Bornaviridae: A family in the order MONONEGAVIRALES comprising one genus Bornavirus. This family has a unique form of mRNA processing: replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Borna Disease: An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.Proventriculus: A thin-walled, glandular stomach found in birds. It precedes the gizzard.Mononegavirales: An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.Mononegavirales Infections: Infections with viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES. The concept includes FILOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Psittaciformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nobel PrizeBaltimoreDNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Roman World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the political domination and influence of ancient Rome, bringing to the conquered people the Roman civilization and culture from 753 B.C. to the beginning of the imperial rule under Augustus in 27 B.C. The early city built on seven hills grew to conquer Sicily, Sardinia, Carthage, Gaul, Spain, Britain, Greece, Asia Minor, etc., and extended ultimately from Mesopotamia to the Atlantic. Roman medicine was almost entirely in Greek hands, but Rome, with its superior water system, remains a model of sanitation and hygiene. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed pp196-99; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, pp107-120)Mimiviridae: A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Nipah Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Polycythemia Vera: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Semaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Lyssavirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Paramyxoviridae: A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.Ephemeral Fever: An Ephemerovirus infection of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus (EPHEMERAL FEVER VIRUS, BOVINE). It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, increased oropharyngeal secretions and lacrimation, joint pains, tremor, and stiffness.

Recovery of divergent avian bornaviruses from cases of proventricular dilatation disease: identification of a candidate etiologic agent. (1/24)

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Broad tissue and cell tropism of avian bornavirus in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease. (2/24)

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Experimental induction of proventricular dilatation disease in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) inoculated with brain homogenates containing avian bornavirus 4. (3/24)

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Novel avian bornavirus in a nonpsittacine species (Canary; Serinus canaria) with enteric ganglioneuritis and encephalitis. (4/24)

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Proteomics computational analyses suggest that the bornavirus glycoprotein is a class III viral fusion protein (gamma penetrene). (5/24)

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Avian bornaviruses in psittacine birds from Europe and Australia with proventricular dilatation disease. (6/24)

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Anatomical distribution of avian bornavirus in parrots, its occurrence in clinically healthy birds and ABV-antibody detection. (7/24)

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Analysis of naturally occurring avian bornavirus infection and transmission during an outbreak of proventricular dilatation disease among captive psittacine birds. (8/24)

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Avian bornavirus (ABV) is the presumed causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a major fatal disease in psittacines. However, the influencing factors and pathogenesis of PDD are not known and natural ABV infection exhibits remarkable variability. We investigated the course of infection in 18 cockatiels that were intracerebrally and intravenously inoculated with ABV. A persistent ABV infection developed in all 18 cockatiels, but, as in natural infection, clinical disease patterns varied. Over 33 weeks, we simultaneously studied seroconversion, presence of viral RNA and antigens, infectious virus, histopathologic alterations, and clinical signs of infection in the ABV-infected birds. Our study results further confirm the etiologic role of ABV in the development of PDD, and they provide basis for further investigations of the pathogenetic mechanisms and disease-inducing factors for the development of PDD ...
Bornaviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, reptiles, and humans serve as natural hosts. Currently, 16 viruses are assigned to eight species included in one genus in this family. Diseases associated with bornaviruses include Borna disease, a fatal neurologic disease of mammals restricted to central Europe; and proventricular dilatation disease in birds. Borna disease was first identified in 1926 and its genome was isolated in 1990. The viral family is named after the city of Borna in Saxony, Germany, which is where a large number of animals were lost to the sporadic encephalopathy caused by the viral disease. Table legend: "*" denotes type species. Bornavirions are enveloped, with spherical geometries. The diameter is around 70 to 130 nm. Genomes are linear, around 8.9kb in length. The genome codes for 9 proteins. Below are a few of the essential proteins of Bornaviridae that have been characterized. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry ...
Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are a recently described group of intranuclear negative-stranded RNA viruses (Order Mononegavirales, Family Bornaviridae). At least 13 different ABV genotypes have been described. One genotype, the Canada goose genotype (ABV-CG), has been isolated from geese and swans and is widely distributed across North America. We have isolated and characterized a previously undescribed genotype of avian bornavirus from the brains of wild ducks. This new genotype, provisionally designated ABV genotype MALL, was detected in 12 of 83 mallards, and 1 of 8 wood ducks collected at a single location in central Oklahoma. The virus was cultured on primary duck embryo fibroblasts, fragments were cloned, and its genome sequence of 8904 nucleotides determined. This new genotype has 72% nucleotide identity and 83% amino acid identity with the ABV-CG genotype previously shown to be present in geese and swans. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of the brains and eyes of four positive ducks
Bornaviruses, a type of RNA virus that causes disease in horses and sheep, can insert their genetic material into human DNA and first did so at least 40 million years ago, the study shows. The findings, published January 7 in Nature, provide the first evidence that RNA viruses other than retroviruses (such as HIV) can stably integrate genes into host DNA. The new work may help reveal more about the evolution of RNA viruses as well as their mammalian hosts. ...
