Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Breaks in bones.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic or blood disorders, refer to conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells within the bone marrow, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and aplastic anemia, potentially leading to complications like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased susceptibility to infections or bleeding.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.

Results of the Bosworth method for unstable fractures of the distal clavicle. (1/306)

Eleven consecutive Neer's type II unstable fractures of the distal third of the clavicle were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, using a temporary Bosworth-type screw. In all cases, fracture healing occurred within 10 weeks. Shoulder function was restored to the pre-injury level. A Bosworth-type screw fixation is a relatively easy and safe technique of open reduction and internal fixation of type II fractures of the distal third of the clavicle.  (+info)

Adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis: apical correction with specialized pedicle hooks. (2/306)

Forty-one patients with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated with only a posterior spine fusion using specialized pedicle hooks (SPH) (hooks augmented with 3.2-mm screws) at the apex of the curve were reviewed in order to assess the effectiveness of this correction method. Inclusion in the study group required a minimum of 2 years' follow-up and the same strategy of correction where the apical vertebrae (3 or 4 vertebrae on the concave side) were instrumented with SPH. The mean preoperative Cobb angle was corrected from 55 degrees (42 degrees -80 degrees) to 18 degrees (67%) postoperatively and to 23 degrees (58%) at the last follow-up (28-50 months) for a flexibility index of 46%. Apical vertebral translation was corrected to 70% at the last follow-up. Thoracic kyphosis remained unchanged, from 23 degrees to 26 degrees, and the lumbar lordosis went from -53 degrees to -59 degrees. The lumbar curve was corrected from 38 degrees to 18 degrees. Coronal balance improved from 10 to 1 mm; shoulder balance was improved from 15 to 5 mm. The rib hump was improved from an average of 30 mm preoperatively to 15 mm postoperatively, but only to 25 mm at the last follow-up (17% of correction). One case of a spastic bladder was observed postoperatively, which resolved completely after 8 months. Three patients had to have their instrumentation removed because of pain. There was no complication related to the use of the SPH. The authors conclude that apical correction with SPH allows effective scoliosis correction without spinal distraction and does not require supra- or infralaminar hook in the spinal canal.  (+info)

Total dislocations of the navicular: are they ever isolated injuries? (3/306)

Isolated dislocations of the navicular are rare injuries; we present our experience of six cases in which the navicular was dislocated without fracture. All patients had complex injuries, with considerable disruption of the midfoot. Five patients had open reduction and stabilisation with Kirschner wires. One developed subluxation and deformity of the midfoot because of inadequate stabilisation of the lateral column, and there was one patient with ischaemic necrosis. We believe that the navicular cannot dislocate in isolation because of the rigid bony supports around it; there has to be significant disruption of both longitudinal columns of the foot. Most commonly, an abduction/pronation injury causes a midtarsal dislocation, and on spontaneous reduction the navicular may dislocate medially. This mechanism is similar to a perilunate dislocation. Stabilisation of both medial and lateral columns of the foot may sometimes be essential for isolated dislocations. In spite of our low incidence of ischaemic necrosis, there is always a likelihood of this complication.  (+info)

Stage-related surgery for cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis. (4/306)

Thirty-six consecutive patients with cervical spine instability due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated surgically according to a stage-related therapeutic concept. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical results of these procedures. The initial change in RA of the cervical spine is atlanto-axial instability (AAI) due to incompetence of the cranio-cervical junction ligaments, followed by development of a peridontoid mass of granulation tissue. This results in inflammatory involvement of, and excessive dynamic forces on, the lateral masses of C1 and C2, leading to irreducible atlanto-axial kyphosis (AAK). Finally, cranial settling (CS) accompanied by subaxial subluxation (SAS) occurs. According to these three separate pathological and radiological lesions, the patients were divided into three therapeutic groups. Group I comprised 14 patients with isolated anterior AAI, who were treated by posterior wire fusion. Group II comprised 15 patients with irreducible AAK, who were treated by transoral odontoid resection. The fixation was done using anterior plating according to Harms in combination with posterior wire fusion according to Brooks. Group III comprised seven patients with CS and additional SAS, who were treated with occipito-cervical fusion. Pre- and postoperatively, evaluation was performed using the parameters pain (visual analog scale), range of motion (ROM), subjective improvement and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The neurologic deficit was defined according to the classification proposed by Ranawat. Radiographs including lateral flexion and extension views, and MRI scans were obtained. The average clinical and radiographic follow-up of all patients was 50.7 +/- 19.3 months (range 21-96 months). No perioperative fatality occurred. Postoperative pain was significantly relieved in all groups (P < 0.001). In group II a slight improvement in the HAQ was obtained. In groups I and II the ROM of all patients increased significantly (average gain of motion in group I: 11.3 degrees +/- 7. 8 degrees for rotation; 7.8 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees for bending; average gain of motion in group II: 21.5 degrees +/- 14.0 degrees for rotation; 17.2 degrees +/- 5.5 degrees for bending), while it decreased significantly in group III (10.7 degrees +/- 18.1 degrees for rotation; 6.7 degrees +/- 18.5 degrees for bending). Preoperatively 27 patients had a manifest neurologic deficit. At follow-up four patients remained unchanged, all others improved by at least one Ranawat class. All patients, except one, showed solid bony fusion. According to the significantly improved postoperative subjective self-assessment and the clinical and radiological parameters, transoral plate fixation combined with posterior wire fixation after transoral odontoid resection represents an effective reliable and safe procedure for the treatment of irreducible AAK in rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Mandibular subluxation for distal internal carotid exposure: technical considerations. (5/306)

