Virulence Factors, Bordetella
Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (1/236)We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin. (+info)
Evidence of efficacy of the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine against Bordetella parapertussis infection. (2/236)A subanalysis of a recent cohort efficacy trial of a pertussis vaccine was performed to determine its efficacy against cough illnesses due to Bordetella parapertussis infections. Infants received four doses of either the Lederle/Takeda acellular pertussis component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine or the Lederle whole-cell component diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP) vaccine at 3, 4.5, 6, and 15-18 months of age; controls received three doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) vaccine only. All subjects were prospectively followed for cough illnesses of > or = 7 days' duration; cases of B. parapertussis infection were confirmed by positive culture, household contact, or serology. Seventy-six cough illnesses due to B. parapertussis were identified; 24 occurred in 929 DTaP recipients, 37 in 937 DTP recipients, and 15 in 321 DT recipients, resulting in an efficacy of 50% for DTaP vaccine (95% CI [confidence interval], 5% to 74%) and 21% for DTP vaccine (95% CI, -45% to 56%). The data in the present analysis suggest that the Lederle/Takeda DTaP vaccine but not the Lederle whole-cell component DTP vaccine has efficacy against B. parapertussis infection. (+info)
Outcomes of Bordetella infections in vaccinated children: effects of bacterial number in the nasopharynx and patient age. (3/236)Five outbreaks of infection (three pertussis, one parapertussis, and one mixed) in schools were studied prospectively. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from a total of 697 children for culture of Bordetella organisms. Of 50 vaccinated children with culture-confirmed Bordetella infections (29 with pertussis and 21 parapertussis), 40 were symptomatic and 10 remained symptom-free. Smaller numbers of colonies were recovered from the nasopharyngeal swabs of the asymptomatic children than from those of the symptomatic children. Older children had longer durations of illness than younger ones. Our results indicate that during outbreaks children who do not develop disease may have small amounts of Bordetella organisms in their nasopharynges and/or better immune defenses against the disease. (+info)
Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (4/236)Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pleomorphic gram-negative coccobacillus that commonly causes respiratory tract infections in dogs. We identified nine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with culture-confirmed B. bronchiseptica infections (eight respiratory tract and one disseminated infection). The respiratory illnesses ranged in severity from mild upper respiratory tract infection to pneumonia. All nine patients had had at least one AIDS-defining condition before the B. bronchiseptica infection. Two patients had household contact with dogs before their illnesses, and one had household contact with cats. Infection due to B. bronchiseptica is uncommon in HIV-infected persons. Additional data are needed to fully define the spectrum of disease due to B. bronchiseptica infections and to evaluate the possibility that this infection may be acquired from pets. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infection should be tailored to the patient and should be based on the results of susceptibility testing. (+info)
Parapertussis and pertussis: differences and similarities in incidence, clinical course, and antibody responses. (5/236)OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence, clinical course, and serologic response to Bordetella antigens in patients with parapertussis and pertussis. DESIGN: Two studies were performed in Sweden during the 1990s, when pertussis vaccines were used only in clinical trials. Study I was a retrospective study of patients with positive Bordetella cultures obtained in clinical routine, and study II involved an active search for patients with Bordetella infections during a placebo-controlled trial of a pertussis toxoid vaccine. RESULTS: Study I includes 58, and study II 23 patients with parapertussis. In study I, the incidence of parapertussis was 0.016 cases per 100 person years in children 0 to 6 years old and 0 in older children and adults. In study II, the incidence rates of parapertussis and pertussis were 0.2 and 16.2 per 100 person years, respectively, in children followed from 3 months to 3 years of age. The median number of days with cough was 21 in parapertussis and 59 in pertussis. The proportions of children with whooping and vomiting were lower in parapertussis than in pertussis. Geometric mean serum filamentous hemagglutinin IgG increased from 6 to 63, and pertactin IgG from 4 to 12 units/mL in parapertussis patients, which was similar to increases in children with pertussis. CONCLUSIONS: Disease caused by Bordetella parapertussis is diagnosed less commonly and is milder and of shorter duration than disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Parapertussis induced serum IgG against filamentous hemagglutinin and pertactin of similar magnitude as does pertussis, and did not induce serum IgG against pertussis toxin. (+info)
