A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A phenol obtained from thyme oil or other volatile oils used as a stabilizer in pharmaceutical preparations, and as an antiseptic (antibacterial or antifungal) agent. It was formerly used as a vermifuge.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
A yellow fat obtained from sheep's wool. It is used as an emollient, cosmetic, and pharmaceutic aid.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.
Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.

Gi protein modulation induced by a selective inverse agonist for the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2: implication for intracellular signalization cross-regulation. (1/168)

The peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is both positively and negatively coupled to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP pathways, respectively, through a Bordetella pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. CB2 receptor-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells exhibit high constitutive activity blocked by the CB2-selective ligand, SR 144528, working as an inverse agonist. We showed here that in addition to the inhibition of autoactivated CB2 in this model, we found that SR 144528 inhibited the MAPK activation induced by Gi-dependent receptors such as receptor-tyrosine kinase (insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1) or G protein-coupled receptors (lysophosphatidic acid), but not by Gi-independent receptors such as the fibroblast growth factor receptor. We showed that this SR 144528 inhibitory effect on Gi-dependent receptors was mediated by a direct Gi protein inhibition through CB2 receptors. Indeed, we found that through binding to the CB2 receptors, SR 144528 blocked the direct activation of the Gi protein by mastoparan analog in Chinese hamster ovary CB2 cell membranes. Furthermore, we described that sustained treatment with SR 144528 induced an up-regulation of the cellular Gi protein level as shown in Western blotting as well as in confocal microscopic experiments. This up-regulation occurred with a concomitant loss of SR 144528 ability to inhibit the insulin or lysophosphatidic acid-induced MAPK activation. This inverse agonist-induced modulation of the Gi strongly suggests that the modulated protein is functionally associated with the complex SR 144528/CB2 receptors, and that the Gi level may account for the heterologous desensitization phenomena.  (+info)

Agonist-inverse agonist characterization at CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors of L759633, L759656, and AM630. (2/168)

We have tested our prediction that AM630 is a CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligand and also investigated whether L759633 and L759656, are CB2 receptor agonists. Binding assays with membranes from CHO cells stably transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors using [3H]-CP55940, confirmed the CB2-selectivity of L759633 and L759656 (CB2/CB1 affinity ratios = 163 and 414 respectively) and showed AM630 to have a Ki at CB2 receptors of 31.2 nM and a CB2/CB1 affinity ratio of 165. In CB2-transfected cells, L759633 and L759656 were potent inhibitors of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production, with EC50 values of 8.1 and 3.1 nM respectively and CB1/CB2 EC50 ratios of > 1000 and > 3000 respectively. AM630 inhibited [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to CB2 receptor membranes (EC50 = 76.6 nM), enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in CB2-transfected cells (5.2 fold by 1 microM), and antagonized the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in this cell line induced by CP55940. In CB1-transfected cells, forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production was significantly inhibited by AM630 (22.6% at 1 microM and 45.9% at 10 microM) and by L759633 at 10 microM (48%) but not 1 microM. L759656 (10 microM) was not inhibitory. AM630 also produced a slight decrease in the mean inhibitory effect of CP55940 on cyclic AMP production which was not statistically significant. We conclude that AM630 is a CB2-selective ligand that behaves as an inverse agonist at CB2 receptors and as a weak partial agonist at CB1 receptors. L759633 and L759656 are both potent CB2-selective agonists.  (+info)

Stimulation of peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 induces MCP-1 and IL-8 gene expression in human promyelocytic cell line HL60. (3/168)

Using the recently developed methodology of nucleic acid microarrays spotted with specific cDNAs probes belonging to different gene families, we showed for the first time that nanomolar concentrations of the cannabinoid ligand CP-55940 upregulated the expression of two different members of the chemokine gene family: the alpha-chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the beta-chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in the promyelocytic cell line HL60 transfected with peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB2). These genomic modulations observed on large-scale cDNA arrays were first confirmed by Northern blot studies. Furthermore, ELISA evaluations in culture supernatants indicated that the cannabinoid-induced activation of these two chemokine genes was followed by enhanced expression and secretion of the corresponding proteins. These upregulations initially observed in transfected HL60 cells overexpressing CB2 receptors, also occurred in normal non-transfected HL60 cells. The enhancement of IL-8 and MCP-1 gene transcription and protein production was shown to be pertussis toxin sensitive attesting that this phenomenon was a Gi protein-coupled receptor-mediated process as expected for cannabinoid receptors. More specifically, the abolition of the cannabinoid-induced effect by the specific CB2 antagonist SR 144528 indicated a strict peripheral cannabinoid-mediated process. Altogether, our data highlight a possible new function of peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of immune and inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Regulation of peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 phosphorylation by the inverse agonist SR 144528. Implications for receptor biological responses. (4/168)