PURPOSE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has become one of the most commonly performed vascular procedures, because of the beneficial outcome it has when compared with medical therapy alone and because of the anatomic accessibility of the artery. In cases of distal carotid occlusive disease, high cervical carotid bifurcation, and some reoperative cases, access to the distal internal carotid artery may limit surgical exposure and increase the incidence of cranial nerve palsies. Mandibular subluxation (MS) is recommended to provide additional space in a critically small operative field. We report our experience to determine and illustrate a preferred method of MS. METHODS: Techniques for MS were selected based on the presence or absence of adequate dental stability and periodontal disease. All patients received general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation before subluxation. Illustrations are provided to emphasize technical considerations in performing MS in 10 patients (nine men and one woman) who required MS as an adjunct to CEA (less than 1% of primary CEAs). Patients were symptomatic (n = 7) or asymptomatic (n = 3) and had high-grade stenoses demonstrated by means of preoperative arteriography. RESULTS: Subluxation was performed and stabilization was maintained by means of: Ivy loop/circumdental wiring of mandibular and maxillary bicuspids/cuspids (n = 7); Steinmann pins with wiring (n = 1); mandibular/maxillary arch bar wiring (n = 1); and superior circumdental to circummandibular wires (n = 1). MS was not associated with mandibular dislocation in any patient. No postoperative cranial nerve palsies were observed. Three patients experienced transient temporomandibular joint discomfort, which improved spontaneously within 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: Surgical exposure of the distal internal carotid artery is enhanced with MS and nasotracheal intubation. We recommend Ivy loop/circumdental wiring as the preferred method for MS. Alternative methods are used when poor dental health is observed.  (+info)

Anatomical reduction of intra-articular fractures of the distal radius. An arthroscopically-assisted approach. (6/306)

We treated 31 intra-articular fractures of the distal radius by arthroscopically-assisted reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner (K-) wires. Tears of the triangular fibrocartilage (58 %), scapholunate (85 %) and lunotriquetral (61%) instability and osteochondral lesions (19%) were also treated. A total of 26 patients was independently reviewed at an average of 19 months. The mean pain score was 1.3/10, the range of movement 79% and the grip strength 90% of the contralateral wrist. Using the New York Orthopaedic Hospital score, 88% were graded excellent to good. On follow-up radiographs, 65% had no step and 31% had a step of < or =1 mm. Pain was significantly related to the size of the step. There was a significant difference in the incidence of persistent scapholunate diastasis and the Leibovic and Geissler grade (p < 0.01): I (0%), II (0%), III (42%) and IV (100%). We recommend anatomical reduction and acceptance of a step of <1 mm since the size of the step is related to the incidence of pain.  (+info)

Pain-relieving posterior rod fixation with segmental sublaminar wiring for Pancoast tumor invading the vertebrae. (7/306)

We describe the case of a 44-year-old male patient with Pancoast lung cancer invading the vertebrae. Because irradiation did not relieve his symptoms, we conducted tumor resection with posterior rod fixation with segmental sublaminar wiring of the vertebrae. This enabled the patient to walk and to discontinue morphine immediately after surgery. Although the tumor recurred within the region of the fixation 4 months after surgery, the patient complained of no pain until his death. Although Pancoast lung cancer with extensive vertebral invasion cannot be cured surgically, posterior rod fixation with segmental sublaminar wiring with tumor resection can improve a patient's quality of life by providing immediate, long-term pain relief.  (+info)

Displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. Audit changes practice. (8/306)

We performed an audit of 71 children with consecutive displaced, extension-type supracondylar fractures of the humerus over a period of 30 months. The fractures were classified according to the Wilkins modification of the Gartland system. There were 29 type IIA, 22 type IIB and 20 type III. We assessed the effectiveness of guidelines proposed after a previous four-year review of 83 supracondylar fractures. These recommended that: 1) an experienced surgeon should be responsible for the initial management; 2) closed or open reduction of type-IIB and type-III fractures must be supplemented by stabilisation with Kirschner (K-) wires; and 3) K-wires of adequate thickness (1.6 mm) must be used in a crossed configuration. The guidelines were followed in 52 of the 71 cases. When they were observed there were no reoperations and no malunion. In 19 children in whom they had not been observed more than one-third required further operation and six had a varus deformity. Failure to institute treatment according to the guidelines led to an unsatisfactory result in 11 patients. When they were followed the result of treatment was much better. We have devised a protocol for the management of these difficult injuries.  (+info)

I'm not aware of a medical term called "bone wires." The term "wiring" is used in orthopedic surgery to describe the use of metal wire to hold bones or fractures in place during healing. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition or term related to "bone wires." It may be a colloquialism, a term used in a specific context, or a term from science fiction. If you could provide more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to give a more accurate answer.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors that play crucial roles in the development, growth, and repair of bones and other tissues. They belong to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and were first discovered when researchers found that certain proteins extracted from demineralized bone matrix had the ability to induce new bone formation.

BMPs stimulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. They also promote the recruitment and proliferation of these cells, enhancing the overall process of bone regeneration. In addition to their role in bone biology, BMPs have been implicated in various other biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and the regulation of fat metabolism.

There are several types of BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, etc.) that exhibit distinct functions and expression patterns. Due to their ability to stimulate bone formation, recombinant human BMPs have been used in clinical applications, such as spinal fusion surgery and non-healing fracture treatment. However, the use of BMPs in medicine has been associated with certain risks and complications, including uncontrolled bone growth, inflammation, and cancer development, which necessitates further research to optimize their therapeutic potential.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays a crucial role in bone and cartilage formation, as well as in the regulation of wound healing and embryonic development. BMP-2 stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

BMP-2 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medical device to promote bone growth in certain spinal fusion surgeries and in the treatment of open fractures that have not healed properly. It is usually administered in the form of a collagen sponge soaked with recombinant human BMP-2 protein, which is a laboratory-produced version of the natural protein.

While BMP-2 has shown promising results in some clinical applications, its use is not without risks and controversies. Some studies have reported adverse effects such as inflammation, ectopic bone formation, and increased rates of cancer, which have raised concerns about its safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is essential to weigh the benefits and risks of BMP-2 therapy on a case-by-case basis and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

The parietal bone is one of the four flat bones that form the skull's cranial vault, which protects the brain. There are two parietal bones in the skull, one on each side, located posterior to the frontal bone and temporal bone, and anterior to the occipital bone. Each parietal bone has a squamous part, which forms the roof and sides of the skull, and a smaller, wing-like portion called the mastoid process. The parietal bones contribute to the formation of the coronal and lambdoid sutures, which are fibrous joints that connect the bones in the skull.

I believe you are asking for a medical explanation or interpretation of "electric wiring." However, the term "electric wiring" is not typically used in a medical context. It refers to the system of wires and components that distribute electricity throughout a building or device. If you're looking for a medical term related to nerves or nervous system, perhaps you meant something like "neuronal circuitry" or "nerve impulse transmission."

