A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.
An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, which infect ungulates and may infect humans. ORF VIRUS is the type species.
**I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Liechtenstein" is not a term with a medical definition.** It is a German-speaking country in Europe, specifically a constitutional monarchy located in the Alps between Austria and Switzerland. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A family in the order MONONEGAVIRALES comprising one genus Bornavirus. This family has a unique form of mRNA processing: replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

A serosurvey of Borna disease virus infection in wild rats by a capture ELISA. (1/148)

For a serological diagnostic test for Borna disease (BD), we developed a capture ELISA with specificity and sensitivity based on detection of antibodies against BD virus (BDV) p40 protein. Using our capture ELISA system, the antibody response of rats inoculated intracerebrally with BDV at 4 weeks after birth showed a sharp increase from 1 to 4 weeks postinoculation (p.i.) and a steady level after 5 weeks p.i. To investigate prevalence of BDV infection among wild rats, we examined sera of Rattus norvegicus in Kami-iso town, Oshima district, Hokkaido, suggesting that rats in this area had not been infected by BDV.  (+info)

T cell ignorance in mice to Borna disease virus can be overcome by peripheral expression of the viral nucleoprotein. (2/148)

Infection of neonates with Borna disease virus (BDV) induces severe meningoencephalitis and neurological disorder in wild-type but not in beta(2)-microglobulin-deficient mice of strain MRL (H-2(k)). Temporary in vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells delayed BDV-induced disease for several weeks. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells had a similar beneficial effect, indicating that the BDV-induced neurological disorder in mice is a CD4(+) T cell-dependent immunopathological process that is mediated by CD8(+) T cells. Lymphocytes prepared from brains of diseased mice were mainly from the CD8(+) T cell subset. They showed up-regulation of activation markers and exerted strong MHC I-restricted cytotoxic activity against target cells expressing the BDV nucleoprotein p40. Infection of B10.BR (H-2(k)) or congenic C57BL/10 (H-2(b)) mice resulted in symptomless, lifelong persistence of BDV in the brain. Superinfection with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing BDV p40 but not with other vaccinia viruses induced severe neurological disease and encephalitis in persistently infected B10.BR mice but not in persistently infected C57BL/10 mice, indicating that the disease-inducing T cell response is restricted to the nucleoprotein of BDV in H-2(k) mice. Our results demonstrate that the cellular arm of the immune system may ignore the presence of a replicating virus in the central nervous system until proper antigenic stimulation at a peripheral site triggers the antiviral response.  (+info)

Detection of borna disease virus-reactive antibodies from patients with psychiatric disorders and from horses by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. (3/148)

The prevalence of Borna disease virus (BDV)-specific antibodies among patients with psychiatric disorders and healthy individuals has varied in several reports using several different serological assay methods. A reliable and specific method for anti-BDV antibodies needs to be developed to clarify the pathological significance of BDV infections in humans. We developed a new electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for the antibody to BDV that uses two recombinant proteins of BDV, p40 and p24 (full length). Using this ECLIA, we examined 3,476 serum samples from humans with various diseases and 917 sera from blood donors in Japan for the presence of anti-BDV antibodies. By ECLIA, 26 (3.08%) of 845 schizophrenia patients and 9 (3.59%) of 251 patients with mood disorders were seropositive for BDV. Among 323 patients with other psychiatric diseases, 114 with neurological diseases, 75 with chronic fatigue syndrome, 85 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, 50 with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosis and 17 with leprosy, there was no positive case except one case each with alcohol addiction, AIDS, and dementia. Although 19 (1.36%) of 1,393 patients with various ocular diseases, 10 (1.09%) of 917 blood donors, and 3 (4.55%) of 66 multitransfused patients were seropositive for BDV-specific antigen, high levels of seroprevalence in schizophrenia patients and young patients (16 to 59 years old) with mood disorders were statistically significant. The immunoreactivity of seropositive sera could be verified for specificity by blocking with soluble p40 and/or p24 recombinant protein. Anti-p24 antibody was more frequent than p40 antibody in most cases, and in some psychotic patients antibody profiles showed only p40 antibody. Although serum positive for both p40 and p24 antibodies was not found in this study, the p40 ECLIA count in schizophrenia patients was higher than that of blood donors. Furthermore, we examined 90 sera from Japanese feral horses. Antibody profiles of control human samples are similar to that of naturally BDV-infected feral horses. We concluded that BDV infection was associated in some way with psychiatric disorders.  (+info)

Borna disease virus in human brains with a rare form of hippocampal degeneration but not in brains of patients with common neuropsychiatric disorders. (4/148)

To estimate the frequency of persistent Borna disease virus (BDV) infections of the human central nervous system and to determine which neuropsychiatric disorders might be associated with this viral infection, reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction was used to screen a large collection of autopsy brain samples for the presence of BDV-specific nucleic acids. The presence of BDV RNA was found in 3 brains of persons with psychiatric symptoms and prominent hippocampal degeneration previously reported to be positive by others. However, no BDV RNA was detected in 86 randomly collected brains from persons with various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, affective disorders, and Alzheimer's disease, or from suicide victims or in 52 brains from healthy controls. Furthermore, no BDV-RNA was detected in 16 surgical brain samples from persons with epilepsy-associated hippocampal sclerosis. These results indicate that life-long persistent BDV infections are rare in humans and that such infections may be associated with certain forms of hippocampal degeneration.  (+info)

Borna disease virus infection in domestic cats: evaluation by RNA and antibody detection. (5/148)

Borna disease virus (BDV) infection has been suggested to cause spontaneous neurological disease in cats referred to as staggering disease. However the evaluation of BDV infection in neurologically asymptomatic cats remained unclear. In the present study, BDV infected, asymptomatic cats in Tokyo were surveyed both by the presence of plasma antibodies against BDV-p24 and -p40 and by RNA detection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Seven of 32 domestic cats (21.9%) were serologically or genetically judged to be BDV-infected. Six cats were positive for anti-BDV antibody and two cats were positive for BDV RNA. Within the 2 RNA-positive cats, only one was positive for anti-BDV antibodies. Furthermore, the findings of anti-BDV-p40 and anti-BDV-p24 antibody-positive cats did not completely overlap. These results suggest that there are neurologically asymptomatic domestic cats infected with BDV present in the Tokyo area.  (+info)

