Border disease virus
Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral
Classical swine fever virus
Newcastle disease virus
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
Borna disease virus
Infectious bursal disease virus
Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease
Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for typing ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhea viruses and border disease virus. (1/23)A nested reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for differentiating reference bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains, BVDV from diagnostic accessions, modified-live virus (MLV) BVDV strains in bovine viral vaccines, and a reference border disease virus (BDV). The detection level of this assay was compared to viral infection in cell culture. The PCR assay was used to distinguish 3 ruminant pestiviruses, types 1 and 2 BVDV, and type 3 BDV. The consensus (first) PCR assay detected all 3 ruminant pestiviruses, a result of the shared sequence homology. The consensus PCR product was subjected to a second (nested) PCR which used type-specific primers. The nested PCR was able to differentiate the 3 ruminant pestiviruses. Viral stocks of BVDV were diluted 10-fold and processed for the 2-step PCR assay. The sensitivity of this 2-step PCR assay was compared to viral infectivity in cell culture based on identical volumes of the system tested (cell culture assay and processing for RNA). The RT-PCR type-specific assay differentiated BVDV laboratory reference strains (12), diagnostic laboratory isolates (15), 2 MLV BVDV vaccine strains, and a BDV strain. The 30 ruminant pestiviruses typed included: (1) 27 reference strains and diagnostic laboratory isolates; 18 cytopathic (CP) type 1 strains, 3 CP type 2 strains, 3 noncytopathic (NCP) type 1 strains, and 3 NCP type 2 strains; (2) 2 MLV strains, type 1; and (3) 1 CP BDV type 3. The PCR assay had a detection limit of 10 TCID50/0.025 mL of virus when 3 separate BVDV were tested. This 2 step RT-PCR assay would be useful for the typing of ruminant pestiviruses, particularly BVDV isolates from the diagnostic laboratory. (+info)
A RT-PCR assay for the rapid recognition of border disease virus. (2/23)A reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the specific detection of border disease virus (BDV), using the primers PBD1 and PBD2 flanking a 225 bp DNA fragment, selected from the 5'noncoding region of the pestivirus genome. In tests on 70 pestiviruses it was shown to be BDV-specific. A closed, one-tube nested RT-PCR method employing general pestivirus outer primers (324 and 326), and the same BDV-specific inner primers (PBD1 and PBD2) in conjunction with a BDV-specific fluorogenic TaqMan probe also detected only BDV and was more sensitive. BDV-specific RT-PCR was used in combination with a PCR specific for bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 (BVDV2) to ascertain whether virus stocks contained mixtures of BDV and BVDV2. It was shown that the ovine pestivirus strains 175375 and 59386 were originally BDV, but after subculture had become contaminated with BVDV2. This explains a previously reported discrepancy in the genetic typing of 59386. Although the BDV-specific RT-PCR can also detect BDV in clinical samples, the assay is likely to be most useful for the rapid typing of laboratory pestivirus strains. (+info)
Experimental model of Border Disease Virus infection in lambs: comparative pathogenicity of pestiviruses isolated in France and Tunisia. (3/23)Pestiviruses have been isolated from live sheep pox Tunisian vaccines. Vaccination with these vaccines caused outbreaks of Border Disease in Tunisia. In order to study more precisely the pathogenicity of these isolates, three groups of eight four month old lambs from a pestivirus-free flock were infected by the intratracheal route with a French strain (AV) and two Tunisian isolates (SN3G and Lot21). Clinical, hematological, immunological and virological parameters were evaluated. The three groups developed mild fever and leucopaenia by day 3 to 6 post infection (pi). The differences in the weight curves were not significant. Viruses were isolated from the peripheral blood buffy coat cells by day 4 to 9 pi. Antibodies were present on day 16 pi following infection by the French strain and on day 21 pi with the Tunisian isolates. The results demonstrated that SN3G and Lot21 are almost similar to the French strain used as the reference strain. In field conditions, they could induce economical losses in naive flocks, alone or in association with other pathogens. (+info)
The envelope glycoprotein E2 is a determinant of cell culture tropism in ruminant pestiviruses. (4/23)Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates infect cultured Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells as efficiently as sheep kidney cells. In contrast, border disease virus (BDV) propagates poorly in MDBK cells but infects sheep cells very efficiently. The envelope glycoprotein E2 has been shown to be essential for virus infectivity. To explore the potential role of E2 in pestivirus host range in cell cultures, we engineered a chimeric BVDV with the E2 coding region from BDV. As expected, the BVDV-E2(bdv) chimera retained the ability of BDV to multiply in sheep cells but experienced a remarkable reduction in its ability to propagate and form plaques in MDBK, a phenotype that is characteristic of the E2 donor, BDV31 virus. Control chimeric BVDV bearing a type II E2 demonstrated that the heterologous E2 does not impair replication in MDBK or lamb cells. These results establish a role for E2 in determining the tropism of a pestivirus in cell culture. (+info)
Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of a novel chimeric pestivirus. (5/23)A chimeric pestivirus of border disease virus Gifhorn and bovine viral diarrhea virus CP7 (Meyers et al., 1996) was constructed. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of the chimeric virus were studied in a vaccination-challenge experiment in pigs. The chimeric virus proved to be avirulent and neither chimeric virus nor viral RNA was detected in serum after vaccination. The safety of the vaccine was tested by horizontal transmission to sentinel pigs, which remained uninfected. The vaccine efficacy was examined by challenge infection with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Eystrup. In 'challenge controls', the viral load of CSFV coincided with the development of pronounced clinical symptoms. In contrast, the vaccinated pigs showed transient and weak clinical signs. Analysis of the viral load in these pigs showed 1000-fold lower viral RNA levels compared to 'challenge controls' and horizontal transmission of challenge virus to sentinel pigs was not observed. (+info)
Chimeric pestiviruses: candidates for live-attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccines. (6/23)The use of attenuated classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains as live vaccines is no longer allowed for the control of classical swine fever in Europe, due to the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals; DIVA), except as emergency vaccines or as bait vaccines for wild boars. Thus, the establishment of a DIVA vaccine(s) is of pivotal importance for the control of this infectious disease. In this study, recombinant versions of the live-attenuated vaccine strain CSFV Riems were generated by replacing parts of the E2 gene with the corresponding sequence of border disease virus strain Gifhorn. Three cDNA clones were constructed: pRiems-ABC-Gif, pRiems-A-Gif and pRiems-BC-Gif. Infectious particles were obtained from clones pRiems-ABC-Gif and pRiems-BC-Gif only, whereas transfected RNA from clone pRiems-A-Gif behaved like a replicon. Based on its ability to be differentiated in vitro from wild-type CSFV by mAbs, vRiems-ABC-Gif was assessed for immunogenicity and protection against challenge infection in pigs. Before challenge, no CSFV-specific anti-E2 antibodies could be detected with commercial E2-blocking ELISAs in vRiems-ABC-Gif-vaccinated animals, whereas vRiems-vaccinated pigs developed high titres of anti-E2 antibodies, confirming the marker properties of this vaccine candidate. After oral vaccination, only partial protection against challenge infection was observed in the vRiems-ABC-Gif vaccinees, whereas all intramuscularly vaccinated animals and all vRiems-vaccinated animals were fully protected. These experiments suggest that the strategy of exchanging specific antigenic epitopes among pestiviruses is a promising tool for the development of new CSFV marker vaccines. (+info)
Border disease virus among chamois, Spain. (7/23)(+info)
Detection of Border disease virus in fetuses, stillbirths, and newborn lambs from natural and experimental infections. (8/23)The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection in blood or fetal fluids and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification in tissues for routine laboratory diagnosis of Border disease virus (BDV) infection. Samples from 67 fetuses, 6 stillbirths, and 11 lambs from 25 commercial flocks with suspicion of BDV abortion and 3 fetuses, 7 stillbirths, and 15 lambs obtained from an experimental infection with a local isolate (BDV genotype 4) were investigated. Presence of BDV was detected by RT-PCR in 7.9% of fetuses, 50% of stillbirths, and 50% of lambs from the commercial flocks analyzed, corresponding to 8 of the 25 farms (32%). A similar percentage of the lambs and stillbirths from the experimental infection were positive by RT-PCR of tissue samples (54.5%), and the highest positivity was detected in lymph node, thyroid gland, and kidney. The current study revealed that RT-PCR analysis of stillbirths and lambs with clinical symptoms is more suitable than the analysis of fetuses to confirm the presence of BDV in a flock. Pestiviral antigen was detected by antigen ELISA in a high proportion of fetuses (24/58) and stillbirths (3/4) from commercial flocks, but in lambs, the presence of colostral antibodies masked the detection of the antigen by ELISA. Nevertheless, in lambs from the experimental infection that were not fed colostrum, antigen ELISA was less efficient than RT-PCR in detecting viral presence in stillbirths and lambs. Antigen ELISA is therefore recommended for fetuses with advanced autolysis that can adversely affect RNA integrity. (+info)
This condition is most commonly found in sheep and goats that are raised on overgrazed pastures or those that are fed moldy or contaminated feed. The worm that causes border disease is a type of liver fluke, which is a parasite that lives in the animal's liver and lungs.