Pregenomic comparative analysis between bordetella bronchiseptica RB50 and Bordetella pertussis tohama I in murine models of respiratory tract infection. (6/236)We describe here a side-by-side comparison of murine respiratory infection by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica strains whose genomes are currently being sequenced (Tohama I and RB50, respectively). B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are most appropriately classified as subspecies. Their high degree of genotypic and phenotypic relatedness facilitates comparative studies of pathogenesis. RB50 and Tohama I differ in their abilities to grow in the nose, trachea, and lungs of BALB/c mice and to induce apoptosis, lung pathology, and an antibody response. To focus on the interactions between the bacteria and particular aspects of the host immune response, we used mice with specific immune defects. Mice lacking B cells and T cells were highly susceptible to B. bronchiseptica and were killed by intranasal inoculation with doses as low as 500 CFU. These mice were not killed by B. pertussis, even when doses as high as 10(5) CFU were delivered to the lungs. B. bronchiseptica, which was highly resistant to naive serum in vitro, caused bacteremia in these immunodeficient mice, while B. pertussis, which was highly sensitive to naive serum, did not cause bacteremia. B. bronchiseptica was, however, killed by immune serum in vitro, and adoptive transfer of anti-Bordetella antibodies protected SCID-beige mice from B. bronchiseptica lethal infection. Neutropenic mice were similarly killed by B. bronchiseptica but not B. pertussis infection, suggesting neutrophils are critical to the early inflammatory response to the former but not the latter. B. bronchiseptica was dramatically more active than B. pertussis in mediating the lysis of J774 cells in vitro and in inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells in mouse lungs. This side-by-side comparison describes phenotypic differences that may be correlated with genetic differences in the comparative analysis of the genomes of these two highly related organisms. (+info)
Polymorphism in the pertussis toxin promoter region affecting the DNA-based diagnosis of Bordetella infection. (7/236)The pertussis toxin (PT) promoter region is a frequently used target for DNA-based diagnosis of pertussis and parapertussis infections. The reported polymorphism in this region has also allowed discrimination of species in mixtures with several Bordetella species by their specific PCR amplicon restriction patterns. In the present study, we investigated the degree of polymorphism in order to confirm the reliability of the assay. Five different sequence types of the amplified 239- or 249-bp region were found among the 33 Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica American Type Culture Collection reference strains and patient isolates analyzed. According to the sequences that were obtained and according to the PT promoter sequences already available in the databases, restriction enzyme analysis with TaqI, BglI, and HaeII, which gave four different patterns, can be performed to reliably identify B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica. (+info)
Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides extracted from porcine vaccine strains. (8/236)Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) were purified from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Haemophilus parasuis serotype 5, which were used for vaccine production in Japan, by the phenol-water procedure. In SDS-PAGE analysis, A. pleuropneumoniae LPS, as well as Escherichia coli LPS, demonstrated a typical ladder profile of a smooth-type LPS. On the other hand, B. bronchiseptica and H. parasuis LPSs lacked the ladder profiles. It was found that the biological activity of these LPSs was comparable to those of E. coli LPS in terms of activation of the clotting enzyme of Limulus amoebocyte lysate, mitogenic activity of mouse spleen cells, stimulation of TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production, but IL-6 production could hardly be observed in any LPS. (+info)
Symptoms of Bordetella Infections typically include a severe cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the infection can lead to pneumonia or other complications that may require hospitalization.
Diagnosis of Bordetella Infections is usually made through laboratory tests, such as a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test or a culture. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms. Prevention is key, as there is no specific treatment for Bordetella Infections once they have developed. Vaccination against Bordetella pertussis is recommended for children and adults to protect against infection.
The term "atrophic" refers to the wasting away or degeneration of tissue, which is a hallmark feature of this condition. The atrophy of the nasal mucosa can lead to a decrease in the production of mucus, which can impair the body's ability to fight off infections and allergens.
Rhinitis, atrophic can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, viral infections, and exposure to environmental irritants such as smoke or pollution. The condition is more common in older adults and can be associated with other medical conditions such as asthma, sinusitis, and chronic bronchitis.
There are several risk factors for developing rhinitis, atrophic, including:
1. Allergies: People with allergies are more likely to develop rhinitis, atrophic.
2. Age: The condition is more common in older adults.
3. Family history: A family history of allergies or respiratory conditions can increase the risk of developing rhinitis, atrophic.
