Toxicity to sea urchin egg development of the quinone fraction obtained from Auxemma oncocalyx. (1/34)Auxemma oncocalyx Taub. belongs to the Boraginaceae family and is native to the Brazilian northeast where it is known as "pau-branco". We investigated the ability of the water soluble fraction isolated from the heartwood of A. oncocalyx to inhibit sea urchin egg development. This fraction contains about 80% oncocalyxone A (quinone fraction), a compound known to possess strong cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In fact, the quinone fraction inhibited cleavage in a dose-dependent manner [IC50 of 18.4 (12.4-27.2) microg/ml, N = 6], and destroyed the embryos in the blastula stage [IC50 of 16.2 (13.7-19.2) microg/ml, N = 6]. We suggest that this activity is due to the presence of oncocalyxone A. In fact, these quinones present in A. oncocalyx extract have strong toxicity related to their antimitotic activity. (+info)
Cholinesterase inhibitory constituents from Onosma hispida. (2/34)Hispidone, a new flavanone, has been isolated from Onosma hispida and assigned the structure (2S)-5,2'-dihydroxy-7,4',5'-trimethoxyflavanone (1) by spectroscopic methods. In addition, (2S)-5,2'-dihydroxy-7,5'-dimethoxyflavanone (2), benzoic acid (3), and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4) are also reported for the first time from this species. (+info)
Antioxidant effects in the quinone fraction from Auxemma oncocalyx TAUB. (3/34)In previous studies in vitro we showed that the quinone fraction (QF) from the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx TAUB. presented antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. In the present work, the QF antioxidant property was evaluated in models of CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, and prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. Our results showed that levels of plasma glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT), as well as glutamate-oxalate-transaminase (GOT), were increased by the administration of CCl(4). On the other hand, only GPT levels were reduced by the QF treatment. Pentobarbital sleeping time was prolonged by the administration of CCl(4) and reduced by the QF treatment. Moreover, QF did not alter the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. In conclusion, we showed that QF, represented mainly by oncocalyxone A, has hepatoprotective activity, and this effect is at least in part due to the antioxidant activity of this quinone. (+info)
Anti-inflammatory cyathane diterpenoids from Sarcodon scabrosus. (4/34)Four novel diterpenoids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Sarcodon scabrosus (Fr.) Karst. (Boraginaceae) together with neosarcodonin A. One of the novel compounds was elucidated to be a cyathane diterpenoid, namely neosarcodonin O, by its spectral data. The others were characterized as 19-O-linoleoyl, 19-O-oleoyl and 19-O-stearoyl derivatives of sarcodonin A, after comparison with the authentic samples synthetically prepared from sarcodonin A. These compounds, together with the five 19-O-acyl derivatives synthesized from sarcodonin A, each exhibited inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation on mouse ears by topical application. (+info)
Molecular systematics of Boraginaceae tribe Boragineae based on ITS1 and trnL sequences, with special reference to Anchusa s.l. (5/34)BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Boragineae is one of the main tribes of Boraginaceae, but delimitation and intergeneric classification of this group are unclear and have not yet been studied using DNA sequences. In particular, phylogenetic relationships in Anchusa s.l. still need to be elucidated in order to assess its taxonomic boundaries with respect to the controversial segregate genera Hormuzakia, Gastrocotyle, Phyllocara and Cynoglottis. METHODS: Phylogenetic relationships among 51 taxa of tribe Boragineae were investigated by comparative sequencing of the trnL(UAA) intron of the plastid genome and of the ITS1 region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Exemplar taxa from 16 genera of Boragineae and all subgenera of Anchusa s.l. were included, along with two selected outgroups from tribes Lithospermeae and Cynoglosseae. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenies generated by maximum parsimony and combined ITS1-trnL sequences support the monophyly of the tribe and a split into two clades, Pentaglottis and the remainder of Boragineae. The latter contains two large monophyletic groups. The first consists of three moderately to well-supported branches, Borago-Symphytum, Pulmonaria-Nonea and Brunnera. In the Pulmonaria-Nonea subclade, the rare endemic Paraskevia cesatiana is sister to Pulmonaria, and Nonea appears to be paraphyletic with respect to Elizaldia. The second main group corresponds to the well-supported clade of Anchusa s.l., with the megaphyllic, polyploid herb Trachystemon orientalis as sister taxon, although with low support. Anchusa s.l. is highly paraphyletic to its segregate genera and falls into four subclades: (1) Phyllocara, Hormuzakia, Anchusa subgenus Buglossum and A. subgenus Buglossoides; (2) Gastrocotyle; (3) A. subgenus Buglossellum and Cynoglottis; and (4) A. subgenus Anchusa, Lycopsis and Anchusella. All species of Anchusa subg. Anchusa, including the South African A. capensis, are included in a single unresolved clade. Anchusa subgenus Limbata is also included here despite marked divergence in floral morphology. The low nucleotide variation of ITS1 suggests a recent partly adaptive radiation within this group. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular data show that nine of the usually accepted genera of the Boragineae consisting of two or more species are monophyletic: Anchusella, Borago, Brunnera, Cynoglottis, Gastrocotyle, Hormuzakia, Nonea, Pulmonaria and Symphytum. In addition, the tribe includes the four monotypic genera Paraskevia, Pentaglottis, Phyllocara and Trachystemon. The morphologically well-characterized segregate genera in Anchusa s.l. are all confirmed by DNA sequences and should be definitively accepted. Most of the traditionally recognized subgenera of Anchusa are also supported as monophyletic groups by both nuclear and plastid sequence data. In order to bring taxonomy in line with phylogeny, the institution of new, independent generic entities for subgenera Buglossum, Buglossellum and Buglossoides and a narrower but more natural concept of Anchusa are advocated. (+info)
Life history traits in selfing versus outcrossing annuals: exploring the 'time-limitation' hypothesis for the fitness benefit of self-pollination. (6/34)BACKGROUND: Most self-pollinating plants are annuals. According to the 'time-limitation' hypothesis, this association between selfing and the annual life cycle has evolved as a consequence of strong r-selection, involving severe time-limitation for completing the life cycle. Under this model, selection from frequent density-independent mortality in ephemeral habitats minimizes time to flower maturation, with selfing as a trade-off, and/or selection minimizes the time between flower maturation and ovule fertilization, in which case selfing has a direct fitness benefit. Predictions arising from this hypothesis were evaluated using phylogenetically-independent contrasts of several life history traits in predominantly selfing versus outcrossing annuals from a data base of 118 species distributed across 14 families. Data for life history traits specifically related to maturation and pollination times were obtained by monitoring the start and completion of different stages of reproductive development in a greenhouse study of selfing and outcrossing annuals from an unbiased sample of 25 species involving five pair-wise family comparisons and four pair-wise genus comparisons. RESULTS: Selfing annuals in general had significantly shorter plant heights, smaller flowers, shorter bud development times, shorter flower longevity and smaller seed sizes compared with their outcrossing annual relatives. Age at first flower did not differ significantly between selfing and outcrossing annuals. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first multi-species study to report these general life-history differences between selfers and outcrossers among annuals exclusively. The results are all explained more parsimoniously by selection associated with time-limitation than by selection associated with pollinator/mate limitation. The shorter bud development time reported here for selfing annuals is predicted explicitly by the time-limitation hypothesis for the fitness benefit of selfing (and not by the alternative 'reproductive assurance' hypothesis associated with pollinator/mate limitation). Support for the time-limitation hypothesis is also evident from published surveys: whereas selfers and outcrossers are about equally represented among annual species as a whole, selfers occur in much higher frequencies among the annual species found in two of the most severely time-limited habitats where flowering plants grow--deserts and cultivated habitats. (+info)
Isolation of onosmins A and B, lipoxygenase inhibitors from Onosma hispida. (7/34)Onosmins A (1) and B (2), lipoxygenase inhibitors, have been isolated from Onosma hispida. Their structures were established as 2-[(4-methylbenzyl)amino]benzoic acid (1) and methyl 2-[(4-methylbenzyl)amino]benzoate (2) through spectroscopic studies, including 2D-NMR. The known compounds apigenin (3), 6,4'-dimethoxy-3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone (4), 6,7-dimethoxy-3,5,4'-trihydroxyflavone (5) and apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside (6) are also reported for the first time from this species. Compounds (1) and (2) inhibited lipoxygenase (LOX, EC 220.127.116.11) enzyme in a concentration-dependent fashion with IC50 values of 24.0 and 36.2 microM, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk as well as Dixon plots and their secondary replots indicated that the nature of inhibition was purely a non-competitive type, with K(i) values 22.0 microM and 31.1, respectively. (+info)