Symptoms: The symptoms of border disease can include weight loss, anemia, coughing, difficulty breathing, and a thickened, irregular border to the hoof. The affected animals may also have a rough, scaly coat and may lose their appetite.
Diagnosis: Border disease is typically diagnosed based on a physical examination of the animal and laboratory tests, such as blood tests or X-rays. The presence of liver flukes in the animal's liver and lungs can be confirmed through these tests.
Treatment: Treatment for border disease typically involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs to kill the liver flukes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy.
Prevention: Preventing border disease involves taking steps to reduce the risk of infection with liver flukes. This can include providing animals with clean water and a balanced diet, avoiding overgrazing of pastures, and using anthelmintic drugs to control internal parasites.
Prognosis: The prognosis for animals with border disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. However, if left untreated, the condition can be severe and potentially fatal.
There are several types of pestivirus infections, including:
1. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD): This is one of the most common pestivirus infections in cattle, and it can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and weight loss.
2. Border disease: This is a serious pestivirus infection that affects sheep and goats, and it can cause severe symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and death.
3. Maedi-visna: This is a progressive pestivirus infection that affects sheep and goats, and it can cause weight loss, anemia, and death.
4. Sumatran sheep virus: This is a rare pestivirus infection that affects sheep and goats in Indonesia, and it can cause severe symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Pestivirus infections are transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated feces and urine. They can also be spread through blood transfusions and contaminated needles.
Diagnosis of pestivirus infections is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and serology. Treatment is primarily supportive, and may include antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections.
Prevention of pestivirus infections includes vaccination, strict biosecurity measures, and proper handling and disposal of animal waste.
In summary, pestivirus infections are a group of viral diseases that can affect cattle and other ruminants, causing a range of symptoms and potentially leading to severe illness and death. Diagnosis is made through laboratory tests and serology, and treatment is primarily supportive. Prevention includes vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper waste handling.
Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:
1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.
Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.
The disease is typically transmitted through close contact with infected animals, and can be spread through respiratory droplets, contaminated feces, or contaminated surfaces. The virus can also be transmitted from dam to fetus during pregnancy, causing congenital BVD.
BVD-MD is characterized by acute diarrhea, vomiting, and fever, as well as mucosal lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. In severe cases, it can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death.
Diagnosis of BVD-MD is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and histopathological examination of tissue samples. There is no specific treatment for the disease, but supportive care such as fluids, electrolytes, and antibiotics may be provided to manage symptoms.
Prevention of BVD-MD includes vaccination of animals at risk, strict biosecurity measures, and separation of infected animals from healthy ones. Control programs should also include testing of animals for the presence of the virus and monitoring of herds for signs of the disease.
The symptoms of FMD can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the age of the animal. In mild cases, the only symptoms may be a slight fever and blisters on the feet, while in severe cases, the blisters may become ulcers, and the animal may develop difficulty swallowing or eating, leading to weight loss and dehydration.
The virus is transmitted through contact with infected animals or their secretions, such as saliva, mucus, and manure. It can also be spread by contaminated feed or equipment, and by insects such as flies and midges. The incubation period for FMD is typically 3-14 days, but it can range from 2 to 30 days.
FMD is a significant threat to animal health and welfare, and can have severe economic consequences for farmers and the livestock industry as a whole. In addition, the disease can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected animals, although this is rare.
There are several tests available to diagnose FMD, including serological tests such as ELISAs and virus isolation techniques. The disease is typically controlled through a combination of stamping out (killing all animals in an affected herd) and vaccination. Vaccination can be used to protect animals that are not yet infected, or to reduce the severity of the disease in animals that are already infected.
In summary, foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals and can have severe economic and animal health consequences. It is characterized by fever, blisters on the feet and in the mouth, and difficulty swallowing or eating. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and laboratory tests, and control measures include stamping out and vaccination.