Neuronal circuitry refers to the complex network of interconnected neurons in the brain and nervous system that transmit signals and enable various functions. Nerve impulse transmission is the process by which electrical signals are transmitted along the length of a nerve cell, allowing communication between different parts of the body.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Alveolar bone loss refers to the breakdown and resorption of the alveolar process of the jawbone, which is the part of the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth. This type of bone loss is often caused by periodontal disease, a chronic inflammation of the gums and surrounding tissues that can lead to the destruction of the structures that support the teeth.

In advanced stages of periodontal disease, the alveolar bone can become severely damaged or destroyed, leading to tooth loss. Alveolar bone loss can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as osteoporosis, trauma, or tumors. Dental X-rays and other imaging techniques are often used to diagnose and monitor alveolar bone loss. Treatment may include deep cleaning of the teeth and gums, medications, surgery, or tooth extraction in severe cases.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

Orthodontic appliance design refers to the creation and development of medical devices used in orthodontics, which is a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and correction of dental and facial irregularities. The design process involves creating a customized treatment plan for each patient, based on their specific needs and goals.

Orthodontic appliances can be removable or fixed and are used to move teeth into proper alignment, improve jaw function, and enhance the overall appearance of the smile. Some common types of orthodontic appliances include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.

The design of an orthodontic appliance typically involves several factors, including:

1. The specific dental or facial problem being addressed
2. The patient's age, overall health, and oral hygiene habits
3. The patient's lifestyle and personal preferences
4. The estimated treatment time and cost
5. The potential risks and benefits of the appliance

Orthodontic appliance design is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of dental anatomy, biomechanics, and materials science. It is typically performed by an orthodontist or a dental technician with specialized training in this area. The goal of orthodontic appliance design is to create a device that is both effective and comfortable for the patient, while also ensuring that it is safe and easy to use.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "friction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Friction is a physical concept that describes the force that resists the sliding of one surface over another. It is commonly described as the "roughness" between two surfaces. While friction can have effects on various biological processes and medical devices, it does not have a unique medical meaning in and of itself.

The metacarpal bones are the long slender bones that make up the middle part of the hand, located between the carpals (wrist bones) and the phalanges (finger bones). There are five metacarpal bones in total, with one for each finger and thumb. Each bone has a base attached to the carpals, a shaft, and a head that connects to the phalanges. The metacarpal bones play a crucial role in hand function, providing stability and support during gripping and manipulation movements.

The frontal bone is the bone that forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets (orbits) in the skull. It is a single, flat bone that has a prominent ridge in the middle called the superior sagittal sinus, which contains venous blood. The frontal bone articulates with several other bones, including the parietal bones at the sides and back, the nasal bones in the center of the face, and the zygomatic (cheek) bones at the lower sides of the orbits.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP-7) is a growth factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays crucial roles in the development and maintenance of various tissues, including bones, cartilages, and kidneys. In bones, BMP-7 stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, thereby promoting bone formation and regeneration. It also has potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as fracture healing, spinal fusion, and osteoporosis.

Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic disorders, are conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where all blood cells are produced. There are various types of bone marrow diseases, including:

1. Leukemia: A cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow. Leukemia causes the body to produce large numbers of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out healthy blood cells and impair their function.
2. Lymphoma: A cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. Lymphoma can affect the bone marrow and cause an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma causes an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells, which can lead to bone pain, fractures, and other complications.
4. Aplastic anemia: A condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough new blood cells. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and an increased risk of infection.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS can lead to anemia, infections, and bleeding.
6. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow produces too many abnormal white or red blood cells, or platelets. MPNs can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, itching, and an increased risk of blood clots.

Treatment for bone marrow diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies that target specific genetic mutations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Osteocalcin is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. It is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins found in bones and plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Osteocalcin contains a high affinity for calcium ions, making it essential for the mineralization of the bone matrix.

Once synthesized, osteocalcin is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it binds to hydroxyapatite crystals, helping to regulate their growth and contributing to the overall strength and integrity of the bones. Osteocalcin also has been found to play a role in other physiological processes outside of bone metabolism, such as modulating insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and male fertility.

In summary, osteocalcin is a protein produced by osteoblasts that plays a critical role in bone formation, mineralization, and turnover, and has been implicated in various other physiological processes.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

The metatarsal bones are a group of five long bones in the foot that connect the tarsal bones in the hindfoot to the phalanges in the forefoot. They are located between the tarsal and phalangeal bones and are responsible for forming the arch of the foot and transmitting weight-bearing forces during walking and running. The metatarsal bones are numbered 1 to 5, with the first metatarsal being the shortest and thickest, and the fifth metatarsal being the longest and thinnest. Each metatarsal bone has a base, shaft, and head, and they articulate with each other and with the surrounding bones through joints. Any injury or disorder affecting the metatarsal bones can cause pain and difficulty in walking or standing.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

The tarsal bones are a group of seven articulating bones in the foot that make up the posterior portion of the foot, located between the talus bone of the leg and the metatarsal bones of the forefoot. They play a crucial role in supporting the body's weight and facilitating movement.

There are three categories of tarsal bones:

1. Proximal row: This includes the talus, calcaneus (heel bone), and navicular bones. The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint, while the calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone and forms the heel. The navicular bone is located between the talus and the cuneiform bones.

2. Intermediate row: This includes the cuboid bone, which is located laterally (on the outside) to the navicular bone and articulates with the calcaneus, fourth and fifth metatarsals, and the cuneiform bones.

3. Distal row: This includes three cuneiform bones - the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms - which are located between the navicular bone proximally and the first, second, and third metatarsal bones distally. The medial cuneiform is the largest of the three and articulates with the navicular bone, first metatarsal, and the intermediate cuneiform. The intermediate cuneiform articulates with the medial and lateral cuneiforms and the second metatarsal. The lateral cuneiform articulates with the intermediate cuneiform, cuboid, and fourth metatarsal.

Together, these bones form a complex network of joints that allow for movement and stability in the foot. Injuries or disorders affecting the tarsal bones can result in pain, stiffness, and difficulty walking.