4. Exposure to environmental irritants: Smoke, pollution, and other environmental irritants can increase the risk of developing the condition.
5. Previous respiratory infections: People who have had previous respiratory infections, such as the common cold or flu, may be more likely to develop rhinitis, atrophic.
There are several symptoms of rhinitis, atrophic, including:
1. Nasal congestion: The nasal passages can become inflamed and congested, making it difficult to breathe through the nose.
2. Rhinorrhea: Thick, yellowish discharge from the nose is a common symptom of rhinitis, atrophic.
3. Postnasal drip: This can cause a sore throat and coughing.
4. Loss of smell: The inflammation in the nasal passages can damage the olfactory nerve, leading to a loss of sense of smell.
5. Sinus pressure: The condition can lead to sinus pressure and pain.
There are several complications of rhinitis, atrophic, including:
1. Chronic sinusitis: The condition can lead to chronic sinusitis, which can cause pain, facial swelling, and difficulty breathing through the nose.
2. Asthma: Some people with rhinitis, atrophic may develop asthma.
3. Middle ear infections: The infection in the nasal passages can spread to the middle ear, leading to ear infections.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, the infection can spread to the meninges, leading to meningitis.
There are several treatments for rhinitis, atrophic, including:
1. Nasal decongestants: These medications can help reduce swelling in the nasal passages and relieve congestion.
2. Antihistamines: These medications can help reduce nasal discharge and relieve itching.
3. Corticosteroids: These medications can help reduce inflammation in the nasal passages.
4. Antibiotics: If there is a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed.
5. Saline nasal sprays: These can help moisturize the nasal passages and thin mucus.
6. Humidifiers: Using a humidifier can help keep the nasal passages moist and relieve congestion.
7. Nasal strips: These can help open up the nasal passages and improve breathing.
8. Surgery: In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove polyps or correct anatomical abnormalities.
It is important to note that these treatments may not completely cure the condition, but they can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. It is also important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.
List Biological Laboratories
Harold Lambert (physician)
Adenylate cyclase toxin
List of MeSH codes (C01)
List of feline diseases
Peptidoglycan recognition protein 4
Upper respiratory tract infection
Peptidoglycan recognition protein
Pattern recognition receptor
Childhood immunizations in the United States
Polymerase chain reaction
Vaccination of dogs
Immunization during pregnancy
Risk assessment for organic swine health
Emerging infectious disease
Opportunistic Pulmonary Bordetella hinzii Infection after Avian Exposure - Volume 21, Number 12-December 2015 - Emerging...
Infants hospitalized for Bordetella pertussis infection commonly have respiratory viral coinfections | BMC Infectious Diseases ...
Virus Coinfection is a Predictor of Radiologically Confirmed Pneumonia in Children with Bordetella pertussis Infection
Pertussis Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Elevated Pertussis Reporting in Response to 2011-2012 Outbreak, New York City, New York, USA - Volume 22, Number 6-June 2016 -...
Vaccination | American Board of Family Medicine
WHO EMRO | Patterns of meningococcal infection in Sudan with emergence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 | Volume 19,...
What Are The Real Causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)? Why Are Vaccines Excluded?
Pediatric Pneumonia: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Pertussis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Guideline for Infection Control in Hospital Personnel
Pesquisa | Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde
Dogs and kennel cough - BeeDogs.com
Marina Annetta Lynch : School of Biochemistry and Immunology - Trinity College Dublin
Evidence of Host-Specific Subgroups among "Histophilus ovis" Isolates | Microbiology Society
Respiratory Therapeutics - WSAVA2008 - VIN
Azithromycin is as effective as and better tolerated than erythromycin estolate for the treatment of pertussis.
