A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Breaks in bones.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The shaft of long bones.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.
A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
Fractures of the femur.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
Inflammation of the bone.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Bone/skeletal system[edit]. Estrogens are responsible for both the pubertal growth spurt, which causes an acceleration in ... In addition, estrogens are responsible for bone maturation and maintenance of bone mineral density throughout life. Due to ... Some estrogens are also produced in smaller amounts by other tissues such as the liver, pancreas, bone, adrenal glands, skin, ... with the possible exception of effects on bone) appear to act exclusively through the androgen receptor.[62] Consequently, the ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ... It is formed by a vascularized expansion of the epibranchial bone of the first gill arch, and is used for respiration in air.[ ... This hormone stimulates the red bone marrow to increase its rate of red cell production, which leads to an increase in the ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ... Additionally, no evidence has been found to support the placement of stem cells taken from bone marrow on the trachea as a way ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ...
Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons. ... The same is true for the musculoskeletal system because of the relationship between the muscular and skeletal systems. ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ... The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is ... the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ... B cells enter the bloodstream as "naive" cells produced in bone marrow. After entering a lymph node, they then enter a lymphoid ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ... and compression during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscle and arterial pulsation.[2] ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ... PTH acts on bone, the kidneys, and the GI tract to increase calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion. In addition, PTH ... including bone, kidneys, liver, heart and gonads. For example, the kidney secretes the endocrine hormone erythropoietin. ...
The bones are hollow and lightweight. The musculoskeletal system is strong to enable it to support the head and body. The bones ... Skeletal system and locomotion. Amphibians have a skeletal system that is structurally homologous to other tetrapods, though ... In many amphibians there are also vomerine teeth attached to a facial bone in the roof of the mouth.[116] ... This vibrates and sound is transmitted through a single bone, the stapes, to the inner ear. Only high-frequency sounds like ...
Brian Keith Hall (2005). Bones and cartilage: developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. Academic Press. pp. 150-. ISBN ... "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 22 (8): 1245-1259. doi:10.1359/jbmr.070420. PMID 17456009.. ... giving rise to either bone or cartilage respectively. Osteochondroprogenitor cells are important for bone formation and ... Zou, Li; Zou, Li; Mygind, Zeng; Lü, Bünger (2006). Molecular mechanism of osteochondroprogenitor fate determination during bone ...
Bones. {{Eponymous medical signs for skeletal system and joints}}. (none). Eponymous medical signs for skeletal system and ... Bones. {{Fractures}}. Medicine. Injury : Fractures and cartilage injuries (Sx2, 800-829). Medical condition templates. Footer. ... Bones. {{Osteochondropathy}}. Medicine. Osteochondropathy (M80-M94, 730-733). Musculoskeletal disease templates. Footer. ... Bones. {{Osseous and chondromatous tumors}}. Medicine. Connective tissue neoplasm: Osseous and Chondromatous tumors (ICD-O 9180 ...
Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Ligaments attach bones to other bones, to hold them together. Skeletal ... ISBN 978-1-84762-264-8. Skeletal muscle is the type of muscle you use to move, e.g. the bicep and triceps move the lower arm. ... muscles contract and relax to move bones at a joint. Vannini, Vanio; Jolly, Richard T.; Pogliani, Giuliano (1994). The new ...
Skeletal system. *Bone *Carpus. *Collar bone (clavicle). *Thigh bone (femur). *Fibula. *Humerus ... The oropharynx lies behind the oral cavity, extending from the uvula to the level of the hyoid bone. It opens anteriorly, ... These outpocketings are pharyngeal arches, and they give rise to a number of different structures in the skeletal, muscular, ... the superior boundary of the laryngopharynx is at the level of the hyoid bone. The laryngopharynx includes three major sites: ...
Skeletal system[edit]. Estradiol has a profound effect on bone. Individuals without it (or other estrogens) will become tall ... Bone density, as well as joints, are also affected, resulting in early osteopenia and osteoporosis.[21] Women past menopause ... Thus, estradiol produces breast development, and is responsible for changes in the body shape, affecting bones, joints, and fat ... but also occurs in other tissues such as bone, liver, and the brain.[48] Approximately 40 to 50 µg of estradiol is produced per ...
The book received a tremendous amount of press, and Koudounaris was dubbed "Indiana Bones" by the UK press, in reference to his ... "Skeletal Shrines". The Prague Post. Retrieved 23 March 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Koudounaris, Paul (June ... In the process, he also compiled material for the first ever history of bone-decorated religious structures, visiting over 70 ... Eddy, Cheryl (October 18, 2011). "Not Just for Hallowen: Bone Tome Empire of Death". San Francisco Bay Guardian. Retrieved 23 ...
He ascribed large bones to giant races of humans.[24] Not all the objects which he was attempting to explain were in fact ... He interpreted mountain ranges as the Earth's skeletal structures exposed by weathering.[25] ... Kircher's life and research are central to the plot of James Rollin's 2015 novel The Bone Labyrinth. ...
A subdiscipline of anatomy, anthropology, and paleontology, osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal ... Another way to tell the age of bones is by bone osteons under a microscope or look for arthritis indicators on the bones. ... The two bone structures that are used to determine whether a person is male or female are the skull and pelvis. The bones can ... Osteology, derived from the Greek words osteon .(bone) and logos (knowledge), is the scientific study of bones, practised by ...
... to treat problems with bone resorption associated with the bone breakdown and skeletal malformations that characterize this ... Cremin B, Goodman H, Spranger J, Beighton P (1982). "Wormian bones in osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders". Skeletal ... Wormian bone occurs when extra bones appear between cranial sutures. Fetuses with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome often will not be seen ... Osteoclasts are the component that breaks bone down. This is why bone loss is observed in HCS patients, due to the ...
... end of bones of the hands and feet". Skeletal Radiology. 23 (1). doi:10.1007/BF00203694. ISSN 0364-2348. "Introductory Course ... A bone that is independent phylogenetically but is now fused with another bone. These types of fused bones are called atavistic ... the epiphysis at the head of the first metacarpal bone and at the base of other metacarpal bones There are many bones that ... Femur: Longest bone in the human body. Located in the thigh region, between the hip and the knee. Fibula: One of two bones in ...
Risk factors for skeletal effects include older age, greater dosage and longer course of treatment. Most bone changes cause no ... are well known to cause bone changes, the most common type of which is hyperostotic changes (excessive bone growth), especially ... While excessive bone growth has been raised a possible side effect, a 2006 review found little evidence for this.[84] ... DiGiovanna JJ (November 2001). "Isotretinoin effects on bone". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 45 (5): S176-82 ...
Milgram JW (1990). "Malignant transformation in bone lipomas". Skeletal Radiol. 19 (5): 347-52. doi:10.1007/BF00193088. PMID ... A few cases of malignant transformation have been described for bone and kidney lipomas, but it is possible that these few ... Skeletal Radiol. 35 (10): 719-33. doi:10.1007/s00256-006-0189-y. PMID 16927086. S2CID 6388113. Olson, James Stuart (1989). The ... Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. 4. Lyon: IARC ...
... bone > colon > skeletal muscle > pancreas. Data from Human Protein Atlas and RNA-Seq based suggest TRPV6 mRNA is low in most ... May 2012). "The transient receptor potential channel TRPV6 is dynamically expressed in bone cells but is not crucial for bone ... Bone. 47 (2): 301-8. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2010.04.595. PMC 2902603. PMID 20399919. Lieben L, Carmeliet G (2012). "The Involvement ... Fetal bone mineralization peaks during late pregnancy. At this stage, fetal blood has a higher concentration of Ca2+ in ...
A spinal skeletal traction fixation device. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1968 Oct;50(7):1400-9. ... "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal ...
The muscular-skeletal system is a synergy of muscle and bone. The muscles and connective tissues provide continuous pull[7] and ... bones, fascia, ligaments and tendons, or rigid and elastic cell membranes, are made strong by the unison of tensioned and ... the bones present the discontinuous compression. A theory of tensegrity in molecular biology to explain cellular structure has ...
The bone is still more malleable and can be remodelled relatively 'simply' by greenstick fractures of the bone.[42] At ... coronal synostosis • skeletal abnormalities of the hands or feet • hearing loss 602849 FGFR3 ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time.[42] A bone graft is ... Most of the bones that collectively form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are ...
Due to the linear articulation of bones, the force is able to travel freely across these joints and bones and be dissipated ... Terry R. Yochum; Lindsay J. Rowe (2004). Essentials of Skeletal Radiology (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & ... means a break in specifically the second metacarpal bone or third metacarpal bone,[12] with "bar room fracture" being specific ... A boxer's fracture is the break of the 5th metacarpal bones of the hand near the knuckle.[4] Occasionally it is used to refer ...
Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle ... They would have fewer side-effects, while still promoting muscle and bone tissue growth and regeneration. These claims are, ... During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass. This condition is ... Their ability to maintain skeletal muscle number and size at time of disuse is of significant importance. During hibernation, ...
Lutetium has no biological role as well, but it is found even in the highest known organism, the humans, concentrating in bones ... "The Skeletal Deposition of Yttrium" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 195 (2): 837-841. PMID 14946195 ... and bones of humans.[81] There is normally as little as 0.5 milligrams found within the entire human body; human breast milk ...
The skeletal system of amphibians are similar to other four-legged animals. They have a spine, rib cage, long bones such as the ... Senses and skeletal system[change , change source]. Amphibians' eyes have lids, glands and ducts. They have good colour vision[ ... Their heads are strong and have bones that help them dig.[14]p7 Because caecilians have a lot of vertebrae, they can bend ... They also have short bones such as the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. Most amphibians have four limbs, except for ...
Kohn, T. A.; Curry, J. W.; Noakes, T. D. (9 November 2011). "Black wildebeest skeletal muscle exhibits high oxidative capacity ... and the wormian bones in the skull.[12] Another study reported an increase in the size of the hybrid as compared to either of ...
"Bone Marrow Transplant" redirects here. For the journal abbreviated Bone Marrow Transplant, see Bone Marrow Transplantation ( ... EL-Sobky TA, El-Haddad A, Elsobky E, Elsayed SM, Sakr HM (March 2017). "Reversal of skeletal radiographic pathology in a case ... In the case of a bone marrow transplant, the HSC are removed from a large bone of the donor, typically the pelvis, through a ... Bone marrow transplantation usually requires that the recipient's own bone marrow be destroyed (myeloablation). Prior to the ...
... bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of ... "The First Baby Boom: Skeletal Evidence Shows Abrupt Worldwide Increase In Birth Rate During Neolithic Period". ScienceDaily ... evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma;[26] ...
In a 2001 study conducted by Bruce Rothschild and other paleontologists, 12 hand bones and 20 foot bones referred to ... Skeletal reconstruction. According to Novas (1993), Herrerasaurus can be distinguished based on the following features:[15] the ... The ilium, the main hip bone, is supported by only two sacrals, a basal trait.[9] However, the pubis points backwards, a ... PVSJ 407, a Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis, had a pit in a skull bone attributed by Paul Sereno and Novas to a bite. Two ...
Normally, the bone age is the same as the biological age but for some people, it is older. For many people with advanced bone ... Genetic skeletal dysplasias also known as osteochondrodysplasia usually manifest in short-limbed disproportionate short stature ... When the cause is unknown, it is called idiopathic short stature.[5] Short stature can also be caused by the bone plates fusing ... However, in some cases, people who are naturally shorter combined with their advanced bone age, end up being even shorter than ...
This is accomplished by the exchange of natural bone constituents, deposition in voids or defects, adsorption onto the bone ... 2006). "Diagenesis, not biogenesis: Two late Roman skeletal examples". Science of the Total Environment. 369: 357-368. Bibcode: ... Due to the increase in porosity of bones through collagen loss, the bone becomes susceptible to hydrolytic infiltration where ... 2002). "The Survival of Organic Matter in Bone: A Review". Archaeometry. 44 (3): 383-394. doi:10.1111/1475-4754.t01-1-00071.. ...