'Leg bones' is a general term that refers to the bones in the leg portion of the lower extremity. In humans, this would specifically include:

1. Femur: This is the thigh bone, the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee.

2. Patella: This is the kneecap, a small triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint.

3. Tibia and Fibula: These are the bones of the lower leg. The tibia, or shin bone, is the larger of the two and bears most of the body's weight. It connects the knee to the ankle. The fibula, a slender bone, runs parallel to the tibia on its outside.

Please note that in medical terminology, 'leg bones' doesn't include the bones of the foot (tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges), which are often collectively referred to as the 'foot bones'.

Bone plates are medical devices used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize and hold together fractured or broken bones during the healing process. They are typically made of surgical-grade stainless steel, titanium, or other biocompatible materials. The plate is shaped to fit the contour of the bone and is held in place with screws that are inserted through the plate and into the bone on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and alignment to the broken bones, allowing them to heal properly. Bone plates can be used to treat a variety of fractures, including those that are complex or unstable. After healing is complete, the bone plate may be left in place or removed, depending on the individual's needs and the surgeon's recommendation.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

Bone marrow neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. These neoplasms can be divided into two main categories: hematologic (or liquid) malignancies and solid tumors.

Hematologic malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells, which normally fight infections. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding.

Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system, which helps to fight infections and remove waste from the body. Lymphoma can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to help fight infections. In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, leading to bone damage, anemia, and an increased risk of infection.

Solid tumors of the bone marrow are rare and include conditions such as chordomas, Ewing sarcomas, and osteosarcomas. These cancers originate in the bones themselves or in other tissues that support the bones, but they can also spread to the bone marrow.

Treatment for bone marrow neoplasms depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A bone marrow examination is a medical procedure in which a sample of bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced, is removed and examined. This test is used to diagnose or monitor various conditions affecting blood cell production, such as infections, leukemia, anemia, and other disorders of the bone marrow.

The sample is typically taken from the hipbone (iliac crest) or breastbone (sternum) using a special needle. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia or with sedation to minimize discomfort. Once the sample is obtained, it is examined under a microscope for the presence of abnormal cells, changes in cell size and shape, and other characteristics that can help diagnose specific conditions. Various stains, cultures, and other tests may also be performed on the sample to provide additional information.

Bone marrow examination is an important diagnostic tool in hematology and oncology, as it allows for a detailed assessment of blood cell production and can help guide treatment decisions for patients with various blood disorders.

The pelvic bones, also known as the hip bones, are a set of three irregularly shaped bones that connect to form the pelvic girdle in the lower part of the human body. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and protecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.

The pelvic bones consist of three bones:

1. The ilium: This is the largest and uppermost bone, forming the majority of the hip bone and the broad, flaring part of the pelvis known as the wing of the ilium or the iliac crest, which can be felt on the side of the body.
2. The ischium: This is the lower and back portion of the pelvic bone that forms part of the sitting surface or the "sit bones."
3. The pubis: This is the front part of the pelvic bone, which connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis in the midline of the body.

The pelvic bones are joined together at the acetabulum, a cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint and articulates with the head of the femur (thigh bone). The pelvic bones also have several openings for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and reproductive and excretory organs.

The shape and size of the pelvic bones differ between males and females due to their different roles in childbirth and locomotion. Females typically have a wider and shallower pelvis than males to accommodate childbirth, while males usually have a narrower and deeper pelvis that is better suited for weight-bearing and movement.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Dental soldering is a procedure in which two or more metal components are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, creating a strong metallic bond. In dentistry, this technique is primarily used to repair or construct dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

The process typically involves:

1. Cleaning and preparing the surfaces to be soldered by removing any oxides, oils, or contaminants that might interfere with the bond.
2. Applying a flux to the prepared surfaces to prevent further oxidation during heating.
3. Positioning the components accurately so they can be joined correctly.
4. Heating the parts using a soldering torch or other heat source, while simultaneously applying the filler metal (solder) to the joint.
5. Allowing the solder to cool and solidify, creating a strong metallic bond between the components.
6. Finishing and polishing the soldered area for smooth integration with the surrounding dental restoration.

Dental soldering requires precision, skill, and knowledge of various metals and alloys used in dentistry. Proper safety measures, including protective eyewear and a well-ventilated workspace, should be taken during the procedure to minimize potential hazards from heat, flames, or fumes.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