Synaptic pathology in Borna disease virus persistent infection. (6/148)

Borna disease virus (BDV) infection of newborn rats leads to a persistent infection of the brain, which is associated with behavioral and neuroanatonomical abnormalities. These disorders occur in the absence of lymphoid cell infiltrates, and BDV-induced cell damage is restricted to defined brain areas. To investigate if damage to synaptic structures anteceded neuronal loss in BDV neonatally infected rats, we analyzed at different times postinfection the expression levels of growth-associated protein 43 and synaptophysin, two molecules involved in neuroplasticity processes. We found that BDV induced a progressive and marked decrease in the expression of these synaptic markers, which was followed by a significant loss of cortical neurons. Our findings suggest that BDV persistent infection interferes with neuroplasticity processes in specific cell populations. This, in turn, could affect the proper supply of growth factors and other molecules required for survival of selective neuronal populations within the cortex and limbic system structures.  (+info)

Expression and characterization of the Borna disease virus polymerase. (7/148)

Borna disease virus is the prototype of a new family, Bornaviridae, within the order Mononegavirales, that is characterized by nuclear transcription, splicing, low level replication, and neurotropism. The products of five open reading frames predicted from the genomic sequence have been confirmed; however, expression of the sixth, corresponding to the putative viral polymerase (L), has not been demonstrated. Here, we describe expression and characterization of a 190-kDa protein proposed to represent L. Expression of this protein from the third transcription unit of the viral genome is dependent on a splicing event that fuses a small upstream open reading frame in frame with the larger downstream continuous open reading frame. The protein is detected by serum antibodies from infected rats and is present in the nucleus, where it colocalizes with the phosphoprotein. L is also shown to be phosphorylated by cellular kinases and to interact with the viral phosphoprotein in coimmunoprecipitation studies. These findings are consistent with the identity of the 190-kDa protein as the viral polymerase and provide insights and describe reagents that will be useful for Bornavirus molecular biology and pathobiology.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a new subtype of Borna disease virus. (8/148)

Borna disease virus (BDV), the causative agent of severe meningoencephalitis in a wide variety of animal species, has been considered to be genetically invariable and to form a single type within the genus Bornavirus of the family Bornaviridae. BDV infections are of particular interest, because for the first time a virus infection appears to be linked to human psychiatric disorders. We now describe a new subtype of BDV isolated from a horse which was euthanatized due to severe, incurable neurological disease. The nucleotide sequence of this new strain, named No/98, differs from the reference strains by more than 15%, and the subtype is difficult to detect by standard reverse transcriptase PCR protocols. The nucleotide exchanges of the novel BDV isolate have surprisingly little effect on the primary structures of most viral proteins, with the notable exception of the X protein (p10), which is only 81% identical to its counterpart in reference strains. Our data indicate that the genome of BDV is far more variable than previously assumed and that naturally occurring subtypes may escape detection by currently used diagnostic assays.  (+info)

Borna Disease Virus (BoDV) is a negative-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Bornaviridae. It is the causative agent of Borna disease, a neurological disorder primarily affecting horses and sheep in Europe, although it has also been found in other mammals including cats, dogs, rabbits, and humans.

The virus is named after the town of Borna in Saxony, Germany, where an outbreak of the disease occurred in horses in the late 19th century. BoDV is unique among animal viruses because it can establish a persistent infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of its hosts and has been shown to have neurotropic properties.

In humans, BoDV infection has been linked to cases of encephalitis, a potentially life-threatening inflammation of the brain. However, human infections with BoDV are rare and often associated with close contact with infected animals or their tissues. There is currently no specific treatment for Borna disease or BoDV infection, and prevention efforts focus on reducing exposure to the virus through appropriate handling and care of infected animals.

Borna disease is a rare, infectious disease that affects the nervous system of animals, including horses, sheep, and goats. It is caused by the Borna disease virus (BDV) and is named after the town of Borna in Saxony, Germany, where an outbreak occurred in 1894.

In humans, there have been reports of a similar illness called "human bornavirus infection," but it is still not well understood and its relationship to animal bornavirus infections is unclear. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that "there is no evidence that BDV causes disease in humans."

Symptoms of Borna disease in animals can vary widely, depending on the species infected and other factors. In horses, the disease is often characterized by changes in behavior, such as increased aggression or fearfulness, loss of appetite, and difficulty coordinating movements. In severe cases, it can lead to paralysis and death.

There is no specific treatment for Borna disease, and prevention efforts focus on limiting the spread of the virus through measures such as quarantine and vaccination of susceptible animals.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Viruses, Unclassified" is not a recognized medical or scientific category. Generally, viruses are classified based on various characteristics such as genome structure, mode of replication, host range, and symptoms they cause. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is the organization responsible for the formal classification of viruses.

If you have any specific questions about certain unclassified viral entities or phenomena, I'd be happy to help if I can! Please provide more context so I can give a more accurate and helpful response.

Mononegavirales is an order of viruses that includes several families of negative-strand RNA viruses, such as Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Filoviridae. These viruses are characterized by their single, non-segmented strand of RNA that is negative-sense, meaning it cannot be directly translated into protein by the host cell's machinery. Instead, a complementary positive-sense RNA must first be synthesized before protein production can occur.

The order Mononegavirales includes many important human and animal pathogens, such as measles virus, mumps virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rabies virus, Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. These viruses can cause a range of diseases, from mild respiratory infections to severe hemorrhagic fevers.

The virions of Mononegavirales are typically enveloped, with a helical capsid that surrounds the RNA genome. The genome is usually around 10-15 kilobases in length and encodes several proteins, including an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is responsible for replicating and transcribing the viral RNA.