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Protecting Uganda's Border | Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) | CDC
Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain - Volume 15, Number 3-March 2009 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
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- In 2001 and 2002 a new pestivirus (family Flaviviridae ) was associated with an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois ( R . pyrenaica pyrenaica ) at the Alt Pallars-Aran National Hunting Reserve in the Pyrenees in northeastern Spain ( Figure 1 ) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- And where previously all viruses within an outbreak would have looked genetically more or less the same, we can see in whole genome data that some of these viruses clearly cluster together, genetically, whereas others are more distinct. (cdc.gov)
- And so these differences come about because rabies virus continues to accumulate new mutations all the time, like other RNA viruses do too, and this happens even over the course of a single outbreak. (cdc.gov)
- The last noted presence of the virus was in 2008 with the last major outbreak occurring in 2005 in Angola. (borgenproject.org)
- The timeline in which a person will start to display symptoms can be anywhere between two and 21 days after infection Although only a single case was confirmed so far, the WHO found the need to declare an outbreak in West Africa due to how easily the Marburg virus can spread. (borgenproject.org)
- The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in North Kivu and Ituri provinces is the 10th EVD epidemic declared in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since the first outbreak of 1976. (rodekruis.nl)
- As such, it is extremely important and urgent to prepare for a potential outbreak at any targeted area/district of the country, to prevent the disease and limit its impact. (rodekruis.nl)
- Malinde now worries that these boats can import the Ebola virus disease because of the ongoing outbreak in their departure vicinity. (who.int)
- During the Ebola outbreak in Africa in 2014, patients tested for the disease had to provide a blood sample fortesting in a specialist lab by highly trained staff. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- GENEVA - WHO is working to contain an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD) that has appeared in eastern Uganda on the border with Kenya. (who.int)
- While Kenya Medical Research Institute (Kemri) announced that their surveillance showed that there was no outbreak of influenza, there remained a lot of questions about the nature of viruses, where they come from, how they spread, and how to protect yourself from them. (co.ke)
- He says that in a virus outbreak, based on mode of transmission and the type of virus, you are more likely to contract the disease by being in contact with an infected person. (co.ke)
- On August 25, 1995, public health authorities in Mexico notified the Texas Department of Health (TDH) of an ongoing outbreak of dengue fever in the state of Tamaulipas, which borders south Texas ( Figure_1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Because of the year-round presence of the Aedes aegypti mosquito (a major vector for dengue) in southernmost Texas and the frequent movement of persons across the U.S.-Mexico border, the outbreak in adjacent Tamaulipas suggested an increased potential for imported and autochthonous cases in Texas, as had occurred during 1980 and 1986 (2). (cdc.gov)
- Because of the reported outbreak in Tamaulipas, on August 25, 1995, TDH issued a dengue alert memorandum by facsimile to all local health departments, infection-control practitioners, and infectious disease physicians in south Texas. (cdc.gov)
- A U.K. study of a swine flu outbreak showed the virus entered the country independently at numerous points before any cases had even been identified in physician offices. (nih.gov)
- CDC's Global Immunization Plan In the first seven months of 2016 alone, 13 states reported outbreaks of measles, a highly infectious disease that killed 400 to 500 Americans a year and hospitalized nearly 50,000 more as recent as the 1950s. (cdc.gov)
- There have been two outbreaks in the last 50 years of the virus resulting in more than 100 cases, the WHO said. (kristv.com)
- Sarah Gregory] So what happened, why were there raccoon rabies virus outbreaks in Canada? (cdc.gov)
- Uganda has previously managed Ebola and Marburg outbreaks but international support is urgently required to scale up the response as the overall risk of national and regional spread of this epidemic-prone disease is high. (who.int)
- At the national level, legislation and regulations establish the functions that need to be exercised in order for countries to respond effectively to disease outbreaks with pandemic potential. (idlo.int)
- At the international level, the law helps to hold countries accountable for the actions that are needed to respond effectively to disease outbreaks. (idlo.int)
- The biggest question, however, remained, 'why is there an increase in virus outbreaks in recent times? (co.ke)
- According to Prof Omu Anzala, the increasing frequency of global virus outbreaks has up to recently been mostly of deep concern to biomedical research scientists. (co.ke)
- Why is there an increase in virus outbreaks? (co.ke)
- Response plans in case of disease outbreaks. (effectivealtruism.org)
- Mpondwe border crossing between Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo. (cdc.gov)
- Cross-border movements between districts bordering Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are common due to the interdependence between populations on either side, though this increases the risk of the international spread of infectious diseases . (bvsalud.org)
- The CDC said the cases were found in the country's northwest Kagera region, near the Uganda border. (kristv.com)