Tension band wiring is a technique in which the bone fragments are transfixed by K-wires which are then also used as an anchor ... A wire is passed through the skin then transversely through the bone and out the other side of the limb. The wire is then ... Migration of K-wires can occur; instead of backing out the wire can move deeper. K-wires passed across the acromioclavicular ( ... Smooth K-wires may back out of the bone losing the fixation. This is especially likely if they pass between two mobile bones. ...
The bones of the skull roof were fused and by a folding of the frontal bones, a "double" skull roof was created. In Triceratops ... Wall, Michael (January 27, 2009). "Scars Reveal How Triceratops Fought -". Wired. Archived from the original on January 12, ... The cavity between the layers invaded the bone cores of the brow horns. At the rear of the skull, the outer squamosal bones and ... The core of the top beak was formed by a special rostral bone. Behind it, the premaxillae bones were located, embayed from ...
Carney, Scott (May 8, 2007). "The Case for Mandatory Organ Donation". Wired. Retrieved February 13, 2015. "Fact Sheet: Bone ... Common transplantations include kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs, bones, bone marrow, skin, and corneas. Some ... Carney, Scott (May 8, 2007). "Why a Kidney (Street Value: $3,000) Sells for $85,000". Wired. Archived from the original on July ... Carney, Scott (May 8, 2007). "Inside 'Kidneyville': Rani's Story". Wired. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. ...
"Warp Drives Might Be More Realistic Than Thought". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-10-24. "NASA - Bones in Space". ... Without constant gravity, bones suffer disuse osteoporosis, and their mineral density falls 12 times faster than the average ... Long term gradual effects from time in space include Bone atrophy from a gravity scarce environment that limits the flow of ... "Those Veggies Grown on the ISS Get Humans Closer to Mars". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-11-16. "The Future of Aerospace Automation". ...
"Activision Unveils More Tunes from Guitar Hero Smash Hits". Wired. April 23, 2009. Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts ... "Them Bones" review at AllMusic by Ned Raggett "Them Bones" official music video on YouTube "Them Bones" at Discogs Rocky ... Them Bones' is trying to put that thought to rest. Use what you have left, and use it well." In the liner notes of 1999's Music ... "Them Bones" reached the top 30 in the UK and Ireland. It is one of the band's most well known songs. Ned Raggett of AllMusic ...
doi:10.1016/j.bone.2008.04.013. PMID 18541467. Dalton, Aaron (15 August 2005). Nanotubes May Heal Broken Bones. Wired. Archived ... Wires for carrying electric current may be fabricated from nanotubes and nanotube-polymer composites. Small wires have been ... researchers announced a new way to connect wires to SWNTs that make it possible to continue shrinking the width of the wires ... Wires for carrying electric current may be fabricated from pure nanotubes and nanotube-polymer composites. It has already been ...
In 1985 the Indian government banned the export of human bones after human rights groups raised questions about how the bones ... "Inside India's Underground Trade in Human Remains". Retrieved 2016-08-06. Majumdar, Bappa (19 June 2007). "Human ... Hours after demise and before properly mourned, bone traders come to collect his bones. This provides the metaphorical practice ... Kamal Sah was caught carrying 67 human skulls and 10 bones on a bus in Chhapra, in the state of Bihar, by fellow passengers who ...
"How Big-League Bats Are Getting Harder Than Ever". Wired. September 26, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2021. Ben Walker (Summer 2010 ... Boning is the practice in American baseball of treating a baseball bat with a bone (typically a cattle femur). The bone is run ... thus bone attracts hide, and as the baseball is covered in hide it will be attracted to the boned bat. The bone may be bolted ... Sometimes, boning bats would be the duty of the batboy. "Why baseball players 'bone' their bats". Popular Science. May 20, 2020 ...
Mann, Adam (23 July 2012). "Blindness, Bone Loss, and Space Farts: Astronaut Medical Oddities". Wired. Retrieved 23 July 2012. ... Mukunth, Vasudevan (23 August 2018). "Infinite in All Directions: A Science Workshop and Why Vyomanaut Is Not Cool". The Wire. ... Fong, MD, Kevin (12 February 2014). "The Strange, Deadly Effects Mars Would Have on Your Body". Wired. Retrieved 12 February ... loss of bone and muscle, loss of eyesight, orthostatic intolerance, sleep disturbances, and radiation injury. A variety of ...
Mann, Adam (23 July 2012). "Blindness, Bone Loss, and Space Farts: Astronaut Medical Oddities". Wired. Retrieved 23 July 2012. ... Radiation can cause both short- and long-term consequences to the bone marrow stem cells from which blood and immune-system ... The possibility of blindness and of bone loss have been associated with human space flight. On 31 December 2012, a NASA- ... Fong, MD, Kevin (12 February 2014). "The Strange, Deadly Effects Mars Would Have on Your Body". Wired. Retrieved 12 February ...
... is a heavy blues rock studio album by British band Black Cat Bones, released on 13 February 1970 by Decca ... The debut album from Decca group Black Cat Bones is titled Barbed Wire Sandwich and is due to be released on the new Decca Nova ... "Barbed Wire Sandwich - Black Cat Bones". AllMusic. Retrieved 11 October 2022. Aznar, Thierry (2015). "1970/1971". Hard Rock & ... Hart, Bill (4 December 2018). "Black Cat Bones - Barbed Wire Sandwich". The Vinyl Press. Retrieved 11 January 2023. (CS1 French ...
Guarino, Mark (August 31, 2006). "The Drams - Back from the Bone break". No Depression. Retrieved December 30, 2015. Crain, Zac ... Hess, Christopher (September 8, 1998). "Doolittle Records". The Weekly Wire via The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved December 30, ... Caligiuri, Jim (May 12, 2010). "Five Years: Back to the 'bone". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved December 30, 2015. Campbell, ... Their name is a reference to a dog's chew bone. From 1995 onwards, Slobberbone as a band solidified its lineup and began ...
The Wire. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2010. Apicella, Vinnie (Jan-Mar 2004). "Backstabbers ... Bare As Bones". xsisterhoodx. Retrieved May 21, 2010.[permanent dead link] "Backstabbers Incorporated". ... Albums 2003: Bare As Bones (Black Market Activities) 2004: Kamikaze Missions (Trash Art!) 2014: Missing In Action (Self Release ... "Backstabbers Incorporated "Bare as Bones" CD". Aversion Online. October 1, 2003. Archived from the original ...
Shaw, Dougal (14 November 2014). "Bone conduction: Come on feel the noise?" - via Clark, Liat (17 June 2014). " ... "Backpack turns music into full-body experience for the deaf". Wired UK. "Subpac music gadget shakes up music-listening ...
Bones, Jason B. (28 January 2011). "This Week in The Clone Wars: The Chosen One Learns About His Destiny". Retrieved ...