Immune efficacy of five novel recombinant Bordetella bronchiseptica proteins | BMC Veterinary Research | Full Text
Code System Concept
Alison A. Weiss, PhD
Original article(s) | Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift
- Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an upper respiratory infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- OBJECTIVE: Although universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in the incidence of pertussis, outbreaks continue to occur in countries with excellent vaccine coverage. (druglib.com)
- Whooping cough (pertussis) is an infection of the airways caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis . (hopkinsallchildrens.org)
- Update on respiratory infection caused by Bordetella parapertussis. (nih.gov)
- Prevalence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in infants presenting to the emergency department with bronchiolitis. (medscape.com)
- however, B. parapertussis infection did occur. (who.int)
- Scientists suspect that other Bordetella species may have a role in causing milder infections and that by exchanging genes with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis , these species might enable their evolution and adaptation to humans and other animals. (nih.gov)
- Current diagnostic tests for pertussis detect only B. pertussis and B. parapertussis infections. (nih.gov)
- Bordetella hinzii bacteria cause respiratory infections in birds and have been isolated from rodents on rare occasions ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- It is caused by the Bordetella pertussis bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
- Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA . (nih.gov)
- To determine the range of effects of pertussis toxin (PT), NIAID-funded researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine genetically modified B. pertussis to be deficient in PT and compared the course of infection in mice infected with the modified bacteria to that of mice infected with the unmodified version. (nih.gov)
- There were some severe cases of pertussis among infants caused mainly by B. pertussis and dual Bordetella infection. (who.int)
- In infants a pertussis infection is characterized by uncontrollable, violent coughing accompanied by a deep "whooping" sound when the patient tries to take a breath. (nih.gov)
- The role of Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in respiratory disease in cats is not clear. (ugent.be)
Canine parainfluenza virus4
- Many times, there is a viral infection with the canine parainfluenza virus followed by a secondary bacterial infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica. (beedogs.com)
- Non-core vaccines in Australia include those which provide protection against infections caused by canine parainfluenza virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica (these both contribute to kennel cough) and leptospirosis [ 1 , 2 ]. (rspca.org.au)
- The canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine (more commonly known together with the core vaccines as a C5 vaccine) is recommended for dogs who regularly come into contact with other dogs, such as on walks, at the park, day-care, puppy preschool, or boarding [ 3 ]. (rspca.org.au)
- If your veterinarian has recommended the canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine, this is usually given as a single intranasal vaccine (dripped into the nostrils, with the dog's head held slightly back), with your puppy's second core C3 vaccine, and then annually [ 1 , 2 ]. (rspca.org.au)
Respiratory infection caused1
- Pertussis is a highly communicable, acute bacterial respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis . (cdc.gov)
- Bordetella hinzii, a "new" opportunistic pathogen to think about. (nih.gov)
- Characteristics of Bordetella hinzii strains isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient over a 3-year period. (nih.gov)
- Study of a Bordetella hinzii isolate from a laboratory mouse. (nih.gov)
- Secondary Bordetella hinzii pneumonia in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection]. (nih.gov)
- We report 2 cases of pulmonary Bordetella hinzii infection in immunodeficient patients. (cdc.gov)
- Infections with group B Streptococcus , Listeria monocytogenes , or gram-negative rods (eg, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae ) are common causes of bacterial pneumonia. (medscape.com)
- It should be emphasized that these guidelines represent the advice of CDC on questions commonly asked of the Hospital Infections Program, but are not intended to have the force of law or regulation. (cdc.gov)
- Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are commonly treated in family physicians' practices. (aafp.org)
- The Gram-negative pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica causes acute and chronic respiratory infection in a variety of animals. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this review, we summarised human and animal brucellosis, prevalence of infections in Nigeria, and economic impacts on production. (who.int)
- One of the most common respiratory infections in dogs is Infectious tracheobronchitis, which is also known as kennel cough. (beedogs.com)
- Aerosolized antibiotics are helpful in selected cases of infectious tracheobronchitis (specifically those due to Bordetella infections), but are not appropriate as the sole therapy for pneumonic cases. (vin.com)
- Infections are diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites. (nih.gov)
- In addition to helping scientists understand the levels of toxin involved during pertussis infection and the immune system response, the techniques used in this study may be applied to other toxins and other diseases. (nih.gov)