About eight percent of human genetic material comes from a virus and not from our ancestors - and could be causing mutations and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.. Research from the University of Texas shows that the genomes of humans and other mammals contain DNA derived from the insertion of bornaviruses, RNA viruses whose replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.. The assimilation of viral sequences into the host genome is a process referred to as endogenization. It occurs when viral DNA integrates into a chromosome of reproductive cells and is subsequently passed from parent to offspring.. Until now, retroviruses were the only viruses known to generate such endogenous copies in vertebrates. But Feschotte said that scientists have found that non-retroviral viruses called bornaviruses have been endogenized repeatedly in mammals throughout evolution.. Bornaviruses are unique because they infect only neurons, establishing a persistent infection in their hosts brain, ...
Zoonotic bornavirus from variegated squirrel tied to fatal CNS infections in German breeders.». Three squirrel breeders in Germany likely died of a novel virus they caught from the animals, researchers said.. Over a 2-year period, the three men developed progressive encephalitis or meningoencephalitis that led to death within 2 to 4 months, according to Martin Beer, DVM, of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut in Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany, and colleagues.. The men, all from the German state of Saxony-Anhalt, bred variegated squirrels, a species native to Central and southern North America that is kept as an exotic pet in Europe, Beer and colleagues reported in the New England Journal of Medicine.. Genomic analysis found a previously unknown bornavirus in a contact squirrel and in brain tissue from the three men, the researchers reported, and it is the «likely causative agent» in their deaths.. The known bornavirus species infect a range of warm-blooded animals, from birds to primates, and ...
Avian Bornavirus (ABV) is a progressive and often fatal disease that causes neurologic symptoms in birds. It is ubiquitous and approximately 1/3 of compa
Delnatte, P., Nagy, É., Ojkic, D., Leishman, D., Crawshaw, G., Elias, K. and Smith, D.A. 2014. Seroprevalence and prevalence of cloacal shedding of avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014 Jul;50(3):512-523. doi: 10.7589/2013-08-218. Epub 2014 Apr 29 ...
Variegated Squirrel 1 Bornavirus First Described in Germany. Last week, the New England Journal of Medicine published an article regarding a novel zoonotic disease, first described as the suspected cause of three fatalities in Germany (1). The new virus, which has been provisionally termed variegated squirrel 1 bornavirus or VSBV-1, was found to be unique from the previously known and described bornaviruses (1). VSBV-1 was tentatively named for its first cases: three men from the Saxony-Anhalt region of Germany who bred variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) (1, 2, 3). The particular species of squirrel common across all of the breeders, variegated squirrels, originates in parts of Central and North America and were kept as exotic pets (3).. In 2015, German officials reported a cluster of three acute fatal encephalitis cases in the Saxony-Anhalt region to the Early Warning and Response System of the European Center for Disease Control (ECDC) (4). The cases occurred in succession between ...
Zoonotic bornavirus from variegated squirrel tied to fatal CNS infections in German breeders." Three squirrel breeders in Germany likely died of a novel virus. ...
Genetic code from retroviruses has been found to compose some 8 percent of the human genome, having been copied in during replication and left to be inherited by us and our progeny. But non-retroviral RNA viruses do not use their hosts DNA to replicate-and some do not even enter the host cells nucleus. Nevertheless, new research has turned up surprising evidence that some of these viruses are enmeshed in the genomes of vertebrates-including humans and other mammals ...
Homebrewers often wonder how they can increase the alcohol by volume (ABV) in their brew. Heres how to do that without affecting the color or flavor.
Researchers are making progress in the fight to track and treat one of the most common illnesses affecting exotic birds. Proventricular Dilatation Disease, or PDD, is the result of an avian bornavirus infection and is characterized by intestinal paralysis, which results in food becoming stuck in the birds proventriculus. The intestine swells, causing discomfort, and when the gut cannot absorb nutrients from the stalled food, the bird dies. Interestingly, not all birds with PDD show …
Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is one of the worlds most important inflammatory diseases of the somatic and autonomic nervous system in psittacines. Only in 2008, almost 40 years after PDD has been described for the first time, one succeeded in identifying the infectious agent that is now known as Avian Bornavirus (ABV). In the present study, a total of 171 psittacines from Switzerland were examined on ABV by conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partly also by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Retrospectively paraffin-embedded brain samples from 69 PDD cases from 1989 to 2002 were analysed. The prospective study consisted of 102 psittacine samples of choanae and/or cloacal swabs of birds with PDD-suspicion, of clinically normal birds from flocks with confirmed PDD, of animals from a parrot rescue center as well as from necropsy material from psittacines with clinical and/or gross PDD-suspicion. This work shows a clear relationship between PDD and ABV. ...
Proventricular Dilatation Disease (PDD) is a wasting type disease that can affect and is fatal in captive and free-ranging birds; especially young birds. This disease was first recognized in 1971 and since then has been seen in many species including cockatoos, conures, grey parrots, cockatiels, Eclectus parrots, thick billed Amazons, Blue fronted Amazons, and budgies, as well as macaws. This disease is thought to be caused by a virus and can be passed on to other birds, but not humans. It is also known as Proventricular Dilatation Syndrome, Neuropathic Gastric Dilatation, or Macaw Wasting Disease.
