An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.

Induction of apoptosis by valinomycin: mitochondrial permeability transition causes intracellular acidification. (1/100)

In order to determine whether disruption of mitochondrial function could trigger apoptosis in murine haematopoietic cells, we used the potassium ionophore valinomycin. Valinomycin induces apoptosis in the murine pre-B cell line BAF3, which cannot be inhibited by interleukin-3 addition or Bcl-2 over-expression. Valinomycin triggers rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This precedes cytoplasmic acidification, which leads to cysteine-active-site protease activation, DNA fragmentation and cell death. Bongkrekic acid, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition, prevents acidification and subsequent induction of apoptosis by valinomycin.  (+info)

Death signals from the B cell antigen receptor target mitochondria, activating necrotic and apoptotic death cascades in a murine B cell line, WEHI-231. (2/100)

B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated cell death has been proposed as a mechanism for purging the immune repertoire of anti-self specificities during B cell differentiation in bone marrow. Mitochondrial alterations and activation of caspases are required for certain aspects of apoptotic cell death, but how the mitochondria and caspases contribute to BCR-mediated cell death is not well understood. In the present study, we used the mouse WEHI-231 B cell line to demonstrate that mitochondrial alterations and activation of caspases are indeed participants in BCR-mediated cell death. The peptide inhibitor of caspases, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), blocked cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and various manifestation of nuclear apoptosis such as nuclear fragmentation, hypodiploidy and DNA fragmentation, indicating that signals from the BCR induced the activation of caspases. In addition, z-VAD-fmk delayed apoptosis-associated changes in cellular reduction-oxidation potentials as determined by hypergeneration of superoxide anion, as well as exposure of phosphatidylserine residues in the outer plasma membrane. By contrast, although z-VAD-fmk retarded cytolysis, it was incapable of preventing disruption of the plasma membrane even under the same condition in which it completely blocked nuclear apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss was also not blocked by z-VAD-fmk. Bongkrekic acid, a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, suppressed not only the mitochondrial membrane potential but also the change of plasma membrane permeability. Overexpression of Bcl-xL prevented mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear apoptosis and membrane permeability cell death triggered by BCR signal transduction. These observations indicate that death signals from BCR may first cause mitochondrial alterations followed by activation of both necrotic and apoptotic cascades.  (+info)

Over-expression of Bcl-2 does not protect cells from hypericin photo-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, but delays subsequent events in the apoptotic pathway. (3/100)

Hypericin (HY) is a powerful photo-inducer of apoptosis in Jurkat cells as measured by caspase-3 activation, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the appearance of hypoploid DNA. These processes are preceded by rapid Bcl-2-independent mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization and a drop in cytoplasmic pH. Pre-incubation of cells with inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, such as cyclosporin A or bongkrekic acid, does not protect cells from mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsim) decrease. However, monitoring of mitochondrial entrapped calcein by confocal fluorescence imaging gives clear evidence of HY photo-induced mitochondrial permeability. This should be considered as the result of a non-specific alteration of mitochondrial membrane integrity brought about by lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, synthesis of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 appears to delay the subsequent time course of PS exposure and to reduce caspase-3 activation and the fraction of cells which become hypoploid. We interpret this partially protective effect as the consequence of a direct interaction of Bcl-2 with cytosolic cytochrome c previously released from mitochondria upon deltapsim decrease and/or of Bcl-2 inhibition of the deleterious retro-effect of caspase-3 on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and/or the mitochondrial membrane components.  (+info)

Antibody evidence for different conformational states of ADP, ATP translocator protein isolated from mitochondria. (4/100)

Consistent with the previously proposed reorientation mechanism for the ADP,ATP translocator protein of mitochondria, evidence has now been obtained for the existence of two distinct conformational states of the isolated translocator protein. Previous studies indicated that when the mitochondrial translocator protein is in the c-state(i.e., when its binding site faces the cytosol side) the protein binds primarily the ligand carboxyatractylate (CAT), and when the translocator protein is in the m-state(i.e., when its binding site faces the mitochondrial matrix) the translocator protein binds primarily bongkrekate. Direct evidence for this formulation has now come from the application of antibodies to the isolated translocator protein-ligand complex. Two antibodies were produced against the ADP,ATP translocator protein isolated from beef heart mitochondria. One antibody, which was produced against the protein isolated as the CAT-binding protein complex, was found to be highly specific for that complex and did not react with the protein in the conformation state conferred by the bongkrekate ligand. This antibody did not cover the CAT-binding site, as evidenced by the exchange of unlabeled CAT with [35S]CAT bound to the translocator protein. However, the same antibody inhibited a transition of the protein from the c-state to the m-state, as evidenced by an inhibition of the displacement of[35S]CAT by bongkrekate (added jointly with ADP). It appears, therefore, that the antibody immobilized the translocator protein in the c-state. The second antibody produced against the (somewhat less pure) ADP,ATP translocator protein, isolated as the bongkrekate-binding protein complex, did not react with the CAT-binding protein. Thus, the second antibody appeared to be specific for the translocator protein in the m-state. Neither antibody inhibited mitochondrial ADP,ATP transport.  (+info)

Mitochondrial and extramitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways in cerebrocortical neurons. (5/100)