- Bordetella bronchiseptica is an important bacterial pathogen that causes a number of respiratory diseases in livestock and poultry. (biomedcentral.com)
- This can happen with asthma or with the viral infection bronchiolitis . (hopkinsallchildrens.org)
- He was hospitalized for 2 episodes of pulmonary infections in October 2012 and February-March 2013, during which Escherichia coli was isolated and for which he received ciprofloxacin. (cdc.gov)
- Intestinal organoids model human responses to infection by commensal and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli. (uc.edu)
- Amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate, cephalosporins, doxycycline, potentiated sulfas, and especially the fluoroquinolones are good choices for lower airway infections. (vin.com)
Prevention and Control1
- The Guideline for Infection Control in Hospital Personnel is part of the Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. (cdc.gov)
- GlobalData's clinical trial report, 'Bordetella Pertussis Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2014' provides data on the Bordetella Pertussis Infections clinical trial scenario. (clickpress.com)
- This report provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on Bordetella Pertussis Infections. (clickpress.com)
- The databook offers a preliminary coverage of disease clinical trials by their phase, trial status, prominence of the sponsors and also provides briefing pertaining to the number of trials for the key drugs for treating Bordetella Pertussis Infections. (clickpress.com)
- We describe 4 rapidly fatal cases of potentially donor-derived invasive mold infections in the United States, highlighting the importance of maintaining clinical suspicion for these infections in transplant recipients. (cdc.gov)
- Each guideline begins with a preamble that describes the approaches that have been used or advocated to deal with infection control issues and evaluate, where data exist, their efficacy. (cdc.gov)
- Using a large US hospital database, we describe 192 Candida aurisassociated hospitalizations during 2017-2022, including 38 (20%) C. auris bloodstream infections. (cdc.gov)
- The initial (catarrhal) phase is indistinguishable from common upper respiratory infections. (medscape.com)
- A more recent article on antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections is available. (aafp.org)
- Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. (aafp.org)
- This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections. (aafp.org)
- If your pet gets exposed to the virus they're vaccinated against, it will trigger an immune response where they're body fights against the infection. (wilsonsanimalhospital.com)
- Asthma, allergies , or a chronic infection in the sinuses or airways also might cause lasting coughs. (hopkinsallchildrens.org)
- This is based on an assessment of the dog's location, lifestyle, and risk of exposure to the infection [ 1 , 2 ]. (rspca.org.au)
- Antibiotics may be recommended to prevent secondary bacterial infections. (beedogs.com)
- According to vet professionals, this is a highly contagious infection caused by a combination of infectious agents. (beedogs.com)
- Treatment of infection may ameliorate symptom severity during the catarrhal phase of pertussis but has no effect on established paroxysms, emesis, or apnea if given during the paroxysmal or convalescent phases. (druglib.com)
- A handout on antibiotic use is available at https://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/drugs-procedures-devices/prescription-medicines/antibiotics-when-they-can-and-cant-help.html . (aafp.org)
- 16. Intracellular survival of virulent Bordetella pertussis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (nih.gov)
- In May 2013, NIAID grantees at the University of Virginia published a study that measured the quantities of ACT at various stages of infection. (nih.gov)
- These results provide up-to-date information on TB infection among study subpopulations. (cdc.gov)
- To determine risk factors for non-O157 STEC infection, we enrolled 939 patients and 2,464 healthy controls in a case-control study conducted in 10 US sites. (cdc.gov)
- Erythromycin, recommended for treatment of pertussis to prevent transmission of infection, is poorly tolerated because of gastrointestinal side effects. (druglib.com)
- To address these last 2 types of practices, realizing that hospitals must make decisions in the absence of definitive data, we have sought the advice of working groups composed of non-CDC experts with broad experience in infection control. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, respondents were asked how likely they were to consider pertussis infection in patients with prolonged cough before 2012 and currently. (cdc.gov)
- La culture de type classique a permis d'identifier Neissera meningitidis chez 37 (18,9 %) des 196 patients ayant des symptômes et des signes cliniques de méningite, ce qui a ensuite été confirmé par réaction en chaîne par polymérase. (who.int)
- From the serological data obtained in the two studies, it was concluded that a natural infection of HVT takes shortly after hatching, within the first days of life. (ugent.be)
- 2. Immunoglobulin A-mediated protection against Bordetella pertussis infection. (nih.gov)
- The CDC guidelines were developed to provide a central reference for professionals involved in infection control that contains CDC recommendations and is easily accessible to the infection control personnel in hospitals. (cdc.gov)
- DTaP vaccination , one of the recommended childhood immunizations, protects children against pertussis infection. (medlineplus.gov)