCT - Department of Life Science and Technology, School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology.Expectations are growing for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a new cancer treatment, with few ...
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head and neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head, neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing tetraphenyl porphyrin compounds to methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a novel boron-containing antibacterial agent (AN0128) with anti-inflammatory activity, for the potential treatment of cutaneous diseases. AU - Baker, Stephen J.. AU - Akama, Tsutomu. AU - Zhang, Yong Kang. AU - Sauro, Vittorio. AU - Pandit, Chetan. AU - Singh, Rajeshwar. AU - Kully, Maureen. AU - Khan, Jehangir. AU - Plattner, Jacob J.. AU - Benkovic, Stephen J.. AU - Lee, Ving. AU - Maples, Kirk R.. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - A series of borinic acid picolinate esters were synthesized and screened for their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Our lead compounds were then screened for anti-inflammatory activity. From these studies, we identified 3-hydroxypyridine-2-carbonyloxy-bis(3-chloro-4-methylphenyl)borane (2g, AN0128) as having the best combination of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. This compound is now in clinical development for dermatological conditions.. AB - A series of ...
Boron neutron capture therapy, a local radiation therapy, may give cancer patients tumour-free time and relief from symptoms when other known and effective treatment methods have been exhausted.
p,The electrochemical properties of chloramphenicol at a boron-doped diamond thin-film (BDD) electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry. The highest current response of chloramphenicol was obtained with phosphate buffer, pH 6 (0.1 M) in 1% ethanol. The relationship between the concentration of chloramphenicol and the current response was linear over the range of 0.1 - 10 mM (R-2 = 0.9990). The amount of chloramphenicol was analyzed by flow-injection analysis. A thin-layer flow cell equipped with a BDD electrode was used as an amperometric detector, and experiments were carried out at -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The linear relationship between the current response and the concentration of chloramphenicol in the range of 0.1 - 50 mu M (R-2 = 0.9948) and the limit of detection of 0.03 mu M (S/N = 3) were obtained. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of chloramphenicol in sterile eye drops and milk sample by the standard addition method. The average recoveries of ...
Product Name: Boric Acid Powder. Common Name: hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum. Description: Boric acid has mild antibiotic properties against fungal or bacterial infection.. Boric acid ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used as an eye wash to cleanse or irrigate the eyes. Boric acid provides soothing relief from eye irritation, and helps remove pollutants from the eye such as smog, chlorine, or other chemicals.. Indications and Usage:. Boric Acid diluted with water can be used to create an easy and effective eyewash. Whether its a minor irritation or the more serious and contagious eye infection, a Boric Acid eyewash solution can help eye problems by treating any bacterial infection and soothing inflamed eyes. That includes relief of pink eye symptoms.. Pack Size: Boric Acid Powder is available in 50gm pack.. Minimum Order Quantity: 3000 packs. Certification: WHO-GMP. ...
Considering the relatively low cost of boron fertilizers and the high value of rice grain, yield response to B could result in a 10:1 return to rice producers for their input costs.. Boron primarily occurs in the soil as the mineral borax. Boron may also bond with organic matter. In agricultural soils the majority of plant-available boron is associated with clay minerals. Boron is released, by weathered rocks, in the soil solution as boric acid (H3BO3). Boric acid is highly soluble in water and is easily leached from the soil. Consequentially boron must be supplied each year as fertilizer in many cropping situations. Liming also decreases boron availability in soils. At higher pH levels, clay minerals absorb and strongly hold boron. The high pH of well waters buffered by calcium carbonate increases the pH of flooded rice soils and may limit boron availability.. Symptoms of boron deficiency in rice are sometimes difficult to detect visually in the field. Boron deficiency symptoms in rice begin ...
A diamond thin film thermistor having a substrate, an electrically insulating diamond layer formed on the substrate by vapor-phase synthesis, a semiconducting diamond layer as a temperature-sensing part on the electrically insulating diamond layer by vapor-phase synthesis, and metal thin film electrodes attached to the semiconducting diamond layer. A plurality of such diamond thin film thermistors can simultaneously be formed on a single substrate, and the substrate is cut with a dicing saw to provide individual diamond thin film thermistor chips of the same quality.
China Chemical H3bo3 Boric Acid 99.9%, Find details about China Boric Acid, Boric Acid Fertilizer from Chemical H3bo3 Boric Acid 99.9% - Zouping Runzi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
China Chemical H3bo3 Boric Acid for Agriculture Use, Find details about China Boric Acid, Boric Acid Fertilizer from Chemical H3bo3 Boric Acid for Agriculture Use - Zouping Runzi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
Complete Bone Nutrition Purity-Certified MCHC with Boron Cal Apatite with Boron is the same formula as original Cal Apatite , but with added boron. Boron may play a role in maintaining healthy calcium balance possibly through involvement in estrogen and vitamin D metabolism. THREE TABLETS SUPPLY: Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite Concentrate (MCHC) 1,500 mg Calcium (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) 626 mg Phosphorus (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) 398 mg Boron (as boron citrate) 300 mcg Recommendations: Up to six tablets daily. Form: 270 Tablet Bottle Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate supplies calcium, phosphorus, and trace quantities of other minerals.
Based on mammalian median lethal dose (LD50) rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, boric acid is poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities. The Thirteenth Edition of the Merck Index indicates that the LD50 of boric acid is 5.14 g/kg for oral dosages given to rats, and that 5 to 20 g/kg has produced death in adult humans. For comparisons sake, the LD50 of salt is reported to be 3.75 g/kg in rats according to the Merck Index.. Long term exposure to boric acid may be of more concern, causing kidney damage and eventually kidney failure (see links below). Although it does not appear to be carcinogenic, studies in dogs have reported testicular atrophy after exposure to 32 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days. This level is far lower than the LD50.[5]. According to boric acid IUCLID Dataset published by the European Commission, boric acid in high doses shows significant developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in rabbit, rat, and mouse fetuses as well as cardiovascular defects, skeletal variations, ...
2006 (English)In: High Pressure Research, ISSN 0895-7959, E-ISSN 1477-2299, Vol. 26, No. 2, 79-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
may aid in the cation permeability through the cuticle to the plant cell. It has been found that the use of copper salts, either applied to the leaf or soil, when present in the cell at 10 to 100 times the amount necessary for normal growth and development, may "control pathogens. Because of the efficacy of chelated copper the amount of copper salt necessary at an application to the soil or the plant itself to raise the copper content in tissue analysis is lowered. In copper deficient soils two kilogram/hectare of chelated copper when foliar applied has been shown to add enough copper ion into the plant tissue. An newfound method of foliar application of chelated copper at a concentration of 0.006M (equivalent to 0.25-0.5 kilogram/hectare) has been shown to raise the dry weight tissue analysis to levels of at least 10 to 60 times the amount necessary for normal growth and development; this new method is at least 2 to 10 times more effective then synthetic compounds from a foliar application. ...
Sjuvarsson E, Damaraju VL, Mowles D, Sawyer MB, Tiwari R, Agarwal HK, Khalil A, Hasabelnaby S, Goudah A, Nakkula RJ, Barth RF, Cass CE, Eriksson S, Tjarks W. Cellular influx, efflux, and anabolism of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogs: potential boron delivery agents for neutron capture therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Nov;347(2):388-97 ...
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... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer Formula:H3BO3 Molecular weight:61.83 Purity like B element:17.4 % Min Purity like H3BO3:99.5% Min The following are the specifications of Boric acid technical grade B2O3:56.0% Min. Sulfates(SO4=):0.15% Max. Chlorides(Cl-):0.15% Max. Iron (Fe3+):0.0
Two sources contribute essentially to the presence of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment: (i) release from nuclear materials with a major fraction derived from the nuclear bomb testing period during the period 1950-1963 and (ii) emissions from the nuclear industry, such as waste waters from U-mine tailing or nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This chapter focuses mainly on the major source responsible for global surface contamination, that is, radioisotope aerosol deposition after release into the atmosphere. The atmospheric emissions were caused mainly via surface atomic bomb tests and reactor accidents, with the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe as the most important contribution. In contrast with most fission products, almost all actinides (which are produced via neutron capture reactions) are rather long lived and can be measured in environmental samples with high precision. Some of the actinides (i.e., U, Pu, Cm) consist of various isotopes (e.g.,238,239,240,241Pu) and hence can be ...
Boric acid has a low level of toxicity for humans. The chemical may irritate the eyes and skin. In rare cases, boric acid poisoning occurs when someone swallows boric acid or experiences repeated...
Advanced Research Report on Global Boric Acid Market 2019. ICRWorld Research estimates the future of the Boric Acid industry with a thorough analysis of the forces governing the market. The report, titled Global Boric Acid Market 2019 - Production, Sales, Demand, Supply, Cost Structure, Manufacturers, Shares, Forecast 2024, is a comprehensive take on the strengths […]. ...