We recently demonstrated that the selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 144528 acts as an inverse agonist that blocks constitutive mitogen-activated protein kinase activity coupled to the spontaneous autoactivated peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2) in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line stably transfected with human CB2. In the present report, we studied the effect of SR 144528 on CB2 phosphorylation. The CB2 phosphorylation status was monitored by immunodetection using an antibody specific to the COOH-terminal CB2 which can discriminate between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated CB2 isoforms at serine 352. We first showed that CB2 is constitutively active, phosphorylated, and internalized at the basal level. By blocking autoactivated receptors, inverse agonist SR 144528 treatment completely inhibited this phosphorylation state, leading to an up-regulated CB2 receptor level at the cell surface, and enhanced cannabinoid agonist sensitivity for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of Chinese hamster ovary-CB2 cells. After acute agonist treatment, serine 352 was extensively phosphorylated and maintained in this phosphorylated state for more than 8 h after agonist treatment. The cellular responses to CP-55,940 were concomitantly abolished. Surprisingly, CP-55,940-induced CB2 phosphorylation was reversed by SR 144528, paradoxically leading to a non-phosphorylated CB2 which could then be fully activated by CP-55,940. The process of CP-55,940-induced receptor phosphorylation followed by SR 144528-induced receptor dephosphorylation kept recurring many times on the same cells, indicating that the agonist switches the system off but the inverse agonist switches the system back on. Finally, we showed that autophosphorylation and CP-55, 940-induced serine 352 CB2 phosphorylation involve an acidotropic GRK kinase, which does not use Gibetagamma. In contrast, SR 144528-induced CB2 dephosphorylation was found to involve an okadaic acid and calyculin A-sensitive type 2A phosphatase.  (+info)

HU-308: a specific agonist for CB(2), a peripheral cannabinoid receptor. (5/168)

Two cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB(1), present in the central nervous system (CNS) and to a lesser extent in other tissues, and CB(2), present outside the CNS, in peripheral organs. There is evidence for the presence of CB(2)-like receptors in peripheral nerve terminals. We report now that we have synthesized a CB(2)-specific agonist, code-named HU-308. This cannabinoid does not bind to CB(1) (K(i) > 10 microM), but does so efficiently to CB(2) (K(i) = 22.7 +/- 3.9 nM); it inhibits forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in CB(2)-transfected cells, but does so much less in CB(1)-transfected cells. HU-308 shows no activity in mice in a tetrad of behavioral tests, which together have been shown to be specific for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-type activity in the CNS mediated by CB(1). However, HU-308 reduces blood pressure, blocks defecation, and elicits anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic activity. The hypotension, the inhibition of defecation, the anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic effects produced by HU-308 are blocked (or partially blocked) by the CB(2) antagonist SR-144528, but not by the CB(1) antagonist SR-141716A. These results demonstrate the feasibility of discovering novel nonpsychotropic cannabinoids that may lead to new therapies for hypertension, inflammation, and pain.  (+info)

Evidence that 2-arachidonoylglycerol but not N-palmitoylethanolamine or anandamide is the physiological ligand for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. Comparison of the agonistic activities of various cannabinoid receptor ligands in HL-60 cells. (6/168)

We examined the effect of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, on the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations in HL-60 cells that express the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations in HL-60 cells. The response was affected by neither cyclooxygenase inhibitors nor lipoxygenase inhibitors, suggesting that arachidonic acid metabolites are not involved. Consistent with this notion, free arachidonic acid was devoid of any agonistic activity. Importantly, the Ca(2+) transient induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol was blocked by pretreatment of the cells with SR144528, a CB2 receptor-specific antagonist, but not with SR141716A, a CB1 receptor-specific antagonist, indicating the involvement of the CB2 receptor but not the CB1 receptor in this cellular response. G(i) or G(o) is also assumed to be involved, because pertussis toxin treatment of the cells abolished the response. We further examined the structure-activity relationship. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol is the most potent compound among a number of naturally occurring cannabimimetic molecules. Interestingly, anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine, other putative endogenous ligands, were found to be a weak partial agonist and an inactive ligand, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the CB2 receptor is originally a 2-arachidonoylglycerol receptor, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol is the intrinsic natural ligand for the CB2 receptor that is abundant in the immune system.  (+info)