- A study conducted by the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute (MRC/UVRI) and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) Uganda Research Unit (Entebbe, Uganda) during the early phase of the pandemic showed that most SARS-CoV-2 infections were imported and consisted of several lineages that included A, B, B.1, B.1.1, B.1.1.1, and B.4 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Laboratory testing at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) confirmed the cause of death as MVD. (who.int)
- Last week, when Tanzania confirmed its first-ever cases of Marburg Virus Disease, the Ministry of Health activated its surveillance and response mechanism and started screening travellers at all border points between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda to contain its spread into the country. (co.ke)
- Modern genetics has the potential to transform the management and assessment of infectious disease," said Walport, who directs the Wellcome Trust and will become the U.K.'s chief science adviser in April. (nih.gov)
- This Ebola FOA has nothing to do with current DOE UH4 cooperative agreement s you can see from the FO , It states * Note This activity code is being used to support Ebola Biosafety and Infectious Disease Response Training. (nih.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a travel advisory as it monitors the spread of the Marburg virus in east Africa. (kristv.com)
- Now, a recent report of the Marburg virus in West Africa is starting to raise concern and officials from the World Health Organization (WHO) are scrambling to address the situation before it intensifies. (borgenproject.org)
- In August 2021, health officials from Guinea confirmed the first case of the Marburg virus disease in a deceased West African man . (borgenproject.org)
- What is the Marburg Virus? (borgenproject.org)
- Marburg is a type of virus that comes from the same family as Ebola and causes hemorrhagic fever in the individual who contracts it. (borgenproject.org)
- Though Marburg has the potential to be very deadly, viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever are rare and are usually limited to areas with specific animals that host the viruses. (borgenproject.org)
- However, once the virus infects one person, the Marburg virus is easily transmittable through direct contact with another individual. (borgenproject.org)
- Due to the concern that the Marburg virus could trigger an epidemic in West Africa, the WHO is taking precautions to ensure that the virus does not spread much further. (borgenproject.org)
- The WHO has also dispatched a team consisting of epidemiology and socio-anthropology experts, who are now on the grounds of the virus site and are assisting with the investigation of Marburg virus cases. (borgenproject.org)
- As it currently stands, there is no known cure for Marburg virus disease, though remedies are in development. (borgenproject.org)
- Right now, the best way to treat someone infected with the Marburg virus is through supportive care and rehydration. (borgenproject.org)
- If people in West Africa have limited access to a globally distributed COVID-19 vaccine, the likelihood of them easily obtaining treatment for a disease like Marburg or Ebola is slight. (borgenproject.org)
- He worked as a game hunter and lived near a cave inhabited by Rousettus bats, which are natural hosts of the Marburg virus. (who.int)
- Marburg virus disease is a rare disease with a high mortality rate for which there is no specific treatment. (who.int)
- Ex: Marburg virus (in 2022). (effectivealtruism.org)
- However, perceived risk of contracting and spreading communicable diseases may be influenced by several factors such as the level of education , packaging and perception of health care messages, limited interaction with local socio-cultural dynamics or personal experiences. (bvsalud.org)
- The globalization of chronic, non-communicable diseases like cancer, heart disease, obesity, and depression contribute to more than half of all deaths in the developing world and substantial disability, and NIH collaborations are tackling this ongoing crisis that has ripple effects on regional economic health and stability. (nih.gov)
- All involved healthcare workers (air and ground) have received education and training and demonstrated the necessary competencies for management of patients with serious communicable diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Air and ground ambulance agencies have procedures for the management of patients with serious communicable diseases - this guidance is aimed at facilitating the patient handoff, not broader air or ground ambulance operations. (cdc.gov)
- This guidance complements other CDC guidance for management of patients with serious communicable diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Africa is a continent comprising of diseases and illnesses that affect many people's lives. (borgenproject.org)
- Africa is the most disease-prone continent in the world, yet most of its people do not have access to treatment that will help protect against these viruses. (borgenproject.org)
- In 2014, Ebola virus disease began to spread rapidly throughout West Africa. (cdc.gov)
- Ebola, one of the most feared of the hemorrhagic diseases, begins spreading across the borders of countries in West Africa. (kobo.com)
- Most recently, the two organizations established the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Initiative , a project funding studies of genomics and environmental causes of diseases and of drug responses common in Africa. (nih.gov)
- 19. Border disease virus (BDV) infections of small ruminants in Turkey: a new BDV subgroup? (nih.gov)
- These include diarrheal diseases caused by viruses and many infections triggered by parasites. (nih.gov)
- The current spread of Zika virus disease demonstrates the ongoing threat of infections crossing borders. (cdc.gov)