A subluxation is a health concern that manifests in the skeletal joints, and, through complex anatomical and physiological ... Chiropractors use x-ray radiography to examine the bone structure of a patient. ... Norris P (2001). "How 'we' are different from 'them': occupational boundary maintenance in the treatment of musculo-skeletal ... Chiropractic diagnosis may involve a range of methods including skeletal imaging, observational and tactile assessments, and ...
... since the bone they tested comes from the left pubis,[85] and the only pelvis bone in the collection at Bari is the left ilium. ... the Turkish government announced that it would be formally requesting the return of Saint Nicholas's skeletal remains to Turkey ... Small bones quickly began to disperse across western Europe.[93] The sailors who had transported the bones gave one tooth and ... It is said that someone dies every time the bones of Saint Nicholas in Venice are disturbed.[75] The last time the bones were ...
Cancer, bone fractures. Significant tests. screening tests, X-ray, CT, MRI, PET, bone scan, ultrasonography, mammography, ... DEXA, or bone densitometry, is used primarily for osteoporosis tests. It is not projection radiography, as the X-rays are ... Usually the hip (head of the femur), lower back (lumbar spine), or heel (calcaneum) are imaged, and the bone density (amount of ... This is the standard method for bone densitometry. It is also used in CT pulmonary angiography to decrease the required dose of ...
These are studied to determine the diet and health of the people who produced them through the analysis of seeds, small bones, ... The success rate of usable DNA extraction is relatively high in paleofeces, making it more reliable than skeletal DNA retrieval ...
... witness the skulls and bones which were to be seen there in the months following the famine."[244] ... a journalist counted at least five hundred such sets of skeletal remains.[251] ... "Bengal's rice output in normal years was barely enough for bare-bones subsistence ... the province's margin over subsistence on ...
The solid or skeletal density of activated carbons will typically range between 2000 and 2100 kg/m3 (125-130 lbs./cubic foot). ... Bone char. *Carbon filtering. *Conjugated microporous polymer. *Kværner-process. *Onboard refueling vapor recovery ...
... and skeletal deformities. Other wheelchairs provide some of the same benefits by raising the entire seat to lift the user to ... help in maintaining bone mineral density, improved passive range motion, reduction in abnormal muscle tone and spasticity, ...
Their skeletal anatomy allows them to be fast swimmers. Most species have a dorsal fin.[43][44] ... These vibrations are received through fatty tissues in the jaw, which is then rerouted into the ear-bone and into the brain ... Norena, S. R.; Williams, T. M. (2000). "Body size and skeletal muscle myoglobin of cetaceans: adaptations for maximizing dive ... This is followed by the colonization of bones and surrounding sediments (which contain organic matter) by enrichment ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... Gruneberg came to these distinctions after experimenting on rats with skeletal mutations. He recognized that "spurious" ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ... including the skeletal, cardiovascular, and nervous system, as well as the eyes and lungs.[36] ...
... (CTLM) is the trademark of Imaging Diagnostic Systems, Inc. (IDSI, United States) for its optical tomographic technique for female breast imaging. This medical imaging technique uses laser energy in the near infrared region of the spectrum, to detect angiogenesis in the breast tissue. It is optical molecular imaging for hemoglobin both oxygenated and deoxygenated. The technology uses laser in the same way computed tomography uses X-Rays, these beams travel through tissue and suffer attenuation. A laser detector measures the intensity drop and the data is collected as the laser detector moves across the breast creating a tomography image. CTLM images show hemoglobin distribution in a tissue and can detect areas of Angiogenesis surrounding malignant tumors, that stimulate this angiogenesis to obtain nutrients for growth. ...
Class II malocclusion with increased overjet and Class II skeletal relationship [21][22] and incompetent lips[23] are the ... This injury involves the alveolar bone and may extend beyond the alveolus.[5][6] There are 5 different types of alveolar ... Dental trauma refers to trauma (injury) to the teeth and/or periodontium (gums, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone), and ... tooth should be gently rinsed under tap water and immediately re-planted in its original socket within the alveolar bone and ...
... was an international authority on bone disease and abnormalities of the skull and, during his working life, had amassed a ... and diagnosis of skeletal disease using MRI scanning. ...
... spontaneous bone fractures, altered skeletal development in children, skeletal pain, radiographic changes,[20][23] and bone ... Vitamin A toxicity is known to be an ancient phenomenon; fossilized skeletal remains of early humans suggest bone abnormalities ... resulting in increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. It is likely to exert this effect by binding to specific ... Increased bone turnoverEdit. Retinoic acid suppresses osteoblast activity and stimulates osteoclast formation in vitro,[23] ...
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 83(8): 1119-1124. *^ Warby, Sarah A.; Pizzari, Tania; Ford, Jon J.; Hahne, Andrew J.; ... "Skeletal Radiol. 21 (3): 149-54. PMID 1604339.. External links[edit]. Classification. D ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 52 (8): 1534-1551. *^ Ganz, R., Gill, T., Gautier, E., Ganz, K., Krugel, N., Berlemann, ... A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones ...
Units of the division's 4th Brigade remained in skeletal status, never being fully manned, and were inactivated upon the return ... of the unit in the hospital with broken bones, sprains and bruises. Finally, the order came and the 504th moved by truck to ...
STAT3 may present as HIES with characteristic facial, dental, and skeletal abnormalities[7] that has been called Job's Syndrome ... Finally, some patients with STAT3 HIES have scoliosis, as well as bones that fracture easily.[15] ... and skeletal abnormalities. Patients with STAT3 HIES may have either delay of or failure in shedding of primary teeth. The ...
On December 11, 2008, Caylee's skeletal remains were found with a blanket inside a trash bag in a wooded area near the family ... This is a dry-bones case. Very, very difficult to prove. The delay in recovering little Caylee's remains worked to our ... Kristin Brewer also testified that her K9 partner, Bones, signaled decomposition in the backyard during a search in July 2008. ... more bones were found in the wooded area near the spot where the remains initially had been discovered.[4][38][39][40] On ...
This article is about the shape of the foot bones. For the condition involving the soft tissue between the bones, see Morton's ... Skeletal disorders. *Toes. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements. *Articles with unsourced statements from ... The metatarsal bones behind the toes vary in relative length. For most feet, a smooth curve can be traced through the joints at ... Morton, D. J. "Metatarsus atavicus: the identification of a distinct type of foot disorder", The Journal of Bone and Joint ...
If you want to know more about your beautiful bones, this movie is a great place to start! ...
A Stanford-led research team has identified the human skeletal stem cell, … ... Skeletal stem cells could regrow damaged bones. Engadget - Jon Fingas. It could repair breaks and even fight osteoporosis. ... A Stanford-led research team has identified the human skeletal stem cell, … ...
Check out the skeletal and bone supplements from HSN.com. Read reviews to find the best bone vitamins. ... Looking for ways to strengthen your bone structure? ... Skeletal Vitamins SHOP ALL Skeletal Vitamins. Featured Links. * ... Skeletal Vitamins Maintain strong, healthy bones by. supplementing your diet with key. vitamins and nutrients. ... Bone & Body Factors - Auto-Ship®. Price:. $64.90 - $149.90 Rating. 4.5 5.0 83 ...
A bone biopsy arrangement especially suited for use in obtaining axial skeleton trephine samples from the spinal vertebra ... The patent art includes several examples of bone sampling, skeletal measuring, and related procedures, this art includes the ... Such bone is also of special interest in the diagnosis and treatment of certain disease processes. Since bone is living tissue ... Trabecular bone, i.e., lattice organized crystalline bone, develops along the lines of greatest stress in the skeleton of an ...
... determination of bone maturity relied on visual evaluation of skeletal development in the hand and wrist, most commonly using ... Hand Bone Age. Book Subtitle. A Digital Atlas of Skeletal Maturity. Authors. * Vicente Gilsanz ... Hand Bone Age: A Digital Atlas of Skeletal Maturity is an essential text for all radiologists who are interested in this ... Hand Bone Age. A Digital Atlas of Skeletal Maturity. Authors: Gilsanz, Vicente, Ratib, Osman ...
... skeletal, skeleton, skull, spine icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by IconBaandar Team found in the icon set Halloween ... Body, bones, halloween, skeletal, skeleton, skull, spine icon. * Basic license · Categories: Halloween Styles: Glyph 1 ...
Ayurveda explains about Asthi dhatu or bone tissue and methods to nourish it. Knowing about these facts help us to prevent ... According to ayurveda persons who have healthy bones and skeletal system are known as "asthi sarapurusha". These persons will ... Ayurveda Definition of Asthi Dhatu ( Bones or Skeletal system ). *Post Author:webmaster ... Asthi Kshaya : thinning of bones like osteoporosis. Asthi Vrana : Osteomyelitis. Symptoms of a Person who has Healthy Bones - ...
WHEN DO BONES BECOME WEAKER? Between age 20-30 our bone building cycle is in balance. Bones are breaking down and rebuilding at ... These are bone forming cells. They enter into small unfilled spaces (holes) and produce new bones. The remodeling of bones is a ... It occurs if a person does not have enough strong bone mass by age 30, before bone loss begins or if bone loss after age 30 ... There is one more type of bone cell called an Osteocyte. These cells provide nutrition to our bones. Bones are strongest in ...
... the hip bones connect your lower limbs to your axial skeleton. Read on for five awesome hip facts! ... 2. Each hip bone is actually made up of three bones.. It may look like one bone, but each hip bone is made up of the ilium, ... Each hip bone is made up of three fused bones: the ilium, pubis, and ischium.. ... 4. There are noticeable differences between the male and female hip bones.. The female hip bones are more delicate and shallow ...
Bones book. Read 280 reviews from the worlds largest community for readers. On a brutal winters day in 1650 in Stockholm, ... Bones book. Read 280 reviews from the worlds largest community for readers. On a brutal winters day in 1650 in Stockholm, ... Start by marking "Descartes Bones: A Skeletal History of the Conflict Between Faith and Reason" as Want to Read: Want to Read ... Descartes Bones: A Skeletal History of the Conflict Between Faith and Reason by Russell Shorto (Goodreads Author) ...
According to texts of ayurveda asthis or bones are formed from the nutrients supplied by medha dhatu through asthivaha srothas ... According to ayurveda persons who have healthy bones and skeletal system are known as "asthi sarapurusha". These persons will ... Same way human body is supported by strong bones. All muscles (mamsa), tendons and ligaments are attached to asthis (bones). ... Vitamin D is needed to make bones strong. Hormonal imbalances, increased intake of proteins, salt and stimulants interrupt bone ...
How many bones are there in the human skeleton? What is the largest bone in the human body? What makes bone marrow so important ... The appendicular skeletal section of our skeleton has 126 bones. It includes the pectoral (shoulder) girdles, the pelvic girdle ... There are a number of skeletal disorders, osteoporosis is a bone disease that increases the chance of fractures, scoliosis is a ... Skeleton & Bones Facts. Learn some fun bones and skeleton facts for kids. The human skeleton has 6 key functions and our ...
Bone up! 14 facts about Richard III. Fast forward more than 2,000 years, and archeologist Hilke Thuer is confident that ... Not everyone is as certain as the Austrian archeologist, mainly because the bones could be those of a number of other young ... but testing didnt work well because the skeleton had been moved and the bones had been held by a lot of people. It didnt ... excavated skeletal remains from Ephesus are in fact those of the young princess. A series of circumstantial evidence -- ...
... significantly decreased skeletal complications and bone pain in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone metastases ... significantly decreased skeletal complications and bone pain in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone metastases ... significantly decreased skeletal complications and bone pain in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone metastases ... radiation therapy or surgery to bone, or change in chemotherapy to treat bone pain. ...
