Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Borna Disease: An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Rats, Inbred LewViral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Mononegavirales: An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Bornaviridae: A family in the order MONONEGAVIRALES comprising one genus Bornavirus. This family has a unique form of mRNA processing: replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.LiechtensteinVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Aphthovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Parapoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, which infect ungulates and may infect humans. ORF VIRUS is the type species.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit: A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Marek Disease: A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.ArchivesCell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal: Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.PhosphoproteinsSchizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Criminal Psychology: The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.

Reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detecting p40 RNA of Borna disease virus, without risk of plasmid contamination. (1/250)

Several methods for the detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA have been reported, one being the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) method. However, due to the possibility of contamination of the cloned DNA in a reaction tube, false-positive results might be obtained by RT-nested PCR. To detect only BDV RNA without anxiety of contamination, we developed an RT-nested PCR system using "mRNA selective PCR kit". Using this system, cDNA of BDV p40 in the plasmid (up to 5 x 10(7) molecules) was not amplified. BDV specific sequence was amplified from total RNA (more than 50 pg) of MDCK/BDV cells, which were persistently infected with BDV. These results indicate that this mRNA selective RT-nested PCR system can specifically amplify target RNA as distinguished from plasmid contaminated.  (+info)

A serosurvey of Borna disease virus infection in wild rats by a capture ELISA. (2/250)

For a serological diagnostic test for Borna disease (BD), we developed a capture ELISA with specificity and sensitivity based on detection of antibodies against BD virus (BDV) p40 protein. Using our capture ELISA system, the antibody response of rats inoculated intracerebrally with BDV at 4 weeks after birth showed a sharp increase from 1 to 4 weeks postinoculation (p.i.) and a steady level after 5 weeks p.i. To investigate prevalence of BDV infection among wild rats, we examined sera of Rattus norvegicus in Kami-iso town, Oshima district, Hokkaido, suggesting that rats in this area had not been infected by BDV.  (+info)

Immortalized cell lines derived from mice lacking both type I and type II IFN receptors unify some functions of immature and mature dendritic cells. (3/250)

Cells with dendritic morphology obtained from several organs of mice lacking both type I and II IFN receptors were immortalized by a retrovirus and analysed for their phenotype and for their function to induce cognate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Two cell lines called AG101 (skin) and AG116 (brain) were cloned and analysed in more detail. They constitutively expressed the cell surface markers CD45, CD11b, MHC class II, F4/80, N418, B7-2 and ICAM1 but were CD8- and B220-negative. Cells from both lines were capable of taking up ovalbumin (OVA). The processed protein was presented to the OVA-specific T cell hybridoma BO97.105 which responded specifically with the production of IL-2. AG101 and AG116 cells were able to induce a mixed lymphocyte reaction as shown by a 50-fold increase of IL-2 production over background. Naive T cells were stimulated by antigen-primed AG101 and AG116, resulting in a T cell proliferation which was 20-30 times over background, and in IL-2 production it was 10 times the background. The capacity of AG101 or AG116 cells to prime naive T cells was directly compared with freshly isolated and cultured cutaneous dendritic cells (DC) from 129 Sv/Ev mice (wtDC). After cognate T cell interaction, IL-6 (20-100-fold) and IL-12 p40 (100-1000-fold) were similarly up-regulated in either AG101, AG116 or mature wtDC. To analyse the capacity of the immortalized DC to induce antibodies in vivo, cell line AG116 was permanently infected with Borna disease virus (BDV) which is unable to replicate in adult mice. One hundred and twenty-nine Sv/Ev mice injected with different cell numbers of AG116 carrying BDV (but not control cells) produced antibodies against the viral BDVp40 and BDVp24 protein. Therefore, the cell lines AG101 and AG116 appear to unify some functions of immature and mature DC. They are able to pick up antigen and process it. In the absence of externally added cytokines, the antigen presented on AG101 or AG116 cells drives T cells with an efficiency similar to mature DC. The cloned cell lines may prove to be useful to study both immune response and replication of infectious agents in the absence of functional interferon receptors.  (+info)

Nuclear localization of the protein from the open reading frame x1 of the Borna disease virus was through interactions with the viral nucleoprotein. (4/250)

Previous studies have predicted the presence of a small open reading frame (ORFx1) located between ORF-1 and ORF-2 of the Borna disease viral (BDV) genome. The ORFx1 is expressed as a p10 protein that is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of BDV-infected cells. In this study, we cloned the nucleotide sequence of ORFx1 into expression vectors and showed that it is expressed as p10. An anti-p10 serum gave nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of cells persistently infected with BDV. Immunoprecipitation of p10 from BDV-infected cells coprecipitated the p40 nucleoprotein N and the 24-kDa viral phosphoprotein P. Transient transfection of noninfected cells showed that p10 and p40 can be coprecipitated and revealed that p10 localized in the cytoplasm was imported into the nucleus in the presence of the BDV p40 N. In vitro protein-protein interaction studies on solid phase showed the direct interaction of the p10 with the BDV N protein. The subcellular distribution of p10 and its interaction with p40 suggest that this protein may play a role in the nuclear replication and/or transcription of BDV.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of borna disease virus: granulocyte fractions of psychiatric patients harbor infectious virus in the absence of antiviral antibodies. (5/250)

Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV infection can be associated with psychiatric disorders is still a matter of debate; no direct evidence has ever been presented. In the present study we report on (i) the detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human granulocyte cell fraction from three different psychiatric patients and (ii) the isolation of infectious BDV from these cells obtained from a patient with multiple psychiatric disorders. In leukocyte preparations other than granulocytes, either no BDV RNA was detected or positive PCR results were obtained only if there was at least 20% contamination with granulocytes. Parts of the antigenome of the isolated virus were sequenced, demonstrating the close relationship to the prototype BDV strains (He/80 and strain V) as well as to other human virus sequences. Our data provide strong evidence that cells in the granulocyte fraction represent the major if not the sole cell type harboring BDV-specific nucleic acid in human blood and contain infectious virus. In contrast to most other reports of putative human isolates, where sequences are virtually identical to those of the established laboratory strains, this isolate shows divergence in the region previously defined as variable in BDV from naturally infected animals.  (+info)

Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by ribavirin. (6/250)

The guanosine analogue ribavirin was tested for antiviral activity in two neural cell lines, human oligodendrocytes and rat glia, against Borna disease virus (BDV) strains V and He/80. Ribavirin treatment resulted in lower levels of virus and viral transcripts within 12 h. Addition of guanosine but not adenosine resulted in a profound reduction of the ribavirin effect. Ribavirin appears to be an effective antiviral agent for treatment of BDV infection in vitro. A likely mechanism for its activity is reduction of the intracellular GTP pool, resulting in inhibition of transcription and capping of BDV mRNAs.  (+info)

T cell ignorance in mice to Borna disease virus can be overcome by peripheral expression of the viral nucleoprotein. (7/250)