Mononegavirales viruses are transmitted through various routes, including respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, and contact with infected animals or fomites. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, personal protective equipment (PPE), and infection control practices.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Parapoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the Poxviridae family, which includes several species that can infect mammals such as sheep, goats, and humans. These viruses are characterized by causing localized, papular, and pustular skin lesions in their hosts. The most common species that infect humans are Orf virus and Parapoxvirus ovis (also known as contagious ecthyma virus or pseudocowpox virus).

Human infections with parapoxviruses typically occur through direct contact with infected animals or their products, such as wool, hair, or milk. The incubation period for these viruses ranges from 3 to 10 days after exposure, and the infection usually manifests as a single, painful, red, and fluid-filled lesion that progresses into a scab over time.

Parapoxvirus infections are generally self-limiting and resolve within 4-6 weeks without specific treatment. However, secondary bacterial infections can occur and may require antibiotics. It is essential to prevent transmission of the virus through good hygiene practices and avoiding contact with infected animals or their products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Liechtenstein" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually a small country located in Central Europe, bordered by Switzerland to the west and Austria to the east. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

Bornaviridae is a family of viruses that includes the Borna disease virus (BDV) as its type species. These viruses are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that primarily infect mammals, including humans. The name "Bornaviridae" comes from the town of Borna in Saxony, Germany, where an outbreak of a neurological disease in horses, now known to be caused by BDV, was first described in the 19th century.

The genome of Bornaviruses is composed of six genes that encode for structural and non-structural proteins. The viral RNA is encapsidated in a nucleocapsid protein (N) and associated with the large (L) and phosphoprotein (P). The L protein functions as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, while the P protein acts as a cofactor for the L protein.

Borna disease is a rare but serious neurological disorder that affects horses, sheep, and cattle, causing symptoms such as behavioral changes, loss of coordination, and paralysis. In humans, Bornaviruses have been associated with several neurological disorders, including encephalitis, but the exact role of these viruses in human disease remains unclear.

Prevention and control measures for Bornavirus infections include good biosecurity practices, such as wearing protective clothing and equipment when handling infected animals, and implementing strict quarantine procedures for infected herds. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments available for Bornavirus infections.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Nucleoproteins are complexes formed by the association of proteins with nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). These complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as packaging and protecting genetic material, regulating gene expression, and replication and repair of DNA. In these complexes, proteins interact with nucleic acids through electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and other non-covalent interactions, leading to the formation of stable structures that help maintain the integrity and function of the genetic material. Some well-known examples of nucleoproteins include histones, which are involved in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells, and reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in retroviruses that transcribes RNA into DNA.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Viral encephalitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the brain caused by a viral infection. The infection can be caused by various types of viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, arboviruses (transmitted through insect bites), or HIV.

The symptoms of viral encephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and altered level of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, or even death. The diagnosis is usually made based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scan. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Orf virus, also known as contagious ecthyma virus, is a member of the Parapoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. It primarily affects sheep and goats, causing a contagious skin disease characterized by papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs, mainly on the mouth and legs. The virus can also infect humans, particularly those who handle infected animals or consume raw meat from an infected animal. In human cases, it typically causes a papular or pustular dermatitis, often on the hands, fingers, or forearms. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within 4-6 weeks without scarring.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