Buy the Hardcover Book Bones And Cartilage by Brian K. Hall at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on ... Initiating Skeletal Growth 31. Growth and Morphogenesis of Long Bones 32. Long Bone Growth: A Case of Crying Wolf? Part XI ... Part I Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues 1. Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues 2. Bone 3. Vertebrate Cartilages Part II Origins and Types of ... Bones And Cartilage: Developmental And Evolutionary Skeletal Biology. byBrian K. HallEditorBrian K. Hall. Hardcover , January 8 ...
A Novel Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mutant Mouse, , Displays Impaired Intracellular Handling in Skeletal Muscle. Laura C. ... nBmp2NLStm mice show normal skeletal structure. In order to check for subtle differences between skeletal structure in wild ... digital calipers were used to measure bone dimensions on skeletal preparations of wild type and mutant male mice. Measurements ...
21</chron> /CNW/ -- Phase 3 Trial Shows Denosumab Delayed Skeletal Related Events in Advanced
Cancer Patients With ... These include fracture of a bone, the need for radiation to bone, the need for bone surgery, or spinal cord compression. All ... the median time to first on-study skeletal related event (SRE) (fracture, radiation to bone, surgery to bone, or spinal cord ... Bone Metastases: Impact and Prevalence ,/pre, ,p,Bone metastases, cancer cells that separate from tumors and migrate to bone ...
"The bone strength deficit caused by fluoride accumulation in bone is not always associated with gross bone pathology (i.e. ... 1997). Fluoride treatment increased serum IGF-1, bone turnover, and bone mass, but not bone strength, in rabbts. Calcified ... that fluoride can reduce bone strength before the onset of skeletal fluorosis. As such, the safe level of fluoride for bones ... Fluoride Reduces Bone Strength Prior to Onset of Skeletal Fluorosis. Fluoride Action Network , April 2012 , By Michael Connett ...
Determining the skeletal bone age is necessary in avariety of fields, ranging from pediatric radiology andendocrinology to crime ... AUTOMATIC SKELETAL BONE AGE ASSESSMENT: STATE OF THE ART AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS. Isaak Kavasidis, Carmelo Pino ... 20] D. Giordano, C. Spampinato, G. Scarciofalo,and R. Leonardi, "Automatic skeletal bone ageassessment by integrating emroi and ... Auephanwiriyakul, "Bone Age Assess-ment in Young Children Using AutomaticCarpal Bone Feature Extraction and SupportVector ...
Structure and Function of Cartilage and Bone. Cartilage (review). Characteristics Resists tension AND compression Lots of ... Chapter 7 Skeletal System -. bone classification. long bones short bones flat bones irregular bones sesamoid ... 6: Bone & Skeletal Tissue Skeletal Cartilages Classification of Bones Functions of Bones -Ch. 6: bone & ... Skeletal System: Bones & Skeletal Tissues -Skeletal system: bones & skeletal tissues. classification of ...
Using bone and osteoporosis as a paradigm, we identify nine new genes that determine bone structure and strength from a screen ... Deletion of five of the genes leads to low bone mass, whereas deletion of four results in high bone mass. We also report a ... novel functional classification that relates bone structure to bone strength and opens the field to collaborative research ... Bone mineral content, bone length and cortical bone thickness were determined with coefficients of variation (CV) of 1.7%, 2.0 ...
Illustration of Bones skeletal system human anatomy isolated anatomical structure vector skull and spine joints and hip ribs ... Vector - Bones skeletal system human anatomy isolated anatomical structure vector skull and spine joints and hip ribs and feet ... Bones skeletal system human anatomy isolated anatomical structure vector skull and spine joints and hip ribs and feet skeleton ...
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Merging the old skeletal biology with the new. II. Molecular aspects of bone formation and bone growth.. Cohen MM Jr1. ... Molecular aspects of bone formation and bone growth are discussed together with selected genetic disorders of the involved ... bone morphogenetic proteins and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva; transforming growth factor beta, suture closure, and ...
Bad To the Bone Titanium Rocker ring Skeletal Warrior Band Bohemian Ch. Details. This titanium ring is perfect for geeks, ... Bad To the Bone Titanium Rocker ring Skeletal Warrior Band Bohemian Ch. ...
... bones, Én, en, én, human, joint, project, skeletal , Glogster EDU - Interactive multimedia posters ... Bone consists mainly of collagen fibres and an inorganic bone mineral in the form of small crystals. In vivo bone (living bone ... CancerVarious types of cancers can damage bones and the skeletal system. Bone cancer, metastasis of cancer into bones, leukemia ... Bones provide a framework for the attachment of muscles and other tissues.-Movement. Bones enable body movements by acting as ...
... and the resulting skeletal-related events (SREs), and survival and prognostic factors, in urothelial cancer... ... Background The aim of the present study was to elucidate the details of bone metastasis (BM) ... The aim of the present study was to elucidate the details of bone metastasis (BM) and the resulting skeletal-related events ( ... Coleman RE (2006) Clinical features of metastatic bone disease and risk of skeletal morbidity. Clin Cancer Res 12:6243-6249 ...
Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the second metacarpal and middle phalanges using radiographic absorptiometry of hand ... We investigated the usefulness of bone density measurements from multiple skeletal sites and calcaneus ultrasound for ... Predicting vertebral deformity using bone densitometry at various skeletal sites and calcaneus ultrasound Bone. 1995 Mar;16(3): ... We investigated the usefulness of bone density measurements from multiple skeletal sites and calcaneus ultrasound for ...
The bone that is the thigh bone and is the longest, strongest and heaviest bone of the human body is known as the femur. The ... Spanish Medium Review Quiz - Science - Skeletal Bones (Questions). This quiz is one of four Spanish science quizzes that you ... With the understanding that you have already studied the skeletal bones, in this Spanish Medium Review quiz you will look at ... The bone that is known as the jaw bone is the mandible. The Spanish word for mandible is mandíbula. ...
The bone that is the thigh bone and is the longest, strongest and heaviest bone of the human body is known as the femur. The ... Science - Skeletal Bones. This quiz is one of four Spanish science quizzes that you are being provided with here in the Spanish ... With the understanding that you have already studied the skeletal bones, in this Spanish Medium Review quiz you will look at ... The bone that is known as the jaw bone is the mandible. The Spanish word for mandible is mandíbula. ...
  • Normally bones are composed of a hard and solid outer shell surrounding the connecting plates and rods of bones within which lies the bone marrow. (hpathy.com)
  • Failure of absorption of calcium and phosphorous in bone marrow result in the reduction of bone mass and this condition is called osteoporosis. (hpathy.com)
  • What makes bone marrow so important? (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The majority of human bones have a dense, strong outer layer, followed by a spongy part full of air for lightness, while the middle contains a soft, flexible, tissue substance called bone marrow. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • Bone marrow makes up 4% of a human body mass. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The production of blood cells, occurs in the red marrow found in the cavities of certain bones. (glogster.com)
  • Bones also protect the marrow. (glogster.com)
  • Bone cancer, metastasis of cancer into bones, leukemia (blood cancer that originates in the blood marrow), etc., can weaken the bones and other tissues. (glogster.com)
  • The axial skeleton contains the red marrow in the adult, which suggests that properties of the circulation, cells, and extracellular matrix within this region could assist in the formation of bone metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this multi-site study, the investigators will examine bone marrow composition (by MRI) in 40 transgender youth and bone density and body composition before/after pubertal blockade compared to healthy participants. (centerwatch.com)
  • The proposed project seeks to answer the clinically relevant question of how bone marrow composition relates to body composition, and its relation to both bone density and skeletal strength, in transgender patients who are undergoing puberty blockade, the first phase of therapy preceding gender-affirming hormone therapy. (centerwatch.com)
  • Adult bone marrow stem cells injected into skeletal muscle can repair he. (bio-medicine.org)
  • BUFFALO, N.Y. -- University at Buffalo researchers have demonstrated for the first time that injecting adult bone marrow stem cells into skeletal muscle can repair cardiac tissue, reversing heart failure. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells are found in the bone marrow and can differentiate into a variety of cell types. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Injecting MSCs or factors released by MSCs improved ventricular function, promoted myocardial regeneration, lessened apoptosis (cell death) and fibrotic remodeling, recruited bone marrow progenitor cells and induced myocardial expression of multiple growth factor genes," Lee said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cell culture study was done using tibial bone marrow cells and cell lines. (springer.com)
  • The expression of PECAM-1 in bone marrow cells decreased by unloading and recovered following reloading. (springer.com)
  • Skeletal unloading reduced osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through at least two independent pathways in bone marrow cells: apoptotic signal through the p53 gene and decreased osteogenic potential related to reduction of PECAM-1 expression. (springer.com)
  • Maniatopoulos C, Sodek J, Melcher AH (1988) Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young rats. (springer.com)
  • Human bone marrow (BM)-derived stromal cells contain a population of skeletal stem cells (SSCs), with the capacity to differentiate along the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages, enabling their application to clinical therapies. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Blood formation Bone/ Osseous tissue  CT with matrix hardened by deposition of calcium phosphate  Composition of bone: blood, bone marrow, cartilage, adipose tissue, nervous tissue, and fibrous CT  Mineralization/ Calcification- hardening process Shapes of Bones 1. (coursehero.com)
  • Consistent with this finding, bone marrow chimeras made from Slit3 −/− donors that lacked SLIT3 expression at all stages of osteoclast development displayed normal bone mass relative to controls. (nature.com)
  • Unlike the robust Slit3 expression observed in the brain and primary osteoblasts, we were unable to detect Slit3 mRNA expression during bone marrow macrophage (BMM)-derived osteoclastogenesis at the mRNA level (Fig. 1b ). (nature.com)
  • he open spaces between the trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow. (scientistcindy.com)
  • They also contain bone marrow, which makes blood cells and stores fat. (factmonster.com)
  • On the inside is an area of cancellous bone, which may contain red bone marrow. (factmonster.com)
  • In adult long bones, like the femur, the shaft is compact bone overlaying an area that may contain yellow bone marrow (a fatty tissue). (factmonster.com)
  • Red bone marrow is the site where the body's red blood cells and some white blood cells are made. (factmonster.com)
  • With age, the red marrow in the long bones is gradually replaced by fat cells. (factmonster.com)
  • Spongy bone with many marrow cavities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The bones cover the marrow tissue, which is responsible for forming blood cells. (reference.com)
  • Bone pain originates from both the periosteum and the bone marrow which relay nociceptive signals to the brain creating the sensation of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibrous dysplasia is a disorder where normal bone and marrow is replaced with fibrous tissue, resulting in formation of bone that is weak and prone to expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow stromal cells in fibrous dysplasia produce excess amounts of the phosphate-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), leading to loss of phosphate in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bone, constitutive Gsα signaling results in impaired differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proliferation of these cells causes replacement of normal bone and marrow with fibrous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probably the most important endpoint was the multiple event analysis that took into consideration the proportion of patients having skeletal-related events, the time between events, and the number of events that occurred per patient,' Dr. Saad said. (cancernetwork.com)
  • A bone biopsy arrangement especially suited for use in obtaining axial skeleton trephine samples from the spinal vertebra centrum of a living test specimen in a safe and rapid manner. (google.com)
  • As we know, there are 206 bones in our body which are exquisitely and perfectly set to keep our skeleton in good shape and in a healthy condition. (hpathy.com)
  • The hip bones are part of the appendicular skeleton , which also includes the shoulder girdle and the upper and lower limbs. (visiblebody.com)
  • How many bones are there in the human skeleton? (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • Read on and enjoy these interesting facts about our skeleton and bones. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • At birth the human skeleton is made up of around 300 bones. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The axial skeleton part of the human skeleton has 80 bones. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The appendicular skeletal section of our skeleton has 126 bones. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The female skeleton is generally slightly smaller and the pelvis bones differ in shape, size and angle in order to assist with child birth. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • She recently told North Carolina's News & Observer , 'They tried to make a DNA test, but testing didn't work well because the skeleton had been moved and the bones had been held by a lot of people. (hlntv.com)
  • Vector - Bones skeletal system human anatomy isolated anatomical structure vector skull and spine joints and hip ribs and feet skeleton physiology pelvis and vertebrae backbone medicine and healthcare. (123rf.com)
  • Again, it will focus solely on the Spanish vocabulary words that are used to describe the same terms of the bones of the human skeleton. (educationquizzes.com)
  • You may know the English names for the bones in our skeleton, but what are they called in Spanish? (educationquizzes.com)