In cultured cerebrocortical neurons, mild excitotoxic insults or staurosporine result in apoptosis. We show here that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated, but not staurosporine-mediated, apoptosis is preceded by depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) and ATP loss. Both insults, however, release cytochrome c (Cyt c) into the cytoplasm. What prompts mitochondria to release Cyt c and the mechanism of release are as yet unknown. We examined the effect of inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), a putative component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Inhibition of the mitochondrial ANT with bongkrekic acid (BA) prevented NMDA receptor-mediated apoptosis of cerebrocortical neurons. Concomitantly, BA prevented Deltapsi(m) depolarization, promoted recovery of cellular ATP content, and blocked caspase-3 activation. However, in the presence of BA, Cyt c was still released. Because BA prevented NMDA-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, the presence of Cyt c in the neuronal cytoplasm is not sufficient for the induction of caspase activity or apoptosis. In contrast to these findings, BA was ineffective in preventing staurosporine-induced activation of caspases or apoptosis. Additionally, staurosporine-induced, but not NMDA-induced, apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-8. These results indicate that, in cerebrocortical cultures, excessive NMDA receptor activation precipitates neuronal apoptosis by means of mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas staurosporine utilizes a distinct pathway.  (+info)

Mitochondrial amplification of death signals determines thymidine kinase/ganciclovir-triggered activation of apoptosis. (6/100)

Previous clinical experience shows that the efficacy of suicide gene transfer in tumor therapy is limited, resulting from inefficient gene transfer or alternatively, from intrinsic resistance of the tumor in vivo. Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV), a paradigmatic suicide gene therapy system, has been described to exert its cytotoxic effect, at least in part, by inducing apoptosis in target cells. Here, we report that mitochondria amplify TK/GCV-induced apoptosis by regulating p53 accumulation and the effector phase of apoptosis. Treatment with TK/GCV led to mitochondrial perturbations including loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, inducing caspase activation and nuclear fragmentation. Inhibition of TK/GCV-induced mitochondrial perturbations by Bcl-2 overexpression or by the mitochondrion-specific inhibitor bongkrekic acid also strongly inhibited TK/GCV-induced activation of caspases and apoptosis. TK/GCV-induced mitochondrial perturbations depended on caspase activity possibly initiated by death receptor signaling. Perturbation of mitochondrial function mediated accumulation of wild-type p53 protein, since Bcl-2 overexpression, bongkrekic acid, or inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis with chloramphenicol strongly reduced TK/GCV-induced accumulation of wild-type p53 protein. These findings suggest that TK/GCV therapy may be less efficient in tumors in which the mitochondrial amplification of TK/GCV-induced apoptosis is blocked, e.g., by Bcl-2 overexpression. Given the low efficacy of currently used gene therapy systems, our data on molecular mechanisms that regulate sensitivity or resistance toward TK/GCV-induced cytotoxicity might have important implications to improve the clinical application of suicide gene therapy.  (+info)

BNIP3 and genetic control of necrosis-like cell death through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (7/100)

Many apoptotic signaling pathways are directed to mitochondria, where they initiate the release of apoptogenic proteins and open the proposed mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pore that ultimately results in the activation of the caspase proteases responsible for cell disassembly. BNIP3 (formerly NIP3) is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is expressed in mitochondria and induces apoptosis without a functional BH3 domain. We report that endogenous BNIP3 is loosely associated with mitochondrial membrane in normal tissue but fully integrates into the mitochondrial outer membrane with the N terminus in the cytoplasm and the C terminus in the membrane during induction of cell death. Surprisingly, BNIP3-mediated cell death is independent of Apaf-1, caspase activation, cytochrome c release, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. However, cells transfected with BNIP3 exhibit early plasma membrane permeability, mitochondrial damage, extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation, and mitochondrial autophagy, yielding a morphotype that is typical of necrosis. These changes were accompanied by rapid and profound mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by opening of the mitochondrial PT pore, proton electrochemical gradient (Deltapsim) suppression, and increased reactive oxygen species production. The PT pore inhibitors cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid blocked mitochondrial dysregulation and cell death. We propose that BNIP3 is a gene that mediates a necrosis-like cell death through PT pore opening and mitochondrial dysfunction.  (+info)

Bcl-2 independence of flavopiridol-induced apoptosis. Mitochondrial depolarization in the absence of cytochrome c release. (8/100)

The new chemotherapeutic agent, flavopiridol, presently in clinical trials, has been extensively studied yet little is known about its mechanism of action. In this study we show that the induction of apoptosis by flavopiridol is largely independent of Bcl-2. This is indicated by the observation that neither overexpression nor the antisense oligonucleotide-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-2 had any effect on flavopiridol-induced cell killing. Our results suggest that flavopiridol can induce apoptosis through different pathways of caspase activation with caspase 8 playing a pivotal role. In human lung carcinoma cells, which contain high levels of endogenous Bcl-2 and lack procaspase 8, flavopiridol treatment leads to mitochondrial depolarization in the absence of cytochrome c release, followed by the activation of caspase 3 and cell death. These results clearly differ from observations made with other anti-tumor drugs and might explain, at least in part, the unusual anti-tumor properties of flavopiridol.  (+info)

Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. We designed and synthesized simplified benzene-ring-containing BKA analogs. The key reaction is the one-pot double Sonogashira reaction, which forms the main skeleton. The analogs were efficiently synthesized in 8-10 longest linear sequence steps. This synth ...
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This is the first Hoodia product I have ever bought, and I was skeptical to try it, but it has been working GREAT! I have been taking it for about two weeks, and in the last week I have lost about a pound a day! I have just been trying to lose like 12 pounds for the last year, but I have not been able to do it. I eat healthily and exercise, but I just never feel full, so I guess I eat too much in one sitting. The Hoodia helped me eat less and then not feel like Im starving. I count my calories too, and one day I ate less than 1000 calories and felt fine. Its good stuff, and I am so glad that I found it. If you have will power, (because you can still eat if you want to) this product is awesome. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I have found this Hoodia to work well when other brands I tried did not. My trainer at the gym recommended hoodia in general but not a paticular brand. She said that some brands work better than others. This is my ...
Mitochondrial carriers are believed widely to be homodimers both in the inner membrane of the organelle and in detergents. The dimensions and molecular masses of the detergent and protein-detergent micelles were measured for yeast ADP/ATP carriers in a range of different detergents. The radius of the carrier at the midpoint of the membrane, its average radius, its Stokes radius, its molecular mass, and its excluded volume were determined. These parameters are consistent with the known structural model of the bovine ADP/ATP carrier and they demonstrate that the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers are monomeric in detergents. Therefore, models of substrate transport have to be considered in which the carrier operates as a monomer rather than as a dimer.. ...
The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. The carrier cycles by an unresolved mechanism between the cytoplasmic state, in which the carrier accepts ADP from the cytoplasm, and the matrix state, in which it accepts ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. Here we present the structures of the yeast ADP/ATP carriers Aac2p and Aac3p in the cytoplasmic state. The carriers have three domains and are closed at the matrix side by three interdomain salt-bridge interactions, one of which is braced by a glutamine residue. Glutamine braces are conserved in mitochondrial carriers and contribute to an energy barrier, preventing the conversion to the matrix state unless substrate binding occurs. At the cytoplasmic side a second salt-bridge network forms during the transport cycle, as demonstrated by functional analysis of mutants with charge-reversed networks. Analyses of the domain structures and properties of the interdomain interfaces indicate ...
Synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator. 1 synonym for adenine: A. What are synonyms for Adenine nucleotide translocator?
Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
Rabbit polyclonal Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 antibody validated for WB, IP and tested in Human. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mitochondrial permeability transition from yeast to mammals. AU - Azzolin, Luca. AU - von Stockum, Sophia. AU - Basso, Emy. AU - Petronilli, Valeria. AU - Forte, Michael A.. AU - Bernardi, Paolo. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Regulated permeability changes have been detected in mitochondria across species. We review here their key features, with the goal of assessing whether a permeability transition similar to that observed in higher eukaryotes is present in other species. The recent discoveries (i) that treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA) unmasks an inhibitory site for inorganic phosphate (Pi) [Basso, E., Petronilli, V., Forte, M.A. and Bernardi, P. (2008) Phosphate is essential for inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by cyclosporin A and by cyclophilin D ablation. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 26307-26311], the classical inhibitor of the permeability transition of yeast and (ii) that under proper experimental conditions a matrix Ca2+-dependence can be ...
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D distinguishes nigrostriatal dopaminergic death paradigms in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinsons disease Academic Article ...
Slc25a4 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4 (cDNA clone, (10ug), 10 µg.
Slc25a13 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, adenine nucleotide translocator), member 13 (Slc25a13), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, (10ug), 10 µg.
Activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) clearly plays a key role in some of the most wide-spread and therapeutically challenging huma...
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Brain tumor news: Apoptosis Therapy in Cancer: The First Single-molecule Co-activating p53 and the Translocator Protein in Glioblastoma.
Graham BH et al. (1997) A mouse model for mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy resulting from a deficiency in the heart/muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator.. [^] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mitochondrial permeability transition from in vitro artifact to disease target. AU - Bernardi, Paolo. AU - Krauskopf, Alexandra. AU - Basso, Emy. AU - Petronilli, Valeria. AU - Blalchy-Dyson, Elizabeth. AU - Di Lisa, Fabio. AU - Forte, Michael. PY - 2006/5. Y1 - 2006/5. N2 - The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a high conductance channel whose opening leads to an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to ≈1500 Da. In this review we trace the rise of the permeability transition pore from the status of in vitro artifact to that of effector mechanism of cell death. We then cover recent results based on genetic inactivation of putative permeability transition pore components, and discuss their meaning for our understanding of pore structure. Finally, we discuss evidence indicating that the permeability transition pore plays a role in pathophysiology, with specific emphasis on in vivo models of disease.. AB - The ...