Cardiovascular effects of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol in anesthetized mice. (7/168)

Cannabinoids, including the endogenous ligand anandamide, elicit pronounced hypotension and bradycardia through the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. A second endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), has been proposed to be the natural ligand of CB1 receptors. In the present study, we examined the effects of 2-AG on mean arterial pressure and heart rate in anesthetized mice and assessed the role of CB1 receptors through the use of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists and CB1 receptor knockout (CB1(-/-)) mice. In control ICR mice, intravenous injections of 2-AG or its isomer 1-AG elicit dose-dependent hypotension and moderate tachycardia that are unaffected by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A. The same dose of SR141716A (6 nmol/g IV) completely blocks the hypotensive effect and attenuates the bradycardic effect of anandamide. 2-AG elicits a similar hypotensive effect, resistant to blockade by either SR141716A or the CB2 antagonist SR144528, in both CB1(-/-) mice and their homozygous (CB1(+/+)) control littermates. In ICR mice, arachidonic acid (AA, 15 nmol/g IV) elicits hypotension and tachycardia, and indomethacin (14 nmol/g IV) inhibits the hypotensive effect of both AA and 2-AG. Synthetic 2-AG incubated with mouse blood is rapidly (<2 minutes) and completely degraded with the parallel appearance of AA, whereas anandamide is stable under the same conditions. A metabolically stable ether analogue of 2-AG causes prolonged hypotension and bradycardia in ICR mice, and both effects are completely blocked by SR141716A, whereas the same dose of 2-AG-ether does not influence blood pressure and heart rate in CB1(-/-) mice. These findings are interpreted to indicate that exogenous 2-AG is rapidly degraded in mouse blood, probably by a lipase, which masks its ability to interact with CB1 receptors. Although the observed cardiovascular effects of 2-AG probably are produced by an arachidonate metabolite through a noncannabinoid mechanism, the CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of a stable analogue of 2-AG leaves open the possibility that endogenous 2-AG may elicit cardiovascular effects through CB1 receptors.  (+info)

Modulation of peristalsis by cannabinoid CB(1) ligands in the isolated guinea-pig ileum. (8/168)

The effect of cannabinoid drugs on peristalsis in the guinea-pig ileum was studied. Peristalsis was induced by delivering fluid into the oral end of an isolated intestinal segment. Longitudinal muscle reflex contraction, threshold pressure and threshold volume to trigger peristalsis, compliance of the intestinal wall during the preparatory phase (a reflection of the resistance of the wall to distension) and maximal ejection pressure during the emptying phase of peristalsis were measured. The cannabinoid agonists WIN 55,212-2 (0.3 - 300 nM) and CP55,940 (0.3 - 300 nM) significantly decreased longitudinal muscle reflex contraction, compliance and maximal ejection pressure, while increased threshold pressure and volume to elicit peristalsis. These effects were not modified by the opioid antagonist naloxone (1 microM) and by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (1 microM). The inhibitory effect of both WIN 55,212-2 and CP55,940 on intestinal peristalsis was antagonized by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (0.1 microM), but not by the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528 (0.1 microM). In absence of other drugs, the CB(1) receptor antagonists SR141716A (0.01 - 1 microM) and AM281 (0.01 - 1 microM) slightly (approximatively 20%) but significantly increased maximal ejection pressure during the empty phase of peristalsis without modifying longitudinal muscle reflex contraction, threshold pressure, threshold volume to trigger peristalsis and compliance. It is concluded that activation of CB(1) receptors reduces peristalsis efficiency in the isolated guinea-pig, and that the emptying phase of peristalsis could be tonically inhibited by the endogenous cannabinoid system.  (+info)