... , also known as sad horse disease, is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, caused by Borna ... Borna disease was first described in 1885, when all horses belonging to a cavalry regiment stationed near the city of Borna in ... March 2022). "New World camelids are sentinels for the presence of Borna disease virus". Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. ... Borna disease is a severe neurological illness that predominantly affects horses and sheep, but it has been observed in a wide ...
Borna disease was first described in 1885 as "heated head disease" of cavalry horses in 1885 in the town of Borna, Germany. ... The Borna disease viruses 1 and 2 (BoDV-1 and BoDV-2) are members of the species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus and cause Borna ... Perez M, Watanabe M, Whitt MA, de la Torre JC (August 2001). "N-terminal domain of Borna disease virus G (p56) protein is ... Wolff T, Pfleger R, Wehner T, Reinhardt J, Richt JA (April 2000). "A short leucine-rich sequence in the Borna disease virus p10 ...
Lipkin, W. I.; Hornig, M.; Briese, T. (2001). "Borna disease virus and neuropsychiatric disease--a reappraisal". Trends in ... "Does Borna Disease Virus Cause Mental Illness? , Columbia Public Health". www.publichealth.columbia.edu. January 31, 2012. ... Lipkin, W. I.; Travis, G. H.; Carbone, K. M.; Wilson, M. C. (1990). "Isolation and characterization of Borna disease agent cDNA ... Bode, L.; Ludwig, H. (2003). "Borna Disease Virus Infection, a Human Mental-Health Risk". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 16 (3 ...
... white-toothed shrew is a natural reservoir species for the Borna disease virus which is the causative agent of Borna disease, a ... "Shrews as Reservoir Hosts of Borna Disease Virus". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (4): 675-677. doi:10.3201/eid1204.051418. ... Kamhieh S, Flower RL (June 2006). "Borna disease virus (BDV) infection in cats. A concise review based on current knowledge". ... Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Bechter, K.; Frese, K. (1991). "Borna disease, a possible hazard for man?". Archives of Virology. 118 (3- ...
Diseases associated with bornaviruses include Borna disease, a fatal neurologic disease of mammals restricted to central Europe ... "Borna Disease Virus Infection in Animals and Humans". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3 (3): 343-352. doi:10.3201/eid0303.970311 ... Borna disease was first identified in 1926 and its genome was isolated in 1990. The ICTV proposed the creation in 1996 of the ... Richt, JA; Rott, R (2001). "Borna disease virus: a mystery as an emerging zoonotic pathogen". Vet J. 161 (1): 24-40. doi: ...
The two were the first researchers to conduct experimental studies of the Borna disease in sheep and cattle and to describe the ... Nicolau and Galloway were also the first to identify the sensitivity of the Borna disease virus to lipid solvents, an ... Nicolau, S.; Galloway, I. A. (1928), "Borna disease and enzootic encephalo-myelitis of sheep and cattle", Medical Research ... "Preliminary studies on the biology of Borna disease virus". Journal of General Virology. 70 (12): 3507-3511. doi:10.1099/0022- ...
Bode, L; Ludwig, H (2003). "Borna disease virus infection, a human mental-health risk". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 16 (3): ... Lists of diseases, Infectious diseases, Infectious causes of cancer, Diseases and disorders, Inflammations). ... Diseases may also be multifactorial, requiring multiple factors to induce disease. For example: in a murine model, Crohn's ... The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ...
A study investigating the effects of the Borna disease virus on treeshrews has given new insight into neurological disease. ... Sprankel, H., Richarz, K., Ludwig, H. and Rott, R. (1978). Behavior Alterations in Tree Shrews Induced by Borna Disease Virus. ... Recent studies have used treeshrews to study infectious, metabolic, neurological, and psychiatric diseases, as well as cancers ... emerging model of human diseases. Dongwuxue Yanjiu 34(2): 59-69. (in Chinese) Yang, Z. F., Zhao, J., Zhu, Y. T., Wang, Y. T., ...
"Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14 (12): 1883-1886 ... In general these viruses show only about 65% sequence identity with mammalian Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). The overall ... Avian bornaviruses have been reported, yet not proven, as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a disease of ... "Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 16 (3 ...
August 2010). "Modulation of miR-122 on persistently Borna disease virus infected human oligodendroglial cells". Antiviral ... Biomarkers in Liver Disease. V. B. Patel and V. R. Preedy. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands: ISBN 978-94-007-7675-3, page 193- ... This change is noted before increased amino-transferase activity, making it an early indicator of liver disease and ... December 2010). "Plasma microRNA-122 as a biomarker for viral-, alcohol-, and chemical-related hepatic diseases". Clinical ...
Pletnikov, M. V.; Moran, T. H.; Carbone, K. M. (2002). "Borna disease virus infection of the neonatal rat: Developmental brain ... Much research has been done into the use of a rat model to show how Borna virus infection, exposure to valproic acid in utero, ... Centers for Disease Control (2008-02-08). "Mercury and vaccines (thimerosal)". Retrieved 2011-08-01. Crawley, J. N. (2012). " ... Klauck, S. M.; Poustka, A. (2006). "Animal models of autism". Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models. 3 (4): 313-318. doi:10.1016 ...
India Borna disease, an infectious neurological syndrome Bornaviridae, a family of viruses associated with Borna disease Borna ... Look up Borna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Borna may refer to: Borna (given name), a Croatian masculine given name Borna ... Germany Borna, Bahretal, a subdivision of the Bahretal municipality, Saxony, Germany Borna Dam, an earthfill dam on Borna river ... duke), the Duke of Dalmatia c. 810-821, a vassal of the Frankish Empire Bertin Borna (1930-2007), a Beninese politician Borna, ...
Nöske K, Bilzer T, Planz O, Stitz L (1998). "Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells Eliminate Borna Disease Virus from the Brain via ...
... where she studied the virus associated with Borna disease. She joined the faculty of Colorado State University in 1990 and ... Susan VandeWoude is an American veterinarian and researcher specializing in viral diseases of cats. She is currently serving as ...
Polio, measles, varicella-zoster, rubella, herpes simplex, maternal genital infections, Borna disease virus, and Toxoplasma ... It is a pathogenic theory of disease in which it is thought that a proximal cause of certain cases of schizophrenia is the ... In 2013 this dataset was expanded to identify in total 13 candidate loci for the disease, and also implicated calcium signaling ... An updated meta-analysis on CNVs for schizophrenia published in 2015 expanded the number of CNVs indicated in the disease, ...
She directs the clinical core of an international investigation of the role of Borna disease virus in human mental illness and ... based on neonatal rat infection with Borna disease virus. In 2004, Hornig published a controversial paper concluding that, in a ... In the 1990s, Hornig investigated the potential link between the Borna virus and depression in humans. Hornig has been ... in the early stages of the disease had higher levels of cytokines than people without CFS. In the 1990s, Hornig helped to ...