- Although a mosquito-transmitted disease, researchers determined that these infections can also be acquired from aerosolized virus. (medscape.com)
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is highly infectious by the aerosol route, and numerous laboratory infections have occurred, making it a possible biowarfare agent. (medscape.com)
- This study aims to explore differences in movement patterns and risk perceptions as factors for transmission among transport drivers in Ugandan border districts during the 2018-2020 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic and the current COVID-19 pandemic. (bvsalud.org)
- Sequence of probable transmission events and associated relevant locations in-flight and MIQ for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during border quarantine and air travel, New Zealand, September 2020. (nih.gov)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of human coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was declared by the World Health Organization to be a global pandemic in March 2020 ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- In 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that fruit bats carry the virus, meaning that a human can only become infected through prolonged exposure in caves or similar habitats. (borgenproject.org)
- Emerging Infectious Diseases , 29 (9), 1719-1729. (cdc.gov)
- Emerging Infectious Diseases , 29 (9), 1730-1737. (cdc.gov)
- This FOA intends to advance safety and health training for workers using a whole- community approach and identify any occupational group that may be at high risk of coming in contact with persons potentially infected with Ebola virus and other emerging infectious diseases, through potentially contaminated materials (biological, chemical or radiological) or infected individuals. (nih.gov)
- The strategy in New Zealand (Aotearoa) to eliminate coronavirus disease requires that international arrivals undergo managed isolation and quarantine and mandatory testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. (nih.gov)
- Combining genomic and epidemiologic data, we investigated the origin of an acute case of coronavirus disease identified in the community after the patient had spent 14 days in managed isolation and quarantine and had 2 negative test results. (nih.gov)
- Which ones are particularly important in countries where the impact of the virus is more acute? (idlo.int)
- Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted acute disease caused by any of four virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4) and is characterized by acute manifestations that can include fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, nausea, and vomiting (1). (cdc.gov)
- Major technology advances have allowed scientists to read the genetic language of disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. (nih.gov)
- Cases of meningitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, trauma or fungi. (yahoo.com)
- A big difference being that bacteria can survive without a host and a virus need a host. (co.ke)
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. (medscape.com)
- Detecting the virus can be a challenge given it initially presents symptoms similar to other diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever. (kristv.com)
- The COVID-19 pandemic has been a wake-up call on the need to improve disease preparedness and surveillance systems to deter such crises from happening again. (worldbank.org)
- But considering the huge threat of possible importation, the Government is stepping up its preparedness efforts in the high-risk border regions, in line with the World Health Organization's regional road map for Ebola response. (who.int)
- Due to the nature of their work , boda boda drivers ( motorcycle taxis), taxis and truck drivers continue to cross the border during epidemics . (bvsalud.org)
- The influx of people across the national borders of Ghana has been of interest and concern in the public health and national security community in recent times due to the low capacity for the prevention and management of epidemics and other public health risks . (bvsalud.org)
- For instance, health authorities are asking whether closing national borders can stem epidemics. (nih.gov)
- A senior technical advisor to Uganda's Ministry of Health, Vance has supported a wide range of public health initiatives: from disease surveillance, border health, emergency management, and laboratory systems to vaccine deployment, workforce development, health communication, and logistics. (cdc.gov)
- Efforts are also going into improving cross-border surveillance. (borgenproject.org)
- Kenya's Ministry of Health announced that it had heightened surveillance at all border points as a precautionary measure to curb the spread of the disease. (co.ke)
- This report summarizes results of dengue surveillance in the U.S.-Mexico border area during 1995-1996. (cdc.gov)
- Ongoing surveillance will improve understanding of the incidence and clinical severity of this emerging disease. (cdc.gov)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
- Announcer] This program is presented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a travel advisory Tuesday for U.S. residents seeking medical care in Matamoros. (yahoo.com)
- The Ministry of Health has sent a rapid response team to the area supported by staff from the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFNET). (who.int)
- Three animals captured alive showed severe clinical signs of respiratory disease. (cdc.gov)
- Congo Basin) clade, which is now known as stracts were screened, followed by assess- clade 1 and more transmissible and causes ment of 207 full text publications to determine more severe disease, and the West African eligibility, and 158 publications were further clade (clade 2), which is thought to cause mild excluded, leaving 49 eligible articles. (who.int)