Bornaviruses are considered to be the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine birds. In order to detect haematological and blood chemistry changes during the development of PDD and a possible correlation with clinical signs and the virological status, six African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) were experimentally infected with parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) by subcutaneous route. All six parrots developed clinical signs of varying extent and successful infection was confirmed in all the birds by seroconversion or detection of RNA of the PaBV-4 infection strain. Based on population-based and intra-individual reference ranges established during 12 months prior to experimental infection, only minor haematological changes were detected in individual birds after infection. Changes in blood chemistry were restricted to aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, total protein, glucose and uric acid. Plasma protein electrophoresis revealed marked changes starting 10 ...
Proventricular Dilatation Disease, or PDD, is a disorder of the central nervous system and a fatal viral disease that currently affects 50 different species of domesticated and wild psittacine parrots as well as 5 other Orders of birds. PDD was previously known as "macaw wasting syndrome" when it was mistakenly thought to infect only macaws. The Spixs macaw, whose current population is estimated at 100 live birds, is currently one of the most endangered species of birds in the world, with its very existence being threatened by PDD.. ...
Bornavirus (BDV) owes its name to the town of Borna, Germany, where a virus epidemic in 1885 wiped out a regiment of cavalry horses. BDV infects a range of birds and mammals, including humans. It is unique because it infects only neurons, establishing a persistent infection in its hosts brain, and its entire life cycle takes place in the nucleus of the infected cells. Feschotte said this intimate association of BDV with the cell nucleus prompted researchers to investigate whether bornaviruses may have left behind a record of past infection in the form of endogenous elements. They searched the 234 known eukaryotic genomes (those genomes that have been fully sequenced) for sequences that are similar to that of BDV. "The researchers unearthed a plethora of endogenous Borna-like N (EBLN) elements in many diverse mammals, " Feschotte said ...
The crop, being part of the digestive tract, can become infected by many of the same things that infect other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Sour crop is a term used to denote any infection in the crop. The infection causes the crop to "shut down", and the food contents in the crop become sour. Crop infections can be caused by bacteria and sometimes yeast, especially Candida species. Trichomonas, a protozoal organism, causes crop infections that may be difficult to diagnose and this infection is often treated based on clinical suspicion. The virus that causes proventricular dilatation often also affects the crop. Other crop problems that can occur include crop burns (from improperly heating formula for baby birds), crop lacerations (from incorrectly feeding baby birds or from other trauma), and the entrapment of foreign objects.. ...
200 proof ethanol is 100% ABV. Related Questions: What does ABV mean? How do you get to 200 proof ethanol, if ethanol forms an azeotrope at 96.2% ABV? How much water is present in 200 proof Culinary Solvent?
Autism/PDD - MedHelps Autism/PDD Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Autism/PDD. Find Autism/PDD information, treatments for Autism/PDD and Autism/PDD symptoms.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about FinalCh6ABV. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
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The exploration of the evolution of RNA viruses has been aided recently by the discovery of copies of fragments or complete genomes of non-retroviral RNA viruses (Non-retroviral Endogenous RNA Viral Elements, or NERVEs) in many eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Among the most prominent NERVEs are partial copies of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of the mitoviruses in plant mitochondrial genomes. Mitoviruses are in the family Narnaviridae, which are the simplest viruses, encoding only a single protein (the RdRP) in their unencapsidated viral plus strand. Narnaviruses are known only in fungi, and the origin of plant mitochondrial mitovirus NERVEs appears to be horizontal transfer from plant pathogenic fungi. At least one mitochondrial mitovirus NERVE, but not its nuclear copy, is expressed.
An endogenous viral element (EVE) is a DNA sequence derived from a virus, and present within the germline of a non-viral organism. EVEs may be entire viral genomes (proviruses), or fragments of viral genomes. They arise when a viral DNA sequence becomes integrated into the genome of a germ cell that goes on to produce a viable organism. The newly established EVE can be inherited from one generation to the next as an allele in the host species, and may even reach fixation. Endogenous retroviruses and other EVEs that occur as proviruses can potentially remain capable of producing infectious virus in their endogenous state. Replication of such active endogenous viruses can lead to the proliferation of viral insertions in the germline. For most non-retroviral viruses, germline integration appears to be a rare, anomalous event, and the resulting EVEs are often only fragments of the parent virus genome. Such fragments are usually not capable of producing infectious virus, but may express protein or ...
The South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (DHEC) has proposed a rule which would repeal state code Chapter 61-52: Psittacine Birds.
Scarlet macaws are beautiful, rainbow-colored birds. In Peru, scientists have been studying the same population for nearly three decades. But a macaws life is treacherous from day one -- especially for the chicks who arent born first.
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AggressionReproductive disordersFeather picking and feather cystsOral and cloacal papillomatosisMutilation syndromeChlamydiosisProventricular dilatation diseaseBacterial and viral infectionsDrug sensitivitiesAllergiesSunken eye sinusitisToe deformities in young macawsAcne (ingrown facial feathers)Respiratory infectionsMalcolored feathersSome diseas
what is the strongest beer youve drank? I dont think Ive ever got higher than 9-10% ABV. btw, how strong is malt liquor? we used to drink that in
Ive a 1-yr-previous feminine cockatiel. She places her rear towards the hen cage together with her tail within the air and goes into her personal little cockatiel world, quietly squawking. And by "personal little world,?I imply which you can truly contact my cockatiel with out her being frightened.. Your feminine cockatiel is in her personal little world. The posture you describe seems like a pure mating posture for a hen cockatiel. The undeniable fact that she displays breeding conduct doesn? imply that she has to have a mate. It merely signifies that she is having a pure organic response to her atmosphere.. There are many elements of a feminine cockatiel? life that may stimulate breeding conduct. This consists of a rise in gentle, warmth and humidity. There will also be one thing in or close to your cockatiel? hen cage that looks as if a nest or a nest cavity. It is regular for a cockatiel hen to behave on this method every so often.. However, do no matter you possibly can to maintain this ...