Objective: A mechanism of mitochondrial injury during ischemia/reperfusion is Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). We examined whether cyclosporine A (CsA), an mPTP inhibitor, could benefit resuscitation in a rat model of cardiac arrest. We also assessed whether CsA prevents Ca2+ mediated mPTP opening in isolated mitochondria using a swelling assay.. Methods: VF was induced and left untreated for 10 mins. Resuscitation was attempted by 8 mins of chest compression and defibrillation, observing the rats for 360 mins post-resuscitation (PR). Rats were randomized to receive 10 mg/kg CsA (n=6) or vehicle (n=3) before inducing VF or 10 mg/kg CsA (n=6) or vehicle (n=3) before starting chest compression. CsA treated and vehicle treated subgroups were pooled for the analysis. Four rats not subjected to cardiac arrest served as sham. Mitochondrial NAD+ levels in hearts harvested after the PR interval served as indirect marker of mPTP opening. Mitochondria isolated ...
Cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction is the initial myocardial hypertrophic response which follows myocardial injury and the eventual evolution to...
SLC25A31 antibody (solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLC25A31 pAb (GTX87816) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) in nitric oxide (NO)-induced plant cell death. NO donors such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine inhibited growth and caused death in suspension-cultured cells of Citrus sinensis. Cells treated with SNP showed chromatin condensation and fragmentation, characteristic of apoptosis. SNP caused loss of the mitochondrial membrane electrical potential, which was prevented by cyclosporin A (CsA), a specific inhibitor of PTP formation. CsA also prevented the nuclear apoptosis and subsequent Citrus cell death induced by NO. These findings indicate that mitochondrial PTP formation is involved in the signaling pathway by which NO induces apoptosis in cultured Citrus cells. (C) 2002 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
Astrocytes extend highly branched processes that form functionally isolated microdomains, facilitating local homeostasis by redistributing ions, removing neurotransmitters, and releasing factors to influence blood flow and neuronal activity. Microdomains exhibit spontaneous increases in calcium (Ca2+), but the mechanisms and functional significance of this localized signaling are unknown. By developing conditional, membrane-anchored GCaMP3 mice, we found that microdomain activity that occurs in the absence of inositol triphosphate (IP3)-dependent release from endoplasmic reticulum arises through Ca2+ efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. These microdomain Ca2+ transients were facilitated by the production of reactive oxygen species during oxidative phosphorylation and were enhanced by expression of a mutant form of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 G93A) that causes astrocyte dysfunction and neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ...
Atractyloside (ATR) is a natural, toxic glycoside and an effective ADP/ATP translocase inhibitor. Atractyloside is synthesized by some plant species in the daisy family e.g. Callilepis laureola, Xanthium strumarium, Iphiona alsoeri, and Pascalia glauca. The poisonous effect of the distaff thistle (and by extension atractyloside) is well documented in history. The plant growing in the Mediterranean region was often used for suicide or murder. Examples of accidental poisoning are documented in Italy and Algeria in 1955 and 1975 respectively, where children have eaten parts of the plant. Although Ed Lefranc[who?] isolated Atractyloside in 1868 from Atractylis gummifera, the structure was identified 100 years later. Atractyloside is a hydrophilic glycoside. A modified glucose is linked to the hydrophobic diterpene atractyligenin by a β1-glycosidic bond. A carboxyl group is positioned at the C4 position in the axial position. The glucose part is esterified with isovaleric acid on the C2 atom, and ...
Cyclophilin-D is a peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase of the mitochondrial matrix. It is involved in mitochondrial permeability transition, in which the adenine nucleotide translocase of the inner membrane is transformed from an antiporter to a non-selective pore. The permeability transition has bee …
Mitochondria play an important role in energy production, Ca2+ homeostasis and cell death. In recent years, the role of the mitochondria in apoptotic and necrotic cell death has attracted much attention. In apoptosis and necrosis, the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), which leads to disru …
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van der Doef TF, de Witte LD, Sutterland AL, Jobse E, Yaqub M, Boellaard R, de Haan L, Eriksson J, Lammertsma AA, Kahn RS, van Berckel BNM, In vivo (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 PET imaging of 18kDa translocator protein in recent onset psychosis. NPJ SCHIZOPHR 2016;2:16031 [PubMed] ...
Shindo, Mitsuru; Sugioka, Tomoyuki; Umaba, Yuko; Shishido, Kozo (2004). "Total synthesis of (+)-bongkrekic acid". Tetrahedron ... Carboxylic acid derivatives, acetals, thioacetals, amines, alcohols, and isolated double bonds are all inert to Al/Hg. ... Protonation of the organotin intermediates thus formed (by sulfinic acid generated in situ) leads to reduced products. Addition ... Total synthesis of (±)-subergorgic acid". Tetrahedron Letters. 31 (38): 5429. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)97864-X. Vedejs, E.; ...
... bongkrekic acid and alisporivir (also known as Debio-025). TRO40303 is a newly synthetitised MPT blocker developed by Trophos ... Other factors that increase the likelihood that the MPTP will be induced include the presence of certain fatty acids, and ...
... (also known as bongkrekic acid) is a respiratory toxin produced in fermented coconut or corn contaminated by the ... The structure of bongkrekic acid bound to ADP/ATP translocase was solved in 2019, demonstrating that it binds to the substrate ... Garcia, R. A.; Hotchkiss, J. H.; Steinkraus, K. H. (1999). "The Effect of Lipids on Bongkrekic (Bongkrek) Acid Toxin Production ... Henderson, P. J. F.; Lardy, H. A. (1970). "Bongkrekic Acid: An Inhibitor of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase of Mitochondria" ( ...
Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine ...
Buy Bongkrekic acid (CAS 11076-19-0), an apoptosis inhibitor through prevention of PARP cleavage, from Santa Cruz. Purity: ≥98 ... Bongkrekic acid (CAS 11076-19-0) Bongkrekic acid , CAS 11076-19-0 is rated 5.0 out of 5 by 1. ... Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker that acts as an inhibitory ligand of the mitochondrial ... PubMed ID 15063741) used bongkrekic acid to inhibit mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase 3 (ANT3)-mediated apoptosis in ...
... and Inhibition by Bongkrekic Acid and Adenosine Diphosphate. MUTHANNA H. AL-SHAIKHALY, HAROLD BAUM ... and Inhibition by Bongkrekic Acid and Adenosine Diphosphate Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... and Inhibition by Bongkrekic Acid and Adenosine Diphosphate ... and Inhibition by Bongkrekic Acid and Adenosine Diphosphate ...
Bongkrek acid (also known as bongkrekic acid) is a respiratory toxin produced in fermented coconut or corn contaminated by the ... The structure of bongkrekic acid bound to ADP/ATP translocase was solved in 2019, demonstrating that it binds to the substrate ... Garcia, R. A.; Hotchkiss, J. H.; Steinkraus, K. H. (1999). "The Effect of Lipids on Bongkrekic (Bongkrek) Acid Toxin Production ... Henderson, P. J. F.; Lardy, H. A. (1970). "Bongkrekic Acid: An Inhibitor of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase of Mitochondria" ( ...
Shindo, Mitsuru; Sugioka, Tomoyuki; Umaba, Yuko; Shishido, Kozo (2004). "Total synthesis of (+)-bongkrekic acid". Tetrahedron ... Carboxylic acid derivatives, acetals, thioacetals, amines, alcohols, and isolated double bonds are all inert to Al/Hg. ... Protonation of the organotin intermediates thus formed (by sulfinic acid generated in situ) leads to reduced products. Addition ... Total synthesis of (±)-subergorgic acid". Tetrahedron Letters. 31 (38): 5429. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)97864-X. Vedejs, E.; ...
Bongkrekic acid has to cross the mitochondrial inner membrane to produce its inhibitory effect on ADP/ATP transport. - ... Bongkrekic acid specific ligand for mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) rather than the electron transport chain ... Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial toxin secreted by the bacteria Pseudomonas cocovenenans. ... Bongkrekic acid Cat. No.: HY-136406 Data Sheet Handling Instructions Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial toxin secreted by the ...
McGivan (1992) Amino acid transport in mitochondria. In: Kilberg MS, Häussinger D (eds) Mammalian amino acid transport. Plenum ... bongkrekic acid. CAC. carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier. CATR. carboxyatractyloside. CoA. coenzyme A. CIC. citrate carrier ... Aquila H, Misra D, Eulitz M, Klingenberg M (1982) Complete amino acid sequence of the ADP/ATP carrier from beef heart ... since their polypeptide chains consist of three tandemly related sequences of about 100 amino acids, and the repeats of the ...
Bongkrekic acid as a warburg effect modulator in long-term estradiol-deprived mcf-7 breast cancer cells. Anticancer research. ... Bongkrekic acid as a warburg effect modulator in long-term estradiol-deprived mcf-7 breast cancer cells. In: Anticancer ... Bongkrekic acid as a warburg effect modulator in long-term estradiol-deprived mcf-7 breast cancer cells. / Takeda, Shuso; ... Takeda, S, Okazaki, H, Kudo, T, Kakizoe, K, Himeno, T, Matsumoto, K, Shindo, M & Aramaki, H 2016, Bongkrekic acid as a warburg ...
Effect of bongkrekic acid. J Cell Biol 56: 65-73, 1973. OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ... alone or with fatty acids (0.5 mmol/l palmitic acid, 0.5 mmol/l palmitoleic acid, or a mixture of 0.25 mmol/l or 0.5 mmol/l ... C for palmitic acid) compared with unsaturated fatty acids (0.5°C for palmitoleic acid). Consequently, triacylglycerols ... 0.05 for the difference between palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid or fatty acid mixture. ...
... bongkrekic acid) that inhibits pore opening [14]. CAT and BKA are known to induce two quite distinct conformation of the ANT. ... The MPTP is potently inhibited by low pH, and thus only as the pH returns to normal through the loss of lactic acid and the ... Fatty acid oxidation is known to be detrimental to heart function during reperfusion [35]. ... adenine nucleotide depletion and the build-up of lactic acid, with a consequent drop in intracellular pH. In an attempt to ...
... bongkrekic acid; BAPTA/AM, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid; CsA, cyclosporin A; CsH, cyclosporin H; ...
... bongkrekic acid + methyl jasmonate (BA + MJ)-treated (•) and bongkrekic acid + cyclosporine A + methyl jasmonate (BA + CSA + MJ ... Cyclosporine A (CSA) at 10 μmol/L and/or bongkrekic acid (BA) at 50 μmol/L were added 15 minutes before the addition of methyl ... Cyclosporine A and bongkrekic acid prevented the effect of methyl jasmonate ( Fig. 3B). In contrast, methyl jasmonate and ... Methyl jasmonate at 1 mmol/L, with or without cyclosporine A (0.25 μmol/L) and/or bongkrekic acid (50 μmol/L) was added for 24 ...
For studies using cyclosporin A (CsA; 1 μmol/L) or bongkrekic acid (BA; 50 μmol/L), cells were pretreated before 17AAG/DCA ... and the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in hepatocytes and fibroblasts. DCA and 17AAG interacted in a greater than ... Bile acid regulation of C/EBPβ, CREB, and c-Jun function, via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal ... Bile acids enhance the activity of the insulin receptor and glycogen synthase in primary rodent hepatocytes. Hepatology 2004;39 ...
For studies using cyclosporin A (CsA; 1 μmol/L) or bongkrekic acid (BA; 50 μmol/L), cells were pretreated before 17AAG/DCA ... 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin enhances the lethality of deoxycholic acid in primary rodent hepatocytes and established ... 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin enhances the lethality of deoxycholic acid in primary rodent hepatocytes and established ... 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin enhances the lethality of deoxycholic acid in primary rodent hepatocytes and established ...