Laboratory rats infected with Borna disease virus show some symptoms similar to those of autism but blood studies of autistic ... or whether they are secondary to the disease processes. As autoantibodies are found in diseases other than autism, and are not ... Wu S, Ding Y, Wu F, Li R, Xie G, Hou J, Mao P (August 2015). "Family history of autoimmune diseases is associated with an ... Neural connections and the immune system are a pathway that may allow diseases originated in the intestine to spread to the ...
... borna disease virus MeSH B04.820.455.300 - filoviridae MeSH B04.820.455.300.200 - ebola-like viruses MeSH B04.820.455.300.650 ... borna disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.455.300 - filoviridae MeSH B04.909.777.455.300.200 - ebola-like viruses MeSH B04.909. ... lumpy skin disease virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.500 - leporipoxvirus MeSH B04.280.650.160.500.250 - fibroma virus, rabbit MeSH ... border disease virus MeSH B04.820.250.700.150 - diarrhea viruses, bovine viral MeSH B04.820.250.700.150.100 - diarrhea virus 1 ...
BDV or BdV may refer to: Borna disease virus, a member of the species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus Big Daddy V, the ring name of ...
Borna disease virus Family Filoviridae - includes Ebola virus, Marburg virus Family Mymonaviridae Family Nyamiviridae Family ... The nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but it may be double-stranded (dsRNA). Notable human diseases caused by ... Ebola virus disease, rabies, polio, mumps, and measles. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classifies ... The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 202 Suppl 2 (Suppl 2): S309-14. doi:10.1086/655653. PMC 2945609. PMID 20846038. Bukh J, ...
... borna disease MeSH C02.782.580.250 - filoviridae infections MeSH C02.782.580.250.400 - hemorrhagic fever, ebola MeSH C02.782. ... kyasanur forest disease MeSH C02.782.417.505 - lassa fever MeSH C02.782.417.560 - marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782.417.762 - ... swine vesicular disease MeSH C02.782.687.484 - foot-and-mouth disease MeSH C02.782.791.142 - african horse sickness MeSH ... kyasanur forest disease MeSH C02.081.885.550 - nairobi sheep disease MeSH C02.182.500.300 - encephalitis, viral MeSH C02.182. ...
Novel borna virus in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease. Emerging infectious diseases 14(12), 1883-6.e ... Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is an incurable probably viral disease of psittacine birds. It was first recognized and ... The disease does not follow a clear path of development or transmission. "All Creatures Health Care". Harrison, and Lightfoot. ... The clinical presentation of this disease varies with the individual as well as in severity of those symptoms. Often the ...
... (also known as microvascular disease, small vessel disease (SVD) or microvascular dysfunction) is a disease of ... Feuer, Daniel S.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Mehrad, Borna; Wei, Janet; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Pepine, Carl J.; Keeley, Ellen C. (2022 ... chronic kidney disease, chronic venous insufficiency, systemic scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases (CTDs) ... Small vessel diseases (SVDs) affect primarily organs that receive significant portions of cardiac output such as the brain, the ...
By extension, the increasing rates of non-communicable diseases in the community is related to the diet and physical activity ... "Borna Nyaoke , DNDi". dndi.org. Retrieved 1 September 2023. von Delft, Annette; Mowbray, Charles; Nyaoke, Borna (24 December ... Borna Nyaoke is a Kenyan physician and clinical researcher, who took over as Head of Mycetoma Research in 2023 from her ... Borna Nyaoke was born (1987) in Kenya and She attended Kenyan schools for her elementary and secondary education. She was ...
Borna moved with Ljudevit's father-in-law Dragomuž and their forces from the south-west. At the heat of the Battle of Kupa, his ... The Franks eventually retreated from his lands, with their ranks thinned by disease which the northern forces caught in the ... Borna was too weak, so the Dalmatians defended themselves through sneaky tactics and used attrition as their best ally to ... Borna escaped from the battlefield with the help of his bodyguards. Ljudevit seized the opportunity and breached into and ...
... where the disease has been found, and the Manitoba TB Eradication Area, the rest of the province outside RMEA where the disease ... Müller, Borna; Dürr, Salome; Alonso, Silvia; Hattendorf, Jan; Laisse, Cláudio J.M.; Parsons, Sven D.C.; van Helden, Paul D.; ... and regions without adequate disease control measures and/or disease surveillance are at higher risk. It is difficult to ... The disease is found in cattle throughout the globe, but some countries have been able to reduce or limit the incidence of the ...
... , among the "Top 40 Under 40 Women in Kenya in 2018". Borna Nyaoke-Anoke Shitsama Nyamweya Catherine Nyongesa ... Lung Disease Control Programme, in the Kenyan Ministry of Health. She was born in Kenya, c. 1979. After attending local primary ... Lung Disease Control Programme of the Government of Kenya". Linkedin.com. Retrieved 4 November 2018. Citizen Reporter (24 March ...
Bertin Borna, 76, Beninese politician, former finance minister. Claudia Cohen, 56, American socialite and journalist, ovarian ... Leonard Nathan, 82, American poet, National Book Award nominee, UC Berkeley professor of rhetoric, Alzheimer's disease. Juan ... Ze'ev Schiff, 74, Israeli military journalist, heart disease. Klausjürgen Wussow, 78, German actor, after long illness. Nazik ... Donald D. Clancy, 85, American Mayor of Cincinnati (1957-1960), US Representative from Ohio (1961-1977), Parkinson's disease. ...
... liver diseases, neoplasms, cystic fibrosis and celiac disease". European Journal of Pediatrics. 129 (1): 29-35. doi:10.1007/ ... Culig, Borna; bevardi, Martina; Bosnir, Jasna; Serdar, Sonja; Lasic, Dario; Racs, Aleksandar; Galic, Antonija; Kuharic, Zeljka ... Rarely, the fungus has also been recognized as a contributor to animal disease. Grains and legumes colonized by A. carneus are ... Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim (2009). "Plant Polyphenols as Dietary Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease". ...
"Gluten-related disorders" is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten, which include celiac disease (CD), non- ... Pronin, Darina; Borner, Andreas; Weber, Hans; Scherf, Ann (10 July 2020). "Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Breeding from 1891 to ... Lundin KE, Wijmenga C (Sep 2015). "Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening". Nat Rev Gastroenterol ... atopic diseases, allergies, neurological diseases, or psychiatric disorders, among others. The results of a 2017 study suggest ...
Borna disease, also known as sad horse disease, is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, caused by Borna ... Borna disease was first described in 1885, when all horses belonging to a cavalry regiment stationed near the city of Borna in ... March 2022). "New World camelids are sentinels for the presence of Borna disease virus". Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. ... Borna disease is a severe neurological illness that predominantly affects horses and sheep, but it has been observed in a wide ...