Infection of neonates with Borna disease virus (BDV) induces severe meningoencephalitis and neurological disorder in wild-type but not in beta(2)-microglobulin-deficient mice of strain MRL (H-2(k)). Temporary in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells delayed BDV-induced disease for several weeks. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells had a similar beneficial effect, indicating that the BDV-induced neurological disorder in mice is a CD4(+) T cell-dependent immunopathological process that is mediated by CD8(+) T cells. Lymphocytes prepared from brains of diseased mice were mainly from the CD8(+) T cell subset. They showed up-regulation of activation markers and exerted strong MHC I-restricted cytotoxic activity against target cells expressing the BDV nucleoprotein p40. Infection of B10.BR (H-2(k)) or congenic C57BL/10 (H-2(b)) mice resulted in symptomless, lifelong persistence of BDV in the brain. Superinfection with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing BDV p40 but not with other vaccinia viruses induced severe neurological disease and encephalitis in persistently infected B10.BR mice but not in persistently infected C57BL/10 mice, indicating that the disease-inducing T cell response is restricted to the nucleoprotein of BDV in H-2(k) mice. Our results demonstrate that the cellular arm of the immune system may ignore the presence of a replicating virus in the central nervous system until proper antigenic stimulation at a peripheral site triggers the antiviral response.  (+info)

Enhancement of Borna disease virus transcription in persistently infected cells by serum starvation. (8/250)

Transcription of Borna disease virus (BDV) in persistently infected MDCK (MDCK/BDV) cells increased in the fetal bovine serum free media as detected by Northern blot analysis. Especially, the amount of 1.9-kb RNA without cap formation at the 5' end and polyadenylation at the 3' end, increased as compared to other mRNA molecules of BDV. Growth arrest of MDCK/BDV cells observed in the condition of serum starvation might be important for increasing viral transcription. Since N-cadherin is the responsible factor for cell-to-cell contact, MDCK/BDV cells were cultured in calcium free medium which inhibits the interaction of N-cadherin. However, inhibition of cell-to-cell contact by N-cadherin is not effective on up regulation of viral transcription. Our finding in this study indicates that enhancement of BDV transcription by serum starvation is a useful technique for further investigation in understanding of mechanisms of BDV transcription.  (+info)