  • Experiments performed in mice in which expression of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was completely nullified specifically in parathyroid cells, chondrocytes, or cells of the osteoblast lineage have identified phenotypes that indicate a key role for the CaSR in embryonic development of the skeleton, postnatal bone formation, and osteoblast differentiation that are independent of the calcitropic hormone axis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The skeletal system is a system in your body that is made up of over 206 bones to form your skeleton! (glogster.com)
  • Additionally, metastatic disease may remain confined to the skeleton with the decline in quality of life and eventual death almost entirely due to skeletal complications and their treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bone metastases most commonly affect the axial skeleton. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies by the Hebrew University researchers and others showed that the sympathetic nervous system reaches the skeleton and slows down bone development. (healthcanal.com)
  • To demonstrate that there are indeed parasympathetic responses in the skeleton, the researchers injected a weakened rabies virus into the thigh bones of mice. (healthcanal.com)
  • The axial skeleton has 80 named bones and consists of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. (scientistcindy.com)
  • The appendicular skeleton contains 126 named bones. (scientistcindy.com)
  • An adult skeleton has 206 bones. (healthywaymag.com)
  • As we mentioned before, the human skeleton has more than 200 bones distributed in the head, the limbs, and the trunk . (healthywaymag.com)
  • category skeletal system a skeleton endoskeleton is made up of bones see also category bone products subcategories this category has the following 7 subcategories out of 7 total. (karateafrique.org)
  • human skeletal system human skeletal system the internal skeleton that serves as a framework for the body this framework consists of many individual bones and cartilages there also are bands of fibrous connective tissue-the ligaments and the tendons-in intimate relationship with the parts of the skeleton. (karateafrique.org)
  • Our skeleton acts as an internal framework and its bones help muscles to act as levers to move the legs, arms and other body parts. (k8schoollessons.com)
  • 4. Bones in the skeleton help producing blood cells. (k8schoollessons.com)
  • The bone is a highly specialized connective tissue that makes up most of the skeleton. (weebly.com)
  • For muscles attached to the bones of the skeleton, the connection determines the force, speed, and range of movement. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Cut out the bones on the "Dem Bones" handout, and reconstruct correctly as a skeleton on a piece of paper using tape or glue. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • The body is supported and its internal parts protected by a strong yet flexible framework of BONES called the skeleton. (factmonster.com)
  • The skeleton contains 206 bones. (factmonster.com)
  • and the appendicular skeleton, containing the bones of the limbs, the pelvis, the shoulder blades, and the collarbones. (factmonster.com)
  • CHICAGO-Zoledronic acid (Zometa) significantly decreased skeletal complications and bone pain in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone metastases, compared with placebo, according to an update of a phase III study presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (abstracts 1472 and 1473). (cancernetwork.com)
  • CNW/ -- Amgen (Nasdaq: AMGN) today announced detailed results from a Phase 3 trial evaluating denosumab administered subcutaneously versus Zometa (zoledronic acid) administered as an intravenous infusion in the treatment of bone metastases in 1,776 advanced cancer patients with solid tumors (not including breast and prostate cancer) or multiple myeloma. (newswire.ca)
  • Bone metastases, the spread of tumors to the bone, are a serious concern for many advanced cancer patients. (newswire.ca)
  • 2009). In this study of 2,049 patients with advanced breast cancer, denosumab met all primary and secondary endpoints and demonstrated superior efficacy compared to Zometa in the treatment of bone metastases. (newswire.ca)
  • Forbes GS, McLeod RA, Hattery RR (1977) Radiographic manifestations of bone metastases from renal carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • However, bone metastases may complicate a wide range of malignancies, resulting in considerable morbidity and complex demands on health care resources. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 10%) produce bone metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The median survival time from diagnosis of bone metastases from prostate cancer or breast cancer is measurable in years ( 4 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The prognosis after the development of bone metastases in breast cancer is considerably better than that after a recurrence in visceral sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Coexisting nonosseous metastatic disease is important in determining prognostic differences between patients with bone metastases from the same type of tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, the number of bone metastases at mCRPC diagnosis is the strongest predictor of death from any cause. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The findings are from a retrospective review of data from 837 men initially diagnosed with nonmetastatic CRPC who later developed bone metastases. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Of these, 362 (43%) reported bone pain and 44 (5%) had visceral metastases at the time of mCRPC. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • In addition, compared with patients who had 1 bone metastasis, those with 10 or more bone metastases had a significant 2-fold increased mortality risk. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Patients with 2 bone metastases and 3 to 9 bone metastases had a significant 1.36- and 1.4-fold increased mortality risk, respectively. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Among men with bone mCRPC, bone pain was the strongest predictor for SREs and number of bone metastases was a strong predictor for mortality," the authors concluded. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The aim of our study was to compare the diagnostic performance of (68)Ga-PSMA PET and (99m)Tc bone scintigraphy (BS) for the detection of bone metastases in prostate cancer (PC) patients. (urotoday.com)
  • A total of 75 of 126 patients were diagnosed with bone metastases. (urotoday.com)
  • Out of 1115 examined bone regions, 410 showed metastases. (urotoday.com)
  • RATIONALE: Zoledronate may prevent or decrease skeletal (bone)-related events (such as pain or fractures) caused by bone metastases and androgen deprivation therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is not yet known whether treatment with zoledronate is effective in preventing bone-related events in patients who have prostate cancer and bone metastases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well zoledronate works in preventing bone-related events in patients who are receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and bone metastases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Denosumab has a marketing authorisation for the prevention of skeletal-related events (pathological fracture, radiation to bone, spinal cord compression or surgery to bone) in adults with bone metastases from solid tumours. (nice.org.uk)
  • The recommended dose of denosumab for the prevention of skeletal-related events in bone metastases from solid tumours is 120 mg every 4 weeks. (nice.org.uk)
  • THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Aug. 3 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Amgen (Nasdaq: AMGN) today announced positive top-line results from a pivotal Phase 3 head-to-head trial evaluating denosumab administered subcutaneously versus Zometa (zoledronic acid) administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion in the treatment of bone metastases in 1,776 advanced cancer patients with solid tumors (not including breast and prostate cancer) or multiple myeloma. (amgen.com)
  • In the phase III OPTIMIZE-2 trial reported in JAMA Oncology , Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, MD , of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and colleagues found that an every-12-week schedule of zoledronic acid was noninferior to an every-4-week schedule with regard to skeletal-related event rate in women with bone metastases from breast cancer who were currently receiving intravenous bisphosphonate therapy. (ascopost.com)
  • Among women with bone metastases from breast cancer who were already receiving intravenous bisphosphonate therapy, an every-12-week regimen of zoledronic acid was noninferior to an every-4-week regimen in terms of skeletal-related event rate over 1 year. (ascopost.com)
  • The incidence of bone metastases (BM) in patients with NENs is 12-25%, and skeletal related events (SREs) occur in up to 21% of affected cases. (enets.org)
  • Antiresorptive therapy (ART) with bisphosphonates or denosumab is effective in preventing skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases (BM). (enets.org)
  • 2903 Bone Metastases (BM) in Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET): Imaging Characteristics and Clinical Implications. (enets.org)
  • Bone metastases (BM) are usually reported in less than 10% of patients. (enets.org)
  • Bone metastases and skeletal-related events (SREs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC). (jnccn.org)
  • Data are limited on bone metastases and SREs in patients with mNSCLC treated using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and on the efficacy of bone-modifying agents (BMAs) in this setting. (jnccn.org)
  • Here we report the incidence, impact on survival, risk factors for bone metastases and SREs, and impact of BMAs in patients with mNSCLC treated with ICIs in a multi-institutional cohort. (jnccn.org)
  • Overall survival (OS) was compared between patients with and without baseline bone metastases using a log-rank test. (jnccn.org)
  • A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association between OS and the presence of bone metastases at ICI initiation, controlling for other confounding factors. (jnccn.org)
  • In our cohort, 124 patients (38%) had baseline bone metastases, and 43 (13%) developed SREs during or after ICI treatment. (jnccn.org)
  • Presence of bone metastases at baseline was associated with a worse prognosis for patients with mNSCLC treated with ICI after controlling for multiple clinical characteristics. (jnccn.org)
  • More than one-third of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) will develop bone metastases during the course of their illness. (jnccn.org)
  • 1 Development of bone metastases often leads to significant morbidity, with approximately 70% of patients needing opioids for pain. (jnccn.org)
  • 2 The presence of bone metastases also increases the risk for skeletal-related events (SREs), including pathologic fracture. (jnccn.org)
  • The prognostic significance of bone metastases with respect to mortality is unclear, with one recent meta-analysis of patients with mNSCLC treated with chemotherapy reporting that bone metastases were associated with improved overall survival (OS) compared with other metastatic sites. (jnccn.org)
  • Few studies have evaluated the prognostic significance of bone metastases in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), although data show that bone metastases may be less responsive to ICIs. (jnccn.org)
  • 4 , 5 Prior studies of bone metastases and immunotherapy have been limited to specific patient populations, including those receiving specific lines of therapy and types of ICI, and did not include assessment of SREs or impact of use of bone-modifying agents (BMAs). (jnccn.org)
  • The FDA has approved the use of BMA, including bisphosphonates (pamidronate and zoledronic acid) and denosumab (a monoclonal antibody against RANKL), for the management of bone metastases in all solid tumors, and the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Version 6.2020) recommend consideration of these therapies in patients with mNSCLC who have bone metastases. (jnccn.org)
  • Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • All muscles (mamsa dhatu) , tendons and ligaments are attached to asthis (bones). (ayurhelp.com)
  • Bones are held in place at joints by muscles and also tissues called ligaments. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • Bones provide a framework for the attachment of muscles and other tissues. (glogster.com)
  • Bones enable body movements by acting as levers and points of attachment for muscles. (glogster.com)
  • Did you know that your bones are actually muscles! (glogster.com)
  • Thats right, your bones are harder muscles trying to protect your organs. (glogster.com)
  • The Mighty Muscular and Skeletal Systems: How do my bones and muscles work? (biguniverse.com)
  • Readers are introduced to the structure and function of bones and muscles. (biguniverse.com)
  • Adding just the right mixture of signaling molecules-proteins involved in development-to human stem cells can coax them to resemble somites, which are groups of cells that give rise to skeletal muscles, bones, and cartilage in developing embryos. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Long- serve as rigid levers that are acted upon skeletal muscles for movement 2. (coursehero.com)
  • Such enormous skeletal thickening, apparently leaving little room for muscles, is unknown among extant fish. (pnas.org)
  • 3. It helps us to move as our muscles are attached to our bones. (k8schoollessons.com)
  • Most muscles cross at least one joint and are attached to the articulating bones that form that joint. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Muscles used for bending bones are called flexors and those that straighten up things are called extensors. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Muscles also prevent excess movement of the bones and joints, maintaining skeletal stability and preventing skeletal structure damage or deformation. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Skeletal muscles are called striated (pronounced: STRY-ay-ted) because they are made up of fibers that have horizontal stripes when viewed under a microscope. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Your skeletal system has 206 bones that work with your muscles to allow movement. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Working in unison, the joints, bones and skeletal muscles of the body comprise your musculoskeletal system. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • The body posture is maintained by the skeletal muscles. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Skeletal muscles do not work by themselves. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Skeletal muscles help in maintaining body temperature as their contractions coverts energy into heat. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Skeletal muscles cover the bones and give our bodies their shape. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • As well as protection and movement, bones provide a store for the mineral calcium, which is vital to the working of nerves and muscles. (factmonster.com)
  • The bones of the spine are kept in place and supported by attached ligaments and muscles. (factmonster.com)