... Cockatiels are one of the most lovable pets in the world. They are a valuable treasure to the owner. Cockatiels, just li
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Borna disease virus (BDV) The only species in the genus Bornavirus. Named after a town in Saxony where the first major outbreak in horses occurred. Negative-strand RNA virus which produces persistent infection in a variety of experimental …. The London encyclopaedia, or, Universal dictionary of science, art, literature, and practical mechanics, by the orig. ed. of the Encyclopaedia metropolitana [T. Curtis]. (1839). by Thomas Curtis (of Grove house sch, Islington ...
Gouty NephropathyCockatiel Illnesses Cockatiels are one of the most lovable pets in the world. They are a valuable treasure to the owner. Cockatiels, just like
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Texas Edition note:. Topics for Chapters 1-29 in our 2015 Texas Edition are identical to those of the Macaw book. Chapter 30, however, is unique to the Lone Star State. ...
The information source for cockatiel genetics and color mutations featuring educational books & articles on cockatiels & parrots by international author Linda S. Rubin. Cockatiel Genetics Made Easy! Huge Article Archive on breeding & companion cockatiels.
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naz and admins and moderator, hope all are fine, i made a file of excel that covers genetics mutation of cocktaiel, mom+dad=chicks(male)+chicks(female). But problem is that file is xls, that is not supported second there is limit for that, so admin i think add xls file in file type and give them limit of 5MB. So other seniors can see and modify the file and update it. Waiting for seniors comment and help.
naz and admins and moderator, hope all are fine, i made a file of excel that covers genetics mutation of cocktaiel, mom+dad=chicks(male)+chicks(female). But problem is that file is xls, that is not supported second there is limit for that, so admin i think add xls file in file type and give them limit of 5MB. So other seniors can see and modify the file and update it. Waiting for seniors comment and help.
Add up to 2 more sites and replot for Specific conductance, water, unfiltered, microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. ...
... is a superb example of quality Valpolicella, coming from the Classico area in the hills and of course being Superiore meaning it has been aged for 12 months and is at least 12% abv ensuring its quality.
June 22, the NCPTGIG support group will meet at the Old Hickory Boy Scouts of America district office at 660 Silas Creek Parkway at 6 PM for a gluten-free potluck dinner and educational panel. This will be an excellent time for you to invite the health care professionals who are taking an interest in your well-being. We will have planned activities for the children as well ...
Of 117 imported psittacine birds examined for the presence of blood parasites, 18 (15-3 per cent) were found to be infected. The most common parasites were microfilaria and Haemoproteus, but Aegyptianella and a Trypanosoma sp were also observed. Haemoproteus handai was diagnosed in several birds and for the first time in lesser sulphur-crested cockatoos. The significance of the parasites observed is discussed and also that of other haematozoa recorded from psittacines but not found during the present survey.. ...
Cockatiel, cockatiels, symptoms of a sick bird, symptoms of sick cockatiels, symptoms of a sick cockatiel, pet birds, sick birds, vomiting, regurgitation, what is the difference between vomiting and regurgitation in birds cockatiels
...Researchers and conservationists from the Wildlife Conservation Societ...The newly fledged birds total 29 macaws a big success for conservatio... The success in increasing the nesting success of scarlet macaws throu...With a total estimated population of some 300 macaws in the country e...,Wildlife,Conservation,Society,helps,scarlet,macaws,take,flight,in,Guatemala,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
... Kaytee Forti Diet Pro Health Cockatiel Food provides cockatiels with the daily nutrition they need for a long, happy life. This wholesome blend is fortified with Omega-3 and probiotics to support your bi...
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Borna disease virus (BDV) The only species in the genus Bornavirus. Named after a town in Saxony where the first major outbreak in horses occurred. Negative-strand RNA virus which produces persistent infection in a variety of experimental …. The London encyclopaedia, or, Universal dictionary of science, art, literature, and practical mechanics, by the orig. ed. of the Encyclopaedia metropolitana [T. Curtis]. (1839). by Thomas Curtis (of Grove house sch, Islington ...
Parrot Lovers,Dedicated to Parrots of all types - from true parrots like the Macaw and the African Greys to Cockatoos and parakeets.
Normally, Cockatiels are quite easy to breed. There are several things that can go wrong, but if you have your birds on a good healthy diet and have waited until they are a good age, you should end up with healthy babies. - Breeding Cockatiels - Birds at BellaOnline
Food With High Uric Acid. Cockatiel IllnessesCockatiel Illnesses Cockatiels are one of the most lovable pets in the world. They are a valuable treasure to the o
Buy the Kaytee Supreme Fortified Daily Blend Bird Food for Cockatiels (25 lbs.) for your pet plus read product reviews, see photos and watch videos at PetStore.com.