Characterization of the Borna disease virus phosphoprotein, p23.: Borna disease virus infection is diagnosed by the presence of serum antibodies reactive with t
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early and persistent abnormalities in rats with neonatally acquired borna disease virus infection. AU - Bautista, Jan R.. AU - Schwartz, Gary J.. AU - De La Torre, Juan Carlos. AU - Moran, Timothy H. AU - Carbone, Kathryn M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Newborn rats inoculated with Borna disease virus (BDV) develop a persistent, tolerant nervous system infection (PTI-NB), with no signs of encephalitis or Borna disease. We measured body weight, body length, taste preferences, and spontaneous locomotor activity over a 4-month period in PTI-NB and control rats. PTI-NB rats had decreased weight and length but not detectable disturbances in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 biosynthesis as compared to control rats. In single bottle taste acceptance tests, PTI-NB rats did not differ from controls and drank normal amounts of all solutions. When offered a choice of solutions in two-bottle taste preference tests, PTI-NB rats exhibited a normal preference for saccharin and a ...
Detection and sequence analysis of borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia and of b
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus that replicates and transcribes its genome in the nucleus of infected cells. It uses the cellular splicing machinery to generate a set of alternatively spliced mRNAs from the 2.8 and 7.1 kb primary transcripts, each harbouring two introns. To determine whether splicing of these transcripts is regulated by viral factors, the extent of splicing was studied in infected cells and COS-7 cells transiently transfected with plasmids encoding the 2.8 kb RNA of BDV. Unspliced RNA was found to be the most abundant RNA species in infected cells, whereas viral transcripts lacking both introns were only found in minute amounts. In sharp contrast, plasmid-derived 2.8 kb RNA was predominantly intron 1-spliced and double-spliced. Co-expression of the BDV proteins P, N and X did not influence splicing of plasmid-expressed 2.8 kb RNA. Furthermore, the splicing pattern did not change when the 2.8 kb RNA was expressed in BDV-infected cells. Based on
Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna disease virus research, focusing on evidence of infection in humans ...
Read "Neuron-glia interactions in the rat retina infected by Borna disease virus, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1) was recently discovered as cause of severe and often fatal encephalitis in humans. BoDV-1 is known to cause neurological disease in horses and sheep mainly in South and Central Germany. The virus is maintained in bicolored white-toothed shrews (Crocidura leucodon). The incidence of infection and risk factors in humans are completely unresolved. Veterinarians may be disproportionally BoDV-1-exposed through contact to animals not recognized to be BoDV-1 infected. We conducted three serosurveys predominantly in endemic areas of South Germany for the presence of BoDV-1-reactive antibodies. Anonymized residual samples from two serosurveys of veterinarians (n = 736) with interview data on exposures and one serosurvey among blood donors (n = 373) were screened with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, followed by a newly developed immunoblot as confirmatory assay. One serum from a 55-59-year-old veterinarian who worked in an animal practice and as a meat ...
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Summary The effect of interferon (IFN) on infection and maintenance of persistent infection of Borna disease (BD) virus in cell cultures was investigated. Acutely BD virus-infected primary rabbit brain and rat lung cells produced significant levels of interferon detectable 3 days post-infection in the culture supernatants. Rat brain and rat lung cells persistently infected with BD virus produced only moderate levels of IFN over a long period. In contrast, persistently infected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells did not produce detectable amounts of IFN. Exogenous homologous IFN completely inhibited the expression of BD virus antigen in acutely infected rabbit brain cells, when added during the first 24 h after infection. IFN added later (2 to 6 days post-infection) reduced virus titres to different degrees depending on the onset of treatment. However, IFN added to persistently infected rat lung cells did not appear to influence the degree or quality of BD virus antigen expression or the
Numerous species of mammals are susceptible to this virus. It is of clinical relevance particularly in horses, in cats (where the disease is also called "staggering disease") and in sheep. The virus has a strong neurotropism and triggers non-purulent meningoencephalitis, associated with anorexia, apathy, somnolence and multiple neuronal dysfunctions. Animals suffering from Borna disease develop motor and behavioural disorders. In horses and sheep, in addition to the symptoms listed above, a lowered head posture, separation from the herd, empty chewing and salivation have been described and, at a later stage, recumbency and flailing movements. Cats frequently suffer from hind-leg ataxia and lumbosacral pain.. There is often little or no immune response, which makes it difficult to diagnose by testing for antibodies. The incubation period is unknown. The progression of a clinically manifested infection is lethal (duration of the disease usually 1 - 3 weeks).. Clinically inapparent infections are ...
Previous studies have shown that schizophrenics and those with mood disorders have higher levels of Borna Disease Virus (BDV) RNA and anti-BDV antibodies. The researchers in this study aimed to determine the relationship between infection with Borna Disease Virus (BDV) and schizophrenia and other mood disorders, with respect to symptom subtypes and clinical time course. 32 schizophrenics and 33 mood disorder patients were tested against 25 controls. Serum was collected from the patients, and Western Blots were used to detect anti-BDV-p10 (nucleoprotein fusion proteins) antibodies. The study found a statistically significant correlation with the levels of anti-BDV antibodies and the mood disorder patients, but the study found no significant correlations in the case with schizophrenia. A significant relationship was found, however, between BDV antibody levels and the type of schizophrenia ("productive" or positive, against "deficit" or negative). The study also found a similar relationship between ...
Borna disease virus replication in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats results in selective damage of dentate granule cells. J Virol 79: 11716-23. (#: these authors were co-senior authors) J. Schwenk, N. Harmel, G. Zolles, W. Bildl, A. Kulik, B. Heimrich, O. Chisaka, P. Jonas, U. Schulte, B. Fakler, N. Klöcker (2009 ...
Borna disease virus replication in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats results in selective damage of dentate granule cells. J Virol 79: 11716-23. (#: these authors were co-senior authors) H. Brinks, S. Conrad, J. Vogt, J. Oldekamp, A. Sierra, L. Deitinghoff, I. Bechmann, G. Alvarez-Bolado, B. Heimrich#, P.P. Monnier#, B.K. Müller#, and T. Skutella# (2004 ...
Borna disease virus (BDV) The only species in the genus Bornavirus. Named after a town in Saxony where the first major outbreak in horses occurred. Negative-strand RNA virus which produces persistent infection in a variety of experimental …. The London encyclopaedia, or, Universal dictionary of science, art, literature, and practical mechanics, by the orig. ed. of the Encyclopaedia metropolitana [T. Curtis]. (1839). by Thomas Curtis (of Grove house sch, Islington ...
Borna disease virus (BDV) The only species in the genus Bornavirus. Named after a town in Saxony where the first major outbreak in horses occurred. Negative-strand RNA virus which produces persistent infection in a variety of experimental …. The London encyclopaedia, or, Universal dictionary of science, art, literature, and practical mechanics, by the orig. ed. of the Encyclopaedia metropolitana [T. Curtis]. (1839). by Thomas Curtis (of Grove house sch, Islington ...
Perez, M., Clemente, R., Robison, C. S., Jeetendra, E., Jayakar, H. R., Whitt, M. A., de la Torre, J. C. Generation and characterization of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the glycoprotein of Borna disease virus Journal of Virology 2007 81:5527-5536 DOI:10.1128/jvi.02586-06 PMID:17376911 ...
Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) has been associated with human disease in four cases in Germany resulting in the death of three people. As three of the cases belong to a cluster of solid organ recipients from a single donor, donor-derived BoDV-1 transmission is possible. There is no evidence that the donor had any clinical manifestation of the disease. ...
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The Tap-tagged PA and its interacting proteins ended up co-purified with immunoglobinlin G-Sepharose (GE Health care) and washed with binding buffer . The
Bornaviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Horses, sheep, cattle, rodents, birds, reptiles, and humans serve as natural hosts. Currently, 16 viruses are assigned to eight species included in one genus in this family. Diseases associated with bornaviruses include Borna disease, a fatal neurologic disease of mammals restricted to central Europe; and proventricular dilatation disease in birds. Borna disease was first identified in 1926 and its genome was isolated in 1990. The viral family is named after the city of Borna in Saxony, Germany, which is where a large number of animals were lost to the sporadic encephalopathy caused by the viral disease. Table legend: "*" denotes type species. Bornavirions are enveloped, with spherical geometries. The diameter is around 70 to 130 nm. Genomes are linear, around 8.9kb in length. The genome codes for 9 proteins. Below are a few of the essential proteins of Bornaviridae that have been characterized. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry ...
The order Mononegavirales is the taxonomic home of numerous related viruses. Members of the order that are commonly known are, for instance, Ebola virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, measles virus, mumps virus, Nipah virus, and rabies virus. All of these viruses cause significant disease in humans. Many very important pathogens of nonhuman animals and plants are also members of this order. The order Mononegavirales is a virological taxon that was created in 1991 and emended in 1995, 1997, 2000, 2005, 2011, 2016, and 2017. The name Mononegavirales is derived from the Greek adjective μóνος [monos] (alluding to the monopartite and single-stranded genomes of most mononegaviruses), the Latin verb negare (alluding to the negative polarity of these genomes), and the taxonomic suffix -virales (denoting a viral order). The order currently includes the eight virus families Bornaviridae, Mymonaviridae, Filoviridae, Nyamiviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Pneumoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Sunviridae. ...
The bicoloured shrew (Crocidura leucodon) lives exclusively in Central Europe, the region where the Borna disease occurs. This area is mostly within Germany, but also includes the eastern part of Switzerland and Vorarlberg in western Austria. Virologist Nowotny explains: "The distribution of bicoloured shrews remains fairly constant because the animals stay within their habitats. They do not like to move around." In fact, the number of incidents of Borna disease has actually declined in the last few years. There are currently about 100 cases per year.. Genetics reveals transmission mechanism. A genetic analysis of viruses taken from bicoloured shrews and horses provides further proof that the bicoloured shrew acts as a pathogen reservoir. The viral strains found in the shrews correspond exactly with the strains from sick horses in the same region. This supports the assumption that the virus sub-types develop in a particular region over the course of centuries in bicoloured shrews and do not ...
Borna lightly sweetened premium pistachio drink is one half the newest product range launched by borna foods. With a primary focus on pistachios, borna foods have continued to push boundaries in the pistachio world, by creating the UKs first pistachio-based milk alternative. This drink is a dairy free product, which contains a short ingredients list of pistachios (4%), water and sea salt, with a hint of sugar to give that subtle sweet taste. The range has been created using the highest quality pistachios which borna personally source from certified farms around the globe. As pistachios are naturally high in fibre, and the drink contains added calcium and vitamin b12, it means that this drink is jam-packed with health benefits. 500ml. Item Details: As well as this, the drink is also packed with protein which is essential for building and repairing tissue. This gluten free drink is 100% natural as it does not contain any preservatives or artificial flavours, and all ingredients are derived from ...
The analysis of data collected in connection with the investigation of a number of problems in immunity has led to a series of results, in part already published, bearing upon the blood and circulation. The conclusion was reached that in certain cases a precise and definite relationship to the body surface exists in warm-blooded animals in accordance with the formula Wn/a = k, where W is the body weight of the animal, a represents the mass of the body fluid, tissue, or organ under investigation, k is a constant, and the value of n is approximately 0·70-0·72. In view of the fact that the carriage of oxygen is one of the chief functions of the circulation, and that the volume of the blood (1), (2), and the aortic area (3), (4), (area of cross-section of aorta), have been shown by us to be proportional to the body surface in warm-blooded animals, while, as we have also found, the total oxygen capacity is the main factor in determining the size of the heart (5), it appeared to be of interest to ...
Serological incidence of Gumboro disease virus infection in chicken flocks in Cairo district. , Amer, M. M.,.Bastami M. A., D.G.khilfa, and Hamouda A. S. , Assut. Vet. Med. J., , Volume 17, Issue 33, p. 211-216., (1986 ...
Vivaldi Biosciences was developing small molecule antiviral drugs for the treatment of respiratory diseases caused by negative-strand RNA viruses, including
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 846 181 with the title cDNA corresponding to the antigenome of nonsegmented negative strand RNA viruses, and process for the production of such viruses encoding additional antigenically active proteins was granted on European patent application No. 96928446.2 (published as WO 97/06270). The patent was granted with 21 claims.. II. Claim 1 of the patent as granted read as follows:. 1. A method for the production of an infectious non-segmented negative-strand RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae comprising. (a) introducing a cDNA molecule contained in a plasmid, wherein said cDNA molecule comprises the entire (+)-strand sequence of said negative- strand RNA virus operatively linked to an expression control sequence, which allows the synthesis of anti-genomic RNA transcripts bearing the authentic 3 -termini, and wherein said cDNA molecule consists of an integral multiple of six nucleotides, into a helper cell expressing an ...
Matijašić, Mario and Meštrović, Tomislav and Perić, Mihaela and Čipčić Paljetak, Hana and Panek, Marina and Vranešić Bender, Darija and Ljubas Kelečić, Dina and Krznarić, Željko and Verbanac, Donatella (2016) Modulating composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota in IBD patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17 (4). p. 578. ISSN 1422-0067 Benković, Vanesa and Kolčić, Ivana and Ivičević Uhernik, Ana and Vranešić Bender, Darija and Oreb, Ida and Stevanović, Ranko and Krznarić, Željko (2014) The economic burden of disease-related undernutrition in selected chronic diseases. Clinical Nutrition, 33 (4). pp. 689-93. ISSN 0261-5614 Zelić, Marko and Vranešić Bender, Darija and Ljubas Kelečić, Dina and Župan, Željko and Cicvarić, Tedi and Maldini, Branka and Durut, Iva and Rahelić, Velimir and Škegro, Mate and Majerović, Mate and Perko, Zdravko and Šustić, Alan and Madžar, Tomislav and Kovačić, Borna and Kekez, Tihomir and Krznarić, ...
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a ubiquitous parasite of warmblooded animals that causes one of the most common parasitic infections in humans. Althoug..
In this mammalian biology science fair project, students will determine how much huddling reduces heat loss in warm-blooded animals.
Mononegavirales adalah ordo virus RNA yang berada dalam filum Negarnaviricota dan kelas Monjiviricetes.[1] Nama Mononegavirales berasa dari bahasa Yunani μóνος [monos] yang merujuk pada genom untai tunggal pada sebagian besar ordo ini, bahasa Latin negare yang merujuk pada sifat sense-negatif genom virus, serta akhiran -virales yang menunjukkan ordo virus.[2] Anggota ordo ini yang dikenal di antaranya virus rabies dan virus Ebola yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit, baik pada manusia maupun hewan. ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the picornavirus family. It is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, globally the most important a�iction of cloven hoofed animals. The FMDV genome has several features that are not found amongst other viruses within the Picornaviridae. These include a large 50 untranslated region (UTR), almost twice the length of that found in enteroviruses, containing highly structured RNA elements unique to FMDV, such as the S-fragment and several tandemly repeated pseudoknots. Unique aspects are also found within the coding region, where FMDV is the only picornavirus reported to contain multiple copies of the 3B gene. The reasons behind possession of these unusual deviations from the dogma of the picornaviral genome is so far unknown and therefore poses an attractive target for further research. The S-fragment is a predicted 360 nucleotide stem-loop at the 50 end of the FMDV genome. The better studied poliovirus (PV) has a well ...
The hematological lesions consequent upon velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection were investigated in 6-week-old ducks and chickens. Following intramuscular inoculation, the results indicated significantly lower (p