"Dolly, Rejection and Radiohead Journalism." Conde Nast Digital, February 17, 2010. Web. Williams, Paige. "Bones of ... In a Wired blog post, Williams says she began developing a story about Dolly Freed in late April 2009. Freed experienced brief ... "Bones of Contention" was originally published in the January 28, 2013 issue of The New Yorker. The inspiration for the story ... Her 2013 New Yorker article "Bones of Contention" explored the black-market fossil trade. The story was expanded into a book ...
Business Wire. 2014-02-19. Retrieved 2015-02-04. Mackinnon, Jim (2015-02-03). "J.M. Smucker adds major pet food brands in ' ... "It's a dog-eat-dog world and I'm wearing Milk-Bone underwear." A box of Milk-Bone Biscuits can be seen, in cartoon form, in ... Milk-Bone is a brand of dog biscuit. It was created in 1908 by the F.H. Bennett Biscuit Company, which operated a bakery on the ... Over the next few decades, the Milk-Bone was expanded to include a number of different flavors, such as chicken and beef. The ...
"Polynoma Commences Phase III Melanoma Vaccine Clinical Trial". Business Wire. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2015. "Bone ... Bone Medical (Executive chairman July 2005 to July 2007). This company was focused on oral delivery of large peptides using ...
"Vanbrio Releases Jeff Smith's Bone: Out from Boneville Now Available for the Macintosh". Business Wire. 2006-10-13. Retrieved ... Fone Bone, Phoney Bone, and Smiley Bone have been run out of their hometown of Boneville due to one of Phoney Bone's schemes of ... It follows the adventures of Fone Bone and his two cousins, Phoney Bone and Smiley Bone (the first two of which are both ... "Bone: Out From Boneville". PopMatters. Retrieved 2013-11-07. Official Bone: Out from Boneville website Bone: Out from Boneville ...
Arit, John (19 August 2013). "Buzz Builds for Samantha Shannon's 'The Bone Season'". Atlantic Wire. Retrieved 21 August 2013. ... "The Bone Season". Little Hat Productions. Retrieved 20 May 2021. "'Today' To Launch Monthly Book Club With 'The Bone Season': ... "The Bone Season". QBD Books. Retrieved 19 August 2020. Ciabattari, Jane (18 August 2013). "'The Bone Season': Could This Be The ... "Book review: The Bone Season". DNA India. 18 August 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013. "Review: The Bone Season". Publishers ...
Bradley, Sian (12 September 2017). "How do you grow bone in a lab? Good vibrations". Wired UK. Pigott, George M.; Tucker, ... Furthermore, blood and bones could potentially be cultured in the future. Animal production for food is a major cause of air/ ... The lack of bone and cardiovascular system is a disadvantage for dishes where these parts make appreciable culinary ... However, the lack of bones and/or blood may make many traditional meat preparations, such as buffalo wings, more palatable to ...
"Meet the People Behind the Inevitable Sexy Ken Bone Costume". Wired. Retrieved August 29, 2020. "Chad Horstman Bio". Retrieved ... Some of his creations include Sexy Ken Bone, the famous undecided voter in the 2016 presidential election, Sexy Pizza Rat and ... "Phoenix lingerie and costume company makes 'sexy' Ken Bone costume". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved August 29, 2020. "Monroe ...
Maldonado, Hoying, and Grassi appeared as members of a cappella groups in the Fox television show Bones, in the episode "The ... "How YouTube Crammed an Entire Year Into Its Epic 'Rewind' Video". Wired. Retrieved December 9, 2014. "Pentatonix to appear in ' ... They also appeared in TV series Bones, broadcast in May 2016, in the episode "The Strike in the Chord" (season 11, episode 16 ... Bones' musical mystery". Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016. Delbel, Julia ( ...
Meeble's Dark Synths Have Funny Bones". Wired. "Mr. Meeble Biography - Mr. Meeble is Devin Fleenor, Michael Plaster and Blain ... A writer for Wired described their sound as "coded into the musical matrix somewhere between Depeche Mode and Massive Attack". ...
Dinosaurs added a layer to their bones each year. Tyrannosaurus rex was thought to have increased in size by more than 700 kg a ... Lehrer, Jonah (December 16, 2011). "Trials and Errors: Why Science Is Failing Us". Wired. Retrieved 22 October 2013. "Highly ... Anonymous (2013-12-21). "Palaeontology: A bone to pick". The Economist. Retrieved 2014-04-17. Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R ...
You can't have bones and wires...If we go back to linings, then we are returning to the way things were, not looking ahead'. ... Karl Lagerfeld's strapless tops were boned and lined with fiberfill. Donovan, Carrie (6 May 1979). "Fashion View: American ... even boned corsets - that his work did not look out of place alongside similar retro fare from Thierry Mugler of the period. ...
Bone Thugs-N-Harmony - "Celebration (Remix)"". Hip-Hop Wired. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved ... The song samples Bone Thugs-n-Harmony's hit single "1st of tha Month". The music video, which was shot in Northridge, CA was ... Game later confirmed that he is working in the studio with Bone Thugs-n-Harmony on a remix for "Celebration". On October 28, ... "Celebration" contains a sample of "1st of tha Month" performed by Bone Thugs-n-Harmony. "Holy Water" contains a sample of " ...
Because Arakawa helped the Bones staff in the making of the series, she was kept from focusing on the manga's cover ... LaFevers, R. L. (March 21, 2011). "A Steampunk Primer". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. ... Arakawa oversaw the story and designed the characters for the RPG games, while Bones-the studio responsible for the anime ... Pink, Daniel (October 22, 2007). "Japan, Ink: Inside the Manga Industrial Complex". Wired. Archived from the original on March ...
Krayzie Bone splits from Bone Thugs-N-Harmony.[citation needed] The scheduled May 16 release of Lil Wayne's Tha Carter IV is ... Dre Wins Lawsuit Against WIDEawake/Death Row". Hip-Hop Wired. Retrieved 2011-12-27. Hughes, Sarah Anne (2011-05-16). "Cali Swag ... Lil B names his new album I'm Gay, sparking controversy and death threats.[citation needed] M-Bone of Cali Swag District dies ... District rapper M-Bone killed in drive-by shooting". The Washington Post. Perpetua, Matthew (2011-06-09). "Lupe Fiasco Declares ...
"Bizzy Bone Talks New Rock/Rap Album, Bone Thugz Breakup And King James Leaving Cleveland". Hip-Hop Wired. 18 October 2010. ... "Bizzy Bone is Back With A Song for You Coming Soon!". Top40-Charts. 25 August 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2019. AdisaBanjoko ( ... Records". Business Wire. 15 July 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2020. "Day in Pop Report for 04/22/2010". antiMusic. 22 April 2010 ... Conde, Chris (27 September 2018). "Bizzy Bone Returns to San Antonio for Solo Show Next Month". San Antonio Current. Retrieved ...