Boric Acid crystallizing room in the Bayonne Refinery showing the Boric Acid in process of crystallization and also showing the finished product in the hands of a workman ...
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy AES Definition - Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is an analytical tool used to determine and quantify the elemental...
Boron (B) pollution is an expanding environmental problem throughout the world due to intensive mining practices and extensive usage of B in agricultural chemicals and industrial products in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate B removal performance of four poplar and four willow species in small scale Constructed Wetland (CW). Rooted cuttings of tested species were treated with simulated wastewater having five elevated B concentrations (0.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm). All the tested species could resist up to 20 ppm wastewater B supply and could regrow from their roots in the soil having maximum 15 mg/kg B content. The result of the study indicated that 65% 5.3 of B was removed from the wastewater in 5 ppm B treatment while the same efficiency decreased to 45% 4.6 at 40 ppm B supply. The average effect of sediment on B removal was found to be approximately 20% for all B treatments while the remaining part of the loaded B was removed from the CW within effluent (35-54%). ...
The negative impact of a boron dilution accident on the safety of a current pressurized water reactor (PWR) initiated investigations with the aim of checking the feasibility of reduced boron concentration operation. In addition, reduction of the maximum boron concentration in a PWR is a practical and feasible means to substantially reduce the radiation dose to operators and to minimize corrosion damage. Four types of integral burnable absorbers have been considered: gadolinium, integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA), erbia, and alumina boron carbide. Under consideration of four different kinds of fuel assemblies (FA), four core design candidates were developed by applying current PWR OPR-1000 technology and by keeping major engineering design constraints and the equivalent fuel enrichment level used in the reference core (REF) design. However, an optimal design was targeted to achieve comparable discharge burnup as well as favorable design safety parameters. The comparative analysis between the ...
A neutron-capture experiment on {sup nat}Cd has been carried out at DANCE. Multiple-fold coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra have been collected from J=0, 1 resonances in {sup 111}Cd and {sup 113}Cd. The cascades ending at the ground state can be described by the SLO model while the cascades ending at the 2+ states are better reproduced by the mixed SLO+KMF model. ...
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Boric Acid Metal is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Boric Acid Metal is available on the website.
Boric acid powder is used as an insecticide to control roaches, silverfish and ants. The acid attacks the insects gastrointestinal tracts and abrades their exoskeletons. Boric acid powder also is...
Harrells MAX Magnesium 4% is a liquid formulation designed to correct and prevent Magnesium deficiencies. Magnesium is an important secondary nutrient, very essential for photosynthesis, since it is part of the chlorophyll molecule. Insufficient amounts of Magnesium will appear as a loss of green color at the bottoms of older leaves. Severe deficiencies will also affect younger leaves and can result in the formation of lesions. High levels of calcium and potassium can reduce Magnesium uptake. Harrells MAX Magnesium 4% assists in chlorophyll production, providing Magnesium in a complexed form that is readily available for both soil and foliar applications. It is ideal for mixing with acid sensitive products and is generally not affected by soil conditions, other nutrients ...
Harrells MAX Magnesium 4% is a liquid formulation designed to correct and prevent Magnesium deficiencies. Magnesium is an important secondary nutrient, very essential for photosynthesis, since it is part of the chlorophyll molecule. Insufficient amounts of Magnesium will appear as a loss of green color at the bottoms of older leaves. Severe deficiencies will also affect younger leaves and can result in the formation of lesions. High levels of calcium and potassium can reduce Magnesium uptake. Harrells MAX Magnesium 4% assists in chlorophyll production, providing Magnesium in a complexed form that is readily available for both soil and foliar applications. It is ideal for mixing with acid sensitive products and is generally not affected by soil conditions, other nutrients ...
A typical indicator of magnesium deficiency in vegetables is interveinal chlorosis which develops between the leaf veins (first image). Due to magnesiums mobility in plants, symptoms will typically affect older leaves first. Prolonged deficiency will eventually lead to death of the tissue (second image). Magnesium deficiency is widely observed in vegetable crops, particularly pepper and tomatoes due to their nutrient high requirements. To address deficiency soluble magnesium sources, for example Epsom salt, could be used both foliarly or through the drip. Foliar applications are effective but must be applied in low concentrations to avoid phytotoxicity. For smaller areas and backpack type operation, mix 1 lb of Epsom salt in 5 gallons of water and spray uniformly. For fertigation apply 15-25 lbs of actual magnesium per acre. ...
SNS 209 Pesticide Concentrate (Systemic) 16 oz SNS 209 Pesticide Concentrate (Systemic) 16 oz (SNS209-16 oz) SNS-209 provides a barrier for plants to protect them against damaging insects. The barrier is harmless to the plant but distasteful to mites and other insects. SNS-209 Systemic Insect Control is made up of 100% pure botanical extracts that are highly water soluble. How It Works Spider mites, White flies, Nematodes, Scales and other insects destroy plant cells by sucking out their fluids or chewing up the cell walls. SNS-209 s unique formula works by allowing the plant to uptake a small amount of rosemeric acid from the rosemary plant. As the plant distributes the rosemeric acid throughout its cell walls, a barrier is soon constructed. When an insect starts to suck or chew on the plant it comes in contact with the rosemeric acid and causes the insect to stop eating and move on. Advantages The first advantage is long term control. A foliar application of an insecticide is constantly exposed to
Seaweed Doses:. Foliar Application: Use 0.25 to 0.5g of Seaweed per lit of clean water. Soil Application: 100g to 200g per Acre.. Caution: We are not sellers of the product hence do not take any guarantee other than the uniform quality of the product. For Industrial use only. Supplier has no return policy, and any liability regarding the use of the product is not accepted at all. Users are advised to take expert guidance before using.. ...
Seaweed Doses:. Foliar Application: Use 0.25 to 0.5g of Seaweed per lit of clean water. Soil Application: 100g to 200g per Acre.. Caution: We are not sellers of the product hence do not take any guarantee other than the uniform quality of the product. For Industrial use only. Supplier has no return policy, and any liability regarding the use of the product is not accepted at all. Users are advised to take expert guidance before using.. ...
Meristems are a big deal to a plant. These pools of stem cells are the growing points for each plant, and every organ comes from them. They are how plants can survive for 500 or 5,000 years, continuously making new organs in the form of leaves, flowers, and seeds throughout its life.. "When you mow your grass, it keeps growing because of the meristems," said Amanda Durbak, first author on the paper and MU biological sciences post doc. "In corn, there are actually hundreds of meristems at the tips and all sides of ears and tassels.". But without enough boron, these growing points disintegrate, and, in corn, that means vegetation is stunted, tassels fail to develop properly and kernels dont set on an ear. This leads to reduced yield. Missouri and the eastern half of the U.S. are typically plagued by boron-deficient soil, an essential micronutrient for crops like corn and soybeans, indicating that farmers need to supplement with boron to maximize yield.. The tassel-less mutant. The teams ...
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the dermis and epidermis accompanied by keratinocyte hyperproliferation [36]. Current treatments, including biological therapies, downregulate cytokine cascades and chemokine production. While these interventions can be highly efficacious, limitations include side effects, intravenous or subcutaneous administration, quality control, and production costs.. AN-2728 is a topically administered, boron-containing compound developed for the treatment of psoriasis. This compound was found to reduce cytokine production, such as TNFα and interferon (IFN)y, and demonstrated activity against the PDE4 enzyme [37]. Several clinical trials of AN-2728 have reported significant effects on markers of efficacy, such as TNFα, in addition to being well tolerated [38].. The determination of cytokines in skin homogenates revealed that both T helper (Th)1 as well as Th2 cytokines are suppressed by PDE4 ...
Calabrese, Gianpiero, Daou, Anis, Barbu, Eugen and Tsibouklis, John (2017) Towards carborane-functionalised structures for the treatment of brain cancer. Drug Discovery Today, ISSN (print) 1359-6446 (Epub Ahead of Print) Calabrese, Gianpiero, Daou, Anis, Rova, Aikaterini, Tseligka, Eirini D., Vizirianakis, Ioannis S, Fatouros, Dimitris and Tsibouklis, John (2017) Boron-containing delocalised lipophilic cations for the selective targeting of cancer cells. MedChemComm, 8(1), pp. 67-72. ISSN (print) 2040-2503 Marques Gomes, Ana C N, Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen, Kayyali, Reem, Buonocore, Federico and Calabrese, Gianpiero (2016) Survey of community pharmacists perception of electronic cigarettes in London. BMJ Open, 6(11), e013214. ISSN (online) 2044-6055 Tseligka, Eirini D., Rova, Aikaterini, Amanatiadou, Elsa P., Calabrese, Gianpiero, Tsibouklis, John, Fatouros, Dimitrios G. and Vizirianakis, Ioannis S. (2016) Pharmacological development of target-specific delocalized lipophilic cation-functionalized ...