Quit with Us: A s ocial m arketing intervention to motivate and assist individuals to stop smoking using Tenovus retail outlets. Maura Matthews and Dr Sioned Pearce UK National Smoking Cessation Conference 13 th June 2014. Who are we and what do we do?. Slideshow 2694819 by borna
Researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and Stanford University have discovered that a supposedly inactive protein actually plays a crucial role in the ability of one the worlds most prolific pathogens to cause disease, findings that suggest the possible role of similar proteins in other diseases. The team reported online on March 21, 2011, in PNAS that Toxoplasma gondii-the parasitic protozoan responsible for toxoplasmosis-attacks healthy cells by first injecting them with pseudokinases, which are enzymes that have abandoned their original function of transferring phosphates. When the researchers engineered strains of T. gondii without a particular pseudokinase gene cluster called ROP5, the pathogen was subsequently unable to cause disease in mice-a notable loss of potency in an organism that can infect nearly any warm-blooded animal. These results are among the first to implicate pseudokinases as indispensible actors in pathogen-based disease, said senior author Dr. Jon Boyle, a ...
Anyway, my room was close enough that I could have smelled large warm-blooded animals and leather as soon as I stepped out the door. If I didnt have a cold, that is. And if those hybrid beasts of burden had actually been there, of course. I was the only living creature in the area. As usual when that happens, I began to wonder if I was in the wrong place. Id checked it out the afternoon before, read all the signs and such, so I was pretty sure this was the appointed hour and the anointed (theres a sly bathroom joke in there, if you know equines) place ...
OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Filoviruses (family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales) are viruses with a single-stranded, monopartite RNA genome of negative polarity that form filamentous enveloped virions. Their replication cycles are restricted to the cytosol of infected host cells. In particular: Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV): species Marburg…. ...
Bornavirus (BDV) owes its name to the town of Borna, Germany, where a virus epidemic in 1885 wiped out a regiment of cavalry horses. BDV infects a range of birds and mammals, including humans. It is unique because it infects only neurons, establishing a persistent infection in its hosts brain, and its entire life cycle takes place in the nucleus of the infected cells. Feschotte said this intimate association of BDV with the cell nucleus prompted researchers to investigate whether bornaviruses may have left behind a record of past infection in the form of endogenous elements. They searched the 234 known eukaryotic genomes (those genomes that have been fully sequenced) for sequences that are similar to that of BDV. "The researchers unearthed a plethora of endogenous Borna-like N (EBLN) elements in many diverse mammals, " Feschotte said ...
This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 26 April - 2 May 2015, and includes updates on Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, influenza, Salmonella Enteritidis, Borna virus, measles, rubella and Ebola virus. ...
Judith Milcarsky, DVM, studies Toxoplasma and its association with human illness. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects warm-blooded animals [including humans] throughout the world. The sexual phase occurs in the intestine of all felids and the millions of oocysts generated from a single cat remain infectious in the environment for years. Two asexual…. ...
a disease of warm-blooded animals including human beings that is a kind of cancer in which there is an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the tissues and often in the blood ...
PCR can be used for a variety of purposes, in this case however, PCR was used in order to determine whether or not a specific gene codes for cancer or not. If a cancer gene is located, then it will yield a positive result because the primers only bind to a certain sequence in the DNA and if that certain sequence codes for cancer, then it will produce a positive result indicating that it was located in that sequence. The specific sequence that was focused on was r17879961 with the sequence AACTCTTACA[C]TGCATACAT instead of being AACTCTTACA[T]TGCATACAT. The change is from ACT to ATT. The change from the C base into the C base is a missense where the normal T mutates into the cancer C. To identify whether such mutation occurred in the sequence using PCR, primers should first be designed to bind into the specific sequence. The primer needed for the sequence. The forward primer needed for the sequence is TGGTATAAGACATTCCTGT while the reverse primer should be AACTCTTACACTGCATACAT. Using PCR, the ...
Looking for online definition of Bornholm disease virus in the Medical Dictionary? Bornholm disease virus explanation free. What is Bornholm disease virus? Meaning of Bornholm disease virus medical term. What does Bornholm disease virus mean?
Jembrana disease virus (JDV) is an acute lentiviral infection of Bali cattle in Indonesia. Data generated during a series of cattle infection experiments was examined and significant differences were identified in the mean plasma viral load on the first and second days of the febrile response in cattle infected with JDVTAB/87 compared to those infected with JDVPUL/01. The peak and total viral loads ,= 106 genome copies/ml during the acute stage of the disease were significantly higher in JDVTAB/87 infected cattle. JDVPUL/01 infected cattle developed peak rectal temperatures earlier than the JDVTAB/87 cattle but there were no differences in the duration of the febrile responses observed for the 2 groups of animals. The plasma viremia was above 106 genome copies/ml for almost 3 days longer in JDVTAB/87 compared to JDVPUL/01 infected cattle. Atypical responses to infection occurred in approximately 15% of experimentally infected animals, characterized by reduced viral loads, lower or absent febrile ...
there are certainly examples of microscopic organisms that can control behaviour, but studies have tended to focus on invasive varieties. the best known today is probably toxoplasma gondii, or the "crazy cat lady" parasite. this clever protozoan can live in any warm-blooded animal, but it can only reproduce inside members of the felidae family. here kitty kitty. as youve likely heard, t. gondii has developed a mechanism to make perpetuation of the species more likely: it gets into the brains of the warm-blooded animals where it lives and makes a few tweaks. on the surface, these are pretty harmless, but for species like mice, rats, and birds, theyre deadly. thats because the teeny, tiny cysts that t. gondii create have a tendency to turn off the panic reflex these animals have when they come in contact with signs of feline predators. indeed, rats infected with toxoplasmosis not only dont panic when they smell traces of cat urine, they seem to be curious about it. if youre a whole rat, ...
Rabies virus (RABV) is an ancient, highly neurotropic rhabdovirus that causes lethal encephalitis. Most RABV pathogenesis determinants have been identified with laboratory-adapted or attenuated RABVs, but details of natural RABV pathogenesis and attenuation mechanisms are still poorly understood. To provide a deeper insight in the cellular mechanism of pathogenies of field RABV, this work was performed to assess virus strain specific differences in intra-neuronal virus transport, to identify cell culture adaptive mutations in recombinant field viruses and to explore shRNA-expressing RABVs as research tools for targeted host manipulation in infected cells. Comparison of chimeric RABVs with glycoprotein (G) ecto-domains of different lyssaviruses, together with field RABVs from dog and fox in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed no detectable differences in the axonal accumulation of the viruses. This indicates that previously described G-dependent transport of newly formed RABV in axons can ...
Jembrana disease was reported initially in Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) on Bali island in 1964 and the causative agent was subsequently identified as a bovine lentivirus and designated Jembrana disease virus (JDV). This atypical lentivirus causes an acutely pathogenic disease that is associated with clinical signs and pathological lesions attributable to a disease primarily affecting the lymphoid system. Based on the intense proliferation of cells in the parafollicular (T-cell) areas of lymphoid tissue it has been assumed that the cellular tropism of the virus was for T-cells.. An initial investigation of the pathological changes following JDV infection provided morphological evidence that JDV infection occurred not in T-cells but probably in centroblast-like cells containing IgG and presumably of B-cell lineage. The identity of the infected cells was confirmed by double immunofluorescence labelling techniques as being IgG-containing CD79α+ cells, indicating that the virus replicated in mature ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. This study investigates the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. FMDV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally expressed in the lingual epithelium, demonstrating that FMDV has a different tissue tropism in the fetus compared with that in adult sheep. There was early expression of genes encoding anti-viral cytokines (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) in fetuses at 2 and 4 days post-infection (dpi), followed by a marked rise in the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha) from 7 to 18 dpi, particularly in the heart. The degree of cytokine mRNA expression correlated with fetal ...