Borna disease, is caused by a virus which damages the nervous system. It has been known in horses in Germany and surrounding ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(9):1452. doi:10.3201/eid1509.e11509.. APA. (2009). Borna [bor′nә] disease virus. Emerging ... Borna disease virus was named after the town of Borna in Saxony, southeastern Germany, where in 1885 many horses in a German ... Borna disease virus and its role in neurobehavioral disease. Washington: ASM Press; 2002. ... Borna [bor′nә] disease virus. Volume 15, Number 9-September 2009 ...
Borna disease virus 2 (BoDV-2) is a a member of the species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus and causes Borna disease, a ...
Borna disease in Austrian horses. H. Weissenböck*, A. Suchy, P. Caplazi, S. Herzog, N. Nowotny. *Corresponding author for this ... Borna disease in Austrian horses. / Weissenböck, H.; Suchy, A.; Caplazi, P. et al. In: Veterinary Record, Vol. 143, No. 1, ... title = "Borna disease in Austrian horses",. author = "H. Weissenb{o}ck and A. Suchy and P. Caplazi and S. Herzog and N. ... Weissenböck H, Suchy A, Caplazi P, Herzog S, Nowotny N. Borna disease in Austrian horses. Veterinary Record. 1998 Jul 4;143(1): ...
Anticorpos/imunologia Doença de Borna/diagnóstico Doença de Borna/imunologia Vírus da Doença de Borna/fisiologia ... Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) causes rare but often fatal encephalitis in humans. Late diagnosis prohibits an experimental ... Antibodies against viral nucleo-, phospho-, and X protein contribute to serological diagnosis of fatal Borna disease virus 1 ...
Borna Nyaoke, Head of Mycetoma Disease, DNDi. Fungal diseases registry. Oliver Cornely, Director & Chair Translational Research ... The theme of the 1st PAMWG Conference is Addressing neglected fungal killer diseases in Africa. ... Research & development in neglected tropical diseases - The unique case of mycetoma. ... David Denning, Professor of Infectious Diseases in Global Health, University of Manchester. ...
Borna disease virus and the evidence for human pathogenicity: a systematic review. Chalmers RM, Thomas DR, Salmon RL. Chalmers ... Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease. Cann KF, Thomas DR, Salmon RL, Wyn-Jones AP, Kay D. Cann KF, et al ... and the anonymous spread of disease. Quilliam RS, Cross P, Williams AP, Edwards-Jones G, Salmon RL, Rigby D, Chalmers RM, ...
2015) Borna disease virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and ... 2015) Borna disease virus infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and ... 2015) Lungworm disease in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 17(7), pp ... 2015) Lungworm disease in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 17(7), pp ...
Volmer et al (2007) Borna disease virus infection impairs synaptic plasticity. J Biol Chem 81 8833 PMID: 17553893 ... Prat et al (2009) Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with ...
Rabies is a lethal infectious disease that causes 55,000 human deaths per year and is transmitted by various mammalian species ... Differential effects of rabies and borna disease viruses on immediate- early- and late-response gene expression in brain ... Differential effects of rabies and borna disease viruses on immediate- early- and late-response gene expression in brain ... Differential effects of rabies and borna disease viruses on immediate- early- and late-response gene expression in brain ...
Rabies is a deadly viral disease caused by the rabies virus (RABV), transmitted through a bite of an infected host, resulting ... Hayashi, Y.; Horie, M.; Daito, T.; Honda, T.; Ikuta, K.; Tomonaga, K. Heat Shock Cognate Protein 70 Controls Borna Disease ... REST and Neural Gene Network Dysregulation in IPSC Models of Alzheimers Disease. Cell Rep. 2019, 26, 1112-1127.e9. [Google ... Rabies is a deadly viral disease caused by the rabies virus (RABV), transmitted through a bite of an infected host, resulting ...
Volmer R, Prat CM, Le Masson G, Garenne A, Gonzalez-Dunia D (2007) Borna disease virus infection impairs synaptic plasticity. J ... Studies for Improving a Rat Model of Alzheimers Disease: Icv Administration of Well-Characterized beta-Amyloid 1-42 Oligomers ... Synaptic dysfunction in hippocampus of transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers disease: a multi-electrode array study. Neurobiol ... M2 Cortex-Dorsolateral striatum stimulation reverses motor symptoms and synaptic deficits in Huntingtons Disease. bioRxiv: ...
... and discovery of more than 200 viruses including Borna disease virus, rhinovirus C, Dandenong virus, and LuJo virus. Dr. Lipkin ... Lipkin has been at the forefront of infectious disease research for more than two decades and will serve as the journals ... Lipkin has assisted the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, U.S. ... in outbreaks of respiratory disease, hemorrhagic fever, meningoencephalitis, and vaccine safety investigations. He served as an ...
Seroprevalence of Borna disease virus antibodies is not increased in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Prudlo, J., ... Moore, S. E., Morgan, G., Collinson, A. C., Swain, J. A., OConnell, M. A. & Prentice, A. M., 2002, In: Archives of Disease in ...
Borna disease, dourine, epizootic lymphangitis, equine trypanosomosis (surra), glanders, horse pox, Japanese encephalitis, ... mouth disease, goat and sheep pox, heartwater, Nairobi disease, peste des petits ruminants, Rift Valley fever and ... mouth disease, goat and sheep pox, heartwater, Nairobi disease, peste des petits ruminants, Rift Valley fever and ... The United States is free from foot-and-mouth disease, lumpy skin disease, Rift Valley fever, and rinderpest. 2. The semen ...
... the cause of Proventricular Dilatation Disease in parrots. Using advanced electron microscopy, a team of scientists at the ... Schubot researchers image Avian Borna Virus. June 26, 2009. COLLEGE STATION, TX - Scientists working at the Schubot Exotic Bird ... Health Center at Texas A&Ms College of Veterinary Medicine have finally visualizedthe Avian Borna Virus, ... Schubot Center led by Dr Ian Tizard, have succeeded in photographing avian Borna Virus. ...
Borna Disease in Horses: An Epizootic Disease You Should Know. Borna disease is an acute or subacute, non-purulent, often... ... Anaplasmosis in Cattle: A Deadly Disease You Must Know For Your Farm. ...
Borna disease. iii. Choriomenigitis. iv. CMV. III. Postnatal infections and psychiatric disorders. A. Epidemiologic data. B. ... Tourettes disease. Additionally, several infectious diseases including human influenza virus, HIV, syphilis, Lyme disease are ... C. Adult Borna disease and mood disorders. D. Von Economos encephalitis, Parkinsons and psychosis after adult onset influenza ... Of course, the bottom line on any sort of correlations is that they do not in and of themselves cause diseases or prove ...
Aprende sobre equino con el libro Equine Infectious Diseases, 2nd Edition de Debra C. Sellon, Maureen Long ... Ideal for both practitioners and students, Equine Infectious Diseases, 2nd Edition covers the diagnosis, treatment, and ... Preventing and controlling infectious disease outbreaks is addressed with information on epidemiology, biosecurity, ... it includes complete coverage of the individual diseases caused by each type of agent. A section on clinical problems offers ...
Borna disease virus. A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several ... Diseases19. Burkitt LymphomaHerpesviridae InfectionsVirus DiseasesTumor Virus InfectionsOrthomyxoviridae InfectionsEpstein-Barr ... Disease Outbreaks. Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.. ...