Lookup HS Codes for Malta vi 28.10.00 Diboron trioxide. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Malta.
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
Boric Acid Solution For Human Eyes/Подача Оценка Аминокислот/Кормовые добавки/Сельскохозяйственные ресурсы/Сельское хозяйство и пищевая промышленность
A sty is an inflammation of the eye that is generally caused by an infection that has gone unnoticed or untreated. It is possible to hasten the healing of a sty with Boric acid, which saves you from having to purchase expensive prescription ointments. This alternative treatment can clear up the ...
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The role of di-boron diffusion in evolution of B diffusion profiles has been investigated. We find that boron pair (B[sub s]â€"B[sub i]) diffusion can become as important as boron-interstitial pair (B[sub s]â€"Si[sub i]) diffusion when both boron concentration and annealing temperature are very high, leading to concentration-dependent B diffusion. Our simulated B diffusion profiles with dramatic shouldering are in excellent agreement with experimental ones reported by Schroer et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3996 (1999)] for high-temperature (≈1200 °C) postimplantion annealing of ultralow-energy (≈500 eV) implanted high-concentration (>10[sup 19] cm[sup -3]) boron in silicon. © 2003 American Institute of Physics ...
Patient of Thyroid, high b.p. Stone in gallbladder, sits in uterus Taking amlong 5 & thyroxine 125 but my b.p is still 90 -140 around.-You may need an additi...
The alpha capture reaction 12C(α,γ)16O plays an important role in helium burning in massive stars and their evolution. The reaction rate at Gamow energy (E ~ 300 keV) corresponding to helium burning temperature T~ 0.2 GK determines - together with the triple alpha reaction - the relative amounts of carbon and oxygen at the end of helium burning. Subsequent advanced burning stages in stars rely on the carbon and oxygen fuel. Consequently, the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rate further influences the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements and even the evolution of massive stars that explode as supernovae. Therefore, a more precise rate for this reaction is highly desirable. Although there have been numerous experimental efforts to measure the radiative capture cross section at low energies (~ 300 keV) in the last 50 years, the desired accuracy of better than 10% has not been obtained. This is because the cross section is very small and it is impossible to measure it directly. The only way to measure this ...
Two designs of Type B transport packages were developed for theUniversity of Missouri for shipping radioisotopes and radiochemicals used principally in medical applications. These are the first general purpose Type B packages to be approved by the NRC for many years and they replace the DOT Spec 6M package (authorization now expired).. ...
You may have to experiment to get the right amount of boric acid 1% solution. I suggest you start with D-76 1:1 (without boric acid) for 7 minutes (@ 20 degrees C/68 degrees F) as your first trial. Again, print on grade 3. (Bear in mind Kodak suggests 10 minutes for this combination; what I am suggesting is of course shorter.) If the prints are too contrasty, try adding 5ml of 1% boric acid solution to the D-76 1:1. Keep experimenting until you get at least 8 minutes and the prints look good on grade 3. Dont dilute too much because too-dilute developer is not consistent. In other words, lowering the Ph is better than diluting. You may have to do lots of trials to get everything right. The one thing not to change during this process is the paper grade. Once you have the negative developing time worked out, you keep it, and make slight adjustments in contrast with VC paper. The highest contrast setting you normally will use is perhaps grade 3.5 ...
D 5185-05, Test Method for Determination of Additive Elements, Wear Metals, and Contaminants in Used Lubricating Oils and Determination of Selected Elements in Base Oils by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Volume ...
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing. E466 Practice for Conducting Force Controlled Constant Amplitude Axial Fatigue Tests of Metallic Materials. E467 Practice for Verification of Constant Amplitude Dynamic Forces in an Axial Fatigue Testing System. E468 Practice for Presentation of Constant Amplitude Fatigue Test Results for Metallic Materials. E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application. E1832 Practice for Describing and Specifying a Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. ...
Trinh, Quang Thang; Nguyen, Anh Vu; Huynh, Dang Chinh; Pham, Thanh Huyen; Mushrif, Samir, Mechanistic insights into the catalytic elimination of tar and the Promotional effect of Boron on it: First principles study using Toluene as a model compound, Catal. Sci. Technol., 2016, 6, 5871 - 5883 ...
The atom probe technique permits the imaging and chemical identification of individual and solid surfaces. It is one of the most important experimental methods in the emerging field of atomic-scale science and technology. This book gives a definitive and up-to-date account of the field, and is written by leading authorities on the subject.
The development of new methods for preparing organic compounds is a fundamental aspect of research on new drugs and advanced materials. In many cases, the three-dimensional spatial arrangement of atoms in the synthesized ...
A Cu-catalyzed regioselective and stereospecific aminoboration of styrenes with bis(pinacolato)diboron and O-benzoyl-N,N-dialkylhydroxylamines delivers β-aminoalkylboranes in good yields. The Cu catalysis enables introduction of both amine and boron moieties to C-C double bonds simultaneously in a syn fashion. Moreover, the use of a chiral biphosphine ligand, (S,S)-Me-Duphos, provides optically active β-aminoalkylboranes ...
Synthesis of an 8-Methoxy Pentacycline AnalogReagents: (a) bis(pinacolato)diboron, KOAc, PdCl2(dppf)-CH2Cl2, 1,4-dioxane, then H2O2, HOAc, THF; (b) CH3I, K2CO
A B−H−B 3-center-2-electron bond is formed when a boron atom shares electrons with a B−H bond on another boron atom. In ... Three-center two-electron bonds are seen in many boron compounds, such as diborane (B2H6). The monomer BH3 is unstable since ... each boron is surrounded by a stable octet. ... Boron compounds[edit]. Resonance structures of 3c-2e bond in ... the boron atom is only surrounded by six valence electrons. ...
Boron[edit]. Boron is involved in many enzymatic systems, when it is deficient, the tree suffers in fruit and leaf quality, and ... iron and boron applied three times a year to the base of the tree are promising. The third year of research should be available ...
Boron Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls.[45][46][47] Boron ... Boron in Idaho" (PDF). University of Idaho. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.. ... "Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition" (PDF). U.S. Borax Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2009.. ... Blevins, Dale G.; Lukaszewski, KM (1998). "Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ...
Boron 1808 L. Gay-Lussac and L.J. Thénard 1808 H. Davy Radical boracique appears on the list of elements in Lavoisier's Traité ... First prepared by bombardment of californium with boron atoms.[148] 102 Nobelium 1966 E. D. Donets, V. A. Shchegolev and V. A. ... Nilson split Marignac's ytterbia into pure ytterbia and a new element that matched Mendeleev's 1871 predicted eka-boron.[105] ...
Boron. melting, wetting Ni Lowers melting point. Can form hard and brittle borides. Unsuitable for nuclear reactors, as boron ... in amount of about 0.08%, can be used to substitute boron where boron would have detrimental effects.[23] ... Amorphous brazing foil using nickel, iron, copper, silicon, boron, phosphorus, etc.. Atmosphere[edit]. As brazing work requires ... Boron tends to diffuse into the base metals, especially along the grain boundaries, and may form brittle borides. Carbon can ...
boron 5 B carbon 6 C nitrogen 7 N oxygen 8 O ...
With 7-membered rings, the heteroatom must be able to provide an empty pi orbital (e.g., boron) for "normal" aromatic ...
Boron B 2.4 mg/l 1.0 mg/L " " 5.00 mg/L Bromate " 10 μg/l 10 μg/l " " ...
Some hydrides, e.g. boron hydrides, do not conform to classical electron-counting rules, and the bonding is described in terms ...
Boron5B​10.81 Carbon6C​12.011 Nitro-gen7N​14.007 Oxy-gen8O​15.999 Fluor-ine9F​18.998 Neon10Ne​20.180 ... The value published can have and uncertainty be an interval like for neon: 20.1797(6), or can be an interval, like for boron: [ ... Excerpt of an IUPAC Periodic Table showing the interval notation of the standard atomic weights of boron, carbon, and nitrogen ... Boron samples from unusual sources, particularly non-terrestrial sources, might have measured atomic weights that fall outside ...
a b Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Mineral (2003), boron p. 164-71, nickel p. 225-31, EVM, Food Standards Agency, UK ISBN 1 ... Some elements (silicon, boron, nickel, vanadium) are probably needed by mammals also, but in far smaller doses. Bromine is used ...
Boron. HBO3. Crosslinking pectin Manganese. Mn2+. Activity of some enzymes and photosystem II ...
Boron trichloride Solid BCl3 −402.96 Bromine Bromine Liquid Br2 0 ...
Boron is a poor oxidizing agent (B12 + 3e → BH3 = -0.15 V at pH 0). While it bonds covalently in nearly all of its compounds, ... Boron is a lustrous, barely reactive solid with a density 2.34 g/cm3 (cf. aluminium 2.70), and is hard (MH 9.3) and brittle. It ... Schaefer JC 1968, "Boron" in CA Hampel (ed.), The encyclopedia of the chemical elements, Reinhold, New York, pp. 73-81 ... Boron was identified by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 but not isolated in a pure form until 1909, by the American chemist Ezekiel ...
