Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
A technique for the treatment of neoplasms in which an isotope is introduced into target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. TRANSFER RNA AMINOACYLATION is the first step in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.
A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
'Ketones' are organic compounds with a specific structure, characterized by a carbonyl group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen atom) and two carbon atoms, formed as byproducts when the body breaks down fats for energy due to lack of glucose, often seen in diabetes and starvation states.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Gluconates are salts or esters of gluconic acid, primarily used in medical treatments as a source of the essential nutrient, calcium, and as a chelating agent to bind and remove toxic metals such as aluminum and iron from the body.
'Allyl compounds' are organic substances that contain the allyl group (CH2=CH-CH2-) as a functional component, which can be found in various forms such as allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, and allyl esters.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.

Synthesis and in vivo murine evaluation of Na4[1-(1'-B10H9)-6-SHB10H8] as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. (1/283)

Reaction of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- and the protected thiol anion, [SC(O)OC(CH3)3]-, produces an unexpected isomer of [B20H17SC(O)OC(CH3)3]4- directly and in good yield. The isomer produced under mild conditions is characterized by an apical-apical boron atom intercage connection as well as the location of the thiol substituent on an equatorial belt adjacent to the terminal boron apex. Although the formation of this isomer from nucleophilic attack of the normal isomer of [B20H18]2- has not been reported previously, the isomeric assignment has been unambiguously confirmed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 11B NMR spectroscopy. Deprotection of the thiol substituent under acidic conditions produces a protonated intermediate, [B20H18SH]3-, which can be deprotonated with a suitable base to yield the desired product, [B20H17SH]4-. The sodium salt of the resulting [B20H17SH]4- ion has been encapsulated in small, unilamellar liposomes, which are capable of delivering their contents selectively to tumors in vivo, and investigated as a potential agent for boron neutron capture therapy. The biodistribution of boron was determined after intravenous injection of the liposomal suspension into BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinoma. At low injected doses, the tumor boron concentration increased throughout the time-course experiment, resulting in a maximum observed boron concentration of 46.7 micrograms of B per g of tumor at 48 h and a tumor to blood boron ratio of 7.7. The boron concentration obtained in the tumor corresponds to 22.2% injected dose (i.d.) per g of tissue, a value analogous to the most promising polyhedral borane anions investigated for liposomal delivery and subsequent application in boron neutron capture therapy.  (+info)

Chronic feeding of a low boron diet adversely affects reproduction and development in Xenopus laevis. (2/283)

The aims of this work were as follows: 1) to determine whether a purified diet currently used for studies with rats was acceptable for reproductive studies in frogs; and 2) to determine whether frogs are sensitive to a deficit of boron (B) in the diet. Adult Xenopus laevis were fed a nonpurified beef liver and lung (BLL) diet (310 microg B/kg), a purified diet supplemented with boron (+B; 1850 microg B/kg), or a purified diet low in boron (-B; 45 microg B/kg) for 120 d. Frogs fed the BLL and +B diets produced 11.3 and 12.2% necrotic eggs, respectively. Abnormal gastrulation occurred in <4% of the fertilized eggs in both groups, and 96-h larval survival exceeded 75% in both groups. In contrast, frogs fed the -B diet for 120 d produced a high proportion of necrotic eggs (54%). Fertilized embryos from the -B diet-fed frogs showed a high frequency of abnormal gastrulation (26.8%), and >80% of the embryos died before 96 h of development. Mean embryo cell counts at X. laevis developmental stage 7.5 (mid-blastula) were significantly lower in the -B embryos than in the BLL or +B embryos. BLL and -B embryos grown in low boron culture media had a high frequency of malformations compared with embryos grown in boron-supplemented media. These studies show that a purified diet that has been used in rodent studies was acceptable for reproduction studies in X. laevis. This work also demonstrates that a diet low in boron markedly impairs normal reproductive function in adult X. laevis, and that administration of the low boron diet results in an increase in both incidence and severity of adverse effects. In addition, these studies demonstrate the usefulness of the X. laevis model in nutrition studies.  (+info)

Natural treatments for osteoarthritis. (3/283)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. Although OA was previously thought to be a progressive, degenerative disorder, it is now known that spontaneous arrest or reversal of the disease can occur. Conventional medications are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be at least as effective as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of OA, and preliminary evidence suggests some of these compounds may exert a favorable influence on the course of the disease.  (+info)

The physical characteristics of neodymium iron boron magnets for tooth extrusion. (4/283)

Impaction and non-eruption of teeth is a common problem encountered in orthodontics and many techniques have been proposed for the management of this condition. It has been advocated that a system utilizing magnets would supply a continuous, directionally sensitive, extrusive force, through closed mucosa and thus provide not only a physiological sound basis for successful treatment, but also reduce the need for patient compliance and appliance adjustment. This ex vivo investigation examined in detail the physical characteristics of neodymium iron boron magnets employed in attraction in order to assess their usefulness in the clinical situation. Attractive force and magnetic flux density measurements were recorded for nine sets of magnet pairs with differing morphologies. The effect of spatial relationship on force was assessed by varying vertical, transverse and horizontal positions of the magnets relative to each other, and by altering the pole face angles. The data obtained suggest that magnets with larger pole face areas and longer magnetic axes provide the best performance with respect to clinical usefulness. It was possible to formulate a specific relationship between force and flux density for each magnet pair. This relationship can be used in the clinical management of unerupted teeth to predict the force between the magnets by measuring the magnetic flux density present at mucosal level. The results indicate that magnetic systems may, indeed, have a place in the treatment of unerupted teeth.  (+info)

Boron stimulates yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) growth. (5/283)

Boron is required for the growth of vascular plants and embryonic development in fish. The molecular basis of boron's essentiality, however, remains unknown for both. The objective of this study was to determine whether yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) could be used as a model for the evaluation of intracellular boron trafficking. Three experiments were conducted to assess the effect of boron supplementation on yeast growth. Cultures were grown in low boron media containing 0.04 micromol B/L. After 24 h, a new flask was inoculated with this culture; it was allowed to reach early log phase growth (9 h) and was then divided between two flasks. One flask was supplemented with ultrapure boric acid to achieve a concentration of 185 micromol B/L (+B); the other was supplemented with an equivalent volume of ultrapure water (NB). Boron significantly stimulated cell growth rate into the stationary phase of growth. Yeast cell boron concentrations decreased in both treatments over the course of the experiment, but analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS) did not detect differences in cellular concentration between the boron supplemented (B) and nonsupplemented (NB) groups. Ethanol concentrations did not differ between the two treatments, demonstrating that boron-stimulated growth was not a secondary effect of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition. The demonstration of boron-dependent growth stimulation in yeast suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as a model system for the study of intracellular boron trafficking.  (+info)

The durability of parylene coatings on neodymium-iron-boron magnets. (6/283)

A parylene coating is frequently used to prevent corrosion of neodymium-iron-boron magnets when they are used intra-orally. This in vitro study was designed to test the durability of parylene coating in a simulated oral environment. Single and double parylene-coated magnets were subjected to grinding and crushing forces in an industrial ball mill. The results demonstrate that abrasion and wear was visible around the edges after 1 hour of testing, with a breach of the coating noted under high magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conclusion of the study is that parylene coating is unlikely to withstand intra-oral forces. The shape of the magnets, the manufacturing process involved in their production, and the thickness of the parylene coating are important factors to consider with respect to the durability of magnets used in the mouth.  (+info)

Boron microlocalization in oral mucosal tissue: implications for boron neutron capture therapy. (7/283)

Clinical studies of the treatment of glioma and cutaneous melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are currently taking place in the USA, Europe and Japan. New BNCT clinical facilities are under construction in Finland, Sweden, England and California. The observation of transient acute effects in the oral mucosa of a number of glioma patients involved in the American clinical trials, suggests that radiation damage of the oral mucosa could be a potential complication in future BNCT clinical protocols, involving higher doses and larger irradiation field sizes. The present investigation is the first to use a high resolution surface analytical technique to relate the microdistribution of boron-10 (10B) in the oral mucosa to the biological effectiveness of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li neutron capture reaction in this tissue. The two boron delivery agents used clinically in Europe/Japan and the USA, borocaptate sodium (BSH) and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), respectively, were evaluated using a rat ventral tongue model. 10B concentrations in various regions of the tongue mucosa were estimated using ion microscopy. In the epithelium, levels of 10B were appreciably lower after the administration of BSH than was the case after BPA. The epithelium:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.2:1 and 1:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. The 10B content of the lamina propria was higher than that measured in the epithelium for both BSH and BPA. The difference was most marked for BSH, where 10B levels were a factor of six higher in the lamina propria than in the epithelium. The concentration of 10B was also measured in blood vessel walls where relatively low levels of accumulation of BSH, as compared with BPA, was demonstrated in blood vessel endothelial cells and muscle. Vessel wall:blood 10B partition ratios were 0.3:1 and 0.9:1 for BSH and BPA respectively. Evaluation of tongue mucosal response (ulceration) to BNC irradiation indicated a considerably reduced radiation sensitivity using BSH as the boron delivery agent relative to BPA. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor for BSH was estimated at 0.29 +/- 0.02. This compares with a previously published CBE factor for BPA of 4.87 +/- 0.16. It was concluded that variations in the microdistribution profile of 10B, using the two boron delivery agents, had a significant effect on the response of oral mucosa to BNC irradiation. From a clinical perspective, based on the findings of the present study, it is probable that potential radiation-induced oral mucositis will be restricted to BNCT protocols involving BPA. However, a thorough high resolution analysis of 10B microdistribution in human oral mucosal tissue, using a technique such as ion microscopy, is a prerequisite for the use of experimentally derived CBE factors in clinical BNCT.  (+info)

Boron supplementation of a semipurified diet for weanling pigs improves feed efficiency and bone strength characteristics and alters plasma lipid metabolites. (8/283)

Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of dietary boron (B) on performance, plasma minerals and metabolites, and bone characteristics in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 48 pigs (24 males, 24 females; 21 d old) were allotted to pens, which were randomly assigned to one of the following dietary treatments: 1) control (natural ingredient diet; 6.7 mg B/kg diet), 2) control + 5 mg B/kg diet and 3) control + 15 mg B/kg diet. Boron was supplemented as sodium borate. In Experiment 2, 48 pigs (24 males, 24 females; 21 d old) were assigned to the same treatments described in Experiment 1; however, the basal diet was a semipurified diet (0.98 mg B/kg diet). Diets were fed for 40 d; on d 40, blood samples were obtained for determination of plasma mineral and metabolite concentrations. Femurs were harvested from 8 pigs per treatment on d 40 for determination of mechanical properties, ash and lipid percentage. In Experiment 1, B did not affect performance, plasma minerals or metabolites or bone properties. In Experiment 2, B supplementation improved (P: < 0.05) the gain:feed ratio and increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. There was a treatment x sex interaction (P: < 0.05) in Experiment 2 for bone lipid to be lower and bending moment to be higher, with the response occurring in male pigs. Other dependent variables in Experiment 2 were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, B supplementation of a low B diet elicited responses of physiologic importance to pigs. However, B supplementation of a natural ingredient diet did not elicit a response.  (+info)

Boron compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the element boron (symbol: B) combined with one or more other elements. Boron is a naturally occurring, non-metallic element found in various minerals and ores. It is relatively rare, making up only about 0.001% of the Earth's crust by weight.