Mareks disease (MD), a herpesvirus-induced lymphomatous disease in chickens, has attracted the interest of immunologists since MD virus (MDV) was isolated in 1968 and vaccines became available shortl
The purpose of this trial was to study the clinical application of intravenous new castle disease virus - HUJ oncolytic virus [OV-001] in the treatment of
A common viral disease, rabies affects all warm-blooded animals, with the exception of a few species that are naturally resistant to it. The deadly virus spreads through the saliva of an infected animal when it bites a person or another animal. Prevent your kitty from coming into contact ...
A common viral disease, rabies affects all warm-blooded animals, with the exception of a few species that are naturally resistant to it. The deadly virus spreads through the saliva of an infected animal when it bites a person or another animal. Prevent your kitty from coming into contact ...
The life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii is very complex and comprises two specific phases, sexual and asexual. The sexual part in the life cycle starts after infecting its definitive host, i.e. the cat, while the asexual cycle can take place in any warm-blooded animal.
Newcastle disease virus infection in 38 weeks old layer brown chicken, mild respiratory signs, normal daily mortality rate, drop of egg production, change color egg, abnormal shape. Velogenic Newcastle disease virus is the deadliest virus for poultry. So many people assume, if this virus infects a chicken flock, then they […]. ...
The cellular stress response is characterized by the production of heat shock proteins (HSP) that mediate cell recovery from and protection against potentially lethal injury. My laboratory is focused upon the role of HSPs in modulating virus-mediated disease in the central nervous system (i.e., neurovirulence). We have shown that the predominant inducible 70kDa HSP (hsp70) in neurons protects against viral neurovirulence in mouse models, despite the stimulatory effect of hsp70 on virus gene expression. The viral systems studied include: canine distemper virus (CDV), a ubiquitous and frequently fatal pathogen of dogs, raccoons, and numerous other animal species; measles virus (MeV), a human pathogen closely related to CDV; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a rhabdovirus that is highly neurotropic in mouse models. Studies from both animal models and cell culture have elucidated a basis for this protective effect. Virus infection of neurons stimulates a secretory release of hsp70, and the greater ...
Citation: Zhang, H., Xie, Q., Chang, S., Ernst, C.W., Song, J. 2014. Preliminary Analysis of MicroRNA Transcriptome Altered by Vaccine and Mareks Disease Virus in Chickens. Plant and Animal Genome Conference. Paper No. 9952. Available: https://pag.confex.com/pag/xxii/webprogram/Paper9952.html. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signaling and immune response. Mature miRNAs are about 22 nucleotides in length. Reportedly, the growth of various tumors, including cancers, is mediated by dysfunctional regulation by miRNAs, and differential expression of miRNA is associated with virus infection and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to explore the microRNA transcriptome and to profile microRNA expression in response to vaccination or Mareks disease virus infection in two highly inbred lines of chickens ...
Bücher Online Shop: Detection of Newcastle disease virus in broiler and layer chickens von Md. Hakimul Haque bei Weltbild.ch bestellen und von der kostenlosen Lieferung profitieren!
Rabies is a fatal disease of the central nervous system that can affect all warm-blooded animals and is enzootic in New Jersey. Infection occurs when saliva from an infected animal is introduced to a host via a bite or a scratch. The infection may take up to six months to become symptomatic, once symptomatic it is untreatable. Infection may be prevented after an exposure by undergoing post-exposure rabies shots ...
For the BMR, most of the energy is consumed in maintaining fluid levels in tissues through osmosis, and only about one-tenth is consumed for mechanical work, such as digestion, heartbeat, and breathing.[2]. What enables the Krebs cycle to perform metabolic changes to fats, carbohydrates, and proteins is energy, which can be defined as the ability or capacity to do work.. The breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules - associated with release of energy - is catabolism. The breakdown of proteins into amino acids is an example of catabolism. Body heat in warm-blooded animals is produced by chemical reactions of the catabolic type.. The building up process is termed anabolism. The formation of proteins from amino acids is an anabolic process.. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the intermediate molecule that drives the transfer of energy used in muscle contraction. ATP is a high energy molecule because it stores large amounts of energy in the chemical bonds of the two terminal phosphate ...
Candida albicans is a commensal fungus residing in the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the vagina of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It is a...
Living organisms require energy to sustain life and develop. Energy is derived from food which is metabolised, mostly into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which can be readily extracted (anabolism). In these processes much of the available energy is released as heat, e.g., 60% during synthesis of ATP. Additional heat is produced when ATP-stored energy is transferred to the functional systems in the body. These energy losses leave, on the average, a mere 25% available for use by the functional systems (typical conversion efficiencies are: 65% for heart muscles, 30% for bicycling and 5% for respiration).. In all warm-blooded animals, life depends on homeostasis -the maintenance of fairly constant internal conditions. One of the chief manifestations of homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant body temperature. At rest these temperatures for mammals are within the narrow range of 35-39.5°C with species-specific levels. Most of the generated heat must be dissipated to the environment to maintain ...
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This disease affects almost all warm-blooded animals including cats, dogs and p
... -   Have you ever learned that some animals are “warm-blooded” while others are “cold-blooded”? Warm-blooded animals are those who are able to keep their body temperature re...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and phenotypic correlations between antibody responses to Escherichia coli, infectious bursa disease virus (IBDV), and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), in broiler lines selected on antibody response to Escherichia coli. AU - Yunis, R.. AU - Ben-David, A.. AU - Heller, E. D.. AU - Cahaner, A.. PY - 2002/3. Y1 - 2002/3. N2 - The genetic control of antibody (Ab) response to Escherichia coli (EC), infectious bursa disease virus, and Newcastle disease virus and the genetic and phenotypic correlation between these Ab responses, were evaluated under farm conditions in which chicks were simultaneously exposed to these antigens. The experimental population comprised five groups: two lines divergently selected for high (HH) or low (LL) Ab response to EC vaccination; a commercial broiler dam-line (CC), from which HH and LL had been derived; and the HH x CC and LL x CC hybrid groups (HC and LC, respectively). Lines LL and HH expressed similar symmetric divergence to all three antigens. ...
... is caused by a number of lyssaviruses including the rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus.[3] The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssavirions have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-section of about 75 nm.[20] These virions are enveloped and have a single-stranded RNA genome with negative sense. The genetic information is packed as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and the viral RNA polymerase (L).[21] Once within a muscle or nerve cell, the virus undergoes replication. The trimeric spikes on the exterior of the membrane of the virus interact with a specific cell receptor, the most likely one being the acetylcholine receptor. The cellular membrane pinches in a procession known ...
Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. These viruses are single stranded negative sense RNA viruses that target primates. There are two genera: the Ebola virus (Ebolavirus, with four species) [1] and the Marburg virus (Marburgvirus). These viruses cause horrific viral hemorrhagic fevers, characterized by bleeding and coagulation abnormalities including diffuse bleeding. The virions (viral particles) are characteristically shaped as long, cylindrical, filamentous particles which may be straight, curved, coiled, or found in a "6" or "U" shaped configuration. They are occasionally branched and the particles vary greatly in length but the diameter (about 80nm) is consistent. They are produced by budding from an infected cell, and consist of the viral RNA strand and proteins encapsulated in a lipid membrane formed from the host cells plasma membrane. The inability of the immune system to clear these viruses may, at least in part, be due to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro rearing of Perkinsiella saccharicida and the use of leaf segments to assay Fiji disease virus transmission. AU - Hughes, G. L.. AU - Allsopp, P. G.. AU - Brumbley, S. M.. AU - Johnson, K. N.. AU - O'Neill, S. L.. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - Fiji leaf gall (FLG) is caused by the Reovirus, Fiji disease virus (FDV), which is transmitted to sugarcane by planthoppers of the genus Perkinsiella. Low vector transmission rates and slow disease symptom development make experimentation within the FDV-Perkinsiella-sugarcane system inherently difficult. A laboratory-based technique was devised to rear the vector using sugarcane leaves as a food source. Planthoppers were reared on sugarcane leaf segments embedded in agarose enclosed within plastic containers. To provide a nondestructive assay for determination of the inoculation potential of planthoppers, FDV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in newly infected sugarcane leaf segments ...
A few examples of diseases virus are the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus infections, shingles, yellow fever, dengue fever, ...
In this informative podcast, Luis P. Villarreal of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of California, Irvine, provides an overview of theories and thoughts on life, and biological changes that occur.. Villarreal has long been interested in research related to viruses that thrive either in the genomes or epigenomes of their host. Villarreals position is that viruses have had a significant influence on the origin of life.. Villarreal discusses his background and outlines his study of negative-strand RNA viruses that resemble rabies and ebola. He talks about regulatory RNA and how it sparked his desire to know more about viruses. Villarreal explains how retroviruses work together to create a placental network and discuss the surprising relationships that must occur for a host to create life, taking in a biological entity and suppressing the immune rejection, to override the system and create change. Viruses, as Villarreal states, are central to many functions in life. Villarreal ...
Origin: L. See Rage. An acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain.A disease of the nervous system caused by a virus, which leads to degeneration of the Central Nervous System and proves fatal. ...
What is DNA? A DNA sequence contains only the letters A, C, G and T. (Each letter represents a small molecule, and a DNA sequence is a ``macromolecular chain of them.) Each letter in a DNA sequence is called a base, basepair, or nucleotide. Normally, DNA occurs as a double strand where each A is paired with a T and vice versa, and each C is paired with a G and vice versa. The reverse complement of a DNA sequence is formed by reversing the letters, interchanging A and T and interchanging C and G. Thus the reverse complement of ACCTGAG is CTCAGGT. What is a genome? A genome is all of an organisms DNA sequence. Each nucleus in one of your cells contains its own copy of your genome, which is about 3 billion letters. (More accurately, each cell has two nearly identical copies of the genome, except that the X and Y chromosomes are even more complicated.) Replication is the process of duplicating the genome when a cell divides. DNA composition. The genome of a warm-blooded animal is divided into ...
Avian Bornavirus (ABV) is a progressive and often fatal disease that causes neurologic symptoms in birds. It is ubiquitous and approximately 1/3 of compa
... white-toothed shrew is a natural reservoir species for the Borna disease virus which is the causative agent of Borna disease, a ... "Shrews as Reservoir Hosts of Borna Disease Virus". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (4): 675-677. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051418. ... Kamhieh S, Flower RL (June 2006). "Borna disease virus (BDV) infection in cats. A concise review based on current knowledge". ... Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Bechter, K.; Frese, K. (1991). "Borna disease, a possible hazard for man?". Archives of Virology. 118 (3- ...
"Modulation of miR-122 on persistently Borna disease virus infected human oligodendroglial cells". Antiviral Res. 87 (2): 249-56 ... Jangra RK, Yi M, Lemon SM (2010). "Regulation of hepatitis C virus translation and infectious virus production by the microRNA ... other RNA viruses and viral mimetics (e.g. poly(I:C)). Recent studies have shown that replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is ... Biomarkers in Liver Disease. V. B. Patel and V. R. Preedy. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands: ISBN 978-94-007-7675-3, page 193- ...
Pletnikov, M. V.; Moran, T. H.; Carbone, K. M. (2002). "Borna disease virus infection of the neonatal rat: Developmental brain ... Much research has been done into the use of a rat model to show how Borna virus infection, exposure to valproic acid in utero, ... Centers for Disease Control (2008-02-08). "Mercury and vaccines (thimerosal)". Retrieved 2011-08-01. Crawley, J. N. (2012). " ... Klauck, S. M.; Poustka, A. (2006). "Animal models of autism". Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models. 3 (4): 313-318. doi:10.1016 ...
In general these viruses show only about 65% sequence identity with mammalian Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). The overall ... as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a disease of pet parrots. While a report of research using a 'positive ... Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16: 473- ... Ongoing studies suggest that the virus is spread by the fecal-oral route but it is also possible that respiratory and vertical ...
Nöske K, Bilzer T, Planz O, Stitz L (1998). "Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells Eliminate Borna Disease Virus from the Brain via ...
Laboratory rats infected with Borna disease virus show some symptoms similar to those of autism but blood studies of autistic ... Viruses have long been suspected as triggers for immune-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis but showing a direct role ... or whether they are secondary to the disease processes.[71] As autoantibodies are found in diseases other than ASD, and are not ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009;48(4):456-461. doi:10.1086/596476. PMID 19128068. Lay summary: IDSA, 2009-01-30.. ...
She directs the clinical core of an international investigation of the role of Borna disease virus in human mental illness and ... based on neonatal rat infection with Borna disease virus. In 2004, Hornig published a controversial paper concluding that, in a ... In the 1990s, Hornig investigated the potential link between the Borna virus and depression in humans. Hornig has been ... In 2008, she published a study concluding that there was no association between presence of measles vaccine virus in the gut of ...
Borna Disease Virus, das Virus der Bornaschen Krankheit, mit Species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus (Typus) u. a. ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Polio, measles, varicella-zoster, rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2, maternal genital infections, Borna disease virus, and ... It is a pathogenic theory of disease in which it is thought that a proximal cause of certain cases of schizophrenia is the ... An updated meta-analysis on CNVs for schizophenia published in 2015 expanded the number of CNVs indicated in the disease, which ... In 2013 this dataset was expanded to identify in total 13 candidate loci for the disease, now also implicating calcium ...
... disease, an infectious neurological syndrome *Bornaviridae, a family of viruses associated with Borna disease ... Borna, a subdivision of Bahretal municipality, Saxony, German. *Borna Dam, an earthfill dam on Borna river near Ambejogai, Beed ... Borna language (Ethiopia), a North Omotic language spoken in western Ethiopia. *Borna snakehead, Channa amphibeus, an extremely ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Borna.. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
Thogoto and Borna disease viruses". Virus Res. 95 (1-2): 3-12. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00159-X. PMID 12921991.. ... Influenza virus A Influenza A virus* H1N1, H1N2, H2N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N8, H5N9, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Index of Viruses - Orthomyxovirus (2006). In: ICTVdB-The Universal Virus ... "CIDRAP - Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. University of Minnesota.. *^ "Flu viruses 'can live for decades' on ...