In this structure, there are two four-coordinate boron atoms (two BO4 tetrahedra) and two three-coordinate boron atoms (two BO3 ... "Boron Basics". *^ Marie, Anne. "How To Color Fire - Fun Fireplace Instructions". ... Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and ... Review of the boron toxicity (as boric acid and borates) published 2012 in Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health ...
Boron WF, Boulpaep E (2003). "Chapter 48: "synthesis of thyroid hormones"". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular ... Boron, WF.; Boulpaep, EL. (2012). Medical Physiology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. p. 1052. ISBN 978-1-4377-1753-2.. .mw- ...
Lighter main group halides such as boron tribromide do not show this tendency, in part due to the smaller size of the central ...
Spoz, A; Boron, A; Porycka, K; Karolewska, M; Ito, D; Abe, S; Kirtiklis, L; Juchno, D (2014). "Molecular cytogenetic analysis ...
Boron, WF; Waisbren, SJ; Modlin, IM; Geibel, JP (Nov 1994). "Unique permeability barrier of the apical surface of parietal and ...
Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium are commonly recognised as metalloids; other authors treat some or ... The pseudo metals (groups 12 and 13, including boron) are said to behave more like true metals (groups 1 to 11) than non-metals ... The elements commonly recognised as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. In old chemistry ...
Boron oxide - B2O3. *Decaborane (Diborane) - B10H14 ...
Boron, Walter F.; Boulpaep, Emile L. (2009). Medical Physiology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. pp. 1016-1017. ISBN ...
5 B boron use. 4200 K. 3927 °C. 7101 °F WebEl. 4200 K. 3927 °C. 7101 °F ...
Walter F. Boron; Emile L. Boulpaep (2012). Medical Physiology (2nd ed.). Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9781437717532.. [page needed] ... Boron, W.F. (2003). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1416023283.. ...
a b c d e Boron, p. 1300. *^ Niswender GD (March 2002). "Molecular control of luteal secretion of progesterone". Reproduction. ... Boron, Walter (2005). Medical physiology : a cellular and molecular approach. Philadelphia, Penns: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 1- ...
B6O can be synthesized by reducing B2O3 with boron or by oxidation of boron with zinc oxide or other oxidants.[1] These boron ... He, D.; Zhao, Y.; Daemen, L.; Qian, J.; Shen, T. D.; Zerda, T. W. (2002). "Boron suboxide: As hard as cubic boron nitride". ... Mixtures of boron and B2O3 powders were usually used as starting materials in the reported methods for B6O synthesis.[4] ... Boron suboxide (chemical formula B6O) is a solid compound with a structure built of eight icosahedra at the apexes of the ...
Other forms of boron nitride[edit]. Atomically thin boron nitride[edit]. Hexagonal boron nitride can be exfoliated to mono or ... Boron nitride aerogel[edit]. Main article: Boron nitride aerogel. Boron nitride aerogel is an aerogel made of highly porous BN ... Boron nitride nanotubes[edit]. Main article: Boron nitride nanotube. Boron nitride tubules were first made in 1989 by Shore and ... Boron nitride is produced synthetically. Hexagonal boron nitride is obtained by the reacting boron trioxide (B2O3) or boric ...
Boron: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Boron deficiency. Taking boron by mouth prevents boron deficiency.. Possibly effective for.... *Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) ... Boron is a mineral that is found in food such as nuts and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine.. Boron is ... When taken by mouth: Boron is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in doses that dont exceed 20 mg per day. Boron is POSSIBLY ...
Overview Boron is the first element in Group 13 (IIIA) of the periodic table [1]. The periodic table [2] is a chart that shows ... BORON (REVISED) Note: This article, originally published in 1998, was updated in 2006 for the eBook edition. ... Boron combines with oxygen in the air to form boron trioxide (B 2O3). Boron trioxide forms a thin film on the surface that ... Boron also forms important compounds with two other elements, carbon and nitrogen. Boron carbide (B4C) and boron nitride (BN) ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Breathing moderate levels of boron irritates the nose, throat, and eyes. This chemical has been found in at least 142 of 1,416 ... Exposure to boron occurs in the workplace or from using certain consumer products. ... What is boron?. Boron is a compound that occurs in nature. It is often found combined with other substances to form compounds ... Boron is also released from industries that use it. *Boron cannot be destroyed in the environment. It can only change its form ...
Boron definition, a nonmetallic element occurring naturally only in combination, as in borax or boric acid, and obtained in ... boron in Medicine Expand. boron bo·ron (bôrŏn). n. Symbol B. A soft, amorphous or crystalline nonmetallic element, used in ... Word Origin and History for boron Expand. n. 1812, from borax + ending abstracted unetymologically from carbon (it resembles ... Boron is necessary for the growth of land plants and is used in the preparation of soaps, abrasives, and hard alloys. It is ...
Chunks of bulk boron are zapped with a laser to create vapor of boron atoms. A jet of helium then freezes the vapor into tiny ... One candidate was boron, carbons neighbor on the periodic table. But because boron has one less electron than carbon, it cant ... Because of the electron deficiency of boron, borospherene would likely bond well with hydrogen. So tiny boron cages could serve ... The next step is to test the actual binding energies of boron clusters in the lab to see if they match any of the theoretical ...
... has part boron group element atom (CHEBI:33317) boron group molecular entity (CHEBI: ... boron molecular entity (CHEBI:22916) is a boron group molecular entity (CHEBI:33581). gallium molecular entity (CHEBI:37111) is ... CHEBI:33581 - boron group molecular entity. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... indium molecular entity (CHEBI:37112) is a boron group molecular entity (CHEBI:33581). thallium molecular entity (CHEBI:37110) ...
Common borate compounds include boric acid, salts of borates, and boron oxide. Several companies in the United States produce ... Boron is a compound that occurs in nature. It is often found combined with other substances to form compounds called borates. ... most of the worlds borates by processing boron compounds. Borates are used mostly to produce glass. They are also used in fire ... Boron. CAS ID #: 7440-42-8. Affected Organ Systems: Cardiovascular (Heart and Blood Vessels), Developmental (effects during ...
Toxicological profile for Boron. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). BAM was discovered by B... ... Boron - A METALLOID WHICH PROTECTS THE NUCLEAR REACTOR! - ... Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum- ...
The bridging boron site is tetrahedrally coordinated by four boron atoms. Those atoms are another boron atom in the counter ... Metal atoms need to donate two electrons per boron polyhedron to form boron-rich metal borides. Thus, boron compounds are often ... Icosahedral B12 compounds include α-rhombohedral boron (B13C2), β-rhombohedral boron (MeBx, 23≤x), α-tetragonal boron (B48B2C2 ... There are many boron-rich phases in the boron-rich corner of Sc-B-C phase diagram, as shown in figure 17. A slight variation of ...
Lebreton, J.; Ferran, J.; Marsigny, L., The Cameron system of boron monofluoride, BF, J. Phys. B:, 1975, 8, 465. [all data] ... Pathak, A.N.; Maheshwari, R.C., Franck-Condon factors & r-centroids for (b3«SIGMA»+ --, a3«PI») system of boron monofluoride ... Chretien, M.; Miescher, E., New electronic band-systems of diatomic boron compounds (BF, BO and BH), Nature (London), 1949, 163 ... Strong, H.M.; Knauss, H.P., The band spectrum of boron fluoride, Phys. Rev., 1936, 49, 740. [all data] ...
... and boron trichloride, J. Electron. Control, 1957, 3, 194. [all data] ... Other names: Borane, trifluoro-; Boron fluoride (BF3); Boron fluoride; Trifluoroborane; Trifluoroboron; BF3; Fluorure de bore; ... King, G.H.; Krishnamurthy, S.S.; Lappert, M.F.; Pedley, J.B., Bonding studies of compounds of boron and the Group 4 elements. ... XII.Boron trifluoride and diboron tetrafluoride, Inorg. Chem., 1968, 7, 1742. [all data] ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Glossary over Boron. Absorption. The process of taking in. For a person or an animal, absorption is the process of a substance ... Ore of boron consisting of sodium borate, a mineral salt found in alkaline (non-acidic, see pH) deposits. (Source: GreenFacts) ... A white or gray to colorless borate mineral, formed when boron rich water evaporates in arid climate. It is found in some arid ... Boric acid is a chemical compound containing boron, hydrogen and oxygen. It is a mild acid. It exists in the form of colorless ...