Boron compounds can take many forms, including salts, acids, and complex molecules. Some common boron compounds include:

* Boric acid (H3BO3) - a weak acid used as an antiseptic, preservative, and insecticide
* Sodium borate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) - also known as borax, a mineral used in detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes
* Boron carbide (B4C) - an extremely hard material used in abrasives, ceramics, and nuclear reactors
* Boron nitride (BN) - a compound with properties similar to graphite, used as a lubricant and heat shield

Boron compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as antiseptics, anti-inflammatory agents, and drugs for the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental form of radiation therapy that uses boron-containing compounds to selectively target and destroy cancer cells.

It's important to note that some boron compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or otherwise exposed to the body in large quantities. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained medical professional.

Boranes are a group of chemical compounds that contain only boron and hydrogen. The most well-known borane is BH3, also known as diborane. These compounds are highly reactive and have unusual structures, with the boron atoms bonded to each other in three-center, two-electron bonds. Boranes are used in research and industrial applications, including as reducing agents and catalysts. They are highly flammable and toxic, so they must be handled with care.

Boric acid is not a compound that is typically produced within the body as it is an inorganic, weak acid. It is commonly used as a preservative, antiseptic, and insecticide. Boric acid can be found in various over-the-counter products such as eye wash solutions, mouthwashes, and topical creams or ointments.

The medical definition of boric acids is:

A white crystalline powder with the chemical formula B(OH)3. It is slightly soluble in water and has a wide range of uses, including as an antiseptic, insecticide, and preservative. In medicine, boric acid is used as a mild antiseptic for minor cuts, scrapes, and burns, and to treat yeast infections of the skin. It works by killing bacteria and fungi that can cause infections. Boric acid is also used in some eye wash solutions to help prevent bacterial infections.

It's important to note that boric acid can be toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin in large amounts, so it should be used with caution and kept out of reach of children and pets.

Borates are a group of minerals that contain boron, oxygen, and hydrogen in various combinations. They can also contain other elements such as sodium, calcium, or potassium. Borates have a wide range of uses, including as flame retardants, insecticides, and preservatives. In medicine, boric acid powder is sometimes used as a mild antiseptic to treat minor cuts, burns, and scrapes. However, it can be toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin in large amounts, so it should be used with caution.

Borohydrides are a class of chemical compounds that contain boron and hydrogen ions (H-). The most common borohydride is sodium borohydride (NaBH4), which is a white, solid compound often used in chemistry as a reducing agent. Borohydrides are known for their ability to donate hydride ions (H:-) in chemical reactions, making them useful for reducing various organic and inorganic compounds. Other borohydrides include lithium borohydride (LiBH4), potassium borohydride (KBH4), and calcium borohydride (Ca(BH4)2).

Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) is a type of radiation therapy used in the treatment of cancer. It involves the use of low-energy thermal neutrons to be absorbed by atomic nuclei, which then undergo a nuclear reaction. This reaction results in the emission of high-energy particles that can destroy nearby cancer cells.

In NCT, a patient is administered with a boron-containing compound, which selectively accumulates in cancer cells. When the patient is then exposed to a beam of low-energy neutrons, the boron atoms absorb the neutrons and undergo a nuclear reaction, producing high-energy alpha particles that destroy the cancer cells.

The advantage of NCT is its ability to deliver a high dose of radiation directly to cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. However, NCT is still an experimental treatment and is not widely available outside of clinical trials.

Isotopes are variants of a chemical element that have the same number of protons in their atomic nucleus, but a different number of neutrons. This means they have different atomic masses, but share similar chemical properties. Some isotopes are stable and do not decay naturally, while others are unstable and radioactive, undergoing radioactive decay and emitting radiation in the process. These radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but neutrons are not a medical term. They are a fundamental particle in physics and chemistry. Neutrons are neutral particles found in the nucleus of an atom, alongside protons. Together, they make up the atomic nucleus, while electrons orbit around it.

Neutrons are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions unless it's in relation to nuclear medicine, radiation therapy or other specialized medical fields that involve ionizing radiation and nuclear reactions. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

Nutritional requirements refer to the necessary amount of nutrients, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), that an individual requires to maintain good health, support normal growth and development, and promote optimal bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors such as age, sex, body size, pregnancy status, and physical activity level. Meeting one's nutritional requirements typically involves consuming a balanced and varied diet, with additional consideration given to any specific dietary restrictions or medical conditions that may influence nutrient needs.

Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. It's one of the building blocks of proteins and is necessary for the production of various molecules in the body, such as neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain).

Phenylalanine has two forms: L-phenylalanine and D-phenylalanine. L-phenylalanine is the form found in proteins and is used by the body for protein synthesis, while D-phenylalanine has limited use in humans and is not involved in protein synthesis.

Individuals with a rare genetic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) must follow a low-phenylalanine diet or take special medical foods because they are unable to metabolize phenylalanine properly, leading to its buildup in the body and potential neurological damage.

Radiation-sensitizing agents are drugs that make cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. These agents work by increasing the ability of radiation to damage the DNA of cancer cells, which can lead to more effective tumor cell death. This means that lower doses of radiation may be required to achieve the same therapeutic effect, reducing the potential for damage to normal tissues surrounding the tumor.

Radiation-sensitizing agents are often used in conjunction with radiation therapy to improve treatment outcomes for patients with various types of cancer. They can be given either systemically (through the bloodstream) or locally (directly to the tumor site). The choice of agent and the timing of administration depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the patient's overall health, and the specific radiation therapy protocol being used.

It is important to note that while radiation-sensitizing agents can enhance the effectiveness of radiation therapy, they may also increase the risk of side effects. Therefore, careful monitoring and management of potential toxicities are essential during treatment.

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

Trace elements are essential minerals that the body needs in very small or tiny amounts, usually less than 100 milligrams per day, for various biological processes. These include elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, selenium, and iodine. They are vital for maintaining good health and proper functioning of the human body, but they are required in such minute quantities that even a slight excess or deficiency can lead to significant health issues.

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is a type of mass spectrometry used for the analysis of solid surfaces. It is based on the emission of secondary ions generated by bombarding the sample surface with a focused primary ion beam. The emitted secondary ions are then analyzed according to their mass-to-charge ratio, providing information about the elemental and isotopic composition of the sample surface at a very high spatial resolution (down to a few nanometers).

SIMS can be used for various applications, such as the analysis of inorganic and organic materials, including polymers, biomaterials, and semiconductors. It is also commonly used for depth profiling, which allows for the measurement of elemental concentration as a function of depth below the sample surface.

The primary ion beam can be made up of various elements, such as oxygen, cesium, gallium, or gold, and the choice of primary ions depends on the specific application and the type of information required from the analysis. The most common SIMS techniques are dynamic SIMS (DSIMS) and static SIMS (SSIMS), which differ in the primary ion dose used for the analysis and the resulting level of surface damage.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Immunoproteins, also known as antibodies or immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins recognize, bind to, and help neutralize or remove harmful antigens from the body.

There are five classes of immunoproteins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) that differ in their structure, function, and location in the body. For example, IgA is found in tears, saliva, and breast milk and helps protect mucous membranes from pathogens, while IgG is the most abundant antibody in the blood and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered antigens.

Overall, immunoproteins play a critical role in the body's defense mechanisms against infection and disease.

'Cucurbita' is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. This genus includes several species of plants that are commonly known as squashes or gourds, such as pumpkins, zucchinis, and acorn squashes. The fruits of these plants are widely cultivated and consumed for their nutritional value and versatility in cooking.

The name 'Cucurbita' comes from the Latin word for "gourd" or "pumpkin." Plants in this genus are native to the Americas, with some species originating in Mexico and Central America and others in the southern United States. They have been cultivated by humans for thousands of years and are an important part of many traditional diets around the world.

In a medical context, 'Cucurbita' may be mentioned in relation to the use of certain species as traditional remedies or in nutritional studies. For example, pumpkin seeds have been used in traditional medicine to treat parasitic infections, and some research suggests that they may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it is important to note that the scientific evidence for these potential health benefits is still limited, and more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Thiouracil is not typically used as a medical treatment in current clinical practice. It is an anti-thyroid medication that was historically used to manage hyperthyroidism, particularly in cases of Graves' disease. However, due to its adverse effect profile and the availability of safer and more effective treatment options, thiouracil has largely been replaced by other medications such as methimazole and propylthiouracil.

Thiouracil works by inhibiting the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the body. By blocking this enzyme, thiouracil reduces the amount of thyroid hormones produced and can help to control symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as rapid heart rate, tremors, and weight loss.

While thiouracil is still available for use in some cases, its use is generally reserved for patients who cannot tolerate or have failed other treatments. The medication can cause serious side effects, including liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and allergic reactions, and requires careful monitoring during treatment.

I believe you are asking for a medical explanation or definition of the term "diamond" in a medical context. However, I should clarify that "diamond" is not a commonly used medical term for a specific disease, condition, or diagnostic feature. It's essential to provide more information if it relates to a particular medical concept or usage.

In general, the term "diamond" refers to a clear and colorless form of carbon with a crystalline structure in which each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms, forming a tetrahedral shape. It's widely known for its use as a valuable gemstone due to its exceptional hardness, brilliance, and fire.

However, there are some tangential medical connections to the term "diamond." For example:

1. Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare congenital bone marrow failure disorder characterized by a decrease in red blood cell production. It is named after Drs. Louis Diamond and Kenneth Blackfan, who first described it.
2. Turner syndrome with XY sex chromosomes: A rare genetic condition where an individual has only one functional X chromosome instead of the typical pair (XX) found in females. Occasionally, these individuals may have a Y chromosome fragment, often referred to as "mosaic Turner syndrome with XY cells" or "XY gonadal dysgenesis." In this context, the term "XY" is sometimes metaphorically described as a "genetic male's 'diamond in the rough'" due to its rarity and unique characteristics.

If you have more information about how the term "diamond" is being used in your specific medical context, I would be happy to help further clarify or provide additional details.

Nanotubes, in the context of nanotechnology and materials science, refer to hollow cylindrical structures with extremely small diameters, measured in nanometers (nm). They are typically composed of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure, similar to graphene. The most common types of nanotubes are single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).

In the field of medicine, nanotubes have been studied for their potential applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical devices. For example, researchers have explored the use of nanotubes as drug carriers, where drugs can be loaded into the hollow interior of the tube and released in a controlled manner at the target site. Additionally, nanotubes have been used to create conductive scaffolds for tissue engineering, which may help promote nerve regeneration or muscle growth.

However, it's important to note that while nanotubes have shown promise in preclinical studies, their potential use in medical applications is still being researched and developed. There are concerns about the potential toxicity of nanotubes, as well as challenges related to their large-scale production and functionalization for specific medical applications.

Xylem is a term used in the field of botany and plant anatomy, but I understand you're asking for a medical definition. In human anatomy, there isn't a direct structure equivalent to xylem. However, I can provide the general definition of xylem from its botanical context:

Xylem is one of the two types of vascular tissues in plants (the other being phloem). It is responsible for transporting water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to various parts of the plant, including stems, leaves, and flowers. Xylem consists of several types of cells, including vessels, tracheids, xylem fibers, and xylem parenchyma. The transportation in xylem occurs due to the cohesion-tension mechanism, where water is pulled up through the plant via transpiration pull.

Fluorine is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element that is often discussed in the context of dental health. Here's a brief scientific/chemical definition:

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the most reactive and electronegative of all elements. Fluorine is never found in its free state in nature, but it is abundant in minerals such as fluorspar (calcium fluoride).

In dental health, fluoride, which is a compound containing fluorine, is used to help prevent tooth decay. It can be found in many water supplies, some foods, and various dental products like toothpaste and mouthwash. Fluoride works by strengthening the enamel on teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks that can lead to cavities.