47525-U - (±)-Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol Solution by MilliporeSigma. (±)-Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol Solution 100 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard.
The report generally describes iso bornyl acetate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Iso Bornyl Acetate market situation is overviewed;
Alfa Aesar™ 3-Methylbenzyl isothiocyanate, 99% 1g Alfa Aesar™ 3-Methylbenzyl isothiocyanate, 99% Methylbenzoyl to Methylchloroa -Organics
958872-63-4 - Propanol, 1(or 2)-(methyl-2-((1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-yl)oxy)ethoxy)- - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
4,5-dimethyl-2-[(1r,2r,4s)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phenol | C18H26O | CID 93201 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Article Musty odor producing benthic cyanobacteria in the Tama River (Japan) and identification of species by genetic analysis. In upstream reaches of the Tama River, musty odor substance (2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)) began to be detected in 2008 and ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 6411-64-9(ethyl 2-(4-amino-3-methylbenzyl)benzoate),please inquire us for 6411-64-9(ethyl 2-(4-amino-3-methylbenzyl)benzoate).
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
This substance belongs to one or more of the specific SIN Groups as defined in the SIN List AND it has an overall structural similarity to the substances below which are all found on the SIN List. Hence, this substance is very likely to share the hazardous properties of the SIN substances below. Please note that SINimilarity builds on structural similarity only. To verify potential hazardous properties, further evaluation is needed ...
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Geosmin is a harmless compound produced by some species of algae in source water and the frequency of occurrence for these types of events is known to increase during droughts. As a comparison, beets contain up to 4,000 times the concentration of Geosmin, which is what gives the vegetable its earthy smell. Geosmin is not visible and produces no color change to the water. There is no detectable presence of the algae that produces Geosmin in our water supply ...
7-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-[(4-methylbenzyl)amino]-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione | C17H21N5O4 | CID 3564993 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Learn more about N-(2-Aminoethyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)amine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
1-(4-Methylbenzyl)-1H-indole-6-carbaldehyde/AFI192997345 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
2-Methylbenzyl chloride 552-45-4 NMR spectrum, 2-Methylbenzyl chloride H-NMR spectral analysis, 2-Methylbenzyl chloride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
You may also wish to search for items by Jimenez. 77 matching references were found. Colomina, M.; Jimenez, P.; Perez-Ossario, R.; Turrion, C., J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1976, 8, 439. [all data] Colomina, M.; Jimenez, P.; Roux, M.V.; Turrion, C., J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1978, 10, 661. [all data] Colomina, M.; Jimenez, P.; Turrion, C., J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1982, 14, 779. [all data] Colomina, M.; Jimenez, P.; Roux, M.V.; Turrion, C., J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1984, 16, 1121. [all data] Roux, M.V.; Jimenez, P.; Davalos, J.Z.; Notario, R.; Abboud, J.L.M., Thermochemistry of neutral and protonated 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-thione (thiocamphor), J. Chem. Thermodynamics, 1999, 31, 1457. [all data] Colomina, M.; Jimenez, P.; Perez-Ossorio, R.; Turrion, C., Thermochemical properties of alkylbenzoic acids VI. Enthalpies of combustion and formation of the o-, m-, and p-ethylbenzoic acids, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1976, 8, 439-444. [all data] Colomina, M.; Jimenez, P.; Roux, M.V.; Turrion, C., Thermochemical ...
The impact of the test item on the growth of the freshwater green algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was investigated in a 72-hour static test according to the OECD Guideline 201 (2006). The nominal test item concentrations tested were 2.2, 4.6, 10, 22, 46 and 100 mg/L. Additionally, a control (test water without test item) was tested in parallel. The measured concentrations in the test media of the test concentrations of 10 to 100 mg/L were between 101 and 106 % of the nominal values at the start of the test and 99 and 105 % at the end of the test. Thus, the test item was stable in the test media over the test period of 72 hours. The biological results were related to the nominal concentrations of the test item. The biological results of the study were as follows: 72-hour ErC50 ,100 mg/L; 72-hour ErC10 = 85 mg/L ( (95 % CI: 77 - 96 mg/L). ...