Although Borna disease viruses 1 and 2 are mainly seen as the causative agent of Borna disease in horses and other animals, ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, caused by Borna disease viruses 1 and 2 (BoDV-1/2 ... individuals may develop Borna disease, or may remain subclinical, possibly acting as a carrier of the virus. Borna diseases ... Borna disease viruses 1 and 2 are neurotropic viruses and members of the Bornaviridae family within the Mononegavirales order. ...
Bode, L; Ludwig, H (2003). "Borna disease virus infection, a human mental-health risk". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 16 (3): ... JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human Diseases. ... June 2010). "Virus-Plus-Susceptibility Gene Interaction Determines Crohn's Disease Gene Atg16L1 Phenotypes in Intestine". Cell ... Takahashi, M; Yamada, T (1999). "Viral etiology for Parkinson's disease--a possible role of influenza A virus infection". ...
The Borna disease viruses (BoDV-1 and BoDV-2) are members of the species Mammalian 1 bornavirus, which cause Borna disease in ... The ancestral virus seems likely to have been a high AT content virus. Borna disease was first described in 1885 as "heated ... "N-terminal domain of Borna disease virus G (p56) protein is sufficient for virus receptor recognition and cell entry". Journal ... Wolff T, Pfleger R, Wehner T, Reinhardt J, Richt JA (April 2000). "A short leucine-rich sequence in the Borna disease virus p10 ...
Diseases associated with bornaviruses include Borna disease, a fatal neurologic disease of mammals restricted to central Europe ... "Is There a Killer Squirrel Virus?". 9 July 2015. Viralzone: Bornaviridae Bornavirus/host Interactome ICTV Borna: Bornaviridae. ... and proventricular dilatation disease in birds. Borna disease was first identified in 1926 and its genome was isolated in 1990 ... "Borna". Veterinary Microbiology and microbial disease, 2nd edition, P J Quinn et al. Wiley-Blackwell Hoffmann, Bernd; Tappe, ...
Order Mononegavirales Family Bornaviridae - Borna disease virus Family Filoviridae - includes Ebola virus, Marburg virus Family ... parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses, Ebola virus, Marburg virus are included within the NSV. The life cycle of NSV has a ... Viruses of the family Tenuivirus only infect plants. A few viruses known to infect humans include Marburg virus, Ebola, measles ... A negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (-)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses negative sense, single-stranded RNA as its ...
Novel borna virus in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease. Emerging infectious diseases 14(12), 1883-6.e ... Kristen Bole (2008-07-29). "UCSF researchers identify virus behind mysterious parrot disease". UCSF News Office. Retrieved 2008 ... Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a disease affecting psittacines (parrots). It was first recognized and described in ... The virus can also affect the Purkinje cells of the heart, the adrenal medulla, the brain, and the spinal cord. On necropsy the ...
Borna disease virus. *BpuJI. *Bradykinin. *Bradykinin receptor. *Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor. *Branched chain amino ...
... includes Borna disease virus Family Filoviridae - includes Ebola virus, Marburg virus Family Mymonaviridae Family Nyamiviridae ... virus Extra small virus Jingmen tick virus Le Blanc virus Nesidiocoris tenuis virus 1 Nylanderia fulva virus 1 Orsay virus ... Family Paramyxoviridae - includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Newcastle disease virus Family ... includes Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue fever virus, Zika virus Family Fusariviridae Family ...
Thogoto and Borna disease viruses". Virus Res. 95 (1-2): 3-12. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00159-X. PMID 12921991.. Parameter , ... Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ... Jenis-jenis virusSunting. Dalam klasifikasi virus, virus influenza termasuk virus RNA yang merupakan tiga dari lima genera ... Virus influenza A subtipe H10N7. Virus influenza BSunting. Genus ini memiliki satu spesies, yaitu virus influenza B. influenza ...
Thogoto and Borna disease viruses". Virus Res. 95 (1-2): 3-12. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00159-X. PMID 12921991. Kash, J; ... In virus classification influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up three of the five genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the severest disease. The ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2006). "High levels of adamantane resistance among influenza A (H3N2) viruses ...
... border disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.106 --- bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 --- classical swine ... borna disease MeSH C02.782.580.250 --- filoviridae infections MeSH C02.782.580.250.400 --- hemorrhagic fever, ebola MeSH ... kyasanur forest disease MeSH C02.782.417.505 --- lassa fever MeSH C02.782.417.560 --- marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782. ... marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782.580.600 --- paramyxoviridae infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080 --- avulavirus infections ...
Thogoto and Borna disease viruses". Virus Research. 95 (1-2): 3-12. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00159-X. PMID 12921991.. ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the ... how the virus produces disease (pathogenesis), host immune responses, viral genomics, and how the virus spreads (epidemiology ...
... borna disease virus MeSH B04.820.455.300 --- filoviridae MeSH B04.820.455.300.200 --- ebola-like viruses MeSH B04.820.455.300. ... borna disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.455.300 --- filoviridae MeSH B04.909.777.455.300.200 --- ebola-like viruses MeSH B04.909. ... bluetongue virus MeSH B04.820.630.550.400 --- hemorrhagic disease virus, epizootic MeSH B04.820.630.550.750 --- palyam virus ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 --- gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 --- GB virus C ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... Chen C, Chiu Y, Wei F, Koong F, Liu H, Shaw C, Hwu H, Hsiao K. High seroprevalence of Borna virus infection in schizophrenic ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
"Nipah Virus Infection". Vaadatud 22.11.2011. Inglise keel. *↑ 5,0 5,1 "Enamlevinud zoonoosid". Vaadatud 11.11.2011. Eesti keel ... "Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 16 (3): 212-214. PMID 26854385. doi:10.1089/vbz.2015.1895. ... "Risk factors for human disease emergence.". Vaadatud 10.11.2011. Inglise keel. *↑ Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A. " ... "Escherichia Coli O157: H7 Foodborne Disease". Vaadatud 12.11.2011. Inglise keel. *↑ "Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: A ...
... negative-strand RNA virus that replicates and transcribes its genome in the nucleus of infected cells. It uses the cellular ... Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-segmented, ... Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-segmented, negative-strand ... Authentic Borna disease virus transcripts are spliced less efficiently than cDNA-derived viral RNAs. Author(s):. Jehle, ... Christian Jehle, W. Ian Lipkin, Peter Staeheli, Rosa M. Marion, Martin Schwemmle, 2000, Authentic Borna disease virus ...
Early and persistent abnormalities in rats with neonatally acquired borna disease virus infection. Brain Research Bulletin. ... Early and persistent abnormalities in rats with neonatally acquired borna disease virus infection. / Bautista, Jan R.; Schwartz ... Newborn rats inoculated with Borna disease virus (BDV) develop a persistent, tolerant nervous system infection (PTI-NB), with ... N2 - Newborn rats inoculated with Borna disease virus (BDV) develop a persistent, tolerant nervous system infection (PTI-NB), ...
Borna disease virus infection is diagnosed by the presence of serum antibodies reactive with t ... Characterization of the Borna disease virus phosphoprotein, p23.: ... Borna disease virus infection is diagnosed by the presence of serum antibodies reactive with the major viral proteins, p40 and ...
Detection and sequence analysis of borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood ... Borna disease virus (BDV) p24 RNA was detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of psychiatric patients and ... Detection and sequence analysis of borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood ...
"Efficient rescue of infectious bursal disease virus using a simplified RNA polymerase II-based reverse genetics strategy, ... Development of a novel Borna disease virus reverse genetics system using RNA polymerase II promoter and SV40 nuclear import ... Exchange of the C-terminal part of VP3 from very virulent infectious bursal disease virus results in an attenuated virus with a ... Generation of serotype 1/serotype 2 reassortant viruses of the infectious bursal disease virus and their investigation in vitro ...
  • We anticipate that this modification could improve reverse genetics for any other RNA virus and may be beneficial for vaccine development and dissection of the viral life cycle. (deepdyve.com)
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