A glioma is a type of tumor that originates from the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for nerve cells (neurons) within the central nervous system, including providing nutrients, maintaining homeostasis, and insulating neurons.

Gliomas can be classified into several types based on the specific type of glial cell from which they originate. The most common types include:

1. Astrocytoma: Arises from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cells that provide structural support to neurons.
2. Oligodendroglioma: Develops from oligodendrocytes, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.
3. Ependymoma: Originate from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and spinal cord.
4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): A highly aggressive and malignant type of astrocytoma that tends to spread quickly within the brain.

Gliomas can be further classified based on their grade, which indicates how aggressive and fast-growing they are. Lower-grade gliomas tend to grow more slowly and may be less aggressive, while higher-grade gliomas are more likely to be aggressive and rapidly growing.

Symptoms of gliomas depend on the location and size of the tumor but can include headaches, seizures, cognitive changes, and neurological deficits such as weakness or paralysis in certain parts of the body. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Aminoacylation is a biochemical process in which an amino acid is linked to a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule through the formation of an ester bond. This reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme called an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, which specifically recognizes and activates a particular amino acid and then attaches it to the appropriate tRNA molecule.

The resulting aminoacyl-tRNA complexes are essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms. During translation, the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to direct the sequential addition of amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain. Each aminoacyl-tRNA molecule carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to a particular codon in the mRNA, ensuring that the correct amino acids are added to the protein in the proper order.

Therefore, the process of aminoacylation plays a crucial role in maintaining the fidelity and accuracy of protein synthesis, as well as contributing to the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis.

Chemical processes refer to the various interactions and transformations that occur at the molecular or atomic level among chemicals, substances, or compounds. These processes involve changes in the structure, composition, energy state, or properties of the involved materials. They can be either spontaneous or induced and are governed by the laws of chemistry.

Some common examples of chemical processes include:

1. Chemical reactions: The transformation of one or more substances into different substances through a series of chemical interactions. These reactions might involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, resulting in new compounds with distinct properties.
2. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions: A specific type of chemical reaction where electrons are transferred between molecules or atoms, leading to changes in their oxidation states. These reactions often involve the transfer of oxygen or hydrogen atoms and play a crucial role in various biological and industrial processes.
3. Acid-base reactions: Chemical interactions between acids and bases, characterized by the transfer of a proton (H+) from an acid to a base. These reactions result in the formation of new compounds called salts and water.
4. Precipitation reactions: The formation of an insoluble solid (a precipitate) when two solutions are mixed together, often due to the creation of a new compound that cannot remain dissolved in the solvent.
5. Complexation: The formation of a complex between a central atom or ion and one or more ligands through coordinate covalent bonds. This process can lead to changes in the physical and chemical properties of both the central atom/ion and the ligand(s).
6. Electrolysis: A chemical process driven by an external electrical current, which induces chemical reactions at the electrodes immersed in a conducting solution (electrolyte). This process is used to produce various chemicals, such as hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide.
7. Catalysis: The acceleration of a chemical reaction by a substance called a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. Catalysts work by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby increasing the rate of the process without being consumed in it.

Understanding chemical processes is essential for various fields, including chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science, and engineering, as they form the basis for numerous natural phenomena and technological applications.

Cytoplasmic structures refer to the various organelles and inclusions present within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, excluding the nucleus. These structures are involved in different cellular functions, such as energy production, protein synthesis, waste management, and intracellular transport.

Some examples of cytoplasmic structures include:

1. Mitochondria - organelles that generate energy for the cell through cellular respiration.
2. Ribosomes - complexes composed of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins that facilitate protein synthesis.
3. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - a network of membranous tubules involved in lipid and protein synthesis, folding, and transport.
4. Golgi apparatus - a series of stacked membrane sacs responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids for transport to their destinations.
5. Lysosomes - membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes for breaking down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances.
6. Peroxisomes - single-membrane bound organelles involved in various metabolic processes, including the breakdown of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide detoxification.
7. Vacuoles - membrane-bound compartments that store water, nutrients, waste products, or enzymes. In plant cells, vacuoles also help maintain turgor pressure.
8. Cytoskeleton - a network of protein filaments (actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules) responsible for maintaining cell shape, providing structural support, and enabling intracellular transport and movement.
9. Inclusions - various membrane-less structures composed of aggregated proteins or other molecules, such as lipid droplets, glycogen granules, and pigment granules (e.g., melanosomes in melanocytes).

These cytoplasmic structures contribute to the overall functioning and maintenance of a eukaryotic cell.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germanium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its neighbor silicon.

It's primarily used in the electronics industry for semiconductors and fiber optic systems due to its properties as a semiconductor. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. It is a metalloid that is light-colored, hard, and highly resistant to corrosion. In its crystalline form, boron is nearly as hard as diamond.

In medicine, boron compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a type of radiation therapy that involves the use of boron-containing compounds to selectively deliver radiation to cancer cells.

Boron is also an essential micronutrient for plants and some animals, including humans. However, excessive exposure to boron can be toxic to humans and other organisms. Therefore, it is important to maintain appropriate levels of boron in the body and environment.

Halogens are a group of nonmetallic elements found in the seventh group of the periodic table. They include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). Tennessine (Ts) is sometimes also classified as a halogen, although it has not been extensively studied.

In medical terms, halogens have various uses in medicine and healthcare. For example:

* Chlorine is used for disinfection and sterilization of surgical instruments, drinking water, and swimming pools. It is also used as a medication to treat certain types of anemia.
* Fluoride is added to drinking water and toothpaste to prevent dental caries (cavities) by strengthening tooth enamel.
* Iodine is used as a disinfectant, in medical imaging, and in the treatment of thyroid disorders.
* Bromine has been used in the past as a sedative and anticonvulsant, but its use in medicine has declined due to safety concerns.

Halogens are highly reactive and can be toxic or corrosive in high concentrations, so they must be handled with care in medical settings.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

Antiporters, also known as exchange transporters, are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the exchange of two or more ions or molecules across a biological membrane in opposite directions. They allow for the movement of one type of ion or molecule into a cell while simultaneously moving another type out of the cell. This process is driven by the concentration gradient of one or both of the substances being transported. Antiporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including maintaining electrochemical balance and regulating pH levels within cells.

Deuteroporphyrins are porphyrin derivatives that contain two carboxylic acid side chains. They are intermediates in the biosynthesis of heme and chlorophyll, which are essential molecules for biological processes such as oxygen transport and photosynthesis, respectively.

Deuteroporphyrins can be further classified into isomers based on the position of the carboxylic acid side chains. The most common isomer is deuteroporphyrin IX, which has the carboxylic acid side chains located at positions 1 and 2 relative to the pyrrole nitrogen atoms.

Deuteroporphyrins have been studied in various medical contexts, including as potential markers of porphyria, a group of metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of porphyrin precursors. Additionally, deuteroporphyrins and their derivatives have been investigated for their potential use in photodynamic therapy, a treatment modality that uses light-activated drugs to destroy cancer cells.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of carbon-containing compounds, their synthesis, reactions, properties, and structures. These compounds can include both naturally occurring substances (such as sugars, proteins, and nucleic acids) and synthetic materials (such as plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals). A key characteristic of organic molecules is the presence of covalent bonds between carbon atoms or between carbon and other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. The field of organic chemistry has played a crucial role in advancing our understanding of chemical processes and has led to numerous technological and medical innovations.

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants. In the context of food and nutrition, pectins are often referred to as dietary fiber. They have a variety of important functions within the body, including promoting digestive health by adding bulk to stools and helping to regulate bowel movements.

Pectins are also used in the medical field as a demulcent, which is a substance that forms a soothing film over mucous membranes. This can be helpful in treating conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In addition to their use in medicine, pectins are widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer. They are commonly found in jams, jellies, and other preserved fruits, as well as in baked goods and confectionery products.

Nose neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and have the potential to metastasize.

Nose neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing through the nose, loss of smell, facial pain or numbness, and visual changes if they affect the eye. The diagnosis of nose neoplasms usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the growth. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Neodymium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. Neodymium is a rare-earth metal that has been used in various industrial and technological applications, such as magnets, lasers, and glass coloration. It is not directly related to medical terminology or healthcare.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Ketones are organic compounds that contain a carbon atom bound to two oxygen atoms and a central carbon atom bonded to two additional carbon groups through single bonds. In the context of human physiology, ketones are primarily produced as byproducts when the body breaks down fat for energy in a process called ketosis.

Specifically, under conditions of low carbohydrate availability or prolonged fasting, the liver converts fatty acids into ketone bodies, which can then be used as an alternative fuel source for the brain and other organs. The three main types of ketones produced in the human body are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone.

Elevated levels of ketones in the blood, known as ketonemia, can occur in various medical conditions such as diabetes, starvation, alcoholism, and high-fat/low-carbohydrate diets. While moderate levels of ketosis are generally considered safe, severe ketosis can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in people with diabetes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Petunia" is not a medical term. It's the name of a genus of plants in the family Solanaceae, commonly known as petunias. They are popular ornamental plants due to their vibrant and diverse flowers. If you have any questions about botany or gardening, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Alpha particles are a type of radiation that consist of two protons and two neutrons. They are essentially the nuclei of helium atoms and are produced during the decay of radioactive isotopes, such as uranium or radon. When an alpha particle is emitted from a radioactive atom, it carries away energy and causes the atom to transform into a different element with a lower atomic number and mass number.

Alpha particles have a positive charge and are relatively massive compared to other types of radiation, such as beta particles (which are high-energy electrons) or gamma rays (which are high-energy photons). Because of their charge and mass, alpha particles can cause significant ionization and damage to biological tissue. However, they have a limited range in air and cannot penetrate the outer layers of human skin, making them generally less hazardous than other forms of radiation if exposure is external.

Internal exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides, however, can be much more dangerous because alpha particles can cause significant damage to cells and DNA when they are emitted inside the body. This is why inhaling or ingesting radioactive materials that emit alpha particles can pose a serious health risk.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Ribose is a simple carbohydrate, specifically a monosaccharide, which means it is a single sugar unit. It is a type of sugar known as a pentose, containing five carbon atoms. Ribose is a vital component of ribonucleic acid (RNA), one of the essential molecules in all living cells, involved in the process of transcribing and translating genetic information from DNA to proteins. The term "ribose" can also refer to any sugar alcohol derived from it, such as D-ribose or Ribitol.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silicon" does not have a specific medical definition. Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. In the human body, silicon is not considered an essential nutrient, although it is found in trace amounts in various tissues. Some research suggests that silicon might play a role in collagen synthesis and bone health, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish recommended intake levels.

Gluconates are a group of salts and esters derived from gluconic acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally produced in the human body during the metabolism of carbohydrates. In medical contexts, gluconates are often used as a source of the essential mineral ions, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which are necessary for various bodily functions.

Gluconate salts are commonly used in pharmaceutical and nutritional supplements because they are highly soluble in water, making them easy to absorb and utilize by the body. For example, calcium gluconate is a common treatment for hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels), while magnesium gluconate is used to treat magnesium deficiency.

Gluconates may also be used as preservatives in some medical products, such as intravenous solutions and eye drops, due to their ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. Overall, gluconates are a versatile class of compounds with important applications in medicine and health.

Allyl compounds are organic compounds that contain the allyl group, which is a functional group with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-. The allyl group consists of a methylene bridge (CH2-) flanked by a carbon-carbon double bond (-CH=). Allyl compounds can be derived from allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, or other allyl halides and can participate in various chemical reactions due to the reactivity of the double bond. They are used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hordeum" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for barley in botany. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, please let me know!