Genemedi developed the antigen and antibody to detect the abortion, acute severe metritis, borna disease, borrelia theileri ... Knowledge of cattle diseases is necessary from public health point of view also as many diseases can be transmitted to man ... Generally, animals are born free of diseases or parasites. But they usually acquire these diseases either through contact with ... By proper management and feeding, the dairy farmer can, to a great extent, prevent disease out-breaks. Cattle are infected by a ...
Borna disease at psychology-glossary.com. ■■■■■. Borna disease refers to a viral infection that affects the nervous system, ... Autoimmune Diseases at psychology-glossary.com. ■■■■. Autoimmune Diseases refer to disorders that occur as a result of the ... The Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) refers to the disease caused by the human immunodeficiency . . . Read More ... Opportunistic infections is defined as infections caused by organisms that cannot induce disease in people . . . Read More ...
Borna DV Ab Ser-aCnc Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Borna disease virus Ab [Units/ ...
... and Borna disease virus (Rubin et al., 1998) develop spatial memory loss, which is associated with infection in the hippocampus ... 21 and 22 It RAD001 concentration is stated that although the symptoms of the disease lead children to avoid physical activity ... The opportunity Part involving Irisin in General Perform as well as Vascular disease: An assessment. ... as moderate intensity physical activity is a recognized goal of disease control.4 and 23 An American study of 137 asthmatic ...
Borna Disease Virus Infection and Its Role in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. @. @. @. 1.1.3.. The study on the viral infections and ...
It is controversial whether Borna disease virus (BDV) infects humans and causes psychiatric disorders. ... A number of causative mutations such as a-synuclein, parkin, UCHL1, Pink-1, DJ-1 have been identified in Parkinsons disease ( ... The most common stated risk factor was being older (59.6%), followed by head trauma (33.6%) and cerebrovascular disease (30.4 ... Background: Measles is a highly contagious disease that is transmissible by airborne particles but is preventable by ...
It is controversial whether Borna disease virus (BDV) infects humans and causes psychiatric disorders. ... The National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute neuropsychology protocol ... disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimers Disease ...
... have been detected with careful histopathological investigation in certain disease phases of experimental Borna disease virus ... Bechter K, Herzog S, Schreiner V, Wollinsky KH, Schuettlert R. Cerebrospinal fluid filtration in Borna-disease-virus- ... 3. Bechter K. Mild encephalitis underlying psychiatric disorders-a reconsideration and hypothesis exemplified on Borna disease. ... Liquorfiltration als experimentelle Therapie bei therapieresistenten Psychosen Borna-Disease-Virus-seropositiver Patienten- ...
  • There have been rare cases of human fatalities associated with encephalitis caused by Borna disease virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following infection, individuals may develop Borna disease, or may remain subclinical, possibly acting as a carrier of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • excessive citations] There is some evidence that there may be a relationship between BoDV-1 infection and psychiatric disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subclinical infection and asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses: occupational exposure, environmental pathways, and the anonymous spread of disease. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas in the acute phase of the disease immunoregulatory processes prevail in the hippocampus and the cortex, we observed a strong activation of neurogenic processes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, both by gene expression and immunohistology starting as early as 3 days after infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] In 2018, three fatal cases of Borna disease in humans were confirmed in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theme of the 1st PAMWG Conference is Addressing neglected fungal killer diseases in Africa . (dndi.org)
  • Organized by infectious agent - viral, bacterial and rickettsial, protozoal, and fungal - it includes complete coverage of the individual diseases caused by each type of agent. (edicionesedra.com)
  • Borna disease, also known as sad horse disease, is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, caused by Borna disease viruses 1 and 2 (BoDV-1/2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Borna disease virus 2 (BoDV-2) is a a member of the species Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus and causes Borna disease, a neurological condition that affects warm-blooded animals, primarily horses and sheep. (kitpcr.com)
  • citation needed] Avian bornaviruses, a group of related viruses, have been reported, yet not proven, as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a disease of pet parrots. (wikipedia.org)
  • COLLEGE STATION, TX - Scientists working at the Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center at Texas A&M's College of Veterinary Medicine have finally visualizedthe Avian Borna Virus, the cause of Proventricular Dilatation Disease in parrots. (tamu.edu)
  • Borna disease virus was named after the town of Borna in Saxony, southeastern Germany, where in 1885 many horses in a German cavalry regiment died of a fatal neurologic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases , 15 (9), 1452. (cdc.gov)
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases , 29(6), pp. 1223-1227. (gla.ac.uk)
  • She conducts research in infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnostics and vaccine development, with a focus on feline viruses. (gla.ac.uk)
  • An expert in diagnostics, pathogen surveillance and discovery, Dr. Lipkin has been at the forefront of infectious disease research for more than two decades and will serve as the journal's editor for research related to pathogen discovery. (columbia.edu)
  • Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL). (lookformedical.com)
  • Ideal for both practitioners and students, Equine Infectious Diseases, 2nd Edition covers the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious disease in horses. (edicionesedra.com)
  • Preventing and controlling infectious disease outbreaks is addressed with information on epidemiology, biosecurity, antimicrobial therapy, and recognizing foreign equine diseases. (edicionesedra.com)
  • Genemedi developed the antigen and antibody to detect the non-infectious disease such as immune dysfunction, abortion and teratology, nonbacterial diarrheic disease, Prion associated diseases (Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Chronical Waste Disease), winter dysentery and so on. (genemedi.com)
  • Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. (psychology-lexicon.com)
  • and discovery of more than 200 viruses including Borna disease virus, rhinovirus C, Dandenong virus, and LuJo virus. (columbia.edu)
  • A general term for diseases produced by viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • Borna disease is a severe neurological illness that predominantly affects horses and sheep, but it has been observed in a wide range of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using advanced electron microscopy, a team of scientists at the Schubot Center led by Dr Ian Tizard, have succeeded in photographing avian Borna Virus. (tamu.edu)