17221-53-3 - WBDLUTMMHDEHGG-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-hydroxy-alpha-phenyl-, 3-((dimethylamino)methyl)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-yl ester, hydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
China Chemical Factory Sell 2-Methylbenzyl Cyanide (CAS 22364-68-7), Find details about China 2-Methylbenzyl Cyanide, 22364-68-7 from China Chemical Factory Sell 2-Methylbenzyl Cyanide (CAS 22364-68-7) - Wuhan Dahua Weiye Pharmaceutical Chemical Co., Ltd.
Alfa Aesar™ (2-Methylbenzyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride, 98+% 50g Alfa Aesar™ (2-Methylbenzyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride, 98+% Mercaptoe to...
Conjugate addition of the homochiral ammonia equivalent lithium N-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-N-(α-methylbenzyl)amide to a range of α,β-unsaturated esters gives the corresponding β-amino esters in moderate to good levels of diastereoselectivity. O-Desilylation and cyclisation furnishes homochiral isoxazolidin-5-ones in |99:1 dr after purification. Sequential alkylation of these templates proceeds to give the corresponding 3,4-anti-disubstituted and 3,4,4-trisubstituted derivatives as single diastereoisomers after purification. The first alkylation occurs with high levels of diastereoselectivity on the face of the enolate anti to the C(3)-substituent, whereas the facial selectivity of the second alkylation is governed by a chiral relay effect, which depends upon the relative steric bulk of both the C(3)- and C(4)-substituents. Subsequent hydrogenolysis promotes cleavage of both the N-α-methylbenzyl group and the N-O bond within the isoxazolidin-5-one ring in one pot to give the corresponding β2,2,3
The antigen-induced release of histamine from sensitized guinea pig mast cells was dose-dependently reduced by endogenous (2-arachidonylglycerol; 2AG) and exogenous [(1R,3R,4R)-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexan-1-ol (CP55,940)] cannabinoids. The inhibitory action afforded by 2AG and CP55,940 was reversed by N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528), a selective cannabinoid 2 (CB(2)) receptor antagonist, and left unchanged by the selective CB(1) antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251). The inhibitory action of 2AG and CP55,940 was reduced by the unselective nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine methylester (l-NAME) and reinstated by L-arginine, the physiological substrate. The inhibitory action of 2AG and CP55,940 was also reduced by the unselective cyclooxygenase (COX) ...
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Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: N-(2,3-Dimethylcyclohexyl)-5-{[(4-methylbenzyl)sulfanyl]methyl}-2-furamide.
Suspected carcinogen: The Toolbox profiler Carcinogenicity (genotox and nongenotox) alerts by ISS gives an alert for carcinogenicity # Suspected hazardous to the aquatic environment: DEMETRA Daphnia Magna toxicity model in VEGA (Q)SAR platform predicts that the chemical has a 48h EC50 of 4.16 mg/L (moderate reliability); Fathead Minnow toxicity model (EPA) in VEGA (Q)SAR platform predicts that the chemical has a 96h LC50 of 16.89 mg/L (good reliability); Fish toxicity classification (SarPy/IRFMN) model in VEGA (Q)SAR platform predicts that the chemical is Toxic-3 (between 10 and 100 mg/l) (good reliability); Fish Acute Toxicity model (KNN/Read-Across) in VEGA (Q)SAR platform predicts that the chemical has a 96h LC50 of 28.93 mg/L (good reliability);The Danish QSAR database contains information indicating that the substance has a 96h LC50 to fish of 1.42 mg/L; The Danish QSAR database contains information indicating that the substance has a 48h EC50 to Daphnia of ,1 mg/L; The Danish QSAR database ...