Natural Boron Carbide is most often provided in powder form. It can be manufactured into final articles such as pellets, plates ... 3M™ Natural Boron Carbide is most often provided in powder form. It can be manufactured into final articles such as pellets, ... 3M™ Natural Boron Carbide can be manufactured into final articles such as pellets, plates or sputtering targets at 3Ms hot ... 3M natural boron carbide powder variations include chemical, physical and particle size properties. ...
Boron and salts of borate have been found at hazardous waste sites. Boron alone does not dissolve in water nor does it ... No information was found on whether common forms of boron evaporate easily or stick to soil particles; however, these forms do ... Common borate compounds include boric acid, salts of borates, and boron oxide. ... Boron is a solid substance that widely occurs in nature. It usually does not occur alone, but is often found in the environment ...
Not only are the applications of boron in chemical molecular sensors covered in detail, but their synthesis and supramolecular ... Boron: Sensing, Synthesis and Supramolecular Self-Assembly Editors: Meng Li, John S Fossey, Tony D James ... Not only are the applications of boron in chemical molecular sensors covered in detail, but their synthesis and supramolecular ... Boron-Containing BODIPY Chromophore for Fluorescent Sensing. Chunchang Zhao and Weihong Zhu ...
Additionally, this product contains 25% more boron-11 than naturally occurring materials, making it well suited for ... 11B Enriched Boron Trifluoride is an isotopically enriched material used for silicon doping. It is produced to have %3E99.9% ... 3M 11B enriched boron trifluoride contains 25% more boron-11 than naturally occurring materials. Additionally, this product is ... 3M™ 11B Enriched Boron Trifluoride is an isotopically enriched material used for silicon doping. It is produced to have >99.9% ...
The special features of the boron slurry fuel that make it attractive for underwater applications are detail ... for underwater applications featuring a low temperature Rankine cycle power loop and a fuel consisting of elemental boron ... A Rankine Cycle Powerplant with Boron Slurry Fuel 690732. A thermochemical powerplant for underwater applications featuring a ... The special features of the boron slurry fuel that make it attractive for underwater applications are detailed and some ...
Duschanek, H., Rogl, P., "The System Boron - Carbon - Zirconium" in "Phase Diagrams of Ternary Metal-Boron-Carbon Systems", ... Rudy, E., "Ternary Transition Metal-Boron Systems" in "Ternary Phase Equilibria in Transition Metal-Boron-Carbon-Silicon ... Boron Plus Two Metals", Phase Equilibria Diagrams, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, 10, 170-174 (1994) (Phase Diagram, Phase ... Voroshilov, Yu.V., Kuzma, Yu.B., "Reaction of Zirconium with the Transition Metals and Boron", Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 8( ...
... 690666. This paper describes the structural design of a composite ... The selected boron/epoxy exhibits high strength and specific stiffness, lightweight, good corrosion resistance, and suitability ... Citation: Turner, D. and Springer, W., "The Design of Boron/Epoxy Turboprop Reduction Gear Case," SAE Technical Paper 690666, ...
  • Each icosahedron is composed of twelve boron atoms. (
  • Boron nitride exists in multiple forms that differ in the arrangement of the boron and nitrogen atoms, giving rise to varying bulk properties of the material. (
  • The amorphous form of boron nitride (a-BN) is non-crystalline, lacking any long-distance regularity in the arrangement of its atoms. (
  • Within each layer, boron and nitrogen atoms are bound by strong covalent bonds , whereas the layers are held together by weak van der Waals forces . (
  • The interlayer "registry" of these sheets differs, however, from the pattern seen for graphite, because the atoms are eclipsed, with boron atoms lying over and above nitrogen atoms. (
  • Boron atoms are able to absorb a large number of neutrons. (
  • Researchers from Brown University, Shanxi University and Tsinghua University in China have shown that a cluster of 40 boron atoms forms a hollow molecular cage similar to a carbon buckyball. (
  • If a boron cage existed, it would have to have a different number of atoms. (
  • In a paper published earlier this year, Wang and his colleagues showed that clusters of 36 boron atoms form one-atom-thick disks, which might be stitched together to form an analog to graphene, dubbed borophene. (
  • Wang's preliminary work suggested that there was also something special about boron clusters with 40 atoms. (
  • On the computer, Wang's colleagues modeled over 10,000 possible arrangements of 40 boron atoms bonded to each other. (
  • Chunks of bulk boron are zapped with a laser to create vapor of boron atoms. (
  • When B/M ratio exceeds 12, boron atoms form B12 icosahedra which are linked into a three-dimensional boron framework, and the metal atoms reside in the voids of this framework. (
  • In such borides, metal atoms donate electrons to the boron polyhedra, and thus these compounds are regarded as electron-deficient solids. (
  • Instead, boron atoms form polyhedra. (
  • For example, three boron atoms make up a triangle where they share two electrons to complete the so-called three-center bonding. (
  • Metal atoms need to donate two electrons per boron polyhedron to form boron-rich metal borides. (
  • It is a subhalide, containing fewer than the normal number of fluorine atoms, compared with boron trifluoride. (
  • It can be condensed at liquid nitrogen temperatures (−196 °C). Boron monofluoride atoms have a dissociation energy of 7.8 eV or heat of formation −27.5±3 kcal/mole 760 kJ/mol. (
  • BF can react with itself to form polymers of boron containing fluorine with between 10 and 14 boron atoms. (
  • A facile explanation invokes the symmetry-allowed overlap of a p orbital on the boron atom with the in-phase combination of the three similarly oriented p orbitals on fluorine atoms. (
  • One suggestion is that the F atom is small compared to the larger Cl and Br atoms, and the lone pair electron in pz of F is readily and easily donated and overlapped to empty pz orbital of boron. (
  • It is now recognized, from experimental and theoretical studies, that the fraction of boron atoms belonging to boroxol rings in glassy B2O3 is somewhere between 0.73 and 0.83, with 0.75 (​3⁄4) corresponding to a 1:1 ratio between ring and non-ring units. (
  • Some studies indicate the possibility of incorporation of one or more carbon atoms into the boron icosahedra, giving rise to formulas such as (B11C)CBC = B4C at the carbon-heavy end of the stoichiometry, but formulas such as B12(CBB) = B14C at the boron-rich end. (
  • A common intermediate, which approximates a commonly found ratio of elements, is B12(CBC) = B6.5C. Quantum mechanical calculations have demonstrated that configurational disorder between boron and carbon atoms on the different positions in the crystal determines several of the materials properties. (
  • 2 B + 3 H2S → B2S3 + 3 H2 The boron atoms in B2S3 are trigonal planar, and are arranged in B3S3 and B2S2 rings with bridging S atoms forming a layer structure with an interlayer distance of 355 pm. (
  • In a tightly sealed flask in a German lab sits an emerald-green crystal that is the first stable compound with a triple chemical bond between two boron atoms. (
  • Such bonds were previously reserved for an elite club of atoms, including carbon, which sits next to boron in the periodic table. (
  • In another first, boron atoms have linked up with each other in chains. (
  • They also coaxed boron atoms into forming a chain. (
  • It is extremely difficult to form chains of boron atoms," says Braunschweig. (
  • A simulation of one-dimensional boron under stress shows the theoretical material changing phase from a ribbon to a chain of atoms when pulled. (
  • Our work on carbyne and with planar boron got us thinking that a one-dimensional chain of boron atoms is also a possible and intriguing structure," Yakobson said. (
  • To demonstrate these interesting chemomechanics, the researchers used a computer to "pull" the ends of a simulated boron ribbon with 64 atoms. (
  • T is β-tetragonal) Structure of α-R boron Structure of β-R boron Structure of γ-boron α-rhombohedral boron has a unit cell of twelve boron atoms. (
  • However, boron has only three valence electrons, and it is thought that the bonding in the B 12 icosahedra is achieved by the so-called 3-center electron-deficient bonds where the electron charge is accumulated at the center of a triangle formed by three adjacent atoms. (
  • β-rhombohedral boron has a unit cell containing 105-108 atoms. (
  • 1976) reported a cubic allotrope of boron, obtained in argon plasma experiments, with a unit cell of 1705±3 atoms and a density of 2.367 g/cm3. (
  • Donohue (1982) commented that the number of atoms in the unit cell did not appear to be icosahedrally related (the icosahedron being a motif common to boron structures). (
  • Structurally they are similar to the carbon nanotube, which are cylinders with sub-micrometer diameters and micrometer lengths, except that carbon atoms are alternately substituted by nitrogen and boron atoms. (
  • Boron fluoride oxide forms a trimer with a ring composed of alternating oxygen and boron atoms, with fluorine bonded to the boron. (
  • FBO is predicted to be able to insert noble gas atoms between the fluorine and boron atom yielding FArBO, FKrBO and FXeBO. (
  • Boron-doped Graphene (BG) is a novel nanomaterial based on graphene , a single sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice. (
  • But boron has been difficult to use for much else because scientists didn't know how to work with the chemical reactivity of boron atoms, Liu says. (
  • Rice University scientists have theoretically determined that the properties of atom-thick sheets of boron depend on where those atoms land. (