Wyatt tells SYFY WIRE. "Those books opened my mind to wild possibilities. With Alien Bones I wanted to create for my younger ... 1First Comics is releasing an imaginative new original graphic novel on October 2 titled Alien Bones - and SYFY WIRE has an ... Check out our exclusive peek at 1First Comics Alien Bones in the full galley below, then let us know how youll be celebrating ... The notion of Alien Bones came from Wyatts noble desire to thrill his son with an adventure far out in the universe. ...
Richard Bone - Is an Artist With a Unique Perspective. During the early 80s Richard Bone was among the protagonists of the New ... WIND & WIRE - By Piero Scaruffi and Bill Binkelman Issue #4 - November 1997 ... I would collect small reel to reel tape recorders and completely re-wire their circuits, creating my own tape generated songs ...
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Intended to be used as a guide pin for insertion of implants (cannulated screws and/or intramedullary nails). Bone nail ... Guide wires packaged in the affected packaging configuration have the potential for sterile barrier breach, leading to possible ... Class 2 Device Recall BEAD TIP GD WIRE 3.0MM X 60CM *. ... Class 2 Device Recall BEAD TIP GD WIRE 3.0MM X 60CM. ... The firm is recalling various trauma guide wires due to insufficient packaging design verification and exceeding the expected ...
... wire wrapped 14/20 gold filled round wire. Artistically unique, handmade, red, orange, and brown genuine, polished fossil stone ... Dinosaur Bone Pendant Wire Wrapped in 14/20 Gold Filled Round Wire ... reveals a bone/bone marrow structure of compact organic shaped splotch patterns in red, orange, brown and clear to white. A ... as they tend to blend and obscure the unique bone pattern. ... Dinosaur Bone Pendant Wire Wrapped 14k/20 Gold Filled. * 6800 ...
Wire in the Blood - Prayer Of The Bone. Original Titel:. Wire in the Blood - Prayer Of The Bone. ...
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... bone infections, spinal fusions, tumors, and joint problems. In this article, learn about the different types of bone grafts ... Doctors use bone grafts in the treatment of a variety of health issues, including fractures, ... A bone graft acts as a filler or scaffold for new bone growth. A doctor may recommend a bone graft for many conditions, ... Doctors do not generally use polymer-based bone substitutes as bone grafts, as they do not promote new bone growth. ...
Tension band wiring is a technique in which the bone fragments are transfixed by K-wires which are then also used as an anchor ... A wire is passed through the skin then transversely through the bone and out the other side of the limb. The wire is then ... Migration of K-wires can occur; instead of backing out the wire can move deeper. K-wires passed across the acromioclavicular ( ... Smooth K-wires may back out of the bone losing the fixation. This is especially likely if they pass between two mobile bones. ...
330 Reinsman Rosie Gag Bit - Twisted Wire Dog Bone. Regular price $94.99 ...
The Daily Wire knocks it out of the park.. Thats not to say "Shut In" can only be enjoyed by Daily Wire fans. I watched "Shut ... Leslie Sattler: The Daily Wires latest thriller is a bone-chilling redemption story. February 19, 2022. August 23, 2022. ... Leslie Sattler: The Daily Wires latest thriller is a bone-chilling redemption story. ... Shut In - The Daily Wire "Shut In" proves that the silver screen doesnt belong to only one side of the political spectrum. The ...
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To qualify as bone china, each cup or teapot is made with a combination of fine clay and bone ash. Only liquid clay is used by ... We have beautifully detailed animal design fine bone china coffee or tea mugs and whimsical storybook animal art on Dunoons ... Our Dunoon mugs with animal designs are delightful fine bone china from our Dunoon collection at Distinctive Decor. Theres ... bone china mugs. Dunoon Ceramics has been producing its world-famous teacups, mugs and teapots in Staffordshire England, for ...
When someone wrote "Bone Apple Tea" instead of "Bon Appétit" it quickly went viral and inspired this similar hilarious ... In August 2016, Dunta Pickett shared a photo of his dinner on his birthday with the caption, "bone apple tea" instead of "bon ... "Bone Apple Tea": 20 Times People Hilariously Butchered A Common Phrase. Published 2 months ago ...
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Shop and save on the EMG-KH20 Kirk Hammett Pre-Wired Pickguard/Pickup Set at Woodwind & Brasswind. ... EMG EMG-KH20 Kirk Hammett Pre-Wired Pickguard/Pickup Set. Kirk Hammett first visited EMG back in the early 80s when Metallica ... EMG EMG-KH20 Kirk Hammett Pre-Wired Pickguard/Pickup Set. Skip to main content Skip to footer ... ":"EMG-KH20 Kirk Hammett Pre-Wired Pickguard/Pickup Set", "pageUrl":"/EMG-EMG-KH20-Kirk-Hammett-Pre-Wired-Pickguard-Pickup-Set- ...
Archeologists discover human bones and Viking-era settlement in Viru-Nigula. 30.09 ... The concertina barrier wire allocated to Lithuania has been designed for the deployment of various barriers, in particular anti ... Today, #Estonia sent 100km of Concertina barbed wire from @kaitsevagi as measure to support in the current state-sponsored ... Estonia will provide Lithuania with a total of 100 kilometers of razor wire, the dispatch of which is organized by the defense ...
Looking for help on the waiver wire? Jennifer Eakins reveals five drop candidates to make room for your Week 3 pickups. ... Capitol Records VP of A&R T Bone Burnett on Elton Johns Beautiful New Record, Taylor Swift vs. Apple and Making Music for ... Music multihyphenate T Bone Burnett, whose work has spread beyond the recording industry to film and television, will extend ... Commenting on Burnetts attachment to the project, lead producer Larry G. Spangler said, Not only is T Bone a brilliant ...
Worry and anxiety have worn me down to the bone. By Bushra Rehman on May 30, 2012 There was no rug on the floor and the old ...
... the bone ends are shortened to eliminate tension on the repaired vessels. The bone is stabilized ... While the patient is sleepy (sedated) or deep asleep and pain-free (regional anesthesia or general anesthesia),the bone ends ... The bone is stabilized with wires. Tendon repairs are done next.. Review Date 9/20/2022. ...
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Wire News Bone Marrow Cancer Study Now Extended. Add Comment. December 1, 2021 ... Myelofibrosis is bone marrow cancer that results in formation of fibrous scar tissue and can lead to thrombocytopenia and ...
Fall off the bone, er... wire, goodness!. November 10, 2009 at 9:35 AM ... Boy, Juli N., its a good thing they put that electrical wire in there to hold the legs on.. - Related wreckage: Well, Im ... That being said, the actual cake as made is truly disgusting, and Im sure not even up to health code with that wire in there. ... Thats so sad!! Theres no wire in it, we had one last year since none of us really like a big giant Turkey for thanksgiving. ...