In a reverse gene mutation assay in bacteria, performed according to Guideline OECD 471 and in compliance with GLP, histidine-dependent auxotrophic mutants of Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100, and a tryptophan-dependent mutant ofEscherichia coli, strain WP2uvrA (pKM101), were exposed to the test item diluted in DMSO at the concentrations below. First Test (Plate incorporation method): 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate in TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100, and WP2 uvrA (pKM101), with and without S9-mix Second Test (Pre-incubation method): 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate in TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100, and WP2 uvrA (pKM101), with and without S9-mix Additional Second Test (Pre-incubation method): 0.15, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50 and 150 μg/plate in TA 98, TA 100 and TA 1535 strains, without S9-mix 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150 and 500 μg/plate in TA 1537 and WP2 uvrA (pKM101) strains, without S9-mix 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150 and 500 μg/plate in TA 100 ...
Natural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption and widely used in candies, beverages, baked goods, chewing gum and other foods. Thus, we investigated whether NB could potentiate the cellular uptake of BDCur, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of their combined inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BDCur. Induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells by NB and BDCur in combination was evidenced by accumulation of the G2/M cell population. Further investigation on the molecular mechanism showed that NB and BDCur in combination resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of Cdc2 and cyclin B ...
Can you name the Characters in DBZ Abridged who said these quotes? Test your knowledge on this entertainment quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by bondquizace
Following the release of S.H.Figurarts Vegeta and Nappa comes Tien Shinhan, one of the strongest fighters in the Dragon Balll story! He comes with a Chiaotzu figure so you can re-create the dramatic scene where he grabs hold of Nappa in a sacrifice attack. The set also includes 4 pairs of hands, 3 optional expression parts, and a stand. $ ...
If theres another topic like this already, you guys/gals (Mods) can lock it. Anywayz, post here your top 10 animes. In no particular order: 1. Yu Yu Hakusho 2. Fullmetal Alchemist 3. DBZ/DBGT 5. Rurouni Kenshin 6. Inuyasha 7. Naruto
BBC Newsonline users email in their opinions on whether students should be prevented from downloading music on university computers.
purpose. To study the effects of 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether), an endocannabinoid ligand selective for cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor, on aqueous humor outflow facility, to investigate the involvement of trabecular meshwork CB1 receptors and the p42/44 MAP kinase signaling pathway and to explore the cellular mechanisms of noladin ether-induced changes of outflow facility.. methods. The effects of noladin ether on aqueous humor outflow facility were measured in a porcine anterior-segment-perfused organ culture model. The expression of CB1 receptors on cultured porcine trabecular meshwork cells and the coupling of these receptors to p42/44 MAP kinase was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. Both Western blot and zymography were used to monitor the effects of noladin ether on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In morphologic studies, AlexaFluor 488-labeled phalloidin staining was used to examine actin filament, and immunohistochemistry with anti-paxillin ...
Learn about how Borneol is one of the most popular perfume making terpenes in the world. Borneol can be isolated from camphor itself and also yields camphor when put through a process of oxidation.
4-Methylbenzyl isocyanate 56651-57-1 route of synthesis, 4-Methylbenzyl isocyanate chemical synthesis methods, 4-Methylbenzyl isocyanate synthetic routes ect.
The reactions of the enolizable thioketone (1R,4R)-thiocamphor (= (1R,4R)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]-heptane-2-thione; 1) with (S)-2-methyloxirane (2) in the presence of a Lewis acid such as SnCl4 or SiO2 in anhydrous CH2Cl2 led to two diastereoisomeric spirocyclic 1,3-oxathiolanes 3 and 4 with the Me group at C(5), as well as the isomeric beta-hydroxy thioether 5 (Scheme 2). The analogous reactions of 1 with (RS)-, (R)-, and (S)-2-phenyloxirane (7) yielded two isomeric spirocyclic 1,3-oxathiolanes 8 and 9 with Ph at C(4), an additional isomer 13 bearing the Ph group at C(5), and three isomeric beta-hydroxy thioethers 10, 11, and 12 (Scheme 4). In the presence of HCl, the beta-hydroxy thioethers 5, 10, 11, and 12 isomerized to the corresponding 1,3-oxathiolanes 3 and 4 (Scheme 3), and 8, 9, and 13, respectively (Scheme 5). Under similar conditions, an epimerization of 3, 8, and 9 occurred to yield the corresponding diastereoisomers 4, 14, and 15, respectively (Schemes 3 and 6). The ...