  • The bones of many joints are held in place by muscles and bands of tissue called ligaments. (factmonster.com)
  • The muscles that attach to both bones are required for everyday activities. (reference.com)
  • It also provides the framework for attaching muscles that carry out respiratory movements, adjust the position of the head, neck and trunk, and anchor the appendicular bones. (reference.com)
  • How Do Muscles and Bones Work Together? (reference.com)
  • Structure and Function of Cartilage and Bone. (slideserve.com)
  • Skeletal muscle, cartilage and bone must function in a co-ordinated fashion during locomotion and growth. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • 1995). Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs: a one year study. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hypophysectomy (HX) on tibial cortical bone with histomorphometry. (wiley.com)
  • Cortical bone histomorphometry was performed on double-fluorescent-labeled 30-mcm-thick sections of the tibial shaft. (wiley.com)
  • Compared with wild type (wt), db mice displayed reduced peak bone mass and age-related trabecular and cortical bone loss. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Purpose: To assess buccal cortical bone thickness of the alveolar process in the maxilla and mandible in subjects with different skeletal relationship as an aid in orthodontic miniscrew placement. (elsevier.com)
  • Buccal cortical bone thickness was obtained at the alveolar processes from canine to second molar at 2 different vertical levels (6, and 8 mm) from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse differences in cortical bone thickness. (elsevier.com)
  • In the mandible, buccal cortical plate was thickest between first and second molar in all skeletal classes. (elsevier.com)
  • In the maxilla, the highest cortical bone thickness for Class I subjects was between first and second molar, for Class II subjects was between canine and first premolar, and for Class III subjects was between first and second premolar. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Buccal cortical bone thickness could be influenced by skeletal relationship. (elsevier.com)
  • Al-Jaf, NM , Megat Abdul Wahab, R & Abu Hassan, MI 2018, ' Buccal cortical bone thickness in different sagittal skeletal relationship ', Orthodontic Waves . (elsevier.com)
  • Cortical bone is a dense and rigid layer of calcium-rich osseous tissue that makes up the outer layer of a bone, explains InnerBody. (reference.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate the details of bone metastasis (BM) and the resulting skeletal-related events (SREs), and survival and prognostic factors, in urothelial cancer (UC) patients with BM. (springer.com)
  • Bone is the most common site for metastasis in cancer and is of particular clinical importance in breast and prostate cancers because of the prevalence of these diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Arihiro K, Inai K (2001) Expression of CD31, Met/hepatocyte growth factor receptor and bone morphogenetic protein in bone metastasis of osteosarcoma. (springer.com)
  • These results may have a substantial influence on current clinical practice for treatment of patients with bone metastasis from breast cancer. (ascopost.com)
  • inproceedings{Iwase2014TheRB, title={The Relationship Between Skeletal-Related Events and Bone Scan Index for the Treatment of Bone Metastasis With Breast Cancer Patients}, author={Toshiaki Iwase and Naohito Yamamoto and Hironori Ichihara and Takashi Togawa and Takeshi Nagashima and Masaru Miyazaki and Partha Sinha. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the automated bone scan index (aBSI) and skeletal-related events (SRE) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Forty-five patients diagnosed with bone metastasis due to breast cancer from April 2005 through March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Oncologic, such as bone metastasis and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • As we become older, the outer shell of our bones become thin and a stage may come when even a single sneeze or cough can fracture a bone. (hpathy.com)
  • Among men treated with zoledronic acid, there was a 5-month delay in the median time to the first skeletal-related event and a 6.5-month delay in the time to the first pathologic fracture, compared with placebo. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Skeletal-related events included any evidence of a pathologic fracture or spinal cord compression, radiation therapy or surgery to bone, or change in chemotherapy to treat bone pain. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Zoledronic acid delayed the onset of both skeletal complications and the appearance of the first pathologic fracture. (cancernetwork.com)
  • For the primary endpoint of this study, the median time to first on-study skeletal related event (SRE) (fracture, radiation to bone, surgery to bone, or spinal cord compression) was 20.6 months for those patients receiving denosumab and 16.3 months for those patients receiving Zometa (hazard ratio 0.84, 95 percent CI: 0.71-0.98), which is statistically significant for non-inferiority (p=0.0007). (newswire.ca)
  • It's characterized by pain, swelling, stiffness, and tenderness in the affected joint.Sprain is a severe painful injury to a ligament or tissue that covers a joint.A fracture is the most common, which occurs due to breakage of a bone. (glogster.com)
  • Skeletal morbidity includes pain that requires radiotherapy, hypercalcemia, pathologic fracture, and spinal cord or nerve root compression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The investigators defined SREs as pathologic fracture, radiation to the bone, spinal cord compression, and surgery to the bone. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The newly discovered pathway has a key role in controlling bone density during adolescence, which in turn determines the skeletal resistance to fracture throughout one's entire life, say the researchers. (healthcanal.com)
  • HS injury creates an ACL rupture by midsubstance tear, while LS injury creates an ACL rupture with an associated avulsion bone fracture. (nih.gov)
  • This finding may be particularly important for osteoporotic fracture risk, as damage within vertebral bodies has been shown to initiate within the trabecular bone compartment. (nih.gov)
  • Altogether, these data point to a systemic trabecular bone loss as a consequence of fracture or traumatic musculoskeletal injury, which may be an underlying mechanism contributing to increased risk of refracture following an initial injury. (nih.gov)
  • Because chronic inflammation participates in diabetes pathogenesis and is a prerequisite for osteoclast activation, increased bone resorption is considered the likely cause of increased fracture risk in this disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Skeletal-related events were defined as pathologic bone fracture, radiation therapy or surgery to bone, or spinal cord compression. (ascopost.com)
  • Pediatric patients with genetic and acquired chronic diseases, immobility, and inadequate nutrition may fail to achieve expected gains in bone size, mass, and strength, leaving them vulnerable to fracture. (aappublications.org)
  • In older adults, bone densitometry has been shown to predict fracture risk and reflect response to therapy. (aappublications.org)
  • Pediatric osteoporosis is defined by the Pediatric Position Development Conference by using 1 of the following criteria: ≥1 vertebral fractures occurring in the absence of local disease or high-energy trauma (without or with densitometry measurements) or low bone density for age and a significant fracture history (defined as ≥2 long bone fractures before 10 years of age or ≥3 long bone fractures before 19 years of age). (aappublications.org)
  • Ongoing research will help define the indications and best methods for assessing bone strength in children and the clinical factors that contribute to fracture risk. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 - 5 Children with forearm fractures have been shown to have lower bone mass, a greater percentage of body fat, and less calcium intake than their peers without a history of fracture. (aappublications.org)
  • The primary objective of the study is to determine whether treatment with zoledronic acid at the time of initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer will delay the time to first skeletal related event. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There was no significant difference between groups with regard to time to first skeletal-related event (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06, P = .79). (ascopost.com)
  • Besides the vertebrae, the pelvis, the ribs and long bones of our body are also affected. (hpathy.com)
  • Mineralization defects were not observed in microradiographs of femora and vertebrae from the current study, so it is unclear by what mechanism fluoride impaired bone strength. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In developing human embryos, muscle cells -as well as the bone and cartilage of vertebrae and ribs, among other cell types-arise from small clusters of cells called somites. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The spongy bone of an adult can be found in the center of the long bones in the arms and legs, as well as the pelvic bones, ribs, skull, and the vertebrae in the spinal column. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Compac t bone is the hard outer portion of the bone, and spongy bone is the spongy, honeycomb-like bone tissue that is found at the ends of long bones and in the middle of your vertebrae. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Irregular Bones Vertebrae, hip bones, etc. (slideplayer.com)
  • And an example of short bones are the vertebrae, which are the 26 that form the spine in an adult's body. (healthywaymag.com)
  • It is made up of 33 irregular bones, called vertebrae . (k8schoollessons.com)
  • It is made up of 33 bones called vertebrae, separated by intervertebral discs, which act as shock absorbers. (factmonster.com)
  • There are a number of skeletal disorders, osteoporosis is a bone disease that increases the chance of fractures, scoliosis is a curvature of the spine, while arthritis is an inflammatory disease that damages joints. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • None of the nine genes have been implicated previously in skeletal disorders and detailed analysis of the biomechanical consequences of their deletion revealed a novel functional classification of bone structure and strength. (plos.org)
  • Molecular aspects of bone formation and bone growth are discussed together with selected genetic disorders of the involved genes. (nih.gov)
  • They emphasize that understanding the mechanisms connecting the brain and the bones could have implications for possible future therapies to better deal with osteoporosis and various neural disorders. (healthcanal.com)
  • Prof. Yirmiya said that "low bone density and osteoporosis often appear together with neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, since interleukin-1 in the brain and the parasympathetic system are often damaged in these disorders. (healthcanal.com)
  • This comprehensive resource in the study and investigation of bone dysplasias is a must-have resource for radiologists, medical geneticists, orthopedic surgeons, pediatricians, and genetic counselors caring for patients who present with a great number of skeletal disorders, many of which are new conditions that have only been recently identified. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • Drugs for the treatment of skeletal disorders, such as osteoporosis, typically fall into one of two categories. (nature.com)
  • Genetic or acquired disorders can compromise gains in bone quantity and quality, leading to skeletal fragility early in life. (aappublications.org)
  • Surgical techniques that are effective in other disorders, such as bone grafting, curettage, and plates and screws, are frequently ineffective in fibrous dysplasia and should be avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this stage, the function of new bone forming cells (osteoblasts) also slows down considerably and calcium finds it difficult to reach the bones, ultimately leading to osteoporosis. (hpathy.com)
  • Less is known, however, about the protein changes associated with mesenchymal differentiation into bone-forming osteoblasts. (thermofisher.com)
  • Serum markers of bone formation from osteoblasts as osteocalcin (BGP) or extension peptides of collagen such as procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP, CICP) and enzymes as total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are indicatives of bone synthesis. (vin.com)
  • Poor skeletal outcome in db mice contributed high-glucose- and nonesterified fatty acid-induced osteoblast apoptosis that was associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) downregulation and upregulation of skeletal muscle atrogenes in osteoblasts. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We conclude that PGC-1α upregulation in osteoblasts could reverse type 2 diabetes-associated deterioration in skeletal health. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Osteoblasts- bone forming cells, synthesize soft organic matter of bone matrix, multiple through stress & fractures 3. (coursehero.com)
  • However, these reports conflict in their nomination of osteoblasts versus osteoclasts as the key producers of skeletal SLIT3 and additionally offer conflicting data on the effects of SLIT3 on osteoclastogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Taken in context, multiple lines of evidence were unable to identify the physiologic function of osteoclast-derived SLIT3, indicating that osteoblasts are the major source of skeletal SLIT3. (nature.com)
  • These drugs function to either block bone resorption by osteoclasts or augment bone formation by osteoblasts. (nature.com)
  • Our prior study showed that SLIT3 is highly expressed in osteoblasts, where it acts as a proangiogenic factor in bone to increase the levels of skeletal vascular endothelium and thereby increase bone formation. (nature.com)
  • The mesenchymal cells at first differentiate in to chondroblasts (which in turn form the cartilage) and the osteoblasts (which form the bone). (weebly.com)
  • The mesenchymal cells in the body differentiate into osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). (weebly.com)
  • For new bone to form, vitamin D stimulates cells called osteoblasts. (livestrong.com)
  • The osteoblasts utilize calcium to create new layers of bone cells to replace the ones destroyed by the osteoclasts. (livestrong.com)
  • We report a high-throughput multi-parameter phenotype screen to identify functionally significant skeletal phenotypes in mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project and discover novel genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. (plos.org)
  • The authors performed a high-throughput multi-parameter phenotype screen to identify mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project that had functionally significant skeletal phenotypes. (asbmr.org)
  • The longest bone in the human body is the thigh bone called the femur. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • This slide shows a cross-section of the femur (bone of upper leg), which is the longest bone in the human body. (scientistcindy.com)