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Porphobilinogen Synthase (also known as PBGD or hydroxymethylbilane synthase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the heme biosynthesis pathway. This enzyme is responsible for converting two molecules of porphobilinogen into a linear tetrapyrrole called hydroxymethylbilane, which is then converted into uroporphyrinogen III by uroporphyrinogen III synthase.

Deficiency in Porphobilinogen Synthase can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), which is characterized by the accumulation of porphobilinogen and other precursors in the heme biosynthesis pathway, resulting in neurovisceral symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, neuropathy, and psychiatric disturbances.

Glioblastoma, also known as Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly aggressive and malignant type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the brain. These tumors are characterized by their rapid growth, invasion into surrounding brain tissue, and resistance to treatment.

Glioblastomas are composed of various cell types, including astrocytes and other glial cells, which make them highly heterogeneous and difficult to treat. They typically have a poor prognosis, with a median survival rate of 14-15 months from the time of diagnosis, even with aggressive treatment.

Symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in personality or behavior, and weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.

Standard treatment for glioblastoma typically involves surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide. However, despite these treatments, glioblastomas often recur, leading to a poor overall prognosis.

Nutritive value is a term used to describe the amount and kind of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water, that a food provides. It refers to the ability of a food to supply the necessary components for growth, repair, maintenance, and energy in the body. The nutritive value of a food is usually expressed in terms of its content of these various nutrients per 100 grams or per serving. Foods with high nutritive value are those that provide a significant amount of essential nutrients in relation to their calorie content.

Boronic acids are organic compounds that contain a boron atom bonded to two carbon atoms and a hydroxyl group. The general formula for a boronic acid is RB(OH)2, where R represents a organic group. Boronic acids are important reagents in organic synthesis and have been used in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science. They can also form stable complexes with many diols and phenols, which is the basis for their use in the detection and quantification of sugars, as well as in the design of boronic acid-based drugs that target diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

Aquaporins are a type of membrane protein that function as water channels, allowing the selective and efficient transport of water molecules across biological membranes. They play crucial roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis, regulating cell volume, and supporting various physiological processes in the body. In humans, there are 13 different aquaporin subtypes (AQP0 to AQP12) that have been identified, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions. Some aquaporins also facilitate the transport of small solutes such as glycerol and urea. Dysfunction or misregulation of aquaporins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, cancer, and water balance-related diseases.

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol (a sugar substitute) used primarily as a diuretic to reduce brain swelling caused by traumatic brain injury or other causes that induce increased pressure in the brain. It works by drawing water out of the body through the urine. It's also used before surgeries in the heart, lungs, and kidneys to prevent fluid buildup.

In addition, mannitol is used in medical laboratories as a medium for growing bacteria and other microorganisms, and in some types of chemical research. In the clinic, it is also used as an osmotic agent in eye drops to reduce the pressure inside the eye in conditions such as glaucoma.

It's important to note that mannitol should be used with caution in patients with heart or kidney disease, as well as those who are dehydrated, because it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other complications.

"Pharmaceutical vehicles" is not a standard term in medical or pharmaceutical sciences. However, I can provide some context based on the phrase's possible meaning. If by "pharmaceutical vehicles," you mean the carriers or delivery systems for drugs or medications, then the definition would be:

Pharmaceutical vehicles refer to various formulations, preparations, or technologies that facilitate and control the administration of a drug or therapeutic agent to its target site in the body. These can include different types of drug delivery systems such as tablets, capsules, liposomes, nanoparticles, transdermal patches, inhalers, injectables, and other innovative drug carrier technologies.

These pharmaceutical vehicles ensure that the active ingredients are safely and effectively transported to their intended site of action within the body, enhancing therapeutic efficacy while minimizing potential side effects.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

A meningioma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms on the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It's usually benign, meaning it doesn't spread to other parts of the body, but it can still cause serious problems if it grows and presses on nearby tissues.

Meningiomas most commonly occur in adults, and are more common in women than men. They can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including headaches, seizures, vision or hearing problems, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all and are discovered only during imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for meningiomas include monitoring with regular imaging scans, surgery to remove the tumor, and radiation therapy to shrink or kill the tumor cells. The best treatment approach depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and their personal preferences.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond in their molecular structure. The general chemical formula for alkenes is CnH2n, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The double bond in alkenes can undergo various reactions, such as addition reactions, where different types of molecules can add across the double bond to form new compounds. The relative position of the double bond in the carbon chain and the presence of substituents on the carbon atoms can affect the physical and chemical properties of alkenes.

Alkenes are important industrial chemicals and are used as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, fibers, and other chemicals. They are also found in nature, occurring in some plants and animals, and can be produced by certain types of bacteria through fermentation processes.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Haploidy is a term used in genetics to describe the condition of having half the normal number of chromosomes in a cell or an organism. In humans, for example, a haploid cell contains 23 chromosomes, whereas a diploid cell has 46 chromosomes.

Haploid cells are typically produced through a process called meiosis, which is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs of sexually reproducing organisms. During meiosis, a diploid cell undergoes two rounds of division to produce four haploid cells, each containing only one set of chromosomes.

In humans, haploid cells are found in the sperm and egg cells, which fuse together during fertilization to create a diploid zygote with 46 chromosomes. Haploidy is important for maintaining the correct number of chromosomes in future generations and preventing genetic abnormalities that can result from having too many or too few chromosomes.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

Weight lifting, also known as resistance training, is a form of exercise that involves working against an external force, such as gravity or elastic bands, to build strength, power, and endurance. In a medical context, weight lifting can be used as a therapeutic intervention to improve physical function, mobility, and overall health.

Weight lifting typically involves the use of free weights, weight machines, or resistance bands to target specific muscle groups in the body. The exercises may include movements such as bicep curls, bench presses, squats, lunges, and deadlifts, among others. These exercises can be performed at varying intensities, repetitions, and sets to achieve different fitness goals, such as increasing muscle mass, improving muscular endurance, or enhancing athletic performance.

It is important to note that weight lifting should be performed with proper form and technique to avoid injury. It is recommended to seek the guidance of a certified personal trainer or physical therapist to ensure safe and effective exercise practices.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for "Melanoma, Experimental," as it is not a standardized medical term. However, I can give you information about melanoma and experimental treatments related to this disease.

Melanoma is a type of cancer that develops from pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes. It usually occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, such as the eyes or internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, forming malignant tumors.

Experimental treatments for melanoma refer to novel therapeutic strategies that are currently being researched and tested in clinical trials. These experimental treatments may include:

1. Targeted therapies: Drugs that target specific genetic mutations or molecular pathways involved in melanoma growth and progression. Examples include BRAF and MEK inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib.
2. Immunotherapies: Treatments designed to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells. These may include checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab), adoptive cell therapies (e.g., CAR T-cell therapy), and therapeutic vaccines.
3. Oncolytic viruses: Genetically modified viruses that can selectively infect and kill cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an example of an oncolytic virus approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma.
4. Combination therapies: The use of multiple experimental treatments in combination to improve efficacy and reduce the risk of resistance. For instance, combining targeted therapies with immunotherapies or different types of immunotherapies.
5. Personalized medicine approaches: Using genetic testing and biomarker analysis to identify the most effective treatment for an individual patient based on their specific tumor characteristics.

It is essential to consult with healthcare professionals and refer to clinical trial databases, such as, for up-to-date information on experimental treatments for melanoma.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized, selective interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and the circulating blood. It is formed by unique endothelial cells that line the brain's capillaries, along with tight junctions, astrocytic foot processes, and pericytes, which together restrict the passage of substances from the bloodstream into the CNS. This barrier serves to protect the brain from harmful agents and maintain a stable environment for proper neural function. However, it also poses a challenge in delivering therapeutics to the CNS, as most large and hydrophilic molecules cannot cross the BBB.

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol). It is used in various industrial applications such as the production of formaldehyde, acetic acid, and other chemicals. In the medical field, methanol is considered a toxic alcohol that can cause severe intoxication and metabolic disturbances when ingested or improperly consumed. Methanol poisoning can lead to neurological symptoms, blindness, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Intra-arterial injection is a type of medical procedure where a medication or contrast agent is delivered directly into an artery. This technique is used for various therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

For instance, intra-arterial chemotherapy may be used to deliver cancer drugs directly to the site of a tumor, while intra-arterial thrombolysis involves the administration of clot-busting medications to treat arterial blockages caused by blood clots. Intra-arterial injections are also used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as angiography, where a contrast agent is injected into an artery to visualize the blood vessels and identify any abnormalities.

It's important to note that intra-arterial injections require precise placement of the needle or catheter into the artery, and are typically performed by trained medical professionals using specialized equipment.

Fluorine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element Fluorine (F, atomic number 9). These radioisotopes have an unstable nucleus that emits radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. Examples of Fluorine radioisotopes include Fluorine-18 and Fluorine-19.

Fluorine-18 is a positron-emitting radionuclide with a half-life of approximately 110 minutes, making it useful for medical imaging techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans. It is commonly used in the production of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a radiopharmaceutical that can be used to detect cancer and other metabolic disorders.

Fluorine-19, on the other hand, is a stable isotope of Fluorine and does not emit radiation. However, it can be enriched and used as a non-radioactive tracer in medical research and diagnostic applications.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Dinucleoside phosphates are the chemical compounds that result from the linkage of two nucleosides through a phosphate group. Nucleosides themselves consist of a sugar molecule (ribose or deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, or uracil). When two nucleosides are joined together by an ester bond between the phosphate group and the 5'-hydroxyl group of the sugar moiety, they form a dinucleoside phosphate.

These compounds play crucial roles in various biological processes, particularly in the context of DNA and RNA synthesis and repair. For instance, dinucleoside phosphates serve as building blocks for the formation of longer nucleic acid chains during replication and transcription. They are also involved in signaling pathways and energy transfer within cells.

It is worth noting that the term "dinucleotides" is sometimes used interchangeably with dinucleoside phosphates, although technically, dinucleotides refer to compounds formed by joining two nucleotides (nucleosides plus one or more phosphate groups) rather than just two nucleosides.

"Fortified food" is a term used in the context of nutrition and dietary guidelines. It refers to a food product that has had nutrients added to it during manufacturing to enhance its nutritional value. These added nutrients can include vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other beneficial components. The goal of fortifying foods is often to address specific nutrient deficiencies in populations or to improve the overall nutritional quality of a food product. Examples of fortified foods include certain breakfast cereals that have added vitamins and minerals, as well as plant-based milk alternatives that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to mimic the nutritional profile of cow's milk. It is important to note that while fortified foods can be a valuable source of essential nutrients, they should not replace whole, unprocessed foods in a balanced diet.

An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons, resulting in a net electric charge. Cations are positively charged ions, which have lost electrons, while anions are negatively charged ions, which have gained electrons. Ions can play a significant role in various physiological processes within the human body, including enzyme function, nerve impulse transmission, and maintenance of acid-base balance. They also contribute to the formation of salts and buffer systems that help regulate fluid composition and pH levels in different bodily fluids.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze charged particles such as proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules based on their size and charge. In CE, the sample is introduced into a narrow capillary tube filled with a buffer solution, and an electric field is applied. The charged particles in the sample migrate through the capillary towards the electrode with the opposite charge, and the different particles become separated as they migrate based on their size and charge.