- Ex: the guidelines of nonprofits like Doctors Without Borders. (effectivealtruism.org)
- Contextual understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic and Ebola epidemic is vital for strengthening PoE mitigation measures and preventing disease importation. (bvsalud.org)
- If you've been living through the worst of the coronavirus pandemic for as long as the United States has, you might be pretty envious of the comparative calm just across the border in Canada. (abc.net.au)
- Indeed, some Americans have even gone so far as to sneak into their northern neighbour, despite a border ban that's been in place since the pandemic began. (abc.net.au)
- Donald Trump is sparking backlash after referring to the Coronavirus pandemic as the 'China virus. (okayplayer.com)
- I can't bear the thought of him riding out a pandemic alone if cities and states are locked down, and don't really trust my older parent to take precautions against the virus. (longreads.com)
- This virus is among the most virulent pathogens known to infect humans. (who.int)
- Genomic studies of other pathogens are likewise giving valuable insight while simultaneously raising questions about how to manage disease. (nih.gov)
- HG 3 - pathogens that cause serious diseases in individuals . (effectivealtruism.org)
- HG 4 - pathogens that cause deadly diseases and are highly transmissible. (effectivealtruism.org)
- By combining genomic sequence analysis and epidemiologic investigations, we identified a multibranched chain of transmission of this virus, including on international and domestic flights, as well as a probable case of aerosol transmission without direct person-to-person contact. (nih.gov)
- So we have been able to obtain sequence data from viruses, and rabies virus specifically, for quite some time now but only recently has it become technically feasible to sequence entire genomes, or at least for large numbers of samples we can do that now. (cdc.gov)
- While these epizootic strains are virulent in equines and humans, the enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus serotypes ID, IE, and IIIA can cause illness in humans but not in equines. (medscape.com)
- Ilagala village is one among many communities in Kigoma Region facing the threat of Ebola importation due to the informal cross-border movements of people for social and economic activities. (who.int)
- Molecular characterization assigned this virus to the border disease virus (BDV) cluster, 1 of the 4 main species of the genus Pestivirus ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- A species of PESTIVIRUS causing a congenital sheep disease characterized by an abnormally hairy birth-coat, tremors, and poor growth. (nih.gov)
- Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing analysis. (cdc.gov)
- Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic infection caused by monkeypox virus, an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus and family Poxviridae that also contain smallpox, cowpox, Orf, and vaccinia viruses. (who.int)
- Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic dae which contains smallpox, cowpox, Orf, infection caused by monkeypox virus, an env- and vaccinia viruses (1,2). (who.int)
- And sequencing entire genomes allows us to detect very small genetic differences between the sampled viruses--very few mutations. (cdc.gov)
- 1. First description of enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) and glia maturation factor-beta (GMF-β) correlate with severity of neuropathology in border disease virus-infected small ruminants. (nih.gov)
- 3. Increased expressions of ADAMTS-13, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and neurofilament correlate with severity of neuropathology in Border disease virus-infected small ruminants. (nih.gov)
Contact with an infected1
- Ebola is a highly contagious disease spread by contact with an infected person's bodily fluids. (healthline.com)
- Antibodies to E2 can neutralize virus infectivity. (medscape.com)
- The five people who became ill traveled to Matamoros, across the border from Brownsville, for surgical procedures that included the use of an epidural, an anesthetic injected near the spinal column, the Texas Department of State Health Services said Tuesday. (yahoo.com)
Ministry of Hea1
- Acting Director General in the Ministry of Health Patrick Amoth also called on the public to report any unusual incidents of individuals presenting symptoms of the disease. (co.ke)
- In December 2004, an adult male chamois was found alive with respiratory disease at the Cerdanya-Alt Urgell National Hunting Reserve, ≈30 km southeast of a previously affected area ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- The main clinical signs and lesions of sick animals were cachexia, alopecia, and respiratory disease ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- That's according to Sen. Casey Murdock, R-Felt, who expressed his complete support for any measures taken to curb foreign animal diseases, like ASF, from entering the country. (oksenate.gov)
- The virus has few above ground symptoms. (gardeningknowhow.com)
- Research led and carried out by Dr Sterghios Moschos at Northumbria means that patients with Ebola-like symptoms can be identified and treated much sooner and at the point of care, helping to reduce the spread of the disease and risks to others. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- 10. Experimentally induced ovine border disease: extensive hypomyelination with minimal viral antigen in neonatal spinal cord. (nih.gov)
- 11. Expression of glia maturation factor in neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
- It wasn't until the end of July that the border authority attempted to close the loophole, announcing that travellers heading to Alaska would need to take the most direct route to their destination. (abc.net.au)