Bongkrekic acid partially prevented the effects of DEM on mitochondrial permeability but was unable to prevent the induction of ... Mitochondrial permeability was measured using DiOC6 and stabilized using bongkrekic acid. Results: DEM and diamide induced ...
Finally, both bongkrekic acid and NAC significantly reduced spontaneous Ca(2+) wave occurrences under PC. Altogether, these ... Inhibition of ANT by bongkrekic acid (20 μM) prevented PC-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In addition, PC increased type ... Long chain fatty acids bind to carnitine and form long chain acyl carnitine (LCAC), to enter into the mitochondria. They are ...
Toxic levels of bongkrekic acid (BA) were detected in the suspect pombe but not in the control pombe. Burkholderia gladioli ... Description of a mass poisoning in a rural district in Mozambique: The first documented bongkrekic acid poisoning in Africa ... and nucleic acid-based carbapenemase detection tests that identify carbapenemase activity directly or their associated ...
Sulfate and phosphate are also transported using an antiport mechanism (Todisco et al. 2014). Inhibited by bongkrekic acid. ... The mitochondrial basic amino acid transporter, in mBAC1 (transports the basic L-amino acids arginine, lysine, ornithine, and ... Basic amino acid carrier2, BAC2 of 296 aas and 6 TMSs. This hyperosmotic stress-inducible porter transports proline in addition ... The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis ...
Journal Article] Bongkrekic Acid Analogue, Lacking One of the Carboxylic Groups of its Parent Compound, Shows Moderate but pH- ... Journal Article] Efficient Total Synthesis of Bongkrekic Acid and Apoptosis Inhibitory Activity of its Analogues2015. *. Author ...
Bongkrekic Acid B-1053 Starting at $229.50 Options. 100 ug $229.50. Add to Cart ...
The presence of cyclosporin A, ADP, bongkrekic acid, N-ethylmaleimide and dithioerythritol pre … ... The presence of cyclosporin A, ADP, bongkrekic acid, N-ethylmaleimide and dithioerythritol prevent these effects, indicating ...
ADP and bongkrekic acid) (Brustovetsky et al., 2002). However, the occurrence of an in vivo MPTP in N. crassa mitochondria was ... Bcl-2 protects against apoptosis induced by antimycin A and bongkrekic acid without restoring cellular ATP levels. Biochim. ...
Data for: Bongkrekic acid facilitates glycolysis in cultured cells and induces cell death under low glucose conditions ...
Bongkrekic acid poisoning: Severe liver function damage combined with multiple organ failure caused by eating spoiled food. ... Fusaric acid instigates the invasion of banana by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense TR4. ...
These events were blocked by cyclosporin A (CsA) or Bongkrekic acid (BKA), inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability ... Antioxidants Energy Supplements Essential Fatty Acids Multi Vitamins Probiotics Vitamins See More ». Amino Acids Minerals ...
synthetize toxins (bongkrekic acid), antifungal compounds (rhizoxin), and also antibacterial compounds (enacyloxin), among ... Alignment of amino acid sequences and construction of the phylogenetic tree were performed with CLC Main Workbench 6.9.1. The ... The obtained amino acid sequences aligned partially to conserved domains of annotated NRPS sequences, i.e., to the adenylation ... 1). Sequences with a hit length of ,100 amino acids (aa) and a gap value of ,2% were placed on the tree. The phylogenetic ...
Inhibition of the mitochondrial ATP/ADP translocase by bongkrekic acid, which prevents ATP export from the mitochondrion, also ... Increases in cytosolic LC-CoA in the β-cell can result from glucose metabolism and from free fatty acids (FFAs) delivered by ... However, truncation of the last 26-36 amino acids from Kir6.2 (Kir6.2ΔC) allows this subunit to reach the surface membrane in ...
The MPT inhibitor bongkrekic acid (14) inhibits cell death, while the MPT inducer atractyloside (9) renders the cell more ... Nucleic Acids Res (2003) 31:1364-73. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg205. Pubmed Abstract , Pubmed Full Text , CrossRef Full Text , Google ... A unified nomenclature and amino acid numbering for human PTEN. Sci Signal (2014) 7:e15. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2005560 ... Although the effect of retinoic acid on mPTPs was not addressed, this study supports the possibility that cancer cells have ...
Bongkrekic acid (BKA), an antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas cocovenans, is an inhibitory molecule of adenine nucleotide ... Bongkrekic acid as a selective activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) isoform ... Although the definition of a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (-COOH) with a long hydrocarbon chain (tail), when focused on the ... Treating rats with orotic acid caused marked accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver. This effect of orotic acid was almost ...
Both efflux rates were kept at a low value by bongkrekic acid added before the stimulating agent. It is concluded that Ca2+ ...
Bongkrekic acid. CsA. cyclosporine A. glutathione. GSH. mBCl. mitochondrial membrane potential. mitochondrial permeability ... Accordingly, using pharmacological inhibitors of MPT namely cyclosporine A, trifluoperazine and Bongkrekic acid we were unable ...
  • The presence of cyclosporin A, ADP, bongkrekic acid, N-ethylmaleimide and dithioerythritol prevent these effects, indicating that binding of aluminum to the inner mitochondrial membrane, most likely at the level of adenine nucleotide translocase, correlates with the induction of the membrane permeability transition (MPT). (nih.gov)
  • These events were blocked by cyclosporin A (CsA) or Bongkrekic acid (BKA), inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). (prohealth.com)
  • 1. The effects of cyclosporin A on the increase in matrix PPi and consequent swelling of energized liver mitochondria incubated with 1 mM-butyrate, 30 microM-bongkrekic acid or 0.1-35 microM-Ca2+ [Halestrap (1989) Biochim. (portlandpress.com)
  • 2. Cyclosporin (1 microM) had no significant effect on the swelling induced by butyrate, bongkrekic acid or Ca2+ at concentrations of less than 0.3 microM. (portlandpress.com)