Phenyl polypropanoids from Lindelofia stylosa. (8/34)A phytochemical investigation on the aerial parts of Lindelofia stylosa has resulted in the isolation of seven phenyl propanoids. This includes three analogs of lithospermic acid, along with rosmarinic acid and its ester derivatives. Compound 1 was identified as a new natural product. These compounds were studied for their antioxidant properties. (+info)
Boraginaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 4,000 species. Some common examples of plants in this family include borage, Echium, and forget-me-nots. In the medical field, some species of Boraginaceae have been used for their medicinal properties. For example, borage oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the borage plant, has been used to treat a variety of conditions, including eczema, psoriasis, and arthritis. Some species of Boraginaceae have also been used to treat digestive issues, such as indigestion and stomach pain. However, it is important to note that the use of plants for medicinal purposes should always be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as some species of Boraginaceae can be toxic if ingested in large quantities or if used improperly.
Borago is a genus of flowering plants in the borage family, Boraginaceae. Some species of Borago are commonly used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including as a diuretic, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory. One of the most well-known species in the Borago genus is Borago officinalis, commonly known as borage. Borage is a herbaceous annual plant that is native to the Mediterranean region but is now widely cultivated in many parts of the world. The leaves, flowers, and seeds of borage are all used in traditional medicine. Borage leaves are often used to make tea, which is believed to have diuretic and expectorant properties. The tea is also used to treat respiratory conditions such as bronchitis and asthma. Borage flowers are used to make a tincture, which is believed to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The tincture is used to treat conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism. Borage seeds are used to make a oil, which is believed to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The oil is used topically to treat conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and acne. It is also used internally to treat digestive disorders such as indigestion and constipation. It is important to note that the use of Borago species in traditional medicine should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as some species may have potential side effects or interact with other medications.
Copyright in the medical field refers to the legal protection given to original works of authorship in the field of medicine, such as research articles, case reports, textbooks, and software programs. Copyright protection gives the creator of the work exclusive rights to reproduce, distribute, display, and perform the work, as well as to create derivative works based on the original work. In the medical field, copyright protection is important because it encourages the creation and dissemination of new knowledge and information. It also helps to ensure that the creators of medical works are fairly compensated for their efforts. However, it is important to note that copyright protection does not extend to ideas, procedures, processes, or techniques that are necessary for the practice of medicine. Only the specific expression of those ideas, procedures, processes, or techniques can be protected by copyright.
Computer security in the medical field refers to the measures taken to protect electronic health records (EHRs) and other sensitive medical information from unauthorized access, theft, or damage. It involves the use of various technologies, policies, and procedures to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of medical data. Some of the key components of computer security in the medical field include: 1. Access control: This involves limiting access to medical data to authorized personnel only, and ensuring that each user has the appropriate level of access to the information they need to perform their job. 2. Encryption: This involves converting sensitive medical data into a code that can only be deciphered by authorized users with the proper decryption key. 3. Firewalls: These are security systems that monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic, preventing unauthorized access to medical data. 4. Antivirus and anti-malware software: These tools help protect against viruses, malware, and other types of malicious software that can compromise the security of medical data. 5. Regular backups: This involves creating regular backups of medical data to ensure that it can be restored in the event of a data breach or other disaster. Overall, computer security in the medical field is critical to protecting the privacy and security of patient information, and to ensuring that medical professionals can access the information they need to provide high-quality care.