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Skull & Bones John Kerry fails to provide key evidence in Syria. August 31, 2013 By Shawn Helton 3 Comments ... November 27, 2014 By NEWS WIRE Leave a Comment Stuart J. Hooper , Tune in to learn about the plight of Reverend Edward Pinkney ... January 29, 2015 By NEWS WIRE 11 Comments 21WIRE + RT , Change could have been possible for Saudi Arabia, but this is any thing ... October 12, 2012 By NEWS WIRE 6 Comments Patrick Henningsen , Washingtons new tact: "We want to make sure that it is an ...
Fall off the bone, er... wire, goodness!. November 10, 2009 at 9:35 AM ... Boy, Juli N., its a good thing they put that electrical wire in there to hold the legs on.. - Related wreckage: Well, Im ... That being said, the actual cake as made is truly disgusting, and Im sure not even up to health code with that wire in there. ... Thats so sad!! Theres no wire in it, we had one last year since none of us really like a big giant Turkey for thanksgiving. ...
  • K-wires can be used to guide cannulated screws to a precise location. (
  • Early Expertise Of Inserting Image-guided Minimally Invasive Pedicle Screws With Out Ok-wires Or Bone-anchored Trackers. (
  • Present navigation and robot-assisted methods for percutaneous screws depend on bone-anchored trackers and Kirchner wires (Ok-wires). (
  • There's a paucity of revealed knowledge concerning the position of image-guided percutaneous screws with out Ok-wires. (
  • The trephine ends are designed to fit over embedded screws for extraction with minimal bone loss. (
  • Removal of wires, pins and/or screws from the bone. (
  • He pared and drilled through bone for his four-inch screws. (
  • A doctor may recommend a bone graft for many conditions, including fractures, infections, and spinal fusion. (
  • K Wire Fixation of Hand Fractures" (PDF). (
  • Most fractures result from force applied to a bone. (
  • For example, fractures can range from a small, easily missed crack in a foot bone to a massive, life-threatening break in the pelvis. (
  • The aim of this work is to evaluate the results of percutaneous intramedullary fixation of fractures of forearm bones in children. (
  • Methods: Between February 2017 and February 2018, 12 patients who are younger than the age of closure of epiphysis exhibited to Zagazig General Hospital suffering from displaced fractures of shaft of both bones of the forearm, all patients were treated by closed reduction and percutaneous intramedullary fixation by K-wires with a period of (6 - 12) month with mean 6.6 moths follow up. (
  • No complication detected after the end of follow up period.Conclusions: Closed reduction percutaneous intramedullary fixation of pediatric displaced diaphyseal forearm fractures by K-wires is a safe, reliable, minimally invasive procedure and effective method of treatment. (
  • The pins are often driven into the bone through the skin (percutaneous pin fixation) using a power or hand drill. (
  • CONCLUSIONS The noninvasive cutaneous SpineMask tracker with 3D picture steering and tEMG monitoring offered excessive accuracy (97%) for percutaneous pedicle screw placement by way of stab incisions with out Ok-wires. (
  • In some settings they can be used for intramedullary fixation of bones such as the ulna. (
  • Radial Head Subluxation (Nursemaid's Elbow) Elbow dislocations occur when the lower end of the upper arm bone (humerus) loses contact with the tops (heads) of the forearm bones (radius and ulna). (
  • Kirschner wires or K-wires or pins are sterilized, sharpened, smooth stainless steel pins. (
  • Denham Pins" are strong, stout wires with a threaded portion at the midpoint. (
  • Breakage: K-wires may bend or break, especially if the fracture does not heal. (
  • For hand fracture fixation, whether K-wires should be buried or left protruding from the skin remains a topic of debate and ongoing research. (
  • A fracture is a crack or break in a bone. (
  • Treatment depends on the type and severity of the fracture and may include pain relievers, PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation), maneuvers or procedures to move the fractured bone fragments back into their normal position (reduction), immobilization of the injured part (for example, with a cast or splint), and sometimes surgery. (
  • This intriguing stone from the age of the dinosaurs (Triassic through Cretaceous geologic time periods - 65 to 225 million years ago) reveals a bone/bone marrow structure of compact organic shaped splotch patterns in red, orange, brown and clear to white. (
  • Myelofibrosis is bone marrow cancer that results in formation of fibrous scar tissue and can lead to thrombocytopenia and anemia, weakness, fatigue and an enlarged spleen and liver. (
  • Bones are part of the musculoskeletal system, which also includes muscles and the tissues that connect them (ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissue, called soft tissues). (
  • Ligaments (which attach bone to bone) can be torn (sprained). (
  • Overview of Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries Sprains are tears in ligaments (tissues that connect one bone to another). (
  • An operation was done for correction of the displaced bone, not for removal. (
  • Surgical correction of this separated bone to allow it to return to its original position was performed without divulsion of the attached muscles. (
  • A surgeon will make an incision and then place the bone substitute in the damaged area. (
  • Tendons (which attach muscle to bone) can be torn (ruptured). (
  • Some of the most common tripping over wires or cables accidents in the workplace occur when areas are not correctly set up and/or inadequately cordoned off when work is being carried out in a working environment. (
  • The firm is recalling various trauma guide wires due to insufficient packaging design verification and exceeding the expected occurrence rate of complaints for sterile barrier failure. (
  • Any room smells of metal if wires are laid bare. (
  • I brush my hair, waiting in the pain machine for my bones to get hard, for the soft, soft bones that were laid apart and were screwed together. (
  • Using HIP-Based Overlay Networking Environment (HIP BONE), as opposed to a peer protocol, to perform connection management in an overlay has a set of advantages. (
  • Guide wires packaged in the affected packaging configuration have the potential for sterile barrier breach, leading to possible risk for infection. (
  • The Estonian Ministry of Defense announced on social media that the first approximately 50 kilometers of the barrier wire allocated from the stocks of the Estonian defense forces was sent to Lithuania on Monday. (
  • The concertina barrier wire allocated to Lithuania has been designed for the deployment of various barriers, in particular anti-personnel barriers. (
  • A person may need a bone graft if their body is unable to produce enough new bone in certain situations. (
  • Used in situations where backing out of the pin is undesirable, they are inherently weaker than smooth K-wires. (
  • It may be that you trip over a rope, cable or other type of wire and suffer some