  • In graphene and boron nitride, atoms settle into flat hexagonal arrays regardless of the substrate. (
  • Perfectly flat boron would be a grid of triangles with occasional hexagons where atoms are missing. (
  • They found the pattern of atoms in a copper surface match up nicely with 2-D boron and the strength of their interactions would help keep the boron flat. (
  • In this structure, there are two four-coordinate boron atoms (two BO4 tetrahedra) and two three-coordinate boron atoms (two BO3 triangles). (
  • A dehydrating agent, such as concentrated sulfuric acid is typically added: B(OH)3 + 3 ROH → B(OR)3 +3 H2O The three oxygen atoms form a trigonal planar geometry around the boron. (
  • Each boron has one "radial" hydride, and four boron atoms near the open part of the cluster feature extra hydrides. (
  • They are composed of comparable amounts of boron, carbon and nitrogen atoms. (
  • A bridge of two hydrogen atoms links the boron atoms together. (
  • Many of the scorpionate ligands have a central boron atom which bears a total of four groups, but it is possible to create ligands which use other central atoms. (
  • Gentler oxidation of 1,1-dimethyldiborane at 80 °C yields 2,5-dimethyl-1,3,4-trioxadiboralane, a volatile liquid that contains a ring of two boron and three oxygen atoms. (
  • Boric acid, a common form of boron, can kill yeast that cause vaginal infections. (
  • Boric acid, a common form of boron, is LIKELY SAFE when used vaginally for up to six months. (
  • Boric acid powder, a common form of boron, is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when applied in large amounts to prevent diaper rash. (
  • They heated boracic acid (also known as boric acid , H 3 BO 3 ) with potassium metal to produce impure boron. (
  • Exposure to large amounts of boron (about 30 g of boric acid) over short periods of time can affect the stomach, intestines, liver, kidney, and brain and can eventually lead to death. (
  • Low birth weights, birth defects, and developmental delays have occurred in newborn animals whose mothers were orally exposed to high doses of boron (as boric acid) during pregnancy. (
  • Boric acid is a chemical compound containing boron , hydrogen and oxygen. (
  • It is a white infusible solid that evaporates above 1450 °C. Boron phosphate is synthesized from phosphoric acid and boric acid at a temperature range from 80 °C to 1200 °C. The relatively cold treatment produces a white amorphous powder, which is converted to a microcrystalline product when heated at about 1000 °C for 2 hours. (
  • Due to the particular industrial interest of boron phosphate, other methods are used as well: Phosphoric acid and triethyl borate Triethyl phosphate and boron trichloride Diammonium phosphate acid and borax heated to 1000 °C Boric acid and phosphorus pentoxide (hydrothermal) If obtained at pressure, the ordinary structure is isomorphous with the β-cristobalite, while subjecting it to high pressure is obtained a compound isomorphic with α-quartz. (
  • Another method is heating boric acid above ~300 °C. Boric acid will initially decompose into steam, (H2O(g)) and metaboric acid (HBO2) at around 170 °C, and further heating above 300 °C will produce more steam and boron trioxide. (
  • Boron is named after the element boron and is the site of the world's largest source of the boron compound boric acid. (
  • In medicine, boron is most commonly found in the form of boric acid, which is used as a topical astringent and anti-infective, as well as an ophthalmologic irrigant. (
  • While the act of combining boric acid and potassium initially isolated boron, it is now most commonly produced through the heating of borax with carbon. (
  • Boron is present in the soil in many forms, the most common being Boric Acid (H3BO3). (
  • Boron deficiency is also observed in basic soils with a high pH because in basic conditions boric acid exists in an undissociated form which the plant is unable to absorb. (
  • Boron is found in borates, borax, boric acid, colemanite, kernite, and ulexite.The name Boron originates from a combination of carbon and the Arabic word buraqu meaning borax. (
  • Boron deficiency is easily correctable with the addition of boric acid or borax. (
  • Polyborate anions are formed at pH 7-10 if the boron concentration is higher than about 0.025 mol/L. The best known of these is the 'tetraborate' ion, found in the mineral borax: 4[B(OH) + 2H+ ⇌ [B4O5(OH)− + 7H2O Boric acid makes an important contribution to the absorption of low frequency sound in seawater. (
  • But because boron has one less electron than carbon, it can't form the same 60-atom structure found in the buckyball. (
  • By starting from amorphous boron the reaction temperatures are lower and no carbon monoxide is produced: 2 B + 3 Br2 → 2 BBr3 Boron tribromide is used in organic synthesis, pharmaceutical manufacturing, image processing, semiconductor doping, semiconductor plasma etching, and photovoltaic manufacturing. (
  • Two experimental studies have proposed existence of diamond-like and graphite-like B2O, as for boron nitride and carbon solids. (
  • Borafullerenes are a class of heterofullerenes in which the element substituting for carbon is boron. (
  • Triple-bonding is not the only way the researchers got boron to mimic its superstar neighbour, carbon, though. (
  • Carbon-atom chains known as carbyne, boron fullerenes and two-dimensional films called borophene, all predicted by the Rice group, have since been created by labs. (
  • Boron is very different from carbon," Yakobson said. (
  • All life is derived ultimately from the element carbon, which lies next to boron in the periodic table of elements, their respective atomic numbers being six and five. (
  • While such carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites have attracted enormous interest from the materials research community, a group of scientists now has evidence that a different nanotube -- made from boron nitride -- could offer even more strength per unit of weight. (
  • Heterodiamond is a superhard material containing boron, carbon, and nitrogen (BCN). (
  • The β-form can be prepared by the reaction of boron(III) oxide with sulfur and aluminum, then adding carbon to the mixture. (
  • Trimethyldiborane, (CH3)3B2H3 is a molecule containing boron carbon and hydrogen. (
  • Studies of the boron-carbon linkage. (
  • Boron is home to the U.S. Borax Boron Mine, California's largest open-pit mine, which is also the largest borax mine in the world. (
  • 117.6792806 (U.S. Borax Boron Mine) Boron is on the border of Kern and San Bernardino Counties along State Route 58. (
  • 5. The term 'boron' was fashioned from the Arabic word buraq and the Persian word burah, meaning borax. (
  • The church in Boron, California began as a Sunday School ministry in the original "company town" north of the present town limits next to the original underground Borax mine. (
  • They filled up the empty slot by bonding each boron atom to a molecule that donated two electrons. (
  • Each boron atom then completed the filling of its slots by pairing up with another boron atom and pooling its original three electrons (see diagram). (
  • A Rice team that simulated one-dimensional forms of boron -- both two-atom-wide ribbons and single-atom chains -- found they possess unique properties. (
  • Experimental labs are making progress in synthesizing atom-thin and fullerene-type boron, which led Rice researcher Boris Yakobson to think 1-D boron may eventually become real as well. (
  • The structure consists of B 12 icosahedra in which each boron atom has five nearest neighbors within the icosahedron. (
  • The addition of boron atom impurities into pure graphene increases the activation region on its surface, enhances its catalytic ability, accelerates redox reactions, and opens the band gap, giving it numerous applications in fuel cell chemistry, semiconductor devices, ultracapacitors, sensors, and other technologies. (
  • The boron atom has a radius of 90 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 192 pm. (
  • In boron nitride, the nitrogen atom has more protons than the boron atom, so it hogs more of the electrons in the bond. (
  • Calculation of the atom-by-atom energies involved in creating a sheet of boron revealed that the metal substrate - the surface upon which two-dimensional materials are grown in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace - would make all the difference. (
  • In an extension, they theorized that naturally forming, 12-atom icosahedrons of boron would assemble into interconnected sheets on copper and nickel, if the boron supply were high enough. (
  • Position of the boron atom was adjusted independently by fixing the thermal parameters at the same value as for the Si atom in the same interstice. (
  • It has a transannular dative bond from a nitrogen at one bridgehead to a Lewis acidic atom such as silicon or boron at the other bridgehead. (
  • Esters will tend to be stable in acidic conditions, but in alkaline conditions the boron atom can gain a negative charge and attach two hydroxyl groups, or two ester bonds. (
  • Trimethyldiborane has two methyl groups on one boron atom, and one methyl and a hydrogen on the second boron atom. (
  • Trimethylborane (CH3)3B has a similar-sounding name, and many similar properties, but only has one boron atom. (
  • Trimethylhydroborate (CH3)3BH− is an anion with one boron atom. (
  • An isomer of 1,2-dimethyldiborane is 1,1-dimethyldiborane, known as unsymmetrical dimethyldiborane, which has two methyl groups on one boron atom. (
  • The boron atom is sp2-hybridized and contains an empty p-orbital. (
  • Because of the electron deficiency of boron, borospherene would likely bond well with hydrogen. (
  • So tiny boron cages could serve as safe houses for hydrogen molecules. (
  • BF3 is manufactured by the reaction of boron oxides with hydrogen fluoride: B2O3 + 6 HF → 2 BF3 + 3 H2O Typically the HF is produced in situ from sulfuric acid and fluorite (CaF2). (