In the medical field, confidentiality refers to the principle that healthcare providers must keep their patients' personal and medical information private and secure. This means that healthcare providers are legally and ethically bound to protect their patients' privacy and to not disclose their personal or medical information to anyone without their explicit consent, except in certain circumstances where disclosure is required by law or is necessary to protect the patient or others. Confidentiality is an essential aspect of the doctor-patient relationship, as it allows patients to feel comfortable discussing their health concerns and seeking medical treatment without fear of their information being shared with others. It also helps to maintain trust between patients and healthcare providers, which is crucial for effective healthcare. To ensure confidentiality, healthcare providers must take appropriate measures to safeguard their patients' personal and medical information, such as using secure electronic health records, limiting access to patient information to authorized personnel only, and obtaining informed consent from patients before sharing their information with others.
Naphthoquinones are a class of organic compounds that contain a naphthalene ring with a quinone group. They are commonly found in plants and have a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. In the medical field, naphthoquinones are being studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and infectious diseases. Some naphthoquinones, such as plumbagin and lawsone, have shown promising results in preclinical studies and are being investigated for their therapeutic potential. However, more research is needed to fully understand the safety and efficacy of naphthoquinones as a treatment for human diseases.
In the medical field, parabens are a class of preservatives that are commonly used in a variety of products, including personal care products such as shampoos, lotions, and cosmetics. Parabens are synthetic esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which are effective at inhibiting the growth of bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Parabens are used in medical products such as topical creams, ointments, and gels to prevent the growth of microorganisms and extend the shelf life of the product. They are also used in some pharmaceutical products to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi that can cause infections. However, there has been some concern in recent years about the potential health effects of parabens. Some studies have suggested that parabens may mimic the hormone estrogen in the body, which could potentially lead to reproductive problems, breast cancer, and other health issues. As a result, some medical professionals and consumers have chosen to avoid products containing parabens or to use alternative preservatives.
Myosotis australis subsp. saruwagedica
List of euasterid families
Myosotis australis subsp. australis
APG III system
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Myosotis traversii subsp. cantabrica
Basal leaves - pictures of Plagiobothrys Tenellus, Boraginaceae - wildflowers of West USA
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Southwest Colorado Wildflowers, Blue Thumbnails Boraginaceae -Brassicaceae
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Rubladfamilien (Boraginaceae) - Artsliste med billeder - Naturbasen
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - The University of Texas at Austin
The first record of Thyrocarpus glochidiatus (Boraginaceae) in Korea
Pulmonaria (Comfrey, Lungwort) - 8 images at images, phylogeny, nomenclature for Pulmonaria (Boraginaceae)
Onosma shehbazii (Boraginaceae), a new species from the Hawraman Mountains in the west of Iran
Lithospermum multiflorum Manyflowered Gromwell, Manyflowered stoneseed PFAF Plant Database
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Nonea macropoda Popov - The Plant List
Echinospermum strictum | International Plant Names Index
Specimen Details - The William & Lynda Steere Herbarium
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Echium Plantagineum Seeds (30+ seeds) (Echium lycopsis. Purple Viper's Bugloss, Salvation Jane, Blueweed, Lady Campbell Weed,...
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- Cordia mollissima is a species of in the family Boraginaceae . (eol.org)
- Grupo de ALCALOIDES caracterizados por una necina que contiene nitrógeno, que se encuentran principalmente en las familias de plantas BORAGINACEAE, COMPOSITAE y FABACEAE. (bvsalud.org)
- Attar, F., Sotoodeh, A. & Mirtadzadini, M. 2020: Four new species in subsection Asterotricha for the genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) from the flora of Iran. (agrijournals.ir)
- Onosma hawramanensis (Boraginaceae), a new record for the flora of Iran. (agrijournals.ir)
- Your search found 25 taxa in the family Boraginaceae, Borage family, as understood by PLANTS National Database. (namethatplant.net)
- Rólna njezapomnička ( Myosotis arvensis ) je družina ze swójby wódrakowych rostlinow ( Boraginaceae ). (wikipedia.org)
- Lasiocarpine is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that is found in the seeds of Heliotropium lasiocarpum, Heliotropium europaeum, and several other plant species, all members of the family Boraginaceae. (nih.gov)
- It is discovered in many plants, like those of the Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae families. (frontiersin.org)