A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).
A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Specific substances elaborated by plants, microorganisms or animals that cause damage to the skin; they may be proteins or other specific factors or substances; constituents of spider, jellyfish or other venoms cause dermonecrosis and certain bacteria synthesize dermolytic agents.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of BORDETELLA isolated from the respiratory tracts of TURKEYS and other BIRDS. It causes a highly contagious bordetellosis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.

Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (1/244)

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

Genetic basis for lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosynthesis in bordetellae. (2/244)

Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis express a surface polysaccharide, attached to a lipopolysaccharide, which has been called O antigen. This structure is absent from Bordetella pertussis. We report the identification of a large genetic locus in B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis that is required for O-antigen biosynthesis. The locus is replaced by an insertion sequence in B. pertussis, explaining the lack of O-antigen biosynthesis in this species. The DNA sequence of the B. bronchiseptica locus has been determined and the presence of 21 open reading frames has been revealed. We have ascribed putative functions to many of these open reading frames based on database searches. Mutations in the locus in B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis prevent O-antigen biosynthesis and provide tools for the study of the role of O antigen in infections caused by these bacteria.  (+info)

Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (3/244)

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pleomorphic gram-negative coccobacillus that commonly causes respiratory tract infections in dogs. We identified nine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with culture-confirmed B. bronchiseptica infections (eight respiratory tract and one disseminated infection). The respiratory illnesses ranged in severity from mild upper respiratory tract infection to pneumonia. All nine patients had had at least one AIDS-defining condition before the B. bronchiseptica infection. Two patients had household contact with dogs before their illnesses, and one had household contact with cats. Infection due to B. bronchiseptica is uncommon in HIV-infected persons. Additional data are needed to fully define the spectrum of disease due to B. bronchiseptica infections and to evaluate the possibility that this infection may be acquired from pets. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infection should be tailored to the patient and should be based on the results of susceptibility testing.  (+info)

Essential role of the iron-regulated outer membrane receptor FauA in alcaligin siderophore-mediated iron uptake in Bordetella species. (4/244)

Phenotypic analysis using heterologous host systems localized putative Bordetella pertussis ferric alcaligin transport genes and Fur-binding sequences to a 3.8-kb genetic region downstream from the alcR regulator gene. Nucleotide sequencing identified a TonB-dependent receptor family homolog gene, fauA, predicted to encode a polypeptide with high amino acid sequence similarity with known bacterial ferric siderophore receptors. In Escherichia coli, the fauA genes of both B. pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica directed the production of a 79-kDa polypeptide, approximating the predicted size of the mature FauA protein. B. bronchiseptica fauA insertion mutant BRM17 was unable to utilize ferric alcaligin, and in complementation analyses ferric alcaligin utilization was restored to this mutant by supplying the wild-type fauA gene in trans. Mutant BRM18, carrying a nonpolar in-frame fauA deletion mutation, was defective in ferric alcaligin utilization and (55)Fe-ferric alcaligin uptake and no longer produced a 79-kDa iron-regulated outer membrane protein. In complementation analyses, BRM18 merodiploids bearing the wild-type fauA gene in trans regained ferric alcaligin siderophore transport and utilization functions and produced the 79-kDa protein. Analysis of a plasmid-borne fauA-lacZ operon fusion confirmed that fauA is subject to iron regulation at the transcriptional level and that cis-acting transcriptional control elements mediating fauA iron repressibility reside within the 3.8-kb PstI fauA DNA region. Moreover, expression of the fauA-lacZ fusion gene under iron starvation conditions was shown to be alcR dependent. FauA is a 79-kDa iron-regulated outer membrane receptor protein required for transport and utilization of ferric alcaligin siderophore complexes by Bordetella species.  (+info)

Disruption of tonB in Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis prevents utilization of ferric siderophores, haemin and haemoglobin as iron sources. (5/244)

The Bordetella bronchiseptica tonB gene was cloned by detection of a chromosomal restriction fragment hybridizing with each of two degenerate oligonucleotides that corresponded to Pro-Glu and Pro-Lys repeats characteristic of known TonB proteins. The tonB(Bb) gene was situated upstream of exbB and exbD homologues and downstream of a putative Fur-regulated promoter. Hybridization results indicated that the tonB operon and flanking regions were highly conserved between B. bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. Disruption of tonB in B. bronchiseptica resulted in inability to grow in iron-limiting media, and inability to utilize alcaligin, enterobactin, ferrichrome, desferroxamine B, haemin and haemoglobin. Although it was not possible to inactivate tonB in a clinical B. pertussis isolate, tonB was disrupted in a laboratory B. pertussis strain previously selected for the ability to grow on Luria-Bertani medium. This B. pertussis tonB mutant shared a similar iron complex utilization deficient phenotype with the B. bronchiseptica tonB mutant. The B. bronchiseptica tonB operon present on a plasmid did not complement an Escherichia coli tonB mutant, but inefficient reconstitution of enterobactin utilization was observed in one fepA mutant harbouring plasmid copies of the B. pertussis fepA homologue and tonB(Bb) operon.  (+info)

Bordetella bronchiseptica-mediated cytotoxicity to macrophages is dependent on bvg-regulated factors, including pertactin. (6/244)

The effect of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection on the viability of murine macrophage-like cells and on primary porcine alveolar macrophages was investigated. The bacterium was shown to be cytotoxic for both cell types, particularly where tight cell-to-cell contacts were established. In addition, bvg mutants were poorly cytotoxic for the eukaryotic cells, while a prn mutant was significantly less toxic than wild-type bacteria. B. bronchiseptica-mediated cytotoxicity was inhibited in the presence of cytochalasin D or cycloheximide, an inhibitor of microfilament-dependent phagocytosis or de novo eukaryotic protein synthesis, respectively. The mechanism of eukaryotic cell death was examined, and cell death was found to occur primarily through a necrotic pathway, although a small proportion of the population underwent apoptosis.  (+info)

Pregenomic comparative analysis between bordetella bronchiseptica RB50 and Bordetella pertussis tohama I in murine models of respiratory tract infection. (7/244)