The separation process in CE is monitored by detecting the changes in the optical properties of the particles as they pass through a detector, typically located at the end of the capillary. The resulting data can be used to identify and quantify the individual components in the sample. Capillary electrophoresis has many applications in research and clinical settings, including the analysis of DNA fragments, protein identification and characterization, and the detection of genetic variations.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Porphyrins are complex organic compounds that contain four pyrrole rings joined together by methine bridges (=CH-). They play a crucial role in the biochemistry of many organisms, as they form the core structure of various heme proteins and other metalloproteins. Some examples of these proteins include hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and catalases, which are involved in essential processes such as oxygen transport, electron transfer, and oxidative metabolism.

In the human body, porphyrins are synthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions known as the heme biosynthesis pathway. Disruptions in this pathway can lead to an accumulation of porphyrins or their precursors, resulting in various medical conditions called porphyrias. These disorders can manifest as neurological symptoms, skin lesions, and gastrointestinal issues, depending on the specific type of porphyria and the site of enzyme deficiency.

It is important to note that while porphyrins are essential for life, their accumulation in excessive amounts or at inappropriate locations can result in pathological conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of porphyrin metabolism is crucial for diagnosing and managing porphyrias and other related disorders.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Allotropes of boron Boron deficiency Boron oxide Boron nitride Boron neutron capture therapy Boronic acid Hydroboration- ... Greim, Jochen & Schwetz, Karl A. (2005). "Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and Metal Borides". Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and ... Boron halides are corrosive. Boron is necessary for plant growth, but an excess of boron is toxic to plants, and occurs ... Boron carbide and cubic boron nitride powders are widely used as abrasives. Boron nitride is a material isoelectronic to carbon ...
... may refer to: Boron deficiency (plant disorder), a nutritional disorder in plants Boron deficiency (medicine ... a nutritional disorder in animals This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Boron deficiency. If an ...
Normal boron pnictides: Boron nitride, BN Boron phosphide, BP Boron arsenide, BAs Boron subpnictides: Boron subphosphide, B12P2 ... Boron subarsenide, B12As2 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Boron pnictide. If an internal link ... Boron pnictide can refer to any of the following materials: ...
... can be prepared by passing boron trifluoride gas at 2000 °C over a boron rod. It can be condensed at liquid ... Boron monofluoride or fluoroborylene is a chemical compound with formula BF, one atom of boron and one of fluorine. It was ... In the molecule, boron is double-bonded to iron. Hildenbrand, Donald L.; Murad, Edmond (1965). "Dissociation Energy of Boron ... BF can react with itself to form polymers of boron containing fluorine with between 10 and 14 boron atoms. BF reacts with BF3 ...
Boron is a town and commune in the Cercle of Banamba in the Koulikoro Region of south-western Mali. As of 1998 the commune had ...
... (or Arsenic boride) is a chemical compound involving boron and arsenic, usually with a chemical formula BAs. ... Boron Chemistry at the Millennium. New York: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-72006-5. Ownby, P. D. (1975). "Ordered Boron Arsenide". ... It belongs to R3m space group with a rhombohedral structure based on clusters of boron atoms and two-atom As-As chains. It is a ... Other boron arsenide compounds are known, such as the subarsenide B12As2. Chemical synthesis of cubic BAs is very challenging ...
"Boron trifluoride". WebBook. NIST. "Boron Trifluoride (BF3) Applications". Honeywell. Archived from the original on 2012-01-29 ... The adduct with diethyl ether, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, or just boron trifluoride etherate, (BF3·O(CH2CH3)2) is a ... Brinck, T.; Murray, J. S.; Politzer, P. (1993). "A Computational Analysis of the Bonding in Boron Trifluoride and Boron ... "Safety and Health Topics: Boron Trifluoride". OSHA. "BORON TRIFLUORIDE ICSC: 0231". International Chemical Safety Cards. CDC. ...
The reaction of boron carbide with bromine at temperatures above 300 °C leads to the formation of boron tribromide. The product ... Boron Tribromide at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham) NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Boron ... Boron tribromide, BBr3, is a colorless, fuming liquid compound containing boron and bromine. Commercial samples usually are ... The electronics industry uses boron tribromide as a boron source in pre-deposition processes for doping in the manufacture of ...
... is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula BPO4. The simplest way of producing it is the reaction of ... It is a white infusible solid that evaporates above 1450 °C. Boron phosphate is synthesized from phosphoric acid and boric acid ... Due to the particular industrial interest of boron phosphate, other methods are used as well: Phosphoric acid and triethyl ... Moffat, J. B.; Goltz, H. L. (1965). "Surface Chemistry and Catalytic Properties of Boron Phosphate: 1. Surface Area and Acidity ...
... is a starting material for the production of elemental boron. It is also used in the refining of aluminium, ... Boron trichloride is, however, produced industrially by direct chlorination of boron oxide and carbon at 501 °C. B2O3 + 3 C + 3 ... R2SnCl2 Reduction of BCl3 to elemental boron is conducted commercially in the laboratory, when boron trichloride can be ... Boron trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BCl3. This colorless gas is a reagent in organic synthesis. It is ...
B6O can be synthesized by reducing B2O3 with boron or by oxidation of boron with zinc oxide or other oxidants. These boron ... Boron suboxide (chemical formula B6O) is a solid compound with a structure built of eight icosahedra at the apexes of the ... Each icosahedron is composed of twelve boron atoms. Two oxygen atoms are located in the interstices along the [111] ... close to that of rhenium diboride and boron nitride), low mass density, high thermal conductivity, high chemical inertness, and ...
Greim, Jochen & Schwetz, Karl A. (2005). "Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and Metal Borides". Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and ... Boron compounds are compounds containing the element boron. In the most familiar compounds, boron has the formal oxidation ... The mean oxidation number for the boron atoms is then simply the ratio of hydrogen to boron in the molecule. For example, in ... In these compounds the oxidation state of boron is often not a whole number. The boron nitrides are notable for the variety of ...
... may refer to one of several oxides of boron: Boron trioxide (B2O3, diboron trioxide), the most common form Boron ... Boron compounds, Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, All set index articles, Set ... monoxide (B2O), theoretical, unstable Boron suboxide (B6O) This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated ...
... is formed when the boron anion B− reacts with a hydrogen ion H+. It is also formed when atomic boron reacts ... Boron monohydride is unstable in bulk and disappears quickly on a timescale of 20 ns when at a pressure of 20 Torr. Boron ... BH3CO → BH + CH2O Boron monohydride is formed when boron compounds are heated to a high temperature in the presence of hydrogen ... Boron monohydride appears to add onto double bonds in unsaturated organic compounds. It also reacts with water. Boron ...
Boron suboxide Boron trioxide Boron Zintl, E.; Morawietz, W.; Gastinger, E. (1940-10-03). "Bormonoxyd". Zeitschrift für ... Boron monoxide (BO) is a binary compound of boron and oxygen. It has a molar mass of 26.81 g/mol. The material was first ... Liu, Y.; Liu, C.; Pu, L.; Zhang, Z.; King, R. B. (2017-03-14). "Boron monoxide dimer as a building block for boroxine based ... Boron monoxide is typically produced through the condensation of Tetrahydroxydiboron (chemical formula; B2(OH)4) at ...
The boron in the porphyrin ring plane undergoes substitution, while the out-of-plane boron retains its phenyl bond. (Also see ... For boron chemistry, this slightly smaller core allows for the possibility of binding to a single boron, whereas the porphyrin ... Boron porphyrins are of interest because of the unique geometric environment to which both boron and porphyrin are subjected ... This suggests the porphyrin pocket is more likely to accommodate two boron atoms rather than one. Indeed, each boron porphyrin ...
... can refer to: Boron monofluoride, a gas stable only at very low temperatures Boron trifluoride, a stable gas ... Diboron tetrafluoride (B2F4) gas, boils at −34 Celsius This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Boron ...
... or boron filament is an amorphous product which represents the major industrial use of elemental boron. Boron fiber ... It consists of a fully borided tungsten core with amorphous boron. Boron fibers and sub-millimeter sized crystalline boron ... A common use of boron fibers is in the construction of high tensile strength tapes. Boron fiber use results in high-strength, ... One of the uses of boron fiber composites was the horizontal tail surfaces of the F-14 Tomcat fighter. This was done because ...
In addition, Boron has won seven World Championship Gold Medals and five Silver, starting with gold in the double sculls at ... Boron won the women's double sculls at the 1992 Summer Olympics with Kerstin Köppen and 2000 Summer Olympics with Jana Thieme, ... Kathrin Boron at World Rowing v t e (CS1 German-language sources (de), Articles with short description, Short description ... Boron was honoured for her outstanding career in rowing with the 2009 Thomas Keller Medal. Evans, Hilary; Gjerde, Arild; ...
The boron cycle is the biogeochemical cycle of boron through the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. Boron in ... The marine biosphere circulates a large reservoir of boron. Dissolved boron is delivered to the ocean by river transport, wet ... and mining and processing of boron ores. Anthropogenic boron fluxes to the hydrosphere and atmosphere have increased and ... Boron is lost from the oceans in emissions from the ocean surface, deposition of organic materials and sediments (mostly ...
... or diboron trioxide is the oxide of boron with the formula B2O3. It is a colorless transparent solid, almost ... such as boron carbide boron suboxide boric acid sassolite Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) borate Gurr, G. E.; Montgomery, P. W.; ... Boron oxide will also form when diborane (B2H6) reacts with oxygen in the air or trace amounts of moisture: 2B2H6(g) + 3O2(g ... Boron trioxide has three known forms, one amorphous and two crystalline. The amorphous form (g-B2O3) is by far the most common ...
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Boron may also refer to: Boron (surname) Boron, California, a ... a town Boron, Mali, a town and commune Boron, Territoire de Belfort, a commune département in France Boron Oil, a subsidiary ... Look up boron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to boron. ... an Indian wedding ritual Boron (TV series), an Indian Bengali-language TV series Isotopes of boron B (disambiguation) This ...
The total boron (BT) is the sum of boron species in a solution. In the environment these species usually include boric acid and ... Total boron is a conservative element in seawater, and can thus be calculated by simply knowing the salinity. Total organic ... is the boric acid concentration Total boron is an important quantity when determining alkalinity due to borate's contribution ... Boron, All stub articles, Oceanography stubs, Geochemistry stubs, Analytical chemistry stubs). ...
... was first synthesized by Henri Moissan in 1899, by reduction of boron trioxide either with carbon or magnesium in ... Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron-carbon ceramic, a covalent material used in tank ... boron carbide is the third-hardest material on earth. Ridgway, Ramond R "Boron Carbide", European Patent CA339873 (A), ... With a Vickers hardness of >30 GPa, it is one of the hardest known materials, behind cubic boron nitride and diamond. Boron ...
German rower Robert de Boron, French medieval poet Walter Boron (born 1949), American scientist This page lists people with the ... Boron or Borón is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: Atilio Borón (born 1943), Argentinean sociologist Kathrin ... surname Boron. If an internal link intending to refer to a specific person led you to this page, you may wish to change that ...
... can be prepared by the reaction of boron with iodine at 209.5 °C or 409.1 °F.[citation needed] It can also be ... Boron triiodide is a chemical compound of boron and iodine with chemical formula BI3. It has a trigonal planar molecular ... 176)). Boron triiodide is a strong Lewis acid and soluble in carbon disulfide. Boron triiodide reacts with water and decomposes ... Boron triiodide can be used to produce other chemical compounds and as a catalyst (for example in coal liquefaction). Lide, D. ...
... starting from boron and hydrogen sulfide. 2 B + 3 H2S → B2S3 + 3 H2 The boron atoms in B2S3 are trigonal planar, and are ... Boron sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula B2S3. It is a white, moisture-sensitive solid. It has a polymeric ... Sato, R. (2004). "Boron Trisulfide". In L. Paquette (ed.). Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. New York: J. Wiley ... This is different from boron trioxide which has a three dimensional structure. The molecular, monomeric, form of B2S3 has a ...