  • The thigh bone is also known as the femur . (k8schoollessons.com)
  • Examples of long bones are the radius, humerus, femur and ulna. (reference.com)
  • According to studies of bone cancer in mouse femur models, it has been determined that bone pain related to cancer occurs as a result of destruction of bone tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long Bones - longer than wide All limb bones sans the patella Short Bones - a roughly cubic or rounded Carpals and tarsals Flat Bones - Thin, flattened, sometimes curved Ribs, sternum, etc. (slideplayer.com)
  • long bones, flat bones, and short bones. (healthywaymag.com)
  • They are five long bones named according to their specific position: first metatarsal, second metatarsal, third metatarsal, fourth metatarsal, and fifth metatarsal. (healthywaymag.com)
  • Just like the shape of our fingers, the metacarpals are thin and long bones. (healthywaymag.com)
  • These are long bones located in the fingers. (healthywaymag.com)
  • The Pthrp KI mice with Chk2 deletion exhibited a longer lifespan, improvement in osteoblastic bone formation and skeletal growth including width of growth plates and length of long bones, trabecular and epiphyseal bone volume, BMD, osteoblast numbers, type I collagen and ALP positive bone areas, the numbers of total colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-f), ALP + CFU-f and the expression levels of osteogenic genes. (ijbs.com)
  • These are the two long bones in the leg below the knee. (k8schoollessons.com)
  • The calf bone , also known as the fibula, is the smaller of the two bones and the thinnest of all the long bones . (k8schoollessons.com)
  • It is present at the ends of long bones and in the interior of most flat bones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, bone pain is significantly associated with a 3-fold increased risk of skeletal-related events. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Zoledronic acid decreases the risk of skeletal related events in men with prostate cancer metastatic to bone and disease progression after primary hormonal therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study is designed to evaluate whether earlier treatment with zoledronic acid will further decrease the risk of skeletal related events. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and can withstand repeated injection of large number of stem cells, we thought it would be a good method to deliver MSCs," Lee said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new protocol to create somite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells opens the door to researchers who want to make muscle, bone and cartilage cells in the lab. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Osteogenic cells- stem cells that develop from fibroblasts and give rise to other bone cells located in endosteum, inner layer of eriostemon, and in central canals 2. (coursehero.com)
  • Descartes' Bones is a historical detective story about the creation of the modern mind, with twists & turns leading up to the present day-to the science museum in Paris where the philosopher's skull now resides & to the church a few kilometers away where, not long ago, a philosopher-priest said a mass for his bones. (goodreads.com)
  • It is not possible to illustrate all of the bones and parts of bones that may be included on such courses without also including more complicated diagrams illustrating sections cut through the skull (such as sagittal and transverse sections). (ivyroses.com)
  • air-filled cavities lined with mucous membranes located within some skull bones. (ivyroses.com)
  • In the context of anatomy, a 'suture' is a type of immovable joint found only between skull bones and consisting of a small amount of connective tissue between the bones. (ivyroses.com)
  • These joints hold the bones of the skull together. (ivyroses.com)
  • The skull includes the jaw bone and the facial bones . (k8schoollessons.com)
  • The skull consists of 22 bones (excluding the three bones in each middle ear). (factmonster.com)
  • All the larger skull bones are shown in this exploded view. (factmonster.com)
  • Examples of fixed joints include the joints between the bones in the skull and the joint where the radius and ulna bones meet in the lower arm. (reference.com)
  • Parts of the skeletal system are the skull, rib cage and sternum, and the pelvis. (reference.com)
  • The axial division is composed of 80 bones that make up the skull, vertebral column and rib cage. (reference.com)
  • It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. (indigo.ca)
  • These are long curved bones that form a cage that protects the organs found in the chest. (educationquizzes.com)
  • The long curved bones that form a cage that protects the organs found in the chest are known as the ribs. (educationquizzes.com)
  • As in the bone and the heart, the new pathway might have an important function as well in other organs controlled by the autonomic nervous system. (healthcanal.com)
  • Chap7[1] - Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System. (coursehero.com)
  • The number and kinds of studies and facts that revealed those two things for load-bearing bones do not yet exist for the extraosseous load-bearing organs that are made with cartilage and collagenous tissue. (galileo-training.com)
  • However, clinical-pathologic observations suggest the latter organs" SSFs should depend on features analogous to those that create SSFs for load-bearing bones. (galileo-training.com)
  • If so, the physiology on which bone"s SSF depends could suggest directions for future studies of the SSF determinants of load-bearing extraosseous organs. (galileo-training.com)
  • Coleman RE (2006) Clinical features of metastatic bone disease and risk of skeletal morbidity. (springer.com)
  • The latter is best estimated by measurement of bone-specific markers, and recent studies have shown a strong correlation between the rate of bone resorption and clinical outcome, both in terms of skeletal morbidity and progression of the underlying disease or death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mean skeletal morbidity rate was 0.50 vs 0.46 events per year ( P = .85). (ascopost.com)
  • Osteo" means bones and "Porosis" means spongy or porous. (hpathy.com)
  • Diploe- spongy layer in cranium/ absorb impact or blow to head Histology of Osseous Tissue Bone Cells 1. (coursehero.com)
  • A lot of this cartilage is converted into spongy bone and then much of the spongy bone gets replaced by compact bone. (scientistcindy.com)
  • As an adult, only 20% or so of your bone remains as spongy bone. (scientistcindy.com)
  • spongy bone and compact bone. (scientistcindy.com)
  • The i nternal portions of your bones contain spongy bone, also called trabecular bone or cancellous bone. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Spongy bone lives up to its name in its appearance. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Some people describe the appearance of spongy bone to be similar to a honeycomb. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Spongy bone is made up of trabeculae, which has many open spaces connected by flat planes. (scientistcindy.com)
  • The architecture and proportion of the compact and spongy bones vary according to the function. (weebly.com)
  • The compact bone provides strength for weight bearing and is found in greatest amount near the shaft of the long bone, while growth (lengthening) of bone occurs in the spongy bone, and is mostly found near the end of the long bone ( fig 5) . (weebly.com)
  • Bones are composed of two types of tissue: cancellous (spongy) and compact bone. (factmonster.com)
  • In cancellous (spongy) bone, struts of rigid bone tissue called trabeculae connect up to form a honeycomblike structure. (factmonster.com)
  • Deficiency of vitamin D leads to painful joints, stiff neck, hair loss and bone loss. (ayurhelp.com)
  • Dificiency of vitamin D leads to painful joints, stiff neck, hair loss and bone loss. (ayurhelp.com)
  • The areas where our bones meet are called joints. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The strength of healthy postnatal mammalian load-bearing bones, growth plates, joints, fascia, ligaments and tendons exceeds the minimum strength needed to keep voluntary mechanical usage from breaking or rupturing them or from causing arthroses. (galileo-training.com)
  • The latter consists of all bones and joints. (healthywaymag.com)
  • As they are connections between bones and between bones and cartilages, joints allow the movement and elasticity of the skeletal system. (healthywaymag.com)
  • Together with different joints, the bones of the foot have the primary function of giving flexibility and mobility to this part of the body . (healthywaymag.com)
  • As the foot bones, the hand bones connect with tissues and joints to allow this part of our body to move . (healthywaymag.com)
  • These bones meet at JOINTS , most of which allow movement between the bones they connect. (factmonster.com)
  • Joints are the parts of the body where bones meet. (factmonster.com)
  • Some, such as the joints in the cranium, allow no movement between the bones. (factmonster.com)
  • The skeletal system consists of 206 bones and their associated tissues, including the cartilage, ligaments, tendons and joints. (reference.com)
  • Minerals like Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium along with protein and collagen help to build bones. (ayurhelp.com)
  • Bone consists mainly of collagen fibres and an inorganic bone mineral in the form of small crystals. (glogster.com)
  • These included structural proteins such as collagen, in addition to those involved in the regulation of skeletal development, such as insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5). (thermofisher.com)
  • Urinary markers of bone resorption included calcium (uCa) or collagen degradation products as pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd). (vin.com)
  • Considering levels of bone markers in geriatric dogs, it could be demonstrated an uncoupled turnover in favor of faster renovation of cartilage collagen particularly such as active rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis where cartilage degradation is faster. (vin.com)
  • Bone is made mostly of collagen and calcium. (reference.com)
  • The human skeletal system has six major functions including the production of blood cells, for support, for movement, for protection, for storage of ions and endocrine regulation. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • Our teeth form part of the skeletal system, but are not counted as bones. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The medical branch of learning about the human skeletal system is called Orthopedics. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • 5] D. J. Michael and A. C. Nelson, "HANDX: amodel-based system for automatic segmentationof bones from digital hand radiographs," IEEETrans Med Imaging, vol. 8, pp. 64-69, 1989. (actapress.com)
  • 21] A. Tristan-Vega and J. I. Arribas, "A radius andulna TW3 bone age assessment system," IEEE295Trans Biomed Eng, vol. 55, pp. 1463-1476, May2008. (actapress.com)
  • Bones Skeletal System Human Anatomy Isolated Anatomical Structure. (123rf.com)
  • Scoliosis is a skeletal system disorder which leads to an abnormally curved ('s' or 'c' shape) spine. (glogster.com)
  • CancerVarious types of cancers can damage bones and the skeletal system. (glogster.com)
  • Skeletal system!What is it? (glogster.com)
  • Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have discovered that a neuronal pathway - part of the autonomic nervous system - reaches the bones and participates in the control of bone development. (healthcanal.com)
  • The curriculum unit presented here is to be a short segment taught within a broader unit of the course that covers the structure, function, and dysfunction of the skeletal system. (yale.edu)
  • The skeletal system - The Skeletal System Chapter 7. (coursehero.com)
  • Osteon (Haversian System) - a tube or cylinder of bone matrix Detailed structure can be found on pg. (slideplayer.com)
  • Apart from having a circulatory system , a muscular system, and a reproductive system (among others), the human body has a skeletal system . (healthywaymag.com)
  • The skeletal system and its components are in charge of holding the body together, that is, support its weight, give it balance and allow it to move. (healthywaymag.com)
  • The Main Bones Of the Skeletal System movie bones & skeletal system kidshealth watch a movie about your bones if you want to know more about your beautiful bones this movie is a great place to start. (karateafrique.org)
  • So if you wish to get the great shots about The Main Bones Of the Skeletal System , just click save icon to store these pictures to your personal computer. (karateafrique.org)
  • Thanks for visiting our website, contentabove The Main Bones Of the Skeletal System published by admin. (karateafrique.org)
  • At this time we're delighted to declare we have found an awfullyinteresting nicheto be reviewed, namely The Main Bones Of the Skeletal System Many individuals searching for info about and certainly one of these is you, is not it? (karateafrique.org)
  • Thigh bone is the longest and the strongest bone in the human skeletal system. (k8schoollessons.com)
  • What Does the Skeletal System Consist Of? (reference.com)
  • Skeletal System - Why Is It Important? (reference.com)
  • Discover 10 Facts About The Skeletal System . (reference.com)
  • The skeletal system is divided into two divisions. (reference.com)
  • What Are the Main Functions of the Skeletal System? (reference.com)
  • In addition to helping bones stay hard and strong, the skeletal system serves as a backup calcium storage area in case calcium blood levels dip too low. (livestrong.com)
  • People need calcium throughout their entire lives to maintain a healthy skeletal system. (livestrong.com)
  • During bone growth, calcium is absorbed by the gastrointestinal system and is deposited on the surface of the bone. (livestrong.com)
  • These hard layers of bone material and calcium are what make the skeletal system strong. (livestrong.com)
  • Early in life, dietary calcium intake is especially important because it helps to build valuable calcium stores in the skeletal system. (livestrong.com)
  • This forces the body to utilize calcium stores from the skeletal system to maintain adequate blood calcium levels. (livestrong.com)
  • The skeletal system will become brittle and weak if too much calcium leaches from the bones, so consuming adequate calcium early in life is imperative for bone health later in life. (livestrong.com)
  • Bone tumors are composed of a conglomeration of cell types including cancer and immune system cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These markers, measured in blood and urine, have divers levels of specificity and sensitivity, estimating the excess of bone resorption or formation. (vin.com)
  • Bone formation was evaluated with fluorescence double labeling with calcein and bone resorption with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. (springer.com)
  • Conditional deletion of SLIT3 in cathepsin K (CTSK)-positive cells, including osteoclasts, had no effect on the number of osteoclast progenitors, in vitro osteoclast differentiation, overall bone mass, or bone resorption/formation parameters. (nature.com)