  • Rest assured, our Shamrock Macaw Baby has been rigorously tested and is free from common avian diseases, including Polyoma, Chlamydia, PBFD, and Avian Borna virus. (dallasparrots.com)
  • Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) causes rare but often fatal encephalitis in humans . (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibodies against viral nucleo-, phospho-, and X protein contribute to serological diagnosis of fatal Borna disease virus 1 infections. (bvsalud.org)
  • In 1909, Ernst Joest and Kurt Degen discovered distinctive inclusions in the nerves of horses that had died of Borna disease, which were named Joest-Degen inclusion bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Symptoms of Borna disease in horses and sheep start after a four-week incubation period followed by the development of immune-mediated meningitis and encephalomyelitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar disease had been observed in horses, sheep, and cattle for more than 100 years. (cdc.gov)
  • The first two time points represent the acute and sub-acute phase of bacterial meningitis, whereas the latter represent the recovery phase of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the limited success in reducing brain damage during the acute disease, it appears imperative to expand the scope of strategies from the acute disease phase into the recovery phase with the aim to improve the outcome of brain injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1924, the Austrian virologist Wilhelm Zwick suggested a virus as the cause of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of his career, Dr. Lipkin has assisted the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Defense, and the World Health Organization (WHO) in outbreaks of respiratory disease, hemorrhagic fever, meningoencephalitis, and vaccine safety investigations. (columbia.edu)
  • I am a physician-scientist with a background in pulmonary medicine, critical care and infectious diseases. (ufl.edu)
  • Hyper-polarized xenon MRI as a biomarker in pulmonary fibrosis" Borna Mehrad, Co-Principle Investigator, 1/1/15-12/31/15. (ufl.edu)
  • Effect of Cheese Intake on Cardiovascular Diseases and Cardiovascular Biomarkers. (cdc.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • That first finding in relation to deprivation *might* be linked to things like an under-diagnosis of something like coeliac disease in those areas. (blogspot.com)
  • Overweight and obesity are considered physical health risk factors for children and adolescent development, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, abnormal glucose metabolism, liver and gastrointestinal disorders, sleep apnea and orthopedic complications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Causal Associations between Paternal Longevity and Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic Predisposition of Anti-Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G Levels and the Risk of 9 Cardiovascular Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • She has been a member of the European Advisory Board for Cat Diseases (ABCD) since 2005 and was elected as President of the newly established Association, ABCD Europe, in 2019. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Ayton S, Lei P, Appukuttan AT, Renoir T, Foliaki S, Chen F, Adlard PA, Hannan AJ, Bush AI ( 2019 ) Brain Zinc Deficiency Exacerbates Cognitive Decline in the R6/1 Model of Huntington's Disease. (multichannelsystems.com)
  • Rabies transmitted by vampire bats to humans: an emerging zoonotic disease in Latin America? (ajtmh.org)
  • Transmission of the disease from cows to humans was first observed in dairymaids who milked infected cows and developed the same kind of pustules on their hands. (equimed.com)
  • ABSTRACT The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of caries, severe caries and gingivitis in Tehran primary-school children and to analyse the relationship between children's oral hygiene habits and prevalence of these oral health diseases. (who.int)
  • Dr. Lipkin is director of the Northeast Biodefense Center, a consortium of academic and governmental biomedical research institutions in the tri-state area engaged in biodefense research and the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Diagnostics, Surveillance and Immunotherapeutics for Emerging Infectious and Zoonotic Diseases. (columbia.edu)
  • The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) mandates that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) shall assess whether adequate information on health effects is available for the priority hazardous substances. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease is characterised by ataxia and abnormal depressive behaviour, frequently culminating in death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (IGCCCG) developed a risk classification for advanced nonseminoma testicular cancer based on identifying clinically independent prognostic features, including extent of disease and levels of serum tumor markers. (medscape.com)
  • Borna disease, is caused by a virus which damages the nervous system. (thepigsite.com)
  • As the Mayo Foundation's longtime head of experimental bacteriology (1915-44), Rosenow compiled compelling direct evidence of an infectious etiology (substantially satisfying and additional to Henle-Koch criteria, e.g., see www.InstituteOfScience.com/AUTOMED/40R3.HTM ) for a range of systemic conditions, including diseases of the nervous system. (instituteofscience.com)
  • We also found that percentage of patients over 65 is strongly associated with gluten-free prescribing, which is unsurprising given that coeliac disease prevalence increases with age. (blogspot.com)
  • Spatial centrosome proteome of human neural cells uncovers disease-relevant heterogeneity. (mpg.de)
  • Since the initial description of the disease by Nozik and Dorsch in 1973, hundreds of patients have been reported in the literature with multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis (MCP). (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac troponins predict mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of adjusted observational studies. (cdc.gov)
  • citation needed] The only known animal reservoir of BoDV-1 is the bicolored shrew (Crocidura leucodon), which is not susceptible to Borna disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The median citation count of Lancet Infectious Diseases is 2 . (ooir.org)
  • Suggestive or possible clinically relevant states of (mild) neuroinflammation not fulfilling the definition of meningoencephalitis, were not well classified or might sometimes even have been assigned as " non-inflammatory" diseases in clinical use and research (see below definition of neuroinflammation), with the terms mild neuroinflammation or parainflammation not in use. (edupony.com)
  • Clinical non-effectiveness of clopidogrel use for peripheral artery disease in patients with CYP2C19 polymorphisms: a systematic review. (cdc.gov)
  • Borna disease virus and its role in neurobehavioral disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Michels K, Nemeth E, Ganz T, Mehrad B . The role of hepcidin in host defense against infectious diseases. (ufl.edu)
  • Diabetes & vascular disease research 0 18 (5): 14791641211041225. (cdc.gov)
  • Cattle diseases cost millions of money losses every year. (genemedi.com)
  • Knowledge of cattle diseases is necessary from public health point of view also as many diseases can be transmitted to man through milk. (genemedi.com)
  • By proper management and feeding, the dairy farmer can, to a great extent, prevent disease out-breaks. (genemedi.com)