During this time, Boron also collaborated with Paul De Weer and John M. Russell . Boron joined Yale University as a ... Medical Physiology Walter F. Boron. 1st Edition (2002) [1] Medical Physiology Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. 2nd Edition ( ... 3rd Edition (2016) [3] Walter Boron Curriculum Vitae "Walter F. Boron". Presidents. American Physiological Society. Retrieved ... Boron is the David N. and Inez Myers/Antonio Scarpa Professor and Chair of the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at Case ...
... (BP) (also referred to as boron monophosphide, to distinguish it from boron subphosphide, B12P2) is a chemical ... 460 W/mK at room temperature Boron arsenide Boron nitride Aluminium phosphide Gallium phosphide Madelung, O. (2004). ... Crystals of boron phosphide were synthesized by Henri Moissan as early as 1891. Pure BP is almost transparent, n-type crystals ... 1999). Boron Chemistry at the Millennium. Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN 0-444-72006-5. US patent 6831304, Takashi, U., "P ...
... , also known as triazidoborane, is a thermally unstable compound of boron and nitrogen with a nitrogen content of ... generated boron triazide decomposes at room temperature within 60 minutes via loss of nitrogen gas to form boron nitrides with ... B(N3)3 → BN3 + 3 N2 B(N3)3 → BN + 4 N2 In contact with water, it undergoes hydrolysis to hydrazoic acid and boron trioxide. 2 B ... The gas-phase decomposition of the compound is also of interest as a method of coating surfaces with boron nitride. Wiberg, ...
Allotropes of boron Boron deficiency Boron oxide Boron nitride Boron neutron capture therapy Boronic acid Hydroboration- ... Greim, Jochen & Schwetz, Karl A. (2005). "Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and Metal Borides". Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and ... Boron halides are corrosive. Boron is necessary for plant growth, but an excess of boron is toxic to plants, and occurs ... Boron carbide and cubic boron nitride powders are widely used as abrasives. Boron nitride is a material isoelectronic to carbon ...
With little evidence, boron has been consumed for menstrual cramps and boric acid has been used vaginally for yeast infections. ... Boron deficiency. Taking boron by mouth treats and prevents boron deficiency.. Possibly effective for.... *Skin damage caused ... Boron may have antioxidant effects. People commonly use boron for boron deficiency and vaginal yeast infections. It is also ... avoid supplemental boron or high amounts of boron from foods.. Kidney disease: Do not take boron supplements if you have kidney ...
Breathing moderate levels of boron irritates the nose, throat, and eyes. This chemical has been found in at least 142 of 1,416 ... Exposure to boron occurs in the workplace or from using certain consumer products. ... What is boron?. Boron is a compound that occurs in nature. It is often found combined with other substances to form compounds ... Boron is also released from industries that use it. *Boron cannot be destroyed in the environment. It can only change its form ...
Enjoy truly local Boron Toyota deals from the official Toyota site. ... Look no further for the best Boron Toyota deals, incentives, and special offers. ... Deals And Incentives / California / Boron Toyota Special Offers in Boron. Admiring your dream car in your driveway doesnt ... Our goal is to help you to save big with new Toyota rebates in Boron, California on maintenance or a new set of tires. With a ...
Boron and salts of borate have been found at hazardous waste sites. Boron alone does not dissolve in water nor does it ... No information was found on whether common forms of boron evaporate easily or stick to soil particles; however, these forms do ... Common borate compounds include boric acid, salts of borates, and boron oxide. ... Boron is a solid substance that widely occurs in nature. It usually does not occur alone, but is often found in the environment ...
The engineers at Fukushima are pushing in Boron 10, along with the seawater, hoping to block the rate of chain reaction and the ... But Boron 11 has six neutrons, which form a compete set and Boron 11 is quite useless for neutron capture. The engineers at ... boron with the seawater, to slow down the chain reaction. Boron is one of the substances used to capture neutrons and control ... The case of boron 10, which has only five neutrons is useful for neutron capture, because the fifth neutron is unpaired and ...
The latest boron-nitride articles from Computing - Page 1 ... Boron nitride-based structure could be used for safe hydrogen ... boron nitride. Hardware New technique enables nanoscale patterns to be cut in graphene without compromising its electrical ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains uses for the element boron ... boron compounds show promise in treating arthritis. *10B is used as a control for nuclear reactors, as a shield for nuclear ... boron nitride is as hard as diamond. It behaves like an electrical insulator, but conducts heat like a metal. It also has ... boron filaments used in fibre optics research. *Boric Acid is also used in North America for the control of cockroaches, ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains boron tribromide for the element boron ...
The town of Boron glimmers 7 miles away, tonights late-show. From the peak at the now abandoned Boron AFS. Night, 209-seconds ... Boron On. Posted by Troy on July 10, 2014 Leave a comment ...
Several boron compounds are known for their extreme hardness and toughness. Boron carbide is a ceramic material which is ... Several boron compounds are known for their extreme hardness and toughness. Boron carbide is a ceramic material which is ... Nuclear applications of boron carbide include shielding, control rods and shut-down pellets. Boron carbide is often powdered ... If you are looking for high quality, high purity and cost-effective Boron, or if you require the latest price of Boron, please ...
Physicists at the University of Basel succeed in synthesizing boron-doped graphene nanoribbons and characterizing their ... The doped site of the boron atom was unambiguously confirmed and its doping ratio - the number of boron atoms relative to the ... The doped nitric oxide gas was highly-selectively adsorbed on the boron site. This measurement indicates that the boron-doped ... Atomically controlled substitutional boron-doping of graphene nanoribbons Nature Communications, 6. 8098 (2015), doi: 10.1038/ ...
The mining giant Rio Tinto locked out union workers at its Boron, Calif., plant--but miners are fighting back with support from ... The jobs at Boron are union jobs--and it will take international unity and solidarity among union workers to defend them. ... Miners stand firm at Boron February 18, 2010 John Green reports from Southern California on a battle pitting miners and their ... THE MINING giant Rio Tinto locked out union workers at its Boron plant in Californias Mojave Desert at the end of last month. ...
Boron is intended to provide nutritive support to help maintain healthy bone development and normal joint function. The ...
... Boron can be divided into crystalline boron and amorphous boron: Crystal boron is black gray, ... and super hard crystals of boron carbide and boron nitride. What is the use of boron? 1. Both crystalline boron and boron oxide ... Slow economic growth has a huge impact on amorphous boron powder.. What is boron?. Boron is a chemical element with the symbol ... The chemical properties of amorphous boron are more active than those of crystalline boron. Crystalline boron is quite stable ...
A severe boron shortage can cause the sepals around the boll to fail to open. Waiting to apply boron after deficiency symptoms ... Boron blends and foliar spray. Most fertilizer dealers can add boron with other nutrients in a fertilizer blend. For a 20.5 ... Boron fertilizer recommendations. *Apply boron to cotton fields with soil test levels less than 0.50 parts B per million (ppm). ... Boron deficiency in cotton. Figure 2. Boron fertilization improves boll retention and boll opening by helping to move ...
Boron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula B4C. It is an extremely hard ceramic. It is often used as an abrasive, as ... Retrieved from "" ...
Should I use kiln wash or boron nitride We hear that question a lot! Roy and Val talk about both and the reasons to choose one ... Kiln Wash vs Boron Nitride. Should I use kiln wash or boron nitride? We hear that question a lot! Roy and Val talk about both ... Should I use kiln wash or boron nitride? We hear that question a lot! Roy and Val talk about both and the reasons to choose one ...
The team assessed boron isotopes in PETM foraminifera; lower proportions of boron-11 relative to boron-10 correspond to lower ... "The boron isotope shift provides robust evidence for a change in ocean pH, and the boron-to-carbon record provides additional, ... To verify the pattern observed in the isotopes, the team also measured boron-to-carbon ratios. The team confirmed that not only ... With the new boron proxy data, however, Penmans team found acidification stretched on for 70,000 years. ...
About Saint-Gobain Ceramic Materials, Boron Nitride Products:. Saint-Gobain Ceramic Materials, Boron Nitride Products ( ... Saint-Gobains Boron Nitride products are built on more than 50 years of expertise in harnessing these properties and ... Boron Nitride coatings are used to coat parts, launders, troughs, ladles, spoons etc during operations like casting, pressing, ... Amherst, NY, August 24, 2019 --( Saint-Gobain Ceramic Materials announced the launch of its newest line of Boron ...
... which is composed primarily of boron, carbon, and other elements. The chemical formula for B4C is B4C. It is widely used by ... Boron carburide is a high-performance carbon compound, ... The boron-carbide prepared using this method is high in purity ... Boron carburide is a high-performance carbon compound, which is composed primarily of boron, carbon, and other elements. The ... The carbon thermal method is widely used to prepare boron carbide . This method generates carbon dioxide and boron carburide by ...
Boron steel is a perfect base material for a variety of products, parts and components that require resistance against abrasive ... Product & services Brands & products SSAB Boron Product offer and datasheets Hot rolled SSAB Boron 27 ... SSAB Boron steels are delivered with SSAB Boron tolerances which meet and exceed the requirements in corresponding EN standards ... SSAB Boron 27 is available in thickness range 2.00-80.00 mm and widths up to 1800 mm as coils, slit coils and CTL and 3300 mm ...
Since 1996, interest in boron has, if anything, increased, and continued demand for the Reviews in Mineralogy "boron bible" has ... Geochemistry of Boron and Its Implications for Crustal and Mantle Processes by William P. Leeman and Virginia B. Sisson, p. 645 ... Chapter 7. Boron in Granitic Rocks and Their Contact Aureoles by David London, George B. Morgan, VI, and Michael B. Wolf, p. ... Chapter 9. Borosilicates (Exclusive of Tourmaline) and Boron in Rock-forming Minerals in Metamorphic Environments by Edward S. ...
Most head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after prior full-dose conventional radiation therapy respond to Boron Neutron ... which causes boron atoms to split within the cancerous tissue as a result from a boron neutron capture reaction. The resulting ... Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of targeted radiation treatment for cancer. It is still considered experimental ... Boron-mediated targeting of radiation allows treatment of patients who can no longer be treated with conventional radiation ...
Introduction The electronic configuration for elements from Boron family have outer-shell electronic configuration as $mathrm{ ... Why does boron have higher melting and boiling point when compared to other congeners of Group 13 elements? ... Why does pπ - pπ backbonding occurs in boron halides but does not occur for aluminium halides? ... State the difference in behavior of Boron and Aluminium, when hydrolysed.. Ans: The enthalpy of $\mathrm{AlCl_3}$ solution is ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, ... Boron group. The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al ... Boron nitride samples ... Unlike hexagonal boron nitride, its super hard ⎯ its close to diamond in hardness, actually.". ... made from hexagonal boron nitride ... Like graphene, hexagonal boron nitride has a molecular structure resembling chicken wire. ...
  • Here, we demonstrate room-temperature, polarized and ultrabright single-photon emission from a colour centre in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride. (
  • Boron carbide framework is hexagonal crystal. (
  • C-NB(cubic boron nitride) is produced from hexagonal boron nitride treated at high temperature and pressure. (
  • Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have a similar tubular structure as carbon nanotubes in which carbon atoms are replaced entirely by boron and nitrogen atoms, arranged in a hexagonal lattice. (
  • Although having smaller Young's modulus and yield strength tha Boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has a similar tubular nanostructure as carbon nanotube (CNT) in which boron and nitrogen atoms are arranged in a hexagonal network. (
  • Boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has a similar tubular nanostructure as carbon nanotube (CNT) in which boron and nitrogen atoms are arranged in a hexagonal network. (
  • Graphene stacked on hexagonal boron nitride forms a moire superlattice system. (
  • Using infrared magneto-spectroscopy, we report observations of cyclotron resonance transitions in a graphene-hexagonal boron nitride sample, having a relative alignment between the layers of ~0.9 degrees. (