  • Preincubation with catalase, cyclosporin A (CsA), and bongkrekic acid attenuated ROS production. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclosporin and bongkrekic acidity avoided meters reduction recommending the participation of Ca2+-powered starting of mitochondrial permeability changeover pore as putative root system. (techtasys.com)
  • Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker that acts as an inhibitory ligand of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator. (scbt.com)
  • PubMed ID 15063741) used bongkrekic acid to inhibit mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase 3 (ANT3)-mediated apoptosis in cultured cells. (scbt.com)
  • Bongkrekic Acid: An Inhibitor of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase of Mitochondria" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bongkrekic acid specific ligand for mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) rather than the electron transport chain. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Additionally, palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid decreased the expression of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a strong inhibitor of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), inducing inhibition of adenosine triphosphate synthesis. (usda.gov)
  • Extracellular development of malaria parasites in vitro was found to be affected in a specific way by bongkrekic acid, an antibiotic known to interfere with adenine nucleotide translocation in mitochondria. (dtic.mil)
  • Inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocase or the F 1 F 0 -ATPase with bongkrekic acid or oligomycin caused a loss of potential in patient mtDNA cybrid mitochondria, indicating a requirement for glycolytically generated ATP to maintain Δψ m . (elsevier.com)
  • Here we examine the effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at different glucose concentrations on β-cell proliferation and apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The cell-permeable ceramide analog C 2 -ceramide mimicked both the palmitic acid-induced β-cell apoptosis and decrease in proliferation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that the lipotoxic effect of the saturated palmitic acid involves an increased apoptosis rate coupled with reduced proliferation capacity of β-cells and impaired insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, the monounsaturated palmitoleic acid does not affect β-cell apoptosis, yet it promotes β-cell proliferation at low glucose concentrations, counteracting the negative effects of palmitic acid as well as improving β-cell function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In an adipogenic model of diabetes, the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, fatty acid-induced β-cell apoptosis was observed ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bongkrekic acid partially prevented the effects of DEM on mitochondrial permeability but was unable to prevent the induction of apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • SNAP-induced apoptosis was suppressed by inhibitor of mPT bongkrekic acid (BA), inhibitor of JNK SP600125 and superoxide dismutase-mimetic AEOL 10150. (uta.fi)
  • Aquila H, Misra D, Eulitz M, Klingenberg M (1982) Complete amino acid sequence of the ADP/ATP carrier from beef heart mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • Long chain fatty acids bind to carnitine and form long chain acyl carnitine (LCAC), to enter into the mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • Schonfeld P, Reiser G. Rotenone-like action of the branched-chain phytanic acid induces oxidative stress in mitochondria. (labome.org)
  • The accessibility of the membrane-bound ADP/ATP carrier to proteases was followed by immunodetection of the cleavage products, using mitochondria devoid of outer membrane (mitoplasts) and inside-out submitochondrial particles (SMP) in the presence of either carboxyatractyloside (CATR) or bongkrekic acid (BA), two specific inhibitors which are able to bind to the outer face or the inner face of the carrier, respectively. (saladgaffe.tk)
  • Cardiolipin reverses destabilizing effects of ADP and bongkrekic acid on AAC2 and enhances large stabilizing effects of carboxyatractyloside, revealing that this lipid interacts in the m-state and possibly other states of the transport cycle, despite being in a dynamic interface. (rug.nl)
  • We have solved the atomic structures of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier locked in the cytoplasmic state by carboxyatractyloside and in the matrix state by bongkrekic acid. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Inhibition of ANT by bongkrekic acid (20 μM) prevented PC-induced mitochondrial ROS production. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the MPTP were examined in isolated murine and human pancreatic acinar cells, and in hyperstimulation, bile acid, alcoholic and choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented acute pancreatitis. (bmj.com)
  • 3) to result from a preferen- tial inhibition by the analog for non-en- ergy-linked membrane-bound ATPase. (pdfslide.net)
  • No decrease in the motility of organelles was observed in cultures treated with inhibitors of ATP production or transport, oligomycin or bongkrekic acid, suggesting that inhibition of the ATP-generating activity itself without swelling does not affect the motility of organelles. (pianolarge.tk)
  • In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • The structure of bongkrekic acid bound to ADP/ATP translocase was solved in 2019, demonstrating that it binds to the substrate binding site, preventing ATP in the mitochondrial matrix from binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bongkrek acid (also known as bongkrekic acid) is a respiratory toxin produced in fermented coconut or corn contaminated by the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial toxin secreted by the bacteria Pseudomonas cocovenenans . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Bongkrekic acid (BKA) is a natural toxin isolated from coconut tempeh contaminated with the bacterium Burkholderia cocovenans. (elsevier.com)