In this study, we focused on the pharmacological characterization of cannabinoid receptor coupling to G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. Cannabinoids were tested on Xenopus laevis oocytes coexpressing the CB1 receptor and GIRK1 and GIRK4 channels (CB1/GIRK1/4) or the CB2 receptor and GIRK1/4 channels (CB2/GIRK1/4). WIN 55,212-2 enhanced currents carried by GIRK channels in the CB1/GIRK1/4 and CB2/GIRK1/4 system; however, the CB2 receptor did not couple efficiently to GIRK1/4 channels. In the CB1/GIRK1/4 system, WIN 55,212-2 was the most efficacious compound tested. CP 55,940 and anandamide acted as partial agonists. The rank order of potency was CP 55,940 , WIN 55,212-2 = anandamide. The CB1-selective antagonist SR141716A alone acted as a inverse agonist by inhibiting GIRK currents in oocytes expressing CB1/GIRK1/4, suggesting the CB1receptor is constitutively activated. A conserved aspartate residue, which was previously shown to be critical for G protein coupling in ...
A series of novel 3′-(3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-5-yl)-2,2-dimethylspiro{bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-3,5′-isoxazoline-2′}, 3′-(2,3-di phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrazol-5-yl)-2,2-dimethylspiro{bi cyclo[2.2.1] heptan-3,5′-isoxazoline-2′} and 5-Octyl-3-(3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-5-yl)isoxazoline-2,5-decyl-3-(2,3-diphenyl--3,4-dihy dro pyrazol-5-yl)isoxazoline-2 have been prepared and screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity ...
MolPort offers 5H-imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole-2-carboxylic acid for your scientific research needs. It is also know by registry numbers ZINC000100028672, MFCD08056315. This compound is available from 3 suppliers, including Apollo Scientific.
we discuss the expression of DISC1, DBZ, and SGK1 , their roles in the regulation of oligodendrocyte function, possible interactions of DISC1 and DBZ in relation to SZ, and the activation of the SGK1 signaling cascade in relation to MDD ...
Previous studies have shown that sulfhydryl reagents can alter the facility of aqueous humor outflow but little is known about the sulfhydryl constituents of the aqueous outflow system or the effect of oxidants upon outflow facility. In the present study the concentration of glutathione (GSH) was measured in excised calf trabecular meshwork (TM) and found to be 0.40 mu mol/g wet wt (0.027 mu mol/mg protein). Oxidized glutathione was not detectable in the tissue. TM was found to have significant hexose monophosphate shunt activity as determined by measurement of the oxidation of 14C-1 and 14C-6-labeled glucose in tissue homogenates. The concentration of GSH in TM of enucleated calf eyes could be totally depleted by infusion of medium containing both diamide, which is an oxidant of GSH, and 1,3bis(2-chlorethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), which is an inhibitor of the enzyme glutathione reductase. The depletion of GSH was found to have no effect on the facility of aqueous outflow. Experiments were also ...
(1R,3S,6R)-(3Z)-1,5,5-trimethyl-6-(3-methyl-5-(phenylthio)-pent-3-en-1-ynyl)-7-oxa-bicyclo(4.1.0)heptan-3-ol: structure in first source
Buy Cannabinoid Modulation of Emotion, Memory, and Motivation by Patrizia Campolongo, Liana Fattore from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £20.
Read about the chemical and physical properties of 2-Cyano-7-oxo-6-(2-tetrazol-1-yl-acetylamino)-6,7-dihydro-3H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazole-1-carboxylic acid. Get 2-Cyano-7-oxo-6-(2-tetrazol-1-yl-acetylamino)-6,7-dihydro-3H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazole-1-carboxylic acid molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
Several 1,3-diaryl-5-(cyano-, aminocarbonyl- and ethoxycarbonyl-)-2-pyrazoline, pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole-4,6-dione and 1,3,4,5-tetraaryl-2-pyrazoline derivativeswere prepared by the reaction of nitrilimine with different dipolarophilic reagents. The newcompounds were characterized using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectra. Biologicalscreening of some compounds is reported.
DBZ YAOI GAY FANFICTION : After a successful cruise on the sea together, Trunks and Gohan decide to vacation a little closer to home this time on a farm.
Den Körpern der Kampfergruppe kommen trotz ihrer verschiedenen chemischen Zusammensetzungen in physiologischer Hinsicht ganz ähnliche Wirkungen zu. Laureolkampfer C10H16O, Borneol C10H18O und Menthol...
Other articles where Fenchyl alcohol is discussed: isoprenoid: Monoterpenes: …mentioned, as well as borneol, fenchyl alcohol, and the hydrocarbon camphene.