  • Large-area hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) promises many new applications of two-dimensional materials, such as the protective packing of reactive surfaces or as membranes in liquids. (
  • Purity>95%Particle size : 0.8-5um About Boron Amorphous Boron: The powder of Boron is black or dark Hexagonal boran nitride can also be called white graphite. (
  • The hexagonal boron layer and nitrogen in hexagonal boren nitride overlap each other, forming a crystal. (
  • Purity: 99%Particle size: 100nm (or 500nm), 3-5um Hexagonal Boron Nitride BN Powder Boron carbide Nanoparticles often come in Black colors. (
  • In contrast to a mass of powder in air at 900 °C, the oxidation rate of hexagonal boron nitride does not tend to a plateau when present as a coating on austenitic stainless steel type 304 and type 310, and a real-world hot forming tool alloy. (
  • As with a mass of powder, a molten boron trioxide diffusion barrier encapsulates each hexagonal boron nitride grain around the basal plane. (
  • This causes the oxidation of hexagonal boron nitride to be sustained at an enhanced rate and the overlayer ultimately undergoes complete decomposition. (
  • It is grayish black, and is a very difficult manufactured material: Its Morse solidity range is 9.3, microhardness is 5500 ~ 6700kg/mm2, 2nd just to ruby and also cubic boron nitride. (
  • The global cubic boron nitride films market is expected to grow at a significant rate over the forecast period on account of increasing demand as an abrasive in several applications. (
  • C-BN (cubic boron nitride) is increasingly being preferred over diamonds owing to properties such as superior thermal, hardness, and chemical stability. (
  • C-BN films potential to substitute diamonds is projected to be a key factor driving cubic boron nitride films market growth over the forecast horizon. (
  • North America is expected to dominate the regional market over the forecast period with majority c-BN films demand driven by the U.S. Growing automotive and construction industries in the region is a key factor driving North America cubic boron nitride films market. (
  • It is one of the three hardest materials known (after diamond and cubic boron nitride). (
  • It is the third hardest material after diamond and cubic boron nitride. (
  • What is Amorphous Boron Powder? (
  • Eneco even went as high as €90 per gigajoule (GJ), the maximum price set by the Dutch Consumer a About Boron Powder Amorphous Boron Powder the boron chemical and physical properties U.S. natural gas futures rose about 5 percent to a near nine-week high as global energy prices surged on concerns over a pricing plan for energy exports, keeping U.S. LNG export demand near record highs. (
  • An elite chemical club has a new member, after a team in Germany found a way to link two boron atoms together with a stable triple bond. (
  • Boron atoms have only three electrons in their outer shells, so in Braunschweig's compound, two atoms share all six of their electrons between them to make a triple bond. (
  • Other research teams have attempted to synthesize boron-boron triple bonds using two boron atoms each bearing one NHC group and three bromines. (
  • The idea was that the bromines would be removed one by one, and the two boron atoms would come together to form a boron-boron single bond, followed by a double and finally a triple bond. (
  • However, the process of forming the single bond was slow, and the bromine-stripped boron atoms tended to first react with the surrounding solvent before reacting with each other of each other. (
  • As expected, the distance between the boron atoms was shorter in the triple-bonded structure than in the compound with a double bond, matching closely with predicted figures. (
  • Researchers have shown that clusters of boron and lanthanide atoms form interesting "inverse sandwich" structures that could be useful as molecular magnets. (
  • Inverse Sandwich: New research shows that clusters of boron and lanthanide atoms form an interesting and stable "inverse sandwich" structure. (
  • We have just started to investigate these nanoclusters, and here we show that they can have an interesting 'inverse sandwich' structure with the right combination of boron and lanthanide atoms. (
  • The structure - a ring of bonded boron atoms with a single lanthanide atom bonded to each side - emerged in clusters made from eight boron atoms and two atoms of either lanthanum or praseodymium (both members of the lanthanide group on the periodic table). (
  • We found that clusters made of eight boron and two lanthanide atoms are highly symmetric as inferred from their simple spectral patterns," Wang said. (
  • Two positively charged compounds of the element boron join to form a new molecule with a chain of four boron atoms. (
  • The product of this reaction is a compound with four boron atoms ," says Prof. Himmel. (
  • What is Amorphous Boron PowderAmorphous Boron Powderis a kind of brownish odor-free powder, due to its boron atoms being adhered together in arbitrary order. (
  • As the lightest element of the boron group it has three valence electrons for forming covalent bonds, resulting in many compounds such as boric acid, the mineral sodium borate, and the ultra-hard crystals of boron carbide and boron nitride. (
  • By oxidizing boron with air, they showed that boric acid is its oxidation product. (
  • The earliest routes to elemental boron involved the reduction of boric oxide with metals such as magnesium or aluminium. (
  • Boron has been consumed for menstrual cramps and boric acid has been used vaginally for yeast infections, but evidence is limited. (
  • Boric acid, a common form of boron, can kill yeast that cause vaginal infections. (
  • Boric acid, a common form of boron, is likely safe when used for up to 6 months. (
  • Boric acid powder, a common form of boron, is possibly unsafe when applied in large amounts to prevent diaper rash. (
  • Common borate compounds include boric acid, salts of borates, and boron oxide. (
  • Exposure to large amounts of boron (about 30 g of boric acid) over short periods of time can affect the stomach, intestines, liver, kidney, and brain and can eventually lead to death. (
  • Low birth weights, birth defects, and developmental delays have occurred in newborn animals whose mothers were orally exposed to high doses of boron (as boric acid) during pregnancy. (
  • But boron can cause harm if a person accidentally swallows cleaning products or pesticides that contain certain forms of boron, such as borax (sodium borate) or boric acid. (
  • The industrial production of boron carbide often adopts the carbothermic reduction smelting method using boric acid and carbon as raw materials. (
  • Boron is primarily used in chemical compounds. (
  • Boron compounds were relatively rarely used until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized and produced them in volume at low cost. (
  • Exposure to boron compounds may occur if you use consumer products that contain them, such as cosmetics and laundry products. (
  • Pesticides containing boron compounds should be used according to their directions and should be kept away from children. (
  • Children living near waste sites containing boron and boron compounds are likely to be exposed to higher than normal environmental levels of boron through breathing in boron-containing dust, touching soil, and eating contaminated soil. (
  • Boron joins carbon and nitrogen as one of the few elements in the periodic table known to form stable compounds featuring triple bonds. (
  • Boron-containing compounds are already used in commercial production of organic light-emitting diodes, for example. (
  • In their research work the Heidelberg scientists focus on coupling reactions of this kind with compounds involving the element boron which are similar in structure to the corresponding carbon compounds . (
  • Such compounds of the element boron were unknown so far, says the Heidelberg chemist. (
  • Because of poor neutron penetration in deeply seated tumors, in addition to non-selective accumulation of boron compounds in the tumor, these experiments failed. (
  • We're still waiting for analysis results of the sample of the black residue we sent to a lab, but it's likely residual boron trifluoride compounds/degraded BF3 compounds. (
  • The outstanding hardness of boron carbide makes it an ideal grinding powder for grinding, brightening and water jet cutting of metals and also porcelains. (
  • If you are searching for top quality Boron carbide powder , please do not hesitate to call us and also send out a query. (
  • According to the reaction principle, raw materials and equipment used in the synthesis of boron carbide powder, the industrial preparation methods of boron carbide powder mainly include high temperature self-propagating synthesis method, electric arc furnace carbothermic reduction method, chemical gas phase reaction method, gel carbothermic reduction method, etc. (
  • B4C powder MF: B4C B4C powder CAS No: 12069-32-8 B4C powder EI Boron is a solid black or silvery-gray color. (
  • Boron carbide Nanoparticles melt at approximately 2350°C. Boron carbide Nanoparticles boil at 3500°C. About Boron Carbide Nanoparticles Nano B4C Powder CAS 12069-32-8: B4C emerged as an byp Boron phosphide (or BP powder) is an inorganic compound that is composed of boron & phosphorus. (
  • Purity: 99.99%Particle Size: 60 mesh About Boron Phosphide BP Powder : Boron phosphide is an ino December 19 - Major Dutch energy suppliers are raising prices for next year, with Eneco, Vattenfall and EnNatuurlijk nearly doubling heating prices. (
  • Boron phosphide (or BP powder) is an inorganic compound that is composed of boron & phosphorus. (
  • Boron is a brownish-black powder that is a tough metalloid to generate. (
  • Picking the ideal boron nitride powder can help you obtain the appropriate efficiency for your electric insulation, thermal stability as well as other applications. (
  • Global boron nitride powder market trend 2023-2027 What is Boron Nitride Used For? (
  • Global boron carbide powder market trend 2024-2028 What is Boron Carbide B4C? (
  • Global boron carbide powder market trend 2022-2029 What is Boron Carbide Used For? (
  • Boron carbide (B4C) is an extremely hard boron-carbon ceramic and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine damage powder, and many industrial applications. (
  • About Boron Carbide PowderBoron carbide powder is hard, black, and shiny. (
  • The boron oxide formed by high temperature oxidation is lost in the gas phase, making it unstable and oxidized to form carbon dioxide and boron trioxide. (
  • Boron trioxide is semipermeable, and as such, the substrate oxidizes concurrently. (
  • As it does so, outwardly diffusing chromium (III) ions react with boron trioxide to form chromium borate, which depletes the diffusion barrier. (
  • Boron Oxide Nanoparticle Dispersions are suspensions of boron oxide nanoparticles in water or various organic solvents such as ethanol or mineral oil. (
  • Combining magnetic nanoparticles and icosahedral boron clusters in biocompatible inorganic nanohybrids for cancer therapy. (
  • Boron carbide Nanoparticles often come in Black colors. (
  • Boron carbide (B4C) is also called black ruby . (
  • Multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes as self-excited launchers. (
  • A self -excited launcher consisting of multi-walled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation . (
  • Scientists don't know if one form of boron is better than others. (
  • Breathing moderate levels of boron irritates the nose, throat, and eyes. (
  • According to an article in The Open Orthopaedics Journal , people with low levels of vitamin D are more likely to have low levels of boron. (
  • Experts haven't set a recommended amount of boron. (
  • In situ doping involves gas phase manipulation, that is, addition of certain amount of boron containing gas species to the diamond forming gas mixtures during the diamond thin film synthesis. (
  • We do not know whether children differ in their susceptibility to the effects of boron. (
  • What are some effects of boron on health? (
  • More research is needed to understand the effects of boron on these conditions. (
  • Because the main sources of boron are shared with those of magnesium, an arthritis diet, rich in vegetables and fruits, will help improve the disease. (
  • Sources of boron. (
  • Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride. (
  • Large quantities of boron can cause poisoning. (
  • Adding small quantities of boron to Ni-rich NCA changes the microstructure dramatically from spherical particles to elongated rod-like structures radiating out from the center. (
  • And boron is next to carbon and nitrogen in the periodic table, so should have comparable properties. (
  • People commonly use boron for boron deficiency and vaginal yeast infections. (
  • Taking boron by mouth treats and prevents boron deficiency. (
  • A boron deficiency also hasn't been proven to cause any diseases. (
  • This article illustrates the importance of boron in papaya development, symptoms of deficiency and management of crops. (
  • Boron deficiency is a global issue becoming more challenging with the increasing presence of acidic and alkaline soils. (
  • The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in numerous plant species was varied, suggesting that the test plants were susceptible to boron deficiency in different ways. (
  • In the recent past, research interests in the synthesis of conductive diamond thin films, especially the boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, have risen up to cater to the requirements of electronic, biosensoric, and electrochemical applications. (
  • Depending on diamond thin film synthesis conditions, boron doping routes, and further processing steps (if any), different types of BDD diamond thin films with application-specific properties can be obtained. (