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Your own runny nose, itchy eyes or hacking cough may make you nervous about spreading your cold to your avian companion. A cockatiel can develop a respiratory infection, but a tiel cant get a cold ...
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Unfortunately I didnt notice that my phone was about to die and I didnt get any pictures of us carrying in the birds from their outdoor enclosures to the indoor ones. Willow at one point had 3 cockatiels on her, one on each arm and one on her head that was grooming her hair. She is seriously an animal whisperer. Of course now she wants a couple of Cockatiels. I sad absolutely no to a parrot or macaw after learning so much about them. They are like having a toddler for 100 years ...
Background: Ara ararauna is widely distributed in South America and frequently affected by anthropogenic activities and environmental pressures such as illegal bird trafficking, and habitat loss. Also some endoparasites can threaten their health, and cause their death, or prevent the reintroduct...
Very little is known about these critically endangered animals, which have not been sighted in decades and might even be extinct. One specimen lived 14.8 years in captivity [0669]. Anecdotal reports of animals living over 20 years in captivity might be true but are impossible to verify. ...
Go where the birds are, not where the birders are, as you spot Scarlet Macaws at Carara, the Resplendent Quetzal in San Gerardo de Dota, Motmots in San Vito and much more.
I figured this might be less touchy than my GOD VS EVOLUTION post! lol I have a Shitzu/Bichon Mix and a Pearled Cockatiel Both very goofy and funny :) So...
A Guide to Cockatiels and Their Mutations as Pet and Aviary Birds (Revised Edition). by Dr. Terry Martin & Diana Andersen. This guide from Australian Birdkeeper is a must for both cockatiel pet and breeder enthusiasts. 375 color images depict all mutations established worldwide. Chapters include: Wild Cockatiels; Aviary Birds: Housing, Feeding, Breeding, Artificial Incubation, Handrearing; Companion Birds: Housing, Environment, Enrichment, Feeding, Behaviour; Colour Mutations: Basic Genetics; Worldwide Mutations: European, North American and Australian, Combination Colours; Health and Disease.. Item Number: 353. ISBN: 9780975081778. Pages: 194 pp.. Published: 2007. Illustrations: Color photos. Binding: Paperback. Size: 6.5″ x 9.25″. ...
Sexing Cockatiel is easy compared to sexing other type of parrot (with the exception of Eclectus Parrot, some subspecies of Lovebird and Parakeet) There are Several way to verify the sex of Cockatiel.
Q--I have a mature cockatiel named Jimmy who loves to swing upside down, then falls from his perch. My vet says that Jimmy is physically fine. Is my bird dizzy?A--You may have a natural acrobat
Browns Tropical Carnival Macaw is a special blend of nuts and fruits that macaws love to eat and provides a healthy and easily digestible diet. It tastes great and is nutritious, your macaw will enjoy eating this special Big Bites gourmet blend Contains almonds in shell, walnuts in shell, filberts in shell, pecans in shell, pine nuts, pineapple chunks, papaya chunks and more and beneficial pro-biotic ensure proper digestion.
In our largest species of parrots, available parrots are congo african grey parrots, macaw, cockatoo, amazon, cockatiel, electus parrot & ringneck parakeets.
This chapter describes the PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) and PDD Behavior Inventory-Screening Version (PDDBI-SV) which are relatively new informant-based rating scales useful clinically and for...
Friday, November 14, 2008 8:36 PM - Incoming Email - I don t know how it can be addressed if the Humane Society won t do anything about it. But I quit going in there years ago. Crowded, dark, birds in not very clean cages. They didn t have macaws in the store back then. But I didn t like the place. Thanks for bringing this up. --Friday, November 14, 2008 8:38 PM- Incoming Email - I am just now seeing your posting. Have you tried contacting the ASPCA … ...
Beer Quality: Though the difference between one standard craft beer bar and another in this category may be effectively negligible and, hence, almost irrelevant, at a brew pub this is crucial and Dieu du Ciel is world class. Simply considering the ratings of their offerings at Beer Advocate and RateBeer demonstrate this, yet the beers speak for themselves. I tasted Aphrodisiaque (Cocoa/Vanilla Stout 5% ABV), Rigor Mortis de Table (Belgian Strong Pale Ale 8% ABV), Première Neige (Aniseed/Nutmeg/Pepper Witbier 5% ABV), Voyageur des Brumes (ESB 5% ABV), Solstice Dété aux Mangues (Sour Wheat Beer with Mango 6.5% ABV), Isseki Nicho (Imperial Dark Saison 9% ABV), Cornemuse (Scotch Ale 8% ABV), and Péché Mortel (Imperial Coffee Stout 9.5% ABV). I will make a few brief comments and give style-specific ratings for each after the pub review concludes. Grade: A+ ...
Abstract niet beschikbaar. The taxonomy and subtyping of Chlamydia are not well settled. Among the three known species C.psittaci is the only of zoonotic significance. The species is occurring worldwide in many animal species, particularly in birds. Psittacose is used to name the disease in psittacine birds, ornithose for the disease in pigeons, turkeys, ducks and other birds. the clinical picture varies from an acute respiratory disease with a high fatality rate to a more chronic infection leading to carriership. Man acquires the infection usually by inhaling the agent from desiccated drippings of infected birds or by direct contact with for exampling aborting animals. In the Netherlands 60-100 cases are reported yearly. It concerns mostly individuals who have been in close contact with birds in individual households, petshops or poultry industry. Interhuman transmission may occur, but is considered not to be of great importance. Infections associated with consumption of food from animal origin ...