Learn more about Camphor uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Camphor
Perioperative hypertension is primarily due to increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Therefore, the major therapeutic approaches are directed at reducing vasoconstriction, using drugs that increase cyclic nucleotides or block calcium entry into vascular smooth muscle. Nitroprusside and other...
Geosmin, 1, (trans-1 ,lOdimethyl-trans-9-decalol) and the 2-methyl derivative of isoborneol, 2, (1,2,7,7tetramethyl-exo-bicycle… Expand ...
Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Kallenborn, Roland. Environmental fate of chlorinated bornanes estimated by ...
to decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes. Toxaphene, also known as chlorinated. camphene, is a complex mixture of ... It consists of 600 hexato decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes. Toxaphene, also known as chlorinated camphene, is a complex ...
In-vitro biotransformation of chlorinated bornanes (toxaphene) in hepatic microsomes of marine mammals and birds: influence on ...
This Document contains Confirmation Analysis of Carbon Bornanes, Sugars and other chemical compounds. This can be used as a ... CONFIMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF BORNANES. (OR) CONFORMATIONS OF BORNANES Stereo chemical Restrictions: The Bredt Rule: The molecule ... This Document contains Confirmation Analysis of Carbon Bornanes, Sugars and other chemical compounds. This can be used as a ...
Toxaphene consists of a complex mixture of polychlorinated monoterpenes (primarily bornanes and camphenes) produced ...
Bornanes. 1. + 274. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase. 1. + 275. Peptides. 1. + 276. Oncogene Proteins v-fos. 1. + ...
Bornanes. Camphanes. Diterpenes, Abietane. Abietanes. Dolichol. Dolichols. D04 - Polycyclic Compounds Diterpenes, Abietane. ...
Bornanes/pharmacology. *Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. *Drug Administration Routes. *Endocannabinoids. *Gene Expression ...
Bornanes ; Alcohols ; Thin layer chromatography ; Mass spectra ; Water quality ; Actinomycetes ; Streptomyces odorifer ; ...
Arachidonic AcidsBlood-Brain BarrierBornanesBrainCannabinoid Receptor AgonistsCannabinoid Receptor ModulatorsCapsaicinCell ...
bornanes*anoikis*theca cells*nucleocapsid*synaptotagmins*ran gtp binding protein*complement c5a*70 kda ribosomal protein s6 ...
bornanes*cannabinoid receptors*laryngeal cartilages*oxonic acid*lipoxin receptors*kallikrein kinin system*werner syndrome* ...
3-diazobornane-2-one: RN & N1 from CA Vol 91 Form Index; RN given refers to (1R)-isomer; structure in first source; cpd not in Chemline 7/19/83
Maistos Paste: a slowly resorbable root filling paste; composed of zinc oxide 14g, iodoform 42g, thymol 2g, camphorated chlorophenol 3cc, and anhydrous lanolin 0.5g
Bornanes - analysis - metabolism Denmark Fishes - physiology Fresh Water - chemistry - microbiology Naphthols - analysis - ...
Animals, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, metabolism, pharmacology, Benzoxazines, antagonists & inhibitors, Bornanes, Brain, drug ...
Animals, Bornanes, Cannabinoids, Disease Models, Animal, Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental, Mice, Multiple Sclerosis ...
Intro Toxaphene can be a complex combination of polychlorinated camphenes and bornanes mainly used to regulate insects on ...
Acute Disease, Animals, Bornanes, Cannabinoids, Carrageenan, Dronabinol, Hypersensitivity, Indoles, Male, Morpholines, ...
Bornanes:pharmacology, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Grooming:drug effects, Hormone Antagonists:pharmacology, Male, Motor ...
Bornanes:pharmacology, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Grooming:drug effects, Hormone Antagonists:pharmacology, Male, Motor ...
Bornanes · Camphor · Diffusion · Diffusion Chambers, Culture · Half-Life · Humans · Male · Mesylates · Skin Absorption · ...
Bornanes - pharmacology , Oxytocin - physiology , Rats , Male , Oxytocin - biosynthesis , Nucleus Accumbens - physiology , ...
Bornanes - pharmacology , Male , NF-kappa B - metabolism , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2 - antagonists & inhibitors , PPAR gamma ...
  • Toxaphene consists of a complex mixture of polychlorinated monoterpenes (primarily bornanes and camphenes) produced commercially from 1947 to 1982 and purported to contain 600-plus separate congeners (1). (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Intro Toxaphene can be a complex combination of polychlorinated camphenes and bornanes mainly used to regulate insects on natural cotton through the 1960-80s (Shape 1A) [1]. (cancer-colorectal.com)