  • In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In carbohydrate science , Sugar Acids , as an acyclic acid , are acidic sugars. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Bongkrekic acid is produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in the black fungus. (free2cure.com)
  • These data together with observations that palmitate does not increase H+ conductance in bilayer phospholipid membranes and in cytochrome oxidase-asolectin proteoliposomes indicate that the ATP/ADP-antiporter is somehow involved in the uncoupling by low concentrations of fatty acids (or DNP), whereas that by FCCP and gramicidin D is due to their effect on the phospholipid bilayer. (msu.ru)
  • Carboxyatractylate inhibits the uncoupling effect of free fatty-acids / A. ANDREYEV, T. BONDAREVA, V. DEDUKHOVA et al. (msu.ru)
  • Plant derived omega-3-fatty acids protect mitochondrial function in the brain. (labome.org)
  • Mitochondrial permeability was measured using DiOC6 and stabilized using bongkrekic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, to better understand how the normal tissue toxicity of geldanamycins could be ameliorated to improve the therapeutic index of these agents, we examined the interactions of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) and the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in hepatocytes and fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rotstein OD, Nasmith PE, Grinstein S. The Bacteroides by-product succinic acid inhibits neutrophil respiratory burst by reducing intracellular pH. (sickkids.ca)
  • Increasing concentrations of glucose promoted β-cell proliferation that was dramatically reduced by palmitic acid. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Palmitoleic acid enhanced the proliferation activity in medium containing 5.5 mmol/l glucose but had no additional effect at higher glucose concentrations (11.1 and 33.3 mmol/l). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Low concentrations of trimethoprim suppressed the production of specialised metabolites in B. gladioli, including the toxins, toxoflavin and bongkrekic acid. (southwales.ac.uk)
  • The cause of death was poisoning with 3-nitropropionic acid from coconut water spoiled with the fungus Arthrinium saccharicola . (cdc.gov)
  • The type of ecologically grown coconut involved in the case of a 69-year old Caucasian man in Aarhus, Denmark, who died of poisoning with 3-nitropropionic acid from coconut water spoiled. (cdc.gov)
  • All MCs of known function belong to the same protein family, since their polypeptide chains consist of three tandemly related sequences of about 100 amino acids, and the repeats of the different carriers are homologous. (springer.com)
  • Like all members of the SLC25 family, Aac is a nuclear-encoded protein consisting of roughly 300 amino acids with three approximately 100 residue repeats (two transmembrane domains per repeat), giving the carrier threefold pseudosymmetry ( 4 , 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Esophageal burns caused by acetic acid concentrate (remission of burns sequellae with unfavorable prognosis) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT8 gene encodes a very acidic protein that is functionally related to SPT3 and TATA-binding protein. (viisionsoliibrary19.gq)
  • Moreover, the ceramide synthetase inhibitor fumonisin B1 blocked the deleterious effects of palmitic acid on β-cell viability. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apart from hyperglycemia, plasma long-chain free fatty acid levels are often increased in states of insulin resistance, further impairing β-cell-secretory function ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bongkrekic Acid as a Warburg Effect Modulator in Long-term Estradiol-deprived MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells. (medchemexpress.com)
  • of MD3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with addition of chenodeoxycholic acid is comparable with that of N719-based standard cell. (jove.com)
  • Here, we report that incubation of Raw 264.7 cells with SSZ but not salicylates [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), and 5-ASA] causes a mixed apoptotic and necrotic form of cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • Omezyn reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach. (storysteel.gq)
  • It works by decreasing the amount of acid made in the stomach. (pianolarge.tk)
  • Finally, both bongkrekic acid and NAC significantly reduced spontaneous Ca(2+) wave occurrences under PC. (nih.gov)
  • Bongkrekic acid poisoning: Severe liver function damage combined with multiple organ failure caused by eating spoiled food. (nih.gov)
  • Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure. (sickkids.ca)
  • Bongkrekic acid has to cross the mitochondrial inner membrane to produce its inhibitory effect on ADP/ATP transport. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Fatty acid activators destabilize UCP1 in a similar way, which can also be prevented by cardiolipin, indicating that they interact like transport substrates. (rug.nl)
  • Transport was saturable and inhibited by bongkrekic acid and other inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • Nedox belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors, which block the production of acid in the stomach. (pianolarge.ga)
  • It also helps heal acid damage to the stomach and esophagus, prevents ulcers, and may help prevent cancer in the esophagus. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Gastrowell is used to treat damage from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and possible injury of the esophagus (the tube between the throat and stomach) in adults and children 5 years of age and older. (pianolarge.tk)
  • It is also used to treat conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in adults. (pianolarge.tk)
  • 2-oxodicarboxylate carrier 1 (ODC1) transports C5-C7 oxodicarboxylic acid (2-oxoadipate, 2-oxoglularate, adipate, glutarate, 2-oxopimelate, oxaloacetate, citrate and malate) (functions by a strict antiport mechanism (Palmieri et al. (tcdb.org)
  • Nedox relieves heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and persistent cough caused by acid reflux. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Apart from Pb2, Zn2 ions also catalyse the poly(C)-supported polymerisation of the activated guanylic acid derivative, mind blowing. (forextrainingmaterial.com)