  • Deficiency of vitamin D leads problems of calcium and phosphorous metabolism leading to Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, in which bones become soft with a tendency to deformities and fractures. (hpathy.com)
  • Thus bones become weak and thin resulting in a higher risk of fractures. (hpathy.com)
  • there was no obvious difference in the histological appearance of bone of those who developed fractures compared with those who did not. (fluoridealert.org)
  • However, some studies intriguingly suggest that patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of hip fractures at a higher bone mineral density (BMD) value than patients without diabetes ( 5 ) as well as an increased incidence of vertebral fractures at BMD values comparable to that of patients without diabetes ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1 Recurrent fractures in otherwise healthy children may also indicate underlying bone fragility. (aappublications.org)
  • 3 , 4 The documented increase of 35% to 65% in childhood fractures over the past 4 decades has raised concern that current lifestyles are compromising early bone health. (aappublications.org)
  • The periosteal layer of bone tissue is highly pain-sensitive and an important cause of pain in several disease conditions causing bone pain, like fractures, osteoarthritis, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others, such as fractures, osteoarthritis, Paget's disease of bone (also termed osteitis deformans or ambiguously, just Paget's disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with hypophosphatemia may develop rickets/osteomalacia, increased fractures, and bone pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravenous bisphosphonates may be helpful for treatment of bone pain, but there is no clear evidence that they strengthen bone lesions or prevent fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of Osteoclasts is to dissolve the older bones and leave small holes behind. (hpathy.com)
  • Additionally, coverage includes how the molecular and cellular aspects of bones and cartilage differ in different skeletal systems and across species, along with the latest studies and hypotheses of relationships between skeletal cells and the most recent information on coupling between osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters have been revised and updated to include the latest research. (indigo.ca)
  • During bone growth, cells called osteoclasts digest old, weak bone cells that have less calcium than when they were new. (livestrong.com)
  • When osteoclasts destroy old bone cells, the residual calcium in those cells is released into the bloodstream. (livestrong.com)
  • Knowing about these facts help us to prevent diseases like joint pain, osteoporosis, inflammation of bone tissue etc. (ayurhelp.com)
  • Osteoporosis is a slow progressive skeletal disease characterized by gradual loss of calcium. (hpathy.com)
  • Osteoporosis is often called a silent thief which may rob the bone density of people before the appearance of any symptoms. (hpathy.com)
  • Using bone and osteoporosis as a paradigm, we identify nine new genes that determine bone structure and strength from a screen of 100 knockout mice. (plos.org)
  • A number of diseases can cause bone pain, including the following: Endocrine, such as hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis, kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to clarify signal transduction of osteoblast development in bone loss due to skeletal unloading. (springer.com)
  • Osteoblast-specific PGC-1α upregulation by 6-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3S)-(+)-5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol (GTDF), an adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) agonist, as well as metformin in db mice that lacked AdipoR1 expression in muscle but not bone restored osteopenia to wt levels without improving diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An example of a long bone is the humerus, which is located in the arms and it is the longest bone of this part of the human body. (healthywaymag.com)
  • Connective Tissue: Cartilage ~20 min Skeletal Cartilage - a connective tissue  (3) Types of Cartilage found in Skeletal Tissue 1. (coursehero.com)
  • Bones mainly develop into two types of connective tissue, mesenchyme and cartilage. (weebly.com)
  • The bone also known as the spinal column is the vertebra. (educationquizzes.com)
  • Chemical changes that occur within the spinal cord as a result of bone destruction give further insight into the mechanism of bone pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results in the same group of men after 15 months of follow-up, which were the first to show that a bisphosphonate was effective in treating or preventing skeletal complications in men with metastatic prostate cancer, were reported at last year's annual meeting of the American Urological Association and published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute (94:1458-1468, 2002). (cancernetwork.com)
  • The bisphosphonate also decreased the annual incidence of skeletal complications. (cancernetwork.com)
  • This damage can result in a number of serious bone complications, collectively called skeletal related events. (newswire.ca)
  • NICE recommends denosumab as a possible treatment for preventing complications that result from cancer spreading to the bone from solid tumours, except for prostate cancer, if the person would otherwise be prescribed a type of drug called a bisphosphonate. (nice.org.uk)
  • NICE does not recommend denosumab for preventing complications that result from prostate cancer spreading to the bone. (nice.org.uk)
  • over 2,500 diagnostic radiographs with concise clinical and biological information on a total of 275 rare constitutional skeletal diseases, and concise data on the etiopathogenesis, natural course, complications, and differential diagnosis of rare conditions. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • Vertebrate Cartilages Part II Origins and Types of Skeletal Tissues 4. (indigo.ca)
  • Part A Skeletal Cartilages, Classification of Bones, and Functions of Bones. (slideserve.com)
  • Skeletal Cartilages. (slideserve.com)
  • Development of bones and cartilages begin by the condensation of mesenchymal cells into bone and cartilage models respectively. (weebly.com)
  • CHICAGO-Bone pain in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is the strongest predictor of skeletal-related events (SREs), according to study findings presented at the 2019 American Urological Association annual meeting. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Bone pain was significantly associated with a 3-fold increased risk of SREs, Ingrid Lorese Tablazon, of the Durham VA medical center in Durham, North Carolina, and collaborators reported in a poster presentation. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Our skeleton's bone mass is at its maximum density around the age of 30. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • the density is unaltered, but the strength of the bone is lower for the more fluoridated group, which is consistent with some previous animal studies. (fluoridealert.org)
  • We investigated the usefulness of bone density measurements from multiple skeletal sites and calcaneus ultrasound for evaluating the probability of vertebral deformation. (nih.gov)
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the second metacarpal and middle phalanges using radiographic absorptiometry of hand radiographs, and at the lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. (nih.gov)
  • Among the women in this study (mean age 74, SD = 5), 84 women developed new vertebral deformations (57 cases with one and 27 cases with two or more deformations), which were identified on serial radiographs during an average of 9 years prior to the measurements of bone density. (nih.gov)
  • It appears that all of the measurements of bone density and ultrasound provide useful information regarding the probability of deformation. (nih.gov)
  • The investigators propose to identify the effects of pubertal blockade on bone density and size in pediatric transgender individuals. (centerwatch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine if the mandible (MD) experiences reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) similar to the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) in a postmenopausal population. (ovid.com)
  • 182 in textbook Endochondrial Ossification - Hyaline cartilage is replaced with bone by osteocytes Pg. (slideplayer.com)
  • Compact bone consists of units called osteons, each about 1 mm (1/25 in) across. (factmonster.com)
  • The forearm consists of two parallel bones, the radius and the ulna. (reference.com)
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5(Suppl 1):S205-15. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 4:223-5. (fluoridealert.org)
  • However, an investigation of the bone mineral at the nanometer level using SAXS showed small but significant differences between the NaF and the two other groups… It is, therefore, very likely that part of the reduction of bone strength following NaF treatment was due to a change in the material structure of bone at the nanometer level. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 1996). Effects of sodium fluoride and alendronate on the bone mineral in minipigs: a small-angle x-ray scattering and backscattered electron imaging study. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11: 248-253. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Of its dry mass, approximately 60-70% is bone mineral. (glogster.com)
  • Distal radius and proximal radius were measured using single-energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA), expressed as bone mineral content (BMC, grams per centimeter), and as BMD (grams per square centimeter). (nih.gov)
  • Mineral (serum and urinary Ca, serum P, urine Ca/Crea, FECa) muscular (serum and urinary Crea) and bone turnover profiles (BGP, PICP and ALP in serum, Pyd and Dpd in urine) were determined in all dogs except Dpd studied in Berger dogs and Beagles. (vin.com)
  • Regarding to the mineral changes, they could reflect some skeletal degenerations in older dogs as well as bone turnover markers in hip osteoarthritis dogs. (vin.com)
  • In conclusion, bone markers can reflect bone metabolic changes as well as mineral parameters, but future investigations should confirm this idea. (vin.com)
  • Calcium is a vital mineral in the bone growth process. (livestrong.com)
  • Researchers are trying to determine if the vitamin B3 derivative Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) has any effects in bone, skeletal muscle, and metabolic functions and structure in aging. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These two bone tissue types work together in each bone and provide complementary functions. (scientistcindy.com)
  • These were some of the skeletal muscle functions. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • In the multiple events analysis, the risk of developing a skeletal complication was 36% lower for patients treated with the bisphosphonate ( P = .002). (cancernetwork.com)
  • Bone destruction is a major cause of pain in approximately 70 percent of patients with metastatic disease. (newswire.ca)
  • These long-awaited studies further clarify the signaling relationships between the parathyroid gland, kidney, and metabolic bone disease in patients with mutations in the gene encoding the CaSR, and they provide new insights into understanding the signaling pathways involving the CaSR in skeletal cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In many patients, metastatic bone disease is a chronic condition with an increasing range of specific treatments available to slow the progression of the underlying disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In people with prostate cancer that has spread to the bone denosumab does not provide enough benefit to patients to justify its high cost so NICE did not recommend it. (nice.org.uk)
  • Ga-PSMA PET outperforms planar BS for the detection of affected bone regions as well as determination of overall bone involvement in PC patients. (urotoday.com)
  • Primary Objective: To assess the effect of 'NAD boosting' through NR intake in skeletal muscle and bone metabolism function, and biochemical evidence of improvement of DNA damage repair in healthy elderly female patients with and without exercise. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Thus, the reasons for increased skeletal fragility in patients with type 2 diabetes remain largely unexplained. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with at least one skeletal-related event on study. (ascopost.com)
  • The every-12-weeks regimen of zoledronic acid was noninferior to the every-4 weeks regimen for the proportion of patients experiencing 1 or more [skeletal-related event]. (ascopost.com)
  • A novel automated platform for quantifying the extent of skeletal tumour involvement in prostate cancer patients using the Bone Scan Index. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Total body scintigraphy is useful to identify and determine the extent of bone lesions, and should be performed in all patients with suspected fibrous dysplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short bones o Wrists and ankles have a total of 30 short bones o Carpal (8 in each hand) and tarsal bones o The patella 4. (coursehero.com)
  • This is why these bones are called "tarsal bones. (healthywaymag.com)
  • Men treated with zoledronic acid also had significantly less need for radiation treatments directed to bone, which suggests that the bisphosphonate provides improved pain control, Dr. Saad said. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Zoledronic acid significantly reduced the percentage of men who had a skeletal-related event, the primary endpoint of the study, at the P = .028 level. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The median time to the first skeletal-related event was 488 days in the zoledronic acid group vs 321 days in the placebo group ( P = .009). (cancernetwork.com)
  • Compact bone is made up of osteons which can be visualized on the slide below. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Bones have an outer layer of compact bone, one of the body's hardest materials. (factmonster.com)
  • Cancellous bone is less dense than compact bone but is still very strong. (factmonster.com)
  • This compact bone laye. (reference.com)
  • In people with cancer that has spread to the bone from solid tumours, except breast and prostate cancer, NICE recommended denosumab because it works better than bisphosphonates. (nice.org.uk)
  • Predictors of skeletal related events and overall survival in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer: Results from the SEARCH database. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Bone scan index: a quantitative treatment response biomarker for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Like our skin , the human body's bones are also constantly worn down and re-made, to the point where every 7 years we essentially have a new bone. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • With the understanding that you have already studied the skeletal bones, in this Spanish Medium Review quiz you will look at the science of the human body's skeletal bones. (educationquizzes.com)