If your kid has expressed his or her interest is birds mainly 7 Unique Do Cockatiels Talk, you should buy him or her some bird watching binoculars. Giving your kid bird watching binoculars will encourage him or her to pursue his or her interest. Note that developing the interests of your child is very important. According to child development experts, developing the interest of children at a young age can help them adjust better in life.. Binoculars are the most indispensable tools for bird watching thus it is very important that you get your kid trustworthy bird watching binoculars. Now, you do not really have to buy your kid one of those top of the line binoculars that can cost you a fortune, there are plenty of binoculars that are very trustworthy but do not cost much. Note that children do not really need those high powered binoculars just to watch birds so forget about those high end products and focus your attention on those binoculars that are easy to use.. When choosing bird watching ...
Cockatoos , We breed parrots,chicks and eggs of all types. Available are healthy parrot species and fertile DNA Test Parrot Eggs for...
Parrot Treat 4 lbs. Featherglow Avian Diets are among the worlds finest nutritional mixes formulated exclusively for pet birds. Store in a cool dry place; refrigerate for extended freshness.
Pets may be sent home with liquid medications. An oral liquid medication must be given by mouth to be effective. An injectable liquid medication must be given by injection beneath the skin to be useful. Some injectable medications require that the medication is inserted into the muscle to be most effective. It is important that you understand how to read the syringes that are sent home so your pet gets the proper amount of medication at each dose. ...
A Florida woman says she is locked in a battle of wits against a tame macaw that has decided to stay in nearby trees after escaping from its owner.. Tania Regidor of Tampa said the bird, Chiquita, escaped from its owner, who has cancer and recently completed chemotherapy, during feeding time, The Tampa Tribune reported Monday.. Regidor said the bird spent the weekend flying from tree to tree in the neighborhood, each time going a little higher into the branches.. She said Chiquita and the birds brother, Papito, have been hand-fed since they were babies. She said the bird would not know how to survive in the wild.. ...
This wooden bird perch can be used in any bird cage. Its perfect for smaller birds such as cockatiels or peachfaces and it has a feeding dish at the end.Size: S
Parrot Forum for people with questions like how to teach parrot step up or to train a trick? Parrot Forum for owners of parakeet, budgie, lovebird, parrotlet, poicephalus, sun conure, blue and gold macaw, african gray, senegal parrot, cockatiel, conure, african grey, eclectus, amazon, cockatoo, macaw. How to train parrot to do tricks? How do I teach my parakeet to step up without biting? Free guides and tutorials for training and taming parrots. Where to buy parrot? How to take care of my parrot? What kind of food to feed parrot? Join the parrot forum.
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A busy bird is a happy bird! At BusyBird.com you will find important, detailed information on Parrotlet care and Cockatiel care as well as unique bird toys, millet spray, perches, and parts to help keep your bird busy and happy. Cockatiels and parrotlets are our favorite but our toys are great for all parrots alike! We offer one of a kind bird swings, activity centers and toys at way less than retail prices. We love birds and love making birds happy! bird toys, cockatiels toys, parrotlet toys, shredding toys, cockatiel information, parrotlet information.
I have 4 newborn baby cockatiels. They are a few days old and are parent-fed. The parents have only been eating rice - Answered by a verified Bird Veterinarian
How to teach counre to step up? How to teach macaw tricks? Tutorial about parrots. How to teach Senegal Parrot to step up without biting? Why does my parrot bite me? How can I make my amazon love me? Best way to teach sun conure tricks. Free information about parrots instead of book or dvd. The parrot forum is a forum for parrot owners interested in discussing training, freeflight, health, nutrition, and other parrot topics. Welcome to the parrot forum.
Greg Glendell companion parrot care consultancy offers expert bird friendly advice on how to care for and deal with behavioural problems in parrots, amazons, macaws, cockatoos, cockatiels, cockateils
Im not saying low ABV stouts arent out there, but theyre hardly the norm for the category. I guess that also depends on what you consider low ABV. The topic here, poolside drinking / session beers makes me think of ABV under 5%, not palate fatiguing, and ideally refreshing. Pretty much not at all what I think of in stout. When I think of stouts I think moderate to high (to very, very high) ABV, and more on the sweet, heavy, and complex side of the equation. Basically a stout is the opposite of what I want by the pool. But I am a fan of the style, and its exactly what I want when sitting by a fire in late fall or winter. When you say youd take a stout over a typical session any day, I might also for one or two in cooler weather, but I doubt Id want several in a row over a long period of time, which is the point of the session beer. I agree with your earlier point that lagers and pilsners are good for that. But of course everyone is different, and some people might just prefer a stout in ...
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Watch scenes from the 2013 World Dairy Expo, where KHW Regiment Apple-Red-ET won the reserve championship while her clone took home the grand championship.. 1 Comment. ...
Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of birds caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci. This disease is called psittacosis in humans. It may be called either avian chlamydiosis or psittacosis in psittacine birds; the term avian chlamydiosis is generally used in other avian species. Infections are particularly common among psittacine birds and pigeons, but most or all species of birds are probably susceptible. Some birds carry this organism asymptomatically. Others become mildly to severely ill, either immediately or after they have been stressed. Significant economic losses may be seen in turkeys and ducks, and high mortality can occur in clinically affected psittacines. Humans are readily infected by C. psittaci. In 1929, exposure to imported pet psittacines caused a pandemic in the U.S. and Europe. Since that time, improved screening and control of avian infections have decreased the incidence of human disease. However, C. psittaci is difficult to eliminate entirely; sporadic
They are also very emotionally sensitive. White cockatoos and african greys are at the top of the list of birds with a tendency to pluck feathers (especially bad cases, at least among toos, can even self-mutilate and chew up their own skin and flesh), macaws second place. They dont do well with change, boredom, unstable routines or -household, and there are many other reasons birds may pluck. But there is also the question of individual personality there, and how the bird was raised. In short: Parent-raised birds (and ironically, wild-caught ones) do better in captivity than hand-raised ones. Their development gets stunted easily if theyre hand-raised, in a way most other animals arent, since we humans dont know how to raise them in their way, and commercial hand-feeding often means the baby is weaned many months too early ...
Tap into the protein power of real egg to help keep your Cockatiel healthy. Kaytees mixed seed diet is packed with real egg crumbles to form a scrumptious meal that delivers protein, vitamins, minerals, and DHA Omega-3 acids. Unlike other egg-based bird foods that function as a supplement to your birds diet, Egg-Cite is designed to be your birds primary food source. Contains a mix of grass and plant seeds, pellets fortified with added vitamin and minerals plus a variety of wholesome ingredients. Conveniently packaged in a resealable plastic fresh guard pouch. It is no secret that your birds health and well-being are directly tied to her diet. In fact, most diseases and early deaths of caged birds are a result of an unbalanced, unhealthy diet. Help your bird enjoy a long, healthy life. Offer her a blend of healthy, species-specific foods - rich in vitamins, minerals, and proteins, but low in fats and excess sugars. ...
Parrot Rescue Centre dedicated to improving the lives of suffering, abused and unwanted pet parrots by providing an appropriate environment for their individual needs. Help support the PRC by purchasing Bird Toys and Accessories
A cockatiel came in for breathing problems and bubbles from the nose. The owners had just noticed it last night, so they didnt wait to see if it would improve. The bird was alert when it came in, but I could hear some "clicks" when it beathed. I started doing my exam and heard a lot of fluid in the lungs and air sacs. It seemed to be getting stressed, so I started to put it back in its cage to prevent further handling. As I did so it started to act strange, and in less than a minute had died in my hands. All of this was right in front of the owner, so they know that I didnt handle him roughly, but they were also surprised ...
I have a 11 year old cockatiel whos eyes, 1 at a time, they looked like he had millet shell or something stuck and after that he couldnt see. Now both eyes are that way and he just sits in the bottom...
Familie Bornaviridae. *Genus Carbovirus, mit Species Southwest carbovirus (Southwest carpet python virus, SWCPV) und ...
Bornaviridae, a family of viruses associated with Borna disease. *Borna disease virus ...
The order currently includes the eight virus families Bornaviridae, Mymonaviridae, Filoviridae, Nyamiviridae, Paramyxoviridae, ...
... viruses 1 and 2 are neurotropic viruses and members of the Bornaviridae family within the Mononegavirales order. ...
A member of the Bornaviridae family, avian bornavirus was isolated in 71 percent of samples from infected birds, but in none of ...
This approach has provided minimum ages ranging from 30-93 million years for the Parvoviridae, Filoviridae, Bornaviridae and ...
Viralzone: Bornaviridae Bornavirus/host Interactome ICTV Borna: Bornaviridae. ... Bornaviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, reptiles, and humans ... Below are a few of the essential proteins of Bornaviridae that have been characterized. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry ...
Bornaviridae Sub-Family: Unassigned Genus: Bornavirus Mammalian 1 bornavirus Passeriform 1 bornavirus Passeriform 2 bornavirus ...
Order Mononegavirales Family Bornaviridae - Borna disease virus Family Filoviridae - includes Ebola virus, Marburg virus Family ...
... bornaviridae MeSH B04.909.777.455.149.135 --- borna disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.455.300 --- filoviridae MeSH B04.909.777.455 ... bornaviridae MeSH B04.820.455.149.135 --- borna disease virus MeSH B04.820.455.300 --- filoviridae MeSH B04.820.455.300.200 ...
Order Mononegavirales Family Bornaviridae - includes Borna disease virus Family Filoviridae - includes Ebola virus, Marburg ...
Baculoviridae Barnaviridae Benyviridae Betaflexiviridae Betaherpesvirinae Bicaudaviridae Bidnaviridae Birnaviridae Bornaviridae ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5' end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3' end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years).. Two proposals have been advanced for how the wasp/virus association developed. The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses.. The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasp's genome. Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus ...