  • This paper will review several important advances in the synthesis of boron-doped diamond thin films, especially those synthesized via gas phase manipulation. (
  • He produced enough boron to confirm a new element and named it boracium. (
  • What happens if I don't get enough boron? (
  • A diet rich in fruits and vegetables ensures a daily dose of correct boron. (
  • Biomin Boron is a liquid fertilizer derived from sodium tetraborate and hydrolyzed vegetable protein that is designed to prevent and correct boron deficiencies. (
  • If you don't want to take additional boron supplements, eating foods that contain boron, like prunes, raisins, dried apricots, or avocados, can help increase boron levels. (
  • Many foods, especially from plants, contain boron. (
  • Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate gel, which contains boron, is likely safe when applied to the skin for up to 5 weeks. (
  • A substance that contains boron is injected into a blood vessel. (
  • Elemental boron is a metalloid that is found in small amounts in meteoroids but chemically uncombined boron is not otherwise found naturally on Earth. (
  • If you have any condition that might be made worse by estrogen, avoid supplemental boron or high amounts of boron from foods. (
  • Ingestion of large amounts of boron can result in damage to the stomach, intestines, liver, kidney, and brain. (
  • Studies in animals indicate that the male reproductive organs, especially the testes, are affected if large amounts of boron are ingested for short or long periods of time. (
  • Boron is considered safe for most people, but large amounts can be harmful. (
  • A few studies suggest that people who consume low amounts of boron might have more trouble staying mentally alert and focused. (
  • Getting low amounts of boron might also lower bone strength. (
  • Very high amounts of boron can cause death. (
  • Further studies are warranted to determine whether there are optimal amounts of boron and silicon that should be delivered to typical and special population patients receiving parenteral nutrition. (
  • The word boron was coined from borax, the mineral from which it was isolated, by analogy with carbon, which boron resembles chemically. (
  • The name Boron originates from a combination of carbon and the Arabic word buraqu meaning borax. (
  • crystalline boron is silvery to black, extremely hard (about 9.5 on the Mohs scale), and a poor electrical conductor at room temperature. (
  • For example, is boron crystalline or amorphous? (
  • There aren't any specific dietary recommendations for boron, but it's estimated that most adults consume about 1-1.5 mg daily. (
  • There's no established dietary recommendation for boron in terms of daily value. (
  • What kinds of boron dietary supplements are available? (
  • Boron is present in dietary supplements in a variety of forms. (
  • Does boron interact with medications or other dietary supplements? (
  • Boron is not known to interact or interfere with any medicines or dietary supplements . (
  • Effect of dietary boron on the aging process. (
  • Effects of dietary boron in rats fed a vitamin D-deficient diet. (
  • Inverse sandwich structures are known to form in uranium-organic molecular complexes, Wang says, but this is the first time the structure has been seen in boron lanthanides. (
  • Although researchers know that boron plays a role in many human functions, its status as a minor mineral means there aren't many recent human trials regarding boron's benefits on the brain. (
  • Boron is a mineral in many foods. (
  • In fact, boron is a mineral closely related to bone health and development , as well as other nutrients such as calcium , magnesium and vitamin D. This mineral helps to raise estrogen levels in the blood, and t estrogens help preserve bones. (
  • Boron is an essential mineral for citrus plant growth and function, but it is often lacking in many soils. (
  • This article shows the application of ion-exclusion chromatography with conductivity detection following inverse suppression to determine boron content as borate in fluoridated drinking water. (
  • The existence of the neutron was the first postulated in 1932 by Chadwick [ 2 ], who explored the properties of the penetrating radiation emitted from beryllium and boron when bombarded by the alpha particles of polonium. (
  • Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a noninvasive therapeutic modality for treating locally invasive malignant tumors such as primary brain tumors and recurrent head and neck cancer. (
  • Locally recurrent HN cancer after full-dose irradiation poses a therapeutic challenge, and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may be a soluti. (
  • Boron carbide has big thermal neutron capture cross section and also strong neutron absorption capacity, so it is called neutron absorber and semiconductive. (
  • Additionally, to explore 1-MNPs' potential use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for treating cancer locally, the presence of the m-carboranyl coordinated with the MNPs core after uptake was proven by XPS and EELS. (
  • Boron neutron capture therapy is being studied as a treatment for glioblastoma multiforme and recurrent head and neck cancer. (
  • The development of new accelerators has given a new impetus to the development of new drugs and treatment technologies using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). (
  • Given that morbidity and mortality of cancer continue to remain at relatively constant levels, we believe that a new cancer therapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), deserves to be further developed [ 1 ]. (
  • Boron-neutron capture therapy for tumors / edited by H. Hatanaka. (
  • Boron is a compound that occurs in nature. (
  • This compound seemed to incorporate a boron-boron triple bond, surrounded by CO groups, but fell apart at temperatures above about -263 °C. (
  • This precursor is a very difficult to work with - it will degrade above -40°C - but we showed that we could selectively convert this compound first to make the boron-boron double bond, and in the second step to make the triple bond," says Braunschweig. (
  • They have checked their 250-gm supply of decaborane-the compound of hydrogen and boron they intend to use. (
  • Boron is a trace element or microelement important for the formation and hardness of bones, teeth and joints . (
  • Boron Carbide has the highest hardness of any material. (
  • Crystal boron has a black color, is second in hardness only to diamond, and is relatively brittle. (
  • carbonate) favors hydrolysis of the Boron Trifluoride and precipitation of CaF2 and Ca(BO2)2·6H2O, both of which may be recovered and disposed of as solids" (pg 13). (
  • Boron seems to affect the way the body handles other minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. (
  • In addition, boron supplements improve the use of calcium and magnesium , avoiding its elimination by the urine. (
  • Boron lanthanides are an important class of materials used in electronics and other applications, but nanoclusters of boron lanthanides have not been studied," said Lai-Sheng Wang, a professor of chemistry at Brown and senior author of a paper describing the work. (
  • This is made possible by so-called multi-centre bonding, which plays a significant role in boron chemistry. (
  • citation needed] Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures. (
  • Ultrapure boron for use in the semiconductor industry is produced by the decomposition of diborane at high temperatures and then further purified by the zone melting or Czochralski processes. (
  • Because it is a p-type semiconductor, boron carbide can be an appropriate prospect for digital devices that can work at high temperatures. (
  • Until now, the closest that anyone had come was a molecule made by using a laser to vaporize boron in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO) at very low temperatures. (
  • The principles of BNCT and the key milestones in its development are described in details, covering the mechanism of BNCT-induced cell death, the role of BNCT as a treatment modality for different cancers, the characteristics of the currently available boron preparations, and approaches to the delivery of isotope 10B to tumor cells. (
  • He proposed the principle of BNCT based on the selective concentration of boron in tumors and its irradiation by thermal neutrons. (
  • It is a two-step procedure: first, the patient is injected with a tumor localizing, non-radioactive boron-10 containing drug that has a high propensity to capture slow neutrons. (
  • In the second step, the patient is radiated with epithermal neutrons, which after losing energy as they penetrate tissue, are absorbed by the boron-10, and the resulting nuclear capture and fission reactions yield high-energy alpha particles, thereby killing the cancer cells. (
  • Boron carbide is likewise extensively used as control rods, securing products and neutron detectors in nuclear reactors since it can soak up neutrons without forming long-lived radionuclides. (
  • The neutrons react with the boron to kill the tumor cells without harming normal cells. (
  • In addition, boron carbide can effectively absorb neutrons, does not emit gamma rays that are harmful to the human body, and does not form secondary radiation pollution. (
  • Boron carbide can absorb a large number of neutrons without forming any radioactive isotopes. (
  • Ex situ doping involves boron doping into the already synthesized diamond thin films mainly via ion implantation. (
  • In the subsequent section, several aspects of BDD thin films including concept of doping, in situ boron doping, and electrode applications will be discussed. (
  • A few boron-containing organic pharmaceuticals are used or are in study. (
  • Boron-containing organic antibiotics are known. (
  • Boron carbide is insoluble in water and also organic solvents, has solid chemical security, is resistant to acid and alkali corrosion, as well as does not respond with almost all acid and alkali remedies. (
  • Natural boron is composed of two stable isotopes, one of which (boron-10) has a number of uses as a neutron-capturing agent. (
  • PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] - Brown University researchers and collaborators from Tsinghua University in China have shown that nanoclusters made from boron and lanthanide elements form highly stable and symmetric structures with interesting magnetic properties. (
  • Boron carbide is one of the most acid-stable substances, stable in all concentrated or dilute aqueous acids or bases. (
  • Boron carbide is basically stable below 800 ℃ in the air environment. (
  • Boron might act like estrogen. (
  • Boron helps your body metabolize key vitamins and minerals, has a key role in bone health, and it also affects estrogen and testosterone levels. (
  • Boron is known to play a role in extending the half-life of vitamin D and estrogen. (
  • By extending the amount of time estrogen is present in the body, boron may help to maintain healthy bones. (
  • Boron-rich plants such as the cabbage family are recommended during menopause to counteract the effects of lack of estrogen production. (
  • Retrieved on December 04, 2023 from (
  • Accurate and precise determination of boron isotope ratios using multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry or thermal ionization mass spectrometry requires isolation of the target element prior to isotopic analysis, which is accomplished using either ion exchange chromatography or microsublimation. (
  • Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. (
  • The research also helps shed light on the structure and chemical bonding of bulk boron lanthanides, which may help in engineering new boride materials. (
  • Increasing c-BN films utility in the chemical industry to etch boron nitride on account of solubility in alkaline nitrates and molten salts such as LiOH, KOH, and NaOH among others is projected to have a notable impact on its global demand. (
  • Boron carbide , also known as black diamond, is an inorganic substance with the chemical formula B4C, usually gray-black micropowder. (
  • Boron carbide also has excellent neutron absorption, high wear resistance and chemical stability. (
  • Boron carbide has the characteristics of low density, high strength, good high temperature stability and good chemical stability. (
  • U.S. natural gas prices have risen despite for Boron carbide, also known as black diamond, is an inorganic substance with the chemical formula B4C. (
  • What is boron?Boron is a chemical component with the sign B as well as atomic number 5. (
  • Boron has an energy band gap of 1.50 to 1.56 eV, which is higher than that of either silicon or germanium . (
  • Boron may be beneficial for bone growth and maintenance, central nervous system function, and the inflammatory response, and silicon may be beneficial for bone maintenance and wound healing. (
  • Researchers are studying whether boron could help lower the risk of cancer. (
  • Doping NCA cathodes with boron could, if combined with other stabilization strategies such as protective coatings, provide the boost to energy density and stability needed to push the driving range per charge of EVs beyond the 300-mile threshold, the researchers believe. (
  • When the researchers added boron to vanadium dioxide, the material still transitioned from an insulator to a metal, but the transition temperature now depended on how long it remained in a new metastable state created by boron. (
  • The largest known deposits are in Turkey, the largest producer of boron minerals. (
  • Through its hormonal effect and the interaction of boron with the metabolism of minerals, this element is very interesting to treat bones, teeth diseases, menopause, arthritis, e as a remedy for arthritis . (