  • They isolated the skeletal elements from 500 larval zebrafish, 100 juveniles and 15 adults, then used a sequential protein extraction procedure, modified to prevent excessive protein loss. (thermofisher.com)
  • confirmed the site of protein synthesis with in-situ mRNA hybridization of 28-day fish, showing that the ECM proteins identified came from skeletal tissue cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Moreover, the scientists found 6 novel proteins not previously associated with vertebrate osteogenesis and 52 whose role at the protein level in zebrafish skeletal development constituted a new finding. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the past, these same researchers reported that the activity of a protein called interleukin-1 influences bone development. (healthcanal.com)
  • To investigate transcription regulation in skeletal muscle and bone we stimulated protein synthesis using a flooding dose of the branched chain amino acid leucine and compared the results with saline-injected controls. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The prognosis of metastatic bone disease is dependent on the primary site, with breast and prostate cancers associated with a survival measured in years compared with lung cancer, where the average survival is only a matter of months. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Irregular bones - many bones don't fit into any of the above categories o Ex. (coursehero.com)
  • All bone measurements were significantly associated with vertebral deformation, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 1.40 (1.10, 1.78) for proximal radius BMD to 1.88 (1.45, 2.44) for calcaneus BMD measurements. (nih.gov)
  • Bones are breaking down and rebuilding at the same rate and their overall strength remains the same. (hpathy.com)
  • Whether a history of participation in osteogenic activities during youth, as well as current participation in osteogenic activities, contributes to young adult bone microarchitecture and strength is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Microarchitecture and estimated bone strength (by micro-finite element analysis) were assessed at the ultradistal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that among young adults, greater amounts of osteogenic physical activity, as assessed by the SkL score and BPAQ are associated with improved bone microarchitecture and strength. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of animal studies investigating fluoride's impact on bone strength have found that fluoride has either no effect, or a detrimental effect , on bone strength. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Importantly, several of the animal studies that have found fluoride reductes bone strength have reported that this reduction in strength occurs before signs of skeletal fluorosis are detectable. (fluoridealert.org)
  • It appears evident, therefore, that fluoride can reduce bone strength before the onset of skeletal fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 1997). Fluoride treatment increased serum IGF-1, bone turnover, and bone mass, but not bone strength, in rabbts. (fluoridealert.org)
  • T]here were no signs of bone pathology, even though bone strength was reduced. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 1995). Fluoride reduces bone strength in older rats. (fluoridealert.org)
  • We have shown unequivocal reductions in bone strength in rats that were not associated with osteomalacia. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 1993). On fluoride and bone strength. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The bone strength deficit caused by fluoride accumulation in bone is not always associated with gross bone pathology (i.e. woven bone formation), but may be caused by decreased bone lipid content and calcification defects induced by decreased bonding strength at the crystal-matrix interface. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The integrated use of primary phenotype data with quantitative x-ray microradiography, micro-computed tomography, statistical approaches and biomechanical testing in 100 unselected knockout mouse strains identified nine new genetic determinants of bone mass and strength. (plos.org)
  • We also report a novel functional classification that relates bone structure to bone strength and opens the field to collaborative research between material scientists, bioengineers and biologists. (plos.org)
  • ECM proteins, including collagens and proteoglycans, play an important role in the appropriate development of bone and skeletal tissue, ensuring strength and functionality. (thermofisher.com)
  • We hypothesized that knee injury would initiate a loss of trabecular bone structure and strength at the L5 vertebral body. (nih.gov)
  • However, an SSF is best expressed in stress terms, so a Table in this article provides corresponding strain/stress/unit-load values for bone"s three important thresholds, and for its ultimate strength. (galileo-training.com)
  • When the cancer cells have metastasized, the mechanical dynamics of the bone matrix become weaker as skeletal strength decreases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our super realistic, anatomically correct skeletal hand and foot models are great for a medical office, anatomy lab, art studio, Halloween party, or just to add a little orthopizzazz to your living room all year long. (sciplus.com)
  • Yet their exact anatomy remained obscure due to the contrasting physical properties of bone and neural tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • To include information about the locations of all of the main features of the skeletal structures of the face and cranium, a table is included below the diagrams, summarising key facts about each. (ivyroses.com)
  • Floor of the cranium, inferior to the frontal bone and anterior to the sphenoid. (ivyroses.com)
  • One group (including the frontal, parietal, and temporal bones) surrounds the brain and is fused together to form the cranium. (factmonster.com)
  • The second edition of Bones and Cartilage includes the most recent knowledge of molecular, cellular, developmental and evolutionary processes, which are integrated to outline a unified discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. (indigo.ca)
  • Merging the old skeletal biology with the new. (nih.gov)
  • This volume presents manuscripts stemming from the 4th New York Skeletal Biology and Medicine Conference, held at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City on April 27-30, 2011. (ovid.com)
  • the other topic areas are included in Skeletal Biology and Medicine I. (ovid.com)
  • The current approach demonstrates the significant enrichment attained in the isolation of SSCs, with potential therein to enhance our understanding of bone cell biology and translational applications. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The overall skeletal thickening was most likely formed through deposition of the oversaturated calcium and was apparently a normal feature of the biology and growth of these fish. (pnas.org)
  • These volumes differ from the current conventional texts on bone cell biology. (ebooks.com)
  • It occurs if a person does not have enough strong bone mass by age 30, before bone loss begins or if bone loss after age 30 happens too fast. (hpathy.com)
  • From randomized trials in advanced cancer, it can be seen that one of these major skeletal events occurs on average every 3 to 6 months. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At the end of the article, we will also mention some of the most common bone diseases and how we can favor the excellent development of these bone structures. (healthywaymag.com)
  • To achieve this, both in humans and animals, the development of a large number of bone structures are necessary. (healthywaymag.com)
  • Zhang Y, Chen G, Gu Z, Sun H, Karaplis A, Goltzman D, Miao D. DNA damage checkpoint pathway modulates the regulation of skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by parathyroid hormone-related peptide. (ijbs.com)
  • Same way human body is supported by strong bones. (ayurhelp.com)
  • What is the largest bone in the human body? (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • Human bones grow continually from birth till our mid 20's. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear. (sciencekids.co.nz)
  • This is the thigh bone and it is the longest, strongest and heaviest bone of the human body. (educationquizzes.com)
  • 3.1 Denosumab (XGEVA, Amgen) is a fully human monoclonal antibody that reduces osteoclast-mediated bone destruction by inhibiting the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which is the primary mediator of increased osteoclast activity. (nice.org.uk)
  • Bone turnover reflect changes of bone remodeling and are essentials in the biochemical evaluation of most human osteopathies. (vin.com)
  • EDTA concentration was a key influencing factor on the total demineralization process to chelate calcium from human skeletal remains. (springer.com)
  • Anatomical drawing of human back with muscle,bone and skeletal details. (illustrationsource.com)
  • The human body has 206 named bones total. (scientistcindy.com)
  • Knowledge of bone structure and familarisation with the major bones of the human body is an essential part of training in many therapies, such as massage (in its many forms, incl. (ivyroses.com)
  • Learn how many bones the human body has and what function each of them has. (healthywaymag.com)
  • How many bones are in the human body? (healthywaymag.com)
  • In the following lines, we will list the 34 main bones in the human body. (healthywaymag.com)
  • Bones in the human hand are divided into three groups. (k8schoollessons.com)
  • Learn more about the human skeletal and muscular systems. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • We've demonstrated that injecting MSCs, or trophic factors released by MSCs, into skeletal muscle improved ventricular function, promoted regeneration of heart tissue, decreased cell death and improved other factors that cause heart failure. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Struts and Flex, our muscle and bone Body Buddies give the inside scoop on this active partnership. (biguniverse.com)
  • those somite cells then generated (left to right) cartilage, bone and muscle cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The scientists followed the cells over the next four weeks and determined that they were indeed able to generate cells including skeletal muscle , bone and cartilage that normally develop from somites. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the present study on the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) we tested the hypothesis that muscle and bone differ in their responsiveness to stimuli eliciting fast growth, providing a potential mechanism for generating the skeletal deformities observed in aquaculture. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • To increase the amount of available sequence information for gene expression analysis a de novo transcriptome was assembled using publicly available Next Generation Sequencing libraries from embryo, fast skeletal muscle, bone and cartilage. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Principal Components Analysis was able to distinguish the transcriptional responses between leucine and saline injected controls in skeletal muscle, but not in bone. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • General Linear Modelling revealed significant temporal changes in gene expression following leucine injection including the tissue-specific markers sparc, bglap (bone), mlc2 and myod2 (muscle) and gene transcripts associated with Pi3k/Akt/mTor signalling, p70sk6, akt2, ampka and mtor. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Skeletal muscle showed more pronounced and rapid changes in transcript abundance than bone to the same pro-growth signal. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The observed differences in transcriptional response are consistent with the idea that fast growth results in a miss-match between muscle and bone development and may contribute to a higher incidence of skeletal deformities. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Skeletal muscle is comprised from a series of bundles of muscle fibers, surrounded by protective membranes. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Each and every voluntary and in some cases involuntary movements, is due to the action of skeletal muscle tissue. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • The skeletal muscle function includes 5 activities performed by these tissues. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • A skeletal muscle may attach a bone to another bone (often across a joint) or a bone to another structure, such as skin. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Skeletal muscle is found between bones, and uses tendons to connect the epimysium to the periosteum, or outer covering, of bone. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Thus, skeletal muscle fiber is also known as a syncytium. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Skeletons are not always internal as … A particular type of muscle tissue, called skeletal muscle, is attached to bones throughout your body. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • At the ends of each skeletal muscle a tendon connects the muscle to bone. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Your skeletal muscle is closely connected with your tendons and ligaments and can be found in all shapes and sizes around the body. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • Skeletal muscle contraction helps in pulling the tendons on the bones that causes movement. (cataclysmuo.com)
  • At 10 days post-injury, vertebral trabecular bone structure was quantified using high-resolution microcomputed tomography (lCT), and differences in mechanical properties were determined using finite element modeling (FEM) and compressive mechanical testing. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with our hypothesis, we found significant decreases in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular number at the L5 vertebral body in LS injured mice compared to sham (8.8% and 5.0%, respectively), while HS injured mice exhibited a similar, but lower magnitude response (5.1% and 2.5%, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • only the bones of the organism (or shell) well make a fossil because the bones are much more dense and well survive a beating better than flesh. (answers.com)
  • Compact (c ortical) bone more dense and strong. (scientistcindy.com)
  • However,we were able to detect significant decreases in compressive stiffness in both HS and LS injured specimens when FE models were loaded directly through the trabecular bone region (9.9% and 8.1%, and 3, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • Unloading rapidly reduced trabecular bone volume, bone formation rate, and ALP-positive CFU-f in 7 days. (springer.com)
  • One of the crucial parts of the personal identification process from skeletal remains is based on the utility of the DNA profiles obtained from the bones or teeth (Latham and Miller 2019 ). (springer.com)

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