The Herpesvirales naming system originated in 1973 and has been elaborated considerably since. All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system specifies that each species name consists of three parts: a first word, a second word, and finally a number. The first word should be derived from the taxon (family or subfamily) to which its primary natural host belongs. The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g. bovine), and the host family name for other viruses (ending in -id, e.g. equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in the family Herpesviridae, which are divided into subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae, will have the word alphaherpesvirus, betaherpesvirus, or gammaherpesvirus added, respectively. Species in ...
Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[1] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland (1851-1931) invented a filter - known today as the Chamberland filter - that had pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[2] In 1876, Adolf Mayer, who directed the Agricultural Experimental Station in Wageningen was the first to show that what he called "Tobacco Mosaic Disease" was infectious, he thought that it was caused by either a toxin or a very small bacterium. Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
Mononegavirales adalah ordo virus RNA yang berada dalam filum Negarnaviricota dan kelas Monjiviricetes.[1] Nama Mononegavirales berasa dari bahasa Yunani μóνος [monos] yang merujuk pada genom untai tunggal pada sebagian besar ordo ini, bahasa Latin negare yang merujuk pada sifat sense-negatif genom virus, serta akhiran -virales yang menunjukkan ordo virus.[2] Anggota ordo ini yang dikenal di antaranya virus rabies dan virus Ebola yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit, baik pada manusia maupun hewan. ...
To start with section uncollapsed, use selected = I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VIII or give as first parameter. e.g. {{Baltimore classification,II}}. ...
Viralzone: Bornaviridae Bornavirus/host Interactome ICTV Borna: Bornaviridae. ... Bornaviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, reptiles, and humans ... Below are a few of the essential proteins of Bornaviridae that have been characterized. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry ...
Bornaviridae. Family: Bornaviridae. Chapter Version: ICTV Ninth Report; 2009 Taxonomy Release. Since only one genus is ...
Bunyaviridae and Bornaviridae. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s):. Carter G.R. and ...
Familie Bornaviridae. *Genus Carbovirus, mit Species Southwest carbovirus (Southwest carpet python virus, SWCPV) und ...
Bornaviridae 21. Orthomyxoviridae 22. Bunyaviridae 23. Arenaviridae 24. Coronaviridae 25. Arteriviridae 26. Picornaviridae 27. ...
Family Bornaviridae Family Orthomyxoviridae Family Bunyaviridae Family Arenaviridae Evolution of Minus-Strand RNA Viruses ...
Family Bornaviridae 386. Family Flaviviridae 386. Family Bunyaviridae 391. Family Birnaviridae 392 ...
... the bornaviridae family, the bunyaviridae family, the arenaviridae family, coronaviridae family, poliovirus family or the ...
Bornaviridae. Genus. Bornavirus. Family. Filoviridae. Genus. Marburgvirus. Genus. Ebolavirus. Family. Paramyxoviridae. ...
Bornaviridae, a family of viruses associated with Borna disease. *Borna disease virus ...
Bornaviridae. Borna disease virus. ssRNA. Bunyaviridae. Hantaan virus. ssRNA. Caliciviridae. Hepatitis E virus, Norwalk virus. ...
Bornaviridae, and Nyamiviridae families (Maes et al., 2019) were generated using the WebLogo program (Crooks et al., 2004)2 as ... Bornaviridae, and Nyamiviridae families (Ogino and Banerjee, 2011a,b; Neubauer et al., 2016). Motifs B-E are located in close ... Bornaviridae, and Nyamiviridae have a PRNTase-like domain, but lack an MTase domain (Figure 13; Ogino and Banerjee, 2011a), we ... Bornaviridae, and Nyamiviridae families possess a PRNTase or PRNTase-like domain with the conserved motifs A-E (Figure 12, top ...
Family Bornaviridae. In: M.H.V. van Regenmortel CMF, Bishop DHL, editors. Virus taxonomy. London: Academic Press; 2000. p. 531- ...
Families; Bornaviridae, Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae Description and Significance. The Midway virus (MIDWV) was ...
Welcome to Bornaviridae!!. Hey, Its Not Just For Horses: Bornavirus and Human Disease. Originally found in horses and sheep, ...
14.Bornaviridae Borna disease virus Enveloped Helical ss Reverse transcribing viruses. For more details on this topic, see ...
Before this discovery, the family Bornaviridae contained only 1 species, Borna disease virus (BDV).. Use of Avian bornavirus ...
The family Bornaviridae comprises the classical mammalian bornaviruses (Mammalian 1 bornavirus with borna disease virus; BoDV-1 ...
Bornaviridae e.g. Borna disease virus. RT virus types include Metaviridae; Pseudoviridae; Retroviridae- e.g. HIV; ...
Год выпуска: 2002 Автор: Quinn P.J., Markey B.K. Жанр: Ветеринария Формат: PDF Качество: OCR Описание: The pace of change in microbiology has accelerated in recent years as molecular techniques, applied to microbial pathogens, elucidate the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases and improve
The order currently includes the eight virus families Bornaviridae, Mymonaviridae, Filoviridae, Nyamiviridae, Paramyxoviridae, ...
BDV is the prototype of a newly recognized virus family, Bornaviridae, within the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses ( ...
Bornaviridae. The virus was detected in buffy coat cells from four of five cats with neurological disease and in the brains of ...
Bornaviridae, within the order Mononegavirales. With 1 notable exception (strain No/98 [1,2]), all BDV isolates exhibit a ...