- BROWNSVILLE, Texas (AP) - State and federal health officials are warning U.S. residents to cancel planned surgeries in a Mexico border city after five people from Texas who got procedures there came back and developed suspected cases of fungal meningitis. (yahoo.com)
- Such an approach facilitates cross-border cooperation and knowledge sharing and strengthens dialogue and collaboration between the countries. (worldbank.org)
- Over the last 25 years, the European Union and its Member States have increasingly partnered with and relied on neighboring countries to mitigate cross-border challenges, ranging from irregular migration to drug trafficking and terrorism. (ciaonet.org)
- This Transatlantic Council on Migration report examines the border security situation within the Maghreb, including Maghrebi states' cross-border priorities and the structural factors impeding the development of better border security. (ciaonet.org)
- Scientists now have molecular tools to track how diseases spread and understand the tricks they use to become more virulent or develop drug resistance, according to Sir Mark Walport, who spoke recently at the NIH. (nih.gov)
- It has crossed borders into countries that haven't previously been as affected by Ebola. (healthline.com)
- Cultivating cooperation with these countries and building their border security capacity have become vital concerns for European policymakers. (ciaonet.org)
- Within 12 hours of crossing Lake Tanganyika, which borders four countries, Tanzanian traders dock in DRC. (who.int)
- People have watched the novel coronavirus and its disease COVID-19 spread across countries and continents, and many governments have taken difficult decisions to impose restrictive emergency measures aimed at saving lives, protecting national health care systems, and halting the spread of the virus. (idlo.int)
- Although infectious diseases know no borders, their impact may be felt more acutely in some countries than in others. (idlo.int)
- After filling morgues in Italy, the virus is propagating across the globe and countries everywhere are closing their borders. (longreads.com)
- As new communications are created between countries, vector spread of the virus has been documented. (medscape.com)
- Although the International Health Regulations (IHR) stipulate core public health capacities for designated border facilities such as international airports , seaports, and ground crossings, contextual factors that influence the attainment of effective public health measures and response capabilities remain understudied. (bvsalud.org)
- Actions can be identified through all-hazards National Action Plans for Health Security (NAPHS), disease-specific plans, contingency plans and other sources. (who.int)
- A number of organisations have been involved in the research, including BG Research Ltd, the University of Westminster, Public Health England, Flurogenics Ltd, Diagnostic Systems Division and Virology Division of the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- At least one person is confirmed to have died of MVD and several hundred people may have been exposed to the virus at health facilities and at traditional burial ceremonies in Kween District, a mountainous area 300 kilometres northeast of Kampala. (who.int)
- ASF is an animal disease affecting only pigs with no human health implications. (oksenate.gov)
- The proximity of DRC to South Sudan exposes the population along the border areas at risks of contracting the Ebola Virus Diseases and any suspected case may trigger panic among the communities. (rodekruis.nl)
- 13. Glia maturation factor induces interleukin-33 release from astrocytes: implications for neurodegenerative diseases. (nih.gov)
- The CDC said there have been cases of the rare disease reported in Tanzania. (kristv.com)
- The only way to stop this disease is to depopulate all affected or exposed swine herds - meaning economic ruin for swine producers, if ASF is to hit the U.S. (oksenate.gov)
- At the time of the announcement, the disease, which has a fatality ratio of up to 88 per cent, had claimed five lives out of eight confirmed cases in Tanzania's western region of Kagera. (co.ke)
- The disease spreads very quickly and has an extremely high fatality rate for any pigs infected. (oksenate.gov)
- Biological Weapons (Bioweapons): a disease-causing agent that has a way to be delivered to target humans, plants, or animals. (effectivealtruism.org)
- In June 2005, the disease spread to the nearby Cadí National Hunting Reserve and private hunting areas ( Figure 1 ), triggering another episode of mass deaths that has lasted for ≈31 months. (cdc.gov)
- So, you're right that wild animals like raccoons will pay no attention to a national border. (cdc.gov)
- Should Governor Stitt order Oklahoma National Guard troops to the southern border to prevent potential spread of this virus, I would absolutely support that decision. (oksenate.gov)
- It then takes stock of efforts by the European Union and its Member States to work with partners in the region to address border security challenges and offers lessons learned from experiences to date. (ciaonet.org)
- 5. eNOS and iNOS trigger apoptosis in the brains of sheep and goats naturally infected with the border disease virus. (nih.gov)
- According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), ASF is a virus that affects both domestic and wild pigs. (oksenate.gov)
Spread of the disease1
- And the addition of new characters and the spread of the disease build the suspense to a fever pitch. (kobo.com)
- Since Guéckédou is relatively close to Sierra Leone and Liberia, the WHO is working with authorities to ensure the virus does not spread outside of Guinea. (borgenproject.org)
- It has tips on its website for travelers to prevent catching the virus. (kristv.com)
- Pest control is the number one way to prevent and manage sweet potato feathery mottle virus. (gardeningknowhow.com)
- So to prevent the virus from crossing the border, government agencies on both sides implemented oral vaccination campaigns for raccoons. (cdc.gov)