We describe here a side-by-side comparison of murine respiratory infection by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica strains whose genomes are currently being sequenced (Tohama I and RB50, respectively). B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are most appropriately classified as subspecies. Their high degree of genotypic and phenotypic relatedness facilitates comparative studies of pathogenesis. RB50 and Tohama I differ in their abilities to grow in the nose, trachea, and lungs of BALB/c mice and to induce apoptosis, lung pathology, and an antibody response. To focus on the interactions between the bacteria and particular aspects of the host immune response, we used mice with specific immune defects. Mice lacking B cells and T cells were highly susceptible to B. bronchiseptica and were killed by intranasal inoculation with doses as low as 500 CFU. These mice were not killed by B. pertussis, even when doses as high as 10(5) CFU were delivered to the lungs. B. bronchiseptica, which was highly resistant to naive serum in vitro, caused bacteremia in these immunodeficient mice, while B. pertussis, which was highly sensitive to naive serum, did not cause bacteremia. B. bronchiseptica was, however, killed by immune serum in vitro, and adoptive transfer of anti-Bordetella antibodies protected SCID-beige mice from B. bronchiseptica lethal infection. Neutropenic mice were similarly killed by B. bronchiseptica but not B. pertussis infection, suggesting neutrophils are critical to the early inflammatory response to the former but not the latter. B. bronchiseptica was dramatically more active than B. pertussis in mediating the lysis of J774 cells in vitro and in inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells in mouse lungs. This side-by-side comparison describes phenotypic differences that may be correlated with genetic differences in the comparative analysis of the genomes of these two highly related organisms.  (+info)

Polymorphism in the pertussis toxin promoter region affecting the DNA-based diagnosis of Bordetella infection. (8/244)

The pertussis toxin (PT) promoter region is a frequently used target for DNA-based diagnosis of pertussis and parapertussis infections. The reported polymorphism in this region has also allowed discrimination of species in mixtures with several Bordetella species by their specific PCR amplicon restriction patterns. In the present study, we investigated the degree of polymorphism in order to confirm the reliability of the assay. Five different sequence types of the amplified 239- or 249-bp region were found among the 33 Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica American Type Culture Collection reference strains and patient isolates analyzed. According to the sequences that were obtained and according to the PT promoter sequences already available in the databases, restriction enzyme analysis with TaqI, BglI, and HaeII, which gave four different patterns, can be performed to reliably identify B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica.  (+info)

'Bordetella bronchiseptica' is a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that primarily colonizes the respiratory tract of animals, including dogs, cats, and rabbits. It can also cause respiratory infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung diseases.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, such as adhesins, toxins, and proteases, which allow it to attach to and damage the ciliated epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract. This can lead to inflammation, bronchitis, pneumonia, and other respiratory complications.

'Bordetella bronchiseptica' is closely related to 'Bordetella pertussis', the bacterium that causes whooping cough in humans. However, while 'Bordetella pertussis' is highly adapted to infecting humans, 'Bordetella bronchiseptica' has a broader host range and can cause disease in a variety of animal species.

In animals, 'Bordetella bronchiseptica' is often associated with kennel cough, a highly contagious respiratory infection that spreads rapidly among dogs in close quarters, such as boarding facilities or dog parks. Vaccines are available to prevent kennel cough caused by 'Bordetella bronchiseptica', and they are often recommended for dogs that are at high risk of exposure.

"Bordetella" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. The most well-known species within this genus is Bordetella pertussis, which is the primary causative agent of whooping cough (pertussis) in humans.

Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is characterized by severe coughing fits, followed by a high-pitched "whoop" sound upon inhalation. The bacteria attach to the cilia lining the respiratory tract and release toxins that damage the cilia and cause inflammation, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.

Other species within the Bordetella genus include Bordetella parapertussis, which can also cause a milder form of whooping cough, and Bordetella bronchiseptica, which is associated with respiratory infections in animals but can occasionally infect humans as well.

Prevention of Bordetella infections typically involves vaccination, with vaccines available for both infants and adults to protect against B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. Good hygiene practices, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, can also help prevent the spread of these bacteria.

Bordetella infections are caused by bacteria called Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis, which result in a highly contagious respiratory infection known as whooping cough or pertussis. These bacteria primarily infect the respiratory cilia (tiny hair-like structures lining the upper airways) and produce toxins that cause inflammation and damage to the respiratory tract.

The infection typically starts with cold-like symptoms, including a runny nose, sneezing, and a mild cough. After about one to two weeks, the cough becomes more severe, leading to episodes of intense, uncontrollable coughing fits that can last for several minutes. These fits often end with a high-pitched "whoop" sound as the person gasps for air. Vomiting may occur following the coughing spells.

Bordetella infections can be particularly severe and even life-threatening in infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems. Complications include pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, and, in rare cases, death.

Prevention is primarily through vaccination, which is part of the recommended immunization schedule for children. A booster dose is also recommended for adolescents and adults to maintain immunity. Antibiotics can be used to treat Bordetella infections and help prevent the spread of the bacteria to others. However, antibiotics are most effective when started early in the course of the illness.

'Bordetella pertussis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus bacterium that is the primary cause of whooping cough (pertussis) in humans. This highly infectious disease affects the respiratory system, resulting in severe coughing fits and other symptoms. The bacteria's ability to evade the immune system and attach to ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract contributes to its pathogenicity.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, including pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, and tracheal cytotoxin, which contribute to the colonization and damage of respiratory tissues. The pertussis toxin, in particular, is responsible for many of the clinical manifestations of the disease, such as the characteristic whooping cough and inhibition of immune responses.

Prevention and control measures primarily rely on vaccination using acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) or whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP), which are included in combination with other antigens in pediatric vaccines. Continuous efforts to improve vaccine efficacy, safety, and coverage are essential for controlling the global burden of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis.

Atrophic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal passages and sinuses characterized by the atrophy (wasting away) of the nasal mucous membranes. This results in decreased mucus production, crusting, and eventually, shrinkage of the nasal structures. The symptoms may include a stuffy or runny nose, loss of smell, and crusting inside the nose. Atrophic rhinitis can be caused by various factors such as infection, trauma, radiation therapy, or surgery. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. It is often difficult to treat, and treatment typically aims to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications.

'Bordetella parapertussis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus bacterium that can cause a respiratory infection in humans. It is one of the several species in the genus Bordetella and is closely related to Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough (pertussis).

Bordetella parapertussis infection often results in symptoms similar to those of pertussis but are usually less severe. The illness is sometimes referred to as "mild whooping cough" or "whooping cough-like illness."

The bacterium primarily infects the respiratory tract, attaching to the ciliated epithelial cells lining the airways. This leads to inflammation and damage of the respiratory mucosa, causing a persistent cough, which may be accompanied by paroxysms (intense fits of coughing), inspiratory whoop, and post-tussive vomiting.

Transmission occurs through respiratory droplets when an infected person sneezes or coughs near someone else. The incubation period for Bordetella parapertussis infection is typically 7 to 10 days but can range from 5 to 21 days.

Prevention and control measures include vaccination, good hygiene practices (such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing), and early detection and treatment of infected individuals. Antibiotics such as macrolides (e.g., azithromycin, erythromycin) are often used to treat Bordetella parapertussis infections, helping to reduce the duration of symptoms and limit transmission to others.

Virulence factors in Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, refer to the characteristics or components of the organism that contribute to its ability to cause disease. These virulence factors include:

1. Pertussis Toxin (PT): A protein exotoxin that inhibits the immune response and affects the nervous system, leading to the characteristic paroxysmal cough of whooping cough.
2. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT): A toxin that increases the levels of cAMP in host cells, disrupting their function and contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.
3. Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA): A surface protein that allows the bacterium to adhere to host cells and evade the immune response.
4. Fimbriae: Hair-like appendages on the surface of the bacterium that facilitate adherence to host cells.
5. Pertactin (PRN): A surface protein that also contributes to adherence and is a common component of acellular pertussis vaccines.
6. Dermonecrotic Toxin: A toxin that causes localized tissue damage and necrosis, contributing to the inflammation and symptoms of whooping cough.
7. Tracheal Cytotoxin: A toxin that damages ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, impairing mucociliary clearance and increasing susceptibility to infection.

These virulence factors work together to enable Bordetella pertussis to colonize the respiratory tract, evade the host immune response, and cause the symptoms of whooping cough.

In medical terms, turbinates refer to the curled bone shelves that are present inside the nasal passages. They are covered by a mucous membrane and are responsible for warming, humidifying, and filtering the air that we breathe in through our nose. There are three pairs of turbinates in each nasal passage: inferior, middle, and superior turbinates. The inferior turbinate is the largest and most significant contributor to nasal airflow resistance. Inflammation or enlargement of the turbinates can lead to nasal congestion and difficulty breathing through the nose.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

"Pasteurella multocida" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the respiratory tract of many animals, including birds, dogs, and cats. It can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with animals or animal bites or scratches. The bacterium is named after Louis Pasteur, who developed a vaccine against it in the late 19th century.

Siderophores are low-molecular-weight organic compounds that are secreted by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to chelate and solubilize iron from their environment. They are able to bind ferric iron (Fe3+) with very high affinity and form a siderophore-iron complex, which can then be taken up by the microorganism through specific transport systems. This allows them to acquire iron even in environments where it is present at very low concentrations or in forms that are not readily available for uptake. Siderophores play an important role in the survival and virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, as they help them to obtain the iron they need to grow and multiply.

Hemagglutinins are proteins found on the surface of some viruses, including influenza viruses. They have the ability to bind to specific receptors on the surface of red blood cells, causing them to clump together (a process known as hemagglutination). This property is what allows certain viruses to infect host cells and cause disease. Hemagglutinins play a crucial role in the infection process of influenza viruses, as they facilitate the virus's entry into host cells by binding to sialic acid receptors on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells. There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) found in various influenza A viruses, and they are a major target of the immune response to influenza infection. Vaccines against influenza contain hemagglutinins from the specific strains of virus that are predicted to be most prevalent in a given season, and induce immunity by stimulating the production of antibodies that can neutralize the virus.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Dermatotoxins are substances that can cause damage or irritation to the skin. They are typically toxic chemicals or venoms that can produce a range of reactions when they come into contact with the skin, such as redness, swelling, itching, blistering, and necrosis (tissue death).

Dermatotoxins can be found in various sources, including certain plants, animals, and synthetic compounds. For example, some snakes and insects produce venoms that contain dermatotoxic components, while certain chemicals used in industrial processes or agricultural applications can also have dermatotoxic effects.

Exposure to dermatotoxins can occur through various routes, such as direct contact with the skin, inhalation, or ingestion. In some cases, dermatotoxins can cause systemic effects if they are absorbed into the bloodstream through the skin.

If you suspect exposure to a dermatotoxin, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. Treatment may include washing the affected area with soap and water, applying topical creams or ointments, and in some cases, administering antivenom or other medications to counteract the toxic effects.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

"Bordetella avium" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Alcaligenaceae. It is a respiratory pathogen that primarily affects birds, particularly pigeons and other Columbiformes. The bacterium can cause upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases in these birds.

In humans, "Bordetella avium" has been rarely reported as a causative agent of respiratory infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung conditions. However, its clinical significance in human disease is not well established, and further research is needed to determine the true extent of its pathogenicity in humans.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Adenylate cyclase toxin is a type of exotoxin produced by certain bacteria, including Bordetella pertussis (the causative agent of whooping cough) and Vibrio cholerae. This toxin functions by entering host cells and catalyzing the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to increased intracellular cAMP levels.

The elevated cAMP levels can disrupt various cellular processes, such as signal transduction and ion transport, resulting in a range of physiological effects that contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection. For example, in the case of Bordetella pertussis, adenylate cyclase toxin impairs the function of immune cells, allowing the bacteria to evade host defenses and establish a successful infection.

In summary, adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by certain pathogenic bacteria that increases intracellular cAMP levels in host cells, leading to disrupted cellular processes and contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

"Pasteurella" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli that are part of the family Pasteurellaceae. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock. They can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as wound infections, pneumonia, and septicemia, often following animal bites or scratches. Two notable species are Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella canis. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for appropriate treatment.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Bacterial adhesins are proteins or structures on the surface of bacterial cells that allow them to attach to other cells or surfaces. This ability to adhere to host tissues is an important first step in the process of bacterial infection and colonization. Adhesins can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, such as proteins or sugars, enabling the bacteria to establish a close relationship with the host and evade immune responses.

There are several types of bacterial adhesins, including fimbriae, pili, and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbriae and pili are thin, hair-like structures that extend from the bacterial surface and can bind to a variety of host cell receptors. Non-fimbrial adhesins are proteins that are directly embedded in the bacterial cell wall and can also mediate attachment to host cells.

Bacterial adhesins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is responsible for causing whooping cough in humans. This toxin has several effects on the host organism, including:

1. Adenylyl cyclase activation: Pertussis toxin enters the host cell and modifies a specific G protein (Gαi), leading to the continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase. This results in increased levels of intracellular cAMP, which disrupts various cellular processes.
2. Inhibition of immune response: Pertussis toxin impairs the host's immune response by inhibiting the migration and function of immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages. It also interferes with antigen presentation and T-cell activation, making it difficult for the body to clear the infection.
3. Increased inflammation: The continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase by pertussis toxin leads to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, contributing to the severe coughing fits and other symptoms associated with whooping cough.

Pertussis toxin is an essential virulence factor for Bordetella pertussis, and its effects contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of whooping cough. Vaccination against pertussis includes inactivated or genetically detoxified forms of pertussis toxin, which provide immunity without causing disease symptoms.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Hemagglutination is a medical term that refers to the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of an agglutinin, which is typically a protein or a polysaccharide found on the surface of certain viruses, bacteria, or incompatible blood types.

In simpler terms, hemagglutination occurs when the agglutinin binds to specific antigens on the surface of RBCs, causing them to clump together and form visible clumps or aggregates. This reaction is often used in diagnostic tests to identify the presence of certain viruses or bacteria, such as influenza or HIV, by mixing a sample of blood or other bodily fluid with a known agglutinin and observing whether hemagglutination occurs.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are also commonly used to measure the titer or concentration of antibodies in a serum sample, by adding serial dilutions of the serum to a fixed amount of agglutinin and observing the highest dilution that still prevents hemagglutination. This can help determine whether a person has been previously exposed to a particular pathogen and has developed immunity to it.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Whoopering Cough, also known as Pertussis, is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is characterized by severe coughing fits followed by a high-pitched "whoop" sound during inspiration. The disease can affect people of all ages, but it is most dangerous for babies and young children. Symptoms typically develop within 5 to 10 days after exposure and include runny nose, low-grade fever, and a mild cough. After a week or two, the cough becomes more severe and is often followed by vomiting and exhaustion. Complications can be serious, especially in infants, and may include pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and reduce the severity of symptoms. Vaccination is available and recommended for the prevention of whooping cough.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Bacterial fimbriae are thin, hair-like protein appendages that extend from the surface of many types of bacteria. They are involved in the attachment of bacteria to surfaces, other cells, or extracellular structures. Fimbriae enable bacteria to adhere to host tissues and form biofilms, which contribute to bacterial pathogenicity and survival in various environments. These protein structures are composed of several thousand subunits of a specific protein called pilin. Some fimbriae can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, initiating the process of infection and colonization.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Transglutaminases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the post-translational modification of proteins by forming isopeptide bonds between the carboxamide group of peptide-bound glutamine residues and the ε-amino group of lysine residues. This process is known as transamidation or cross-linking. Transglutaminases play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, differentiation, apoptosis, and tissue repair. There are several types of transglutaminases, such as tissue transglutaminase (TG2), factor XIII, and blood coagulation factor XIIIA. Abnormal activity or expression of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, such as celiac disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Hydroxamic acids are organic compounds containing the functional group -CONHOH. They are derivatives of hydroxylamine, where the hydroxyl group is bound to a carbonyl (C=O) carbon atom. Hydroxamic acids can be found in various natural and synthetic sources and play significant roles in different biological processes.

In medicine and biochemistry, hydroxamic acids are often used as metal-chelating agents or siderophore mimics to treat iron overload disorders like hemochromatosis. They form stable complexes with iron ions, preventing them from participating in harmful reactions that can damage cells and tissues.

Furthermore, hydroxamic acids are also known for their ability to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes involved in the regulation of gene expression. This property has been exploited in the development of anti-cancer drugs, as HDAC inhibition can lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

Some examples of hydroxamic acid-based drugs include:

1. Deferasirox (Exjade, Jadenu) - an iron chelator used to treat chronic iron overload in patients with blood disorders like thalassemia and sickle cell disease.
2. Panobinostat (Farydak) - an HDAC inhibitor approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer.
3. Vorinostat (Zolinza) - another HDAC inhibitor used in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a rare form of skin cancer.

... for Bordetella bronchiseptica (Public Health Agency of Canada) Genetic sequences of the Bordetella bronchiseptica complex ( ... Bordetella bronchiseptica is a small, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bordetella. It can cause infectious ... In late 2022, together with the H3N2 strain of canine influenza and other respiratory pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica ... J Clin Microbiol 31(7): 1838-44 "Prevention and control of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in cats". Intervet/Schering- ...
... s have been suggested as antimicrobials able to remove Bordetella bronchiseptica biofilms. The mode of killing has ... Irie Y, O'toole GA, Yuk MH (September 2005). "Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipids disperse Bordetella bronchiseptica biofilms ...
After 42 days, the dogs were exposed to Bordetella bronchiseptica. This study determined that the live intranasal Bordetella ... The Bordetella vaccine specifically targets Bordetella bronchiseptica, the species typically responsible for kennel cough. The ... Ellis, John A. (2015-04-01). "How well do vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica work in dogs? A critical review of the ... The three most common species of Bordetella are B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica. These species are known ...
This is known to be caused by the Bordetella bronchiseptica bacterium. Hedgehogs uncommonly transmit a characteristic fungal ...
These include Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus phocae, Salmonella dublin, and S. choleraesuis. Corynebacterium caspium ...
"Role of phosphoglucomutase of Bordetella bronchiseptica in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and virulence". Infection and ...
There are multiple causative agents, the most common being the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica (found in 78.7% of cases in ... Schulz, B; Kurz, S; Balzer, H; Hartmann, K (September 2014). "Detection of Respiratory Viruses and Bordetella Bronchiseptica in ... "Simultaneous analysis of the nasal shedding kinetics of field and vaccine strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica". The Veterinary ... "Naturally occurring respiratory disease in a kennel caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica". The Cornell Veterinarian. 67 (2): 282 ...
... from Bordetella bronchiseptica". The FASEB Journal. 25 (1 Supplement): 714.2. doi:10.1096/fasebj.25.1_supplement.714.2 ( ...
"Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica". ...
... parainfluenza and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vaccinations must be valid for the entire quarantine period. The 'Rabies Antibody ...
Intranasal vaccines are used on dogs for Bordetella bronchiseptica to prevent infectious tracheobronchitis (ITB). ITB, commonly ...
Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica". Nature Genetics. 35 (1): 32-40. doi:10.1038/ng1227. PMID 12910271. ... The genus Bordetella contains nine species: B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica, B. avium, B. hinzii, B. holmesii ... Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the ... Nieves DJ, Heininger U (2016). "Bordetella pertussis". Bordetella pertussis. pp. 311-339. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0008- ...
Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica". Nature Genetics. 35 (1): 32-40. doi:10.1038/ng1227. PMID 12910271. ... 2003). "Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Bordetella pertussis, ... and Bordetella. Achtman was one of the inventors of multilocus sequence typing. His research has been funded by the ...
Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica". Nature Genetics. 35 (1): 32-40. doi:10.1038/ng1227. PMID 12910271. ... 2003). "Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Bordetella pertussis, ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica has been identified in cats with owners that also are infected with this pathogen. Individuals having ...
Bordetella pertussis. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis, also able to cause pertussis-like symptoms, also ... Vaccination against Bordetella pertussis is used in infancy to prevent whooping cough. The recent switch from whole-cell ... Adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by some members of the genus Bordetella. Together with the pertussis ... Differences between the toxins of different Bordetella species are mainly in the calcium-binding domain. The toxin is secreted ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Salmonella. Many of the immune activating abilities of LPS can be attributed to the lipid A unit ...
Kennel cough is an infectious respiratory disease which can be caused by one of several viruses or by Bordetella bronchiseptica ...
It does not induce a persistent carrier state.[citation needed] In late 2022, together with Bordetella bronchiseptica and other ...
... and Bordetella bronchiseptica sensitive to tulathromycin. Sheep: Treatment of the early stages of infectious pododermatitis ( ...
Feline calicivirus-(cat respiratory disease) Bordetella bronchiseptica-(cat kennel cough) Chlamydia felis-(chlamydia) Cat flu ...
The most notable of these are Bordetella bronchiseptica, one of the causes of kennel cough, Leptospira sp, which cause ... Bordetella bronchiseptica, parainfluenza virus, and canine coronavirus, should be made between an owner and a veterinarian, ...
... such as Bordetella bronchiseptica, has likely increased in recent years. In some cases, most notably rabies, the parallel ... Bordetella, canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease, among others. Cases of veterinary vaccines used in humans have been ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Haemophilus parasuis sensitive to tildipirosin; and for the treatment and prevention of bovine ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica Chlamydophila felis Feline calicivirus Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) FHV-1 Cat-scratch disease ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica, porcine parvovirus, and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae among others. It is particularly important to ...
... a presentation of congenital syphilis A disease of rabbits caused by the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica Gund Snuffles, ...
In addition to being at risk of disease from common pathogens such as Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli, rabbits ...
Bartonella Bartonella henselae Bartonella quintana Bordetella Bordetella bronchiseptica Bordetella pertussis Borrelia ...
These include: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Chlamydia felis Bordetella bronchiseptica ...
... for Bordetella bronchiseptica (Public Health Agency of Canada) Genetic sequences of the Bordetella bronchiseptica complex ( ... Bordetella bronchiseptica is a small, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bordetella. It can cause infectious ... In late 2022, together with the H3N2 strain of canine influenza and other respiratory pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica ... J Clin Microbiol 31(7): 1838-44 "Prevention and control of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in cats". Intervet/Schering- ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica RB50). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in ...
Browse our collection of Bordetella products. Purchase your Bordetella bronchiseptica clinical isolate, titered (1 mL) Online ... Bordetella bronchiseptica clinical isolate, titered (1 mL) online at ZeptoMetrix. ...
Bordetella Bronchiseptica. This highly infectious bacterium causes severe fits of coughing, whooping, vomiting, and, in rare ... Influenza, Coronavirus, Leptospirosis, Bordetella, Lyme disease per lifestyle. Every 1 - 3 years. Rabies (as required by law). ... Influenza, Leptospirosis, Bordetella, Lyme disease per lifestyle as recommended by veterinarian. 16 - 18 weeks. DHPP, rabies. ... Bordetella. 10 - 12 weeks. DHPP (vaccines for distemper, adenovirus [hepatitis], parainfluenza, and parvovirus). ...
... bronchiseptica is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-endospore forming coccobacillus. This bacterium is motile and oxidase and ... Bordetella bronchiseptica. STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY. B. bronchiseptica is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-endospore forming ... This Bordetella strain is commonly found in the respiratory tracts of many animals and is the leading cause of kennel cough for ... The pili of B. bronchiseptica attach to the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Although a primary pathogen for a ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica * Haemophilus influenzae * Haemophilus parainfluenzae * Proteus species (ie, P mirabilis, P morganii ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica 3. 0.125-0.5. Brucella canis 2. 0.125-0.25. Clostridium perfringens ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica (bacterium). Cats and dogs: sneezing and coughing; humans: pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients. ...
Bordetella avium cross-reacts with B. bronchiseptica by ELISA but natural B. avium infection in rats is unlikely Authors. * R ... Immunization of rats with B. avium strains induced antibodies to the B. bronchiseptica antigen. Bordetella antibody free rats ... Boot, R., van den Berg, L., Koedam, M. A., & Veenema, J. L. (2004). Bordetella avium cross-reacts with B. bronchiseptica by ... The specificity of a Bordetella bronchiseptica antibody ELISA for the monitoring of laboratory rodents was re-evaluated by ...
Bordetella Bronchiseptica Vaccine. *Coronavirus Vaccine. *Leptospirosis Vaccine. *Lyme Disease Vaccine. *Parainfluenza Virus ...
2009) Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in cats. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and ... 2009) Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in cats. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and ...
Bordetella Bronchiseptica (Kennel Cough). Canine Parvovirus (CPV) (4 oz. per gallon). Canine Adenovirus. Canine Coronavirus. ...
Title: EXPERIEMNTAL AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION OF PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS AND BORDETELLA BRONCHISEPTICA ... Airborne transmission of B. bronchiseptica occurred in 5/5 trials where B. bronchiseptica was the only agent used, and in 3/5 ... or Bordetella bronchiseptica could be transmitted through indirect airborne contact. Three principal pigs were infected with ... EXPERIEMNTAL AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION OF PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS AND BORDETELLA BRONCHISEPTICA. ...
Nobivac Feline-Bb is an intranasal vaccine containing an avirulent live culture of Bordetella bronchiseptica for the ... bronchiseptica may exist. Healthy cats vaccinated at 8 weeks of age or older are protected as early as 72 hours post- ... bronchiseptica may exist. Healthy cats vaccinated at 8 weeks of age or older are protected as early as 72 hours post- ... vaccination of healthy kittens and cats for prevention of disease caused by B. bronchiseptica. Healthy kittens 4 weeks of age ...
If Bordetella bronchiseptica is found, a powerful antibiotic may be needed (as many routine drugs such as amoxicillin wont ... A vaccine against Bordetella bronchiseptica may also be administered. This is especially helpful in pets frequently exposed to ... Common infectious agents responsible for tracheobronchitis in the dog include: Bordetella bronchiseptica (a bacterium); canine ... Bordetella bronchiseptica). The disease is associated most often with dogs housed in a high-density population or boarding ...
Categories: Bordetella bronchiseptica Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica *Borrelia burgdorferi *Leptospira micro organism Cats: *Panleukopenia *Feline calicivirus *Feline ...
Pathogenicity of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from apparently healthy rabbits in guinea pig, rat, and mouse. Kameyama H, ... Integrating proteomic data with metabolic modeling provides insight into key pathways of Bordetella pertussis biofilms. Suyama ...
Use of "Bordetella bronchiseptica" and "Bordetella pertussis" as live vaccines and vectors for heterologous antigens. "FEMS ... 9] Arico, B. and Rappuoli, R. "Bordetella parapertussis" and "Bordetella bronchiseptica" contain transcriptionally silent ... "Bordetella pertussis" and "Bordetella parapertussis", causing pertussis or whooping cough in humans [2]. "B. bronchiseptica" ... "B. bronchiseptica" was isolated in 1910 by a man named Ferry. Bordetella spp. are aerobic in which they require oxygen to ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica - a bacteria that causes bronchitis and flu-like symptoms in cats. ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica can establish prolonged airway infection consistent with a highly developed ability to evade ... Boitano, S., Omsland, A., Miranda, K. M., Friedman, R. L., & Boitano, S. A. (2008). Bordetella bronchiseptica responses to ... The understanding of Bordetella responses to physiologically relevant levels of exogenous RNS and ROS will aid in defining the ... However, the responses of B. bronchiseptica to redox species at physiologically relevant concentrations (nM-microM) have not ...
A major differential diagnosis for pneumonia is Bordetella bronchiseptica infection.. Rabbits may harbor B bronchiseptica in ... Treatment is ciprofloxacin (10-20 mg/kg, PO, twice a day). B bronchiseptica possesses a beta-lactamase and is resistant to many ...
Bordetella pertussis infection or vaccination substantially protects mice against B. bronchiseptica infection. PLoS One 2009;4: ... van der Zee A, Agterberg C, Peeters M, Mooi F, Schellekens J. A clinical validation of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella ... Transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26:293-9. CrossRefexternal icon PubMedexternal ... Bordetella pertussis transmission. Pathog Dis 2015;73:ftv068. CrossRefexternal icon PubMedexternal icon ...
Canine parainfluenza, modified live virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica avirulent live culture. This vaccine contains ... which is related with canine parainfluenza and Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in healthy dogs, that are three weeks of age ...
The bacteria Bordetella bronchiseptica has been shown to alter immune responses in the pig, therefore, we completed a study to ... Title: Bordetella bronchiseptica colonization limits efficacy, but not immunogenicity, of live-attenuated influenza virus ... Bordetella bronchiseptica colonization limits efficacy, but not immunogenicity, of live-attenuated influenza virus vaccine and ... We sought to evaluate the effect of Bordetella bronchiseptica colonization on LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy in swine, and ...
Precautionary: Bordetella bronchiseptica, Borrelia burgdorferi, Influenza, and Leptospira bacteria.. I also give her the ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica. 209. Bordetella parapertussis. 210. Bordetella pertussis. 211. Borrelia afzelii. 212. ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica. 209. Bordetella parapertussis. 210. Bordetella pertussis. 211. Borrelia afzelii. 212 ...
They include Bordetella bronchiseptica, leptospira bacteria, and Borrelia burgdorferi.. How to determine the frequency and ...
What is Bordetella?. What is Bordetella? Bordetella bronchiseptica is a bacterium that is associated with respiratory disease ... The bordetella vaccine, along with the core vaccines, is offered at our vaccine clinics at both the Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine ... There are bordetella vaccines available for dogs which can lessen the severity of disease and can even prevent infection ...
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica is a small, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bordetella. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a non-spore-forming bacterium, B. bronchiseptica is one of the easier-to-disinfect microorganisms on the disinfection hierarchy. (microchemlab.com)
  • Bordetella antibody free rats that were experimentally infected with a B. avium strain seroconverted to the bacterium but not to B. bronchiseptica and were B. avium culture positive at one week postinfection but not at 6 weeks. (utlib.ee)
  • Kennel cough is a highly contagious inflammation of the trachea (windpipe) and bronchial tree caused by a contagious virus (adenovirus, parainfluenza virus, canine distemper virus) or bacterium ( Bordetella bronchiseptica ). (petplace.com)
  • Intracellular survival of B. bronchiseptica is extremely controversial, however it is known that the bacterium can survive for long periods of time without a host. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica is a bacterium that is associated with respiratory disease in dogs. (wihumane.org)
  • This bacterium infects the airway, and is closely related to the causative agent of whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis. (microgeninc.com)
  • Bordetella pertussis is a gram- negative bacterium that is responsible for the highly contagious respiratory disease known as pertussis. (cdc.gov)
  • The mutation rate of a virus is considerably higher than that of a bacterium, meaning that in this case, in our case, Bordetella pertussis does not evolve that fast except for the antigen genes that are used in the commercial vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Role of canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in kennel cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nobivac Intra-Trac KC Dog Vaccine is suggested to help control and avoid a disease, which is related with canine parainfluenza and Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in healthy dogs, that are three weeks of age or older. (kvsupply.com)
  • Canine parainfluenza, modified live virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica avirulent live culture. (kvsupply.com)
  • Protects against canine parainfluenza virus and B. bronchiseptica (canine cough) in dogs and puppies. (lcsupply.com)
  • This panel includes canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Mycoplasma cynos along with Influenza Virus Matrix PCR. (cornell.edu)
  • virus type 2 Parainfluenza and Bordetella bronchiseptica. (costacalidachronicle.com)
  • Optional vaccines for use in dogs with high risk for developing the disease include Bordetella bronchiseptica, Borrelia burgdorferi, Leptospira spp. (vin.com)
  • Nobivac Feline-Bb is an intranasal vaccine containing an avirulent live culture of Bordetella bronchiseptica for the vaccination of healthy kittens and cats for prevention of disease caused by B. bronchiseptica. (entirelypets.com)
  • Our results show that B. bronchiseptica does not interfere with the induction of the immune response to the LAIV vaccine, but our results indicate that the Bordetella in the lung may make it difficult for the immune system to provide protection. (usda.gov)
  • The bordetella vaccine, along with the core vaccines, is offered at our vaccine clinics at both the Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine, and Green Bay locations. (wihumane.org)
  • An intranasal vaccine for Bordetella is available. (cats.com)
  • To best protect your dog against kennel cough, make sure you keep it up-to-date on its vaccinations and don't board your dog anywhere or take it anywhere where there are other dogs without getting the Bordatella bronchiseptica vaccine first. (co.ke)
  • There is evidence that individuals that vaccinated with acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccine, which are commonly used in developed countries since the middle 90s, can become asymptomatically infected and then transmit pertussis to susceptible individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica - a bacteria that causes bronchitis and flu-like symptoms in cats. (comparethemarket.com)
  • The bacteria Bordetella bronchiseptica has been shown to alter immune responses in the pig, therefore, we completed a study to determine if B. bronchiseptica interfered with LAIV vaccination or the protection vaccination provides to pigs against IAV challenge. (usda.gov)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common bacteria in the feline population. (cats.com)
  • Feline bordetellosis describes the condition when a cat is infected with the Bordetella bronchiseptica bacteria. (cats.com)
  • Obligate aerobic means that Bordetella needs oxygen to survive (compared to "anaerobic" bacteria which can thrive without oxygen). (cats.com)
  • Cats infected with B. bronchiseptica have been seen with tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and rhinitis (upper respiratory tract infection - URI), mandibular lymphadenopathy, and pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotics are used in some patients, especially if Bordetella infection or secondary bacterial infection is likely. (petplace.com)
  • Infection of "B. bronchiseptica" causes kennel cough in canines and is of high morbidity and low mortality [2]. (kenyon.edu)
  • All of the virulence factors of "B. bronchiseptica" allow it to weaken the host's immune defenses, leading to infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica can establish prolonged airway infection consistent with a highly developed ability to evade mammalian host immune responses. (bio5.org)
  • Our results also indicate that controlling B. bronchiseptica in swine may be of benefit to limiting the impact of IAV infection. (usda.gov)
  • Titers of IAV in the nose and trachea of pigs that received LAIV were significantly reduced when compared to non-vaccinated, challenged controls, regardless of B. bronchiseptica infection. (usda.gov)
  • There are bordetella vaccines available for dogs which can lessen the severity of disease and can even prevent infection altogether. (wihumane.org)
  • It's important to carry out careful nursing with affected cats (keeping warm, cleaning discharges etc) but there is no complete home remedy for Bordetella infection. (cats.com)
  • For example, in one study of cats (both healthy and unhealthy) from a general population, just 11% had evidence of Bordetella infection, while in studies that included just cats with upper respiratory tract disease, around 45% of cats were found to be infected. (cats.com)
  • Pertussis is a respiratory tract infection caused by the gram-negative coccobacillus Bordetella pertussis . (medscape.com)
  • B. bronchiseptica" is closely related to "Bordetella pertussis" and "Bordetella parapertussis", causing pertussis or whooping cough in humans [2]. (kenyon.edu)
  • 42 air samples seeded with bacteriophage MS2 or attenuated strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica , feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus-1, canine parvovirus, or canine distemper virus (6/microorganism) or with no microorganisms added (6). (avma.org)
  • In dogs, B. bronchiseptica causes acute tracheobronchitis, which typically has a harsh, honking cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Bordetella strain is commonly found in the respiratory tracts of many animals and is the leading cause of kennel cough for dogs and cats. (microchemlab.com)
  • B. bronchiseptica" causes acute tracheobronchitis, otherwise known as kennel cough, in cats and dogs. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica is one of the leading bacterial causes of "kennel cough" in dogs. (co.ke)
  • Although a primary pathogen for a wide range of animals, B. bronchiseptica , has been isolated from immunocompromised people and young children. (microchemlab.com)
  • The condition is named after the causative pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, which is a "gram-negative, obligate aerobic coccobacillus. (cats.com)
  • Humans are not natural carriers of B. bronchiseptica, which typically infects the respiratory tracts of smaller mammals (cats, dogs, rabbits, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica", stain RB50, is a small (0.4 by 8.0 um), gram negative, rod shaped beta-proteobacteria belonging to the Bordetellae family. (kenyon.edu)
  • The UVGI treatment resulted in subjectively lower concentrations of viable MS2, B bronchiseptica , and canine distemper virus (arithmetic mean ± SD log 10 microorganism reduction, 2.57 ± 0.47, ≥ 3.45 ± 0.24, and ≥ 1.50 ± 0.25, respectively) collected from air. (avma.org)
  • Fimbriae and determination of host species specificity of Bordetella bronchiseptica. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specificity of a Bordetella bronchiseptica antibody ELISA for the monitoring of laboratory rodents was re-evaluated by studying the serological relationship of the B. bronchiseptica antigen and antigens of B. avium, B. hinzii, B. holmesii and an unclassified Bordetella sp. (utlib.ee)
  • B. bronchiseptica does not express pertussis toxin, which is one of the characteristic virulence factors of B. pertussis, but it has the genes to do so, highlighting the close evolutionary relationship between the two species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bordetella species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon initial interaction with the host upper respiratory tract mucosa, B. bronchiseptica are subjected to antimicrobial reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), effector molecules of the innate immune system. (bio5.org)
  • However, the responses of B. bronchiseptica to redox species at physiologically relevant concentrations (nM-microM) have not been investigated. (bio5.org)
  • Using predicted physiological concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on low numbers of CFU of B. bronchiseptica, all redox active species displayed dose-dependent antimicrobial activity. (bio5.org)
  • But the dog's Bordetella belongs to the species Bordetella bronchiseptica , which is not the same as the one that produces disease in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • B. bronchiseptica is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-endospore forming coccobacillus. (microchemlab.com)
  • "Coccobacillus" describes the shape of Bordetella under the microscope. (cats.com)
  • In pigs, B. bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida act synergistically to cause atrophic rhinitis, a disease resulting in arrested growth and distortion of the turbinates in the nasal terminus (snout). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigs infected with PRRSV, B. bronchiseptica, or both, were placed into one isolation tent, and uninfected pigs were placed into another isolation tent which received its air supply from the first isolation tent. (usda.gov)
  • Airborne transmission of both B. bronchiseptica and PRRSV to the uninfected pigs occurred. (usda.gov)
  • Thus, transmission of PRRSV and B. bronchiseptica between pigs in the same building probably occurs readily even without direct contact, and airborne spread over longer distances may be possible. (usda.gov)
  • Three principal pigs were infected with PRRSV, B. bronchiseptica, or both. (usda.gov)
  • Airborne transmission of B. bronchiseptica occurred in 5/5 trials where B. bronchiseptica was the only agent used, and in 3/5 trials where the principal pigs were co-infected with both agents. (usda.gov)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica" can infect a wide range of hosts causing different diseases and is most commonly found in canines, pigs, and laboratory animals [2]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Pneumonia scores were higher in pigs colonized with B. bronchiseptica and challenged with IAV, but this was regardless of LAIV vaccination status. (usda.gov)
  • In late 2022, together with the H3N2 strain of canine influenza and other respiratory pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica experienced a surge in canine infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. bronchiseptica often co-infects the nasal passage at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. bronchiseptica" infects its host by attaching to hamster lung fibroblasts when inhaled [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • B. bronchiseptica" infects healthy ciliated epithelial cells whereas most respiratory pathogens cannot. (kenyon.edu)
  • Immunization of rats with B. avium strains induced antibodies to the B. bronchiseptica antigen. (utlib.ee)
  • It is unknown whether "B. bronchiseptica" is passed from farm to companion animals [2] and humans are rarely infected [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • We sought to evaluate the effect of Bordetella bronchiseptica colonization on LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy in swine, and the impact of LAIV and IAV challenge on B. bronchiseptica colonization and disease. (usda.gov)
  • Thus, the data presented do not negate the efficacy of LAIV vaccination, but instead indicate that controlling B. bronchiseptica colonization in swine could limit the negative interaction between IAV and Bordetella on swine health. (usda.gov)
  • So, we get vaccines for our dogs against Bordetella . (cdc.gov)
  • We do get vaccines for our dogs against Bordetella . (cdc.gov)
  • The interaction between "B. bronchiseptica" and its host is pathogenic. (kenyon.edu)
  • The interaction between IAV, B. bronchiseptica, and host led to development of acute-type B. bronchiseptica lesions in the lung. (usda.gov)
  • In rabbits, B. bronchiseptica is often found in the nasal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenicity of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from apparently healthy rabbits in guinea pig, rat, and mouse. (nih.gov)
  • These results further show the protective benefits of LAIV vaccination against IAV, even in the presence of B. bronchiseptica. (usda.gov)
  • Healthy kittens 4 weeks of age or older should be vaccinated prior to confinement or when risk of exposure to B. bronchiseptica may exist. (entirelypets.com)
  • However, "B. bronchiseptica" has the genes to express the toxin which shows that "B. bronchiseptica" is closely related to "B. pertussis" [4]. (kenyon.edu)
  • The pili of B. bronchiseptica attach to the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. (microchemlab.com)
  • The host inhales "B. bronchiseptica" and colonizes on the muccous membranes lining the respiratory tract and produces factors that counteract the host's defense mechanisms. (kenyon.edu)
  • LAIV immunogenicity was not significantly impacted by B. bronchiseptica colonization, but protective efficacy against heterologous IAV challenge in the upper respiratory tract was impaired. (usda.gov)
  • Gram-negative means that Bordetella does not pick up the gram stain when being examined under the microscope. (cats.com)
  • B. bronchiseptica" also produces many toxins such as bifunctional adenylate cyclase and dermonecrotic toxins. (kenyon.edu)
  • B. bronchiseptica is highly contagious, easily transmitted through direct contact or the air, and resistant to destruction in the environment. (vetstreet.com)
  • Experiments were designed to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or Bordetella bronchiseptica could be transmitted through indirect airborne contact. (usda.gov)
  • The host acquires "B. bronchiseptica" when exposed to an infected surface, specifically where an already infected host has been. (kenyon.edu)
  • Specifically, FHA binds directly to the ciliary membrane host-receptor glycospingolipids, allowing "B. bronchiseptica" to attach to the host's cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • The understanding of Bordetella responses to physiologically relevant levels of exogenous RNS and ROS will aid in defining the role of endogenous production of these molecules in host innate immunity against Bordetella and other respiratory pathogens. (bio5.org)
  • In veterinary medicine, B. bronchiseptica leads to a range of pathologies in different hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact has implications for the types of areas in the body where Bordetella is found. (cats.com)