  • 2 B + 3 S → B2S3 Another synthesis was favoured by Friedrich Wöhler and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville first published in 1858, starting from boron and hydrogen sulfide. (
  • Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures. (
  • Boron belongs to a class of elements that can bind significant amounts of hydrogen and release it under mild experimental conditions. (
  • Boron-based materials, specifically boron hydrides, can store up to 19% hydrogen by weight and release it at the temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 400 °C or upon chemical treatment. (
  • The most recent generation of boron hydrides evaluated as high-capacity hydrogen storage media are largely based on reversible magnesium and calcium borohydrides 3 (Product Nos. (
  • Further calculations suggested boron on gold or nickel may rival platinum as a catalyst for hydrogen evolution reactions in applications like fuel cells. (
  • Unadducted borane can be produced as a minor product alongside diborane from the reaction of laser ablated atomic boron with hydrogen. (
  • Other methods to form methyldiboranes include reacting hydrogen with trimethylborane between 80 and 200 °C under pressure, or reacting a metal borohydride with trimethylborane in the presence of hydrogen chloride, aluminium chloride or boron trichloride. (
  • The infrared spectrum of trimethyldiborane has a strong absorption band at 2509 cm−1 due to the non-bridge boron-hydrogen bond. (
  • Alternatively trimethylborane reacts with borohydride salts with in the presence of hydrogen chloride, aluminium chloride, or boron trichloride. (
  • B 6 O has a strong covalent nature and is easy to compose at high temperature more than 1973 K. Boron Suboxide has also been reported to exhibit a wide range of superior properties such as high hardness with low density, high mechanical strength, oxidation resistance up to high temperatures as well as its high chemical inertness. (
  • Preliminary first-principle ab initio density functional calculations of the structural properties boron suboxide (B 6 O) suggest that the strength of bonding in B 6 O may be enhanced by the presence of a high electronegativity interstitial in the structure. (
  • SCHEER, M.D.: The molecular weight and vapor pressure of gaseous boron suboxide. (
  • Ingestion of large amounts of boron can result in damage to the stomach, intestines, liver, kidney, and brain. (
  • Studies in animals indicate that the male reproductive organs, especially the testes, are affected if large amounts of boron are ingested for short or long periods of time. (
  • Additionally, Boron is co-editor, along with Emile L. Boulpaep, of the textbook Medical Physiology and former editor-in-chief of two leading physiology journals, Physiological Reviews and Physiology. (
  • Boron joined Yale University as a postdoctoral fellow with Emile L. Boulpaep in 1978. (
  • 1st Edition (2002) Medical Physiology Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (
  • 2nd Edition (2008) Medical Physiology Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (
  • Boron & Boulpaep (2005). (
  • Breathing moderate levels of boron irritates the nose, throat, and eyes. (
  • Examples of the former are in the use of treated gypsum board and coal fly ash, both of which contain high levels of boron, the first by deliberate addition of borated fire retardant chemicals and the latter as an unavoidable residue of environmental contamination (UREC) from coal mining. (
  • It is also used in some industrial products, and the possibility of serum levels of boron being increased secondary to these is plausible, especially if coming into contact with wounds. (
  • High levels of boron can produce yellowing of leaf tips and margins, eventually causing leaf death. (
  • In the boron trihalides, BX3, the length of the B-X bonds (1.30 Å) is shorter than would be expected for single bonds, and this shortness may indicate stronger B-X π-bonding in the fluoride. (
  • Boron monofluoride monoxide or oxoboryl fluoride or fluoroxoborane is an unstable inorganic molecular substance with formula FBO. (
  • It is also called boron fluoride oxide, fluoro(oxo)borane or fluoro-oxoborane. (
  • Boron fluoride oxide has been studied because of its production in high energy rocket fuels that contain boron and fluorine, and in the form of an oxyfluoride glass. (
  • American Elements also manufactures nitrogen-doped graphene and boron/nitrogen co-doped graphene . (
  • Boron toxicity can be remedied by the application of nitrogen fertilizer as calcium nitrate. (
  • Ore of boron consisting of sodium borate, a mineral salt found in alkaline (non-acidic, see pH ) deposits. (
  • At temperatures above 750 °C, the molten boron oxide layer separates out from sodium sulfate. (
  • A thermochemical powerplant for underwater applications featuring a low temperature Rankine cycle power loop and a fuel consisting of elemental boron slurried in a water carrier is described. (
  • Boron Fiber (also commonly called "boron filament") is an amorphous elemental boron product which represents the major industrial use of elemental (free) boron. (
  • In the production process, elemental boron is deposited on an even tungsten wire substrate which produces diameters of 4.0 mil (102 micron) and 5.6 mil (142 micron). (
  • Boron does not occur in nature in an elemental state. (
  • Elemental boron has been found in star dust and meteorites but does not exist in the high oxygen environment of Earth. (
  • Boron-10 is used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as an experimental treatment of some brain cancers. (
  • The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been utilized for cancer treatment from last decade, where chemotherapy and radiation have their own shortcomings. (
  • Due to its short interatomic bond lengths and strongly covalent character, B 6 O displays a range of outstanding physical and chemical properties such as great hardness (close to that of rhenium diboride and boron nitride ), low mass density, high thermal conductivity, high chemical inertness, and excellent wear resistance. (
  • B 6 O of the α-rhombohedral boron type has been investigated because of its ceramic nature (hardness, high melting point, chemical stability, and low density) as a new structural material. (
  • Because of excellent thermal and chemical stability, boron nitride ceramics are traditionally used as parts of high-temperature equipment. (
  • Metals, and specifically rare-earth elements (RE), form numerous chemical complexes with boron. (
  • Their crystal structure and chemical bonding depend strongly on the metal element M and on its atomic ratio to boron. (
  • Not only are the applications of boron in chemical molecular sensors covered in detail, but their synthesis and supramolecular self-assembly are also presented. (
  • Boron fibers and sub-millimeter sized crystalline boron springs are produced by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition. (
  • Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. (
  • The applications in bio-sensing, bio-materials, and drug development all spring from the fundamental chemical properties of boron. (
  • Removal of boron and phosphorous from environment compartments is a function of abiotic transformation and chemical cycling, e. g. hydrolysis, precipitation, suspension, leaching, uptaking and releasing of animals and plants, etc. (
  • The chemical form of boron found in water is dictated by pH and other constituents (Sprague 1972). (
  • Graphene boron nitride nanohybrid materials are created through synthetic methods such as electron beam welding and chemical vapor deposition. (
  • Boragen is working with boron, a chemical that fungi have not yet developed resistance to, says Liu. (
  • The breakthrough for boron in human health was the development of ways to "fine-tune" the chemical to improve how much of a drug circulates in the body to produce a therapeutic effect, says Liu, who spent more than two years in Benkovic's Penn State lab as a postdoctoral researcher. (
  • Two-dimensional boron would take a different forms, depending on the substrate used in chemical vapor deposition growth, according to Rice University researchers. (
  • Template:Cite The unusual nanostructure of nickel-boron catalyst, J. Geng, D.A. Jefferson and B.F.G. Johnson, Chemical Communications, 2007, 969-971. (
  • It has also been considered for plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition for the manufacture of boron-containing thin films. (
  • In workplaces that mine and process borates, boron concentrations in dusty air samples have been reported to range from about 0.5 to 3 mg boron/m 3 . (
  • The most stable crystalline form is the hexagonal one, also called h-BN, α-BN, g-BN, and graphitic boron nitride . (
  • The fact that boron has the capacity to form this kind of structure is very interesting. (
  • Hexaborides have B/M = 6 and form a three-dimensional boron framework based on a boron octahedron (Fig. 1a). (
  • In the environment, boron is present in the form of borate, combined with oxygen and other elements . (
  • All three lighter boron trihalides, BX3 (X = F, Cl, Br) form stable adducts with common Lewis bases. (
  • Next, Braunschweig and his team hope to free this boron chain from its scaffold and increase the chain length to form the boron equivalent of polyethylene, a common plastic. (
  • One-dimensional boron forms two well-defined phases -- chains and ribbons -- which are linked by a "reversible phase transition," meaning they can turn from one form to the other and back. (
  • Pure boron takes the form of clear red or black crystals, depending upon its crystalline shape. (
  • The preparation of a crystalline form of boron, later referred to as α-rhombohedral 1 was reported first in 1958 by McCARTY et al. (
  • DECKER, B.F., KASPER, J.S.: The crystal structure of a simple rhombohedral form of boron. (
  • In special circumstances, boron can also be synthesized in the form of its α-tetragonal, and γ-orthorhombic allotropes. (
  • Moreover, boron has been suggested to be necessary for life to form. (
  • The condenser cools the boron vapor as it passes by, causing liquid boron droplets to form. (
  • One method calls for providing a feedstock powder including boron nitride agglomerates, and heat treating the feedstock powder to form a heat treated boron nitride agglomerated powder. (
  • Plants contain boron both in a water-soluble and insoluble form. (
  • It appears that the insoluble boron is the functional form while the soluble boron represents the surplus. (
  • The report also offers other key insights about the Boron Phosphates Industry that will help established players or new entrants to form their success strategy. (
  • I see some companies have tri boron with 3 forms and some have single form. (
  • I'm sure he would go into great detail, but the bottom line is, it's the most bioavailable form of Boron. (
  • Borinate is the associated anion of boron with formula H 2BO− , however being a lewis acid the form in basic solution is H 2B(OH)− 2. (
  • Bu3B + N2CHCOR → BuCH=C(R)OBBu2 Bu3B + CH2=CHCOCH3 → BuCH2CH=C(CH3)OBBu2 RCOC2H5 + R2BOTf → RC(OBR2)=CHCH3 (Tf = Trifluoromethanesulfonate) [Z] enolate gives syn aldol when reacted with aldehyde, where as [E] enolate gives and anti aldol Dialkyl boron chloride (R2BCL) with tertiary amine react with ketones to form an enol borinate. (
  • Therefore, the effect of boron on the alloy structural characteristics is of high importance for the stability of the matrix at operational temperatures. (
  • M. R. Naghii and S. Samman, The effect of boron supplementation on the distribution of boron in selected tissues and on testosterone synthesis in rats. (
  • Atomic structure and electron micrographs of ideal (top) and twinned (bottom) B 6 O. Green spheres are boron, red spheres are oxygen. (
  • The mechanism of dealkylation of tertiary alkyl ethers proceeds via the formation of a complex between the boron center and the ether oxygen followed by the elimination of an alkyl bromide to yield a dibromo(organo)borane. (
  • Glassy boron oxide (g-B2O3) is thought to be composed of boroxol rings which are six-membered rings composed of alternating 3-coordinate boron and 2-coordinate oxygen. (
  • Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. (
  • Boron requirements and expression of toxicity vary widely among varying plant types. (
  • We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B- toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. (
  • Boron is an interesting element since it is essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5 ppm) yet may produce plant toxicity in plants as the soil concentration increases over 2.5 ppm (Reisenauer et al. (
  • 1973). The margin between boron sufficiency and toxicity is therefore very narrow for a very wide variety of crops. (
  • The toxicity of waterborne boron to Daphnia magna and Chironomus decorus and the effects of water hardness and sulfate on boron toxicity. (
  • The revised IDLH for boron oxide is 2,000 mg/m3 based on acute toxicity data in animals [Izmerov et al. (
  • The toxicity of boron oxide. (
  • Boron toxicity is noticeable on the older leaves first. (
  • Limited data on boron toxicity to sediment organisms are available. (
  • In atomic boron, one of these slots is completely empty and the other three are half-full, with one electron apiece. (
  • Discovered in 1808 by French chemists Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jaques Thenard, as well as independently in Britain by Sir H. Davy, boron stands as the fifth element on the atomic table. (
  • Boron (atomic symbol: B, atomic number: 5) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 2 element with an atomic weight of 10.81. (
  • On gold and silver, they determined weak atomic interactions would allow the boron to buckle. (
  • Global and China Boron Phosphates Market 2016: Segmented by. (
  • The amount of boron required by animals and humans is not yet well established. (
  • In intact plants, the amount of water-soluble boron fluctuates with the amount of boron supplied, while insoluble boron does not. (
  • An adequate amount of boron in the soil is 12 mg/kg. (
  • A probable reason is the interplay between the amount of boron in the matrix and the amount of σ phase, which binds hcp-stabilizing elements (Cr and Re). (
  • MCCARTY, L.V., CARPENTER, D.R.: The preparation of a new crystalline modification of boron and notes on the synthesis of boron triiodide. (
  • One of the unusual properties of boron is the many physical forms, called allotropes, in which it occurs. (
  • Selected Mechanical and Physical Properties of Boron Filaments" (PDF). (
  • 6. 'Allotropes' is the term used to define the remarkable properties of boron is multiple physical forms. (
  • electron and hole mobilities of a few hundred cm2/(V·s) (up to 500 for holes at 300 K) record-high room temperature thermal conductivity of 460 W/mK was reported for very high quality single crystals Boron arsenide Boron nitride Aluminium phosphide Gallium phosphide Madelung, O. (2004). (
  • Boron is the David N. and Inez Myers/Antonio Scarpa Professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at Case Western Reserve University. (
  • Boron won the women's double sculls at the 1992 Summer Olympics with Kerstin Köppen and 2000 Summer Olympics with Jana Thieme, and the women's quad sculls at the 1996 Summer Olympics and 2004 Summer Olympics. (
  • Walter F. Boron (born November 18, 1949) is an American scientist and the 72nd president of the American Physiological Society (from 1999 to 2000). (
  • Boron AFS was later converted into a Federal Prison in 1979, for minimum security male inmates, which was closed in 2000. (
  • thus boron is not a molecular solid, but the icosahedra in it are connected by strong covalent bonds. (
  • The unequal charge distribution leads to a stronger attraction between the boron nitride and the polymer molecules, as verified by molecular dynamics simulations performed by Ke's colleagues in Dr. Xianqiao Wang's group at the University of Georgia. (
  • The next step is to test the actual binding energies of boron clusters in the lab to see if they match any of the theoretical structures generated by the computer. (
  • Theoretical physicist Boris Yakobson and his Rice colleagues found in previous work that CVD is probably the best way to make highly conductive 2-D boron and that gold or silver might be the best substrates. (
  • They seemed to be abnormally stable compared to other boron clusters. (
  • Notably, we focus on manufacturing optimized materials with an emphasis on stable boron isotopes. (
  • It can be produced by compressing other boron phases to 12-20 GPa and heating to 1500-1800 °C, and remains stable at ambient conditions. (
  • Appreciating these two different bonding schemes explains why the new structures we have found are more stable, and also teaches us more about other possible boron structures yet to be considered," Ismail-Beigi tells (
  • It is located 6.8 miles (10.9 km) northeast of Boron, California. (
  • During 1961 Boron AFS joined the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system, feeding data to DC-17 at Norton AFB, California. (
  • The First Baptist Church of Boron was founded 80 years ago in 1938, as the First Baptist Church of Amargo (the name of the settlement at that time), the first organized church in the community now known as Boron, California, then renamed the Community Baptist Church of Boron, then the First Baptist Church of Boron in 1955. (
  • Work with our 3M technical experts to determine the best ultra-high purity boron for your needs. (
  • Like the boron oxides, B2S3 readily forms glasses when blended with other sulfides such as P4S10. (
  • Paul Baumgarten and Werner Bruns made the boron oxyfluoride trimer by passing BF3 over solid B2O3 at 450 °C. Their experiment was to try to react BF3 with various oxides. (
  • Other oxides that can yield boron oxyfluoride are magnesium oxide, titanium dioxide, carbonates or alumina. (
  • Boron (5B) naturally occurs as isotopes 10B and 11B, the latter of which makes up about 80% of natural boron. (
  • 2008. Boron isotopes in the nakhlites: Implications for crustal fluids on Mars, Paper Presented at Goldschmidt, Vancouver, Canada. (
  • Boron isotopes have found applications in paleoceanography and thus add to the tools available for the study of past climates (Palmer and Swihart, Chapter 13). (
  • A paper described the details of this boron discovery on Mars was published in September 2017. (
  • Boron is a mineral that is found in food such as nuts and the environment. (
  • Mineral Yearbook: Boron" (PDF). (
  • Furthermore, boron behavior in organic soils (high organic matter) is more dependent on pH than in mineral soils, thus boron effects from compost-based media may be very variable and difficult to predict. (
  • Boron Nitride Nanoparticle Dispersions are suspensions of boron nitride nanoparticles in water or various organic solvents such as ethanol or mineral oil. (
  • Boron is a dietary mineral that, although it has a daily intake, has not been accepted as an Essential Vitamin or Mineral. (
  • Irrigation methods, as well as mineral content of the water itself, affect boron levels in citrus. (
  • The doses that produced these effects in animals are more than 1,800 times higher than the average daily intake of boron in food by adults in the U.S. population. (
  • The average daily intake of boron for adults is 1 milligram. (
  • 2008. The boron isotopic composition of Nakhla iddingsite, paper presented at 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, League City, Tex., Abstract 1904. (
  • 2008. Boron isotopic composition of igneous minerals and secondary alteration products in Nakhla paper presented at Ground Truth from Mars: Science Payoff from a Sample Mission, Albuquerque, NM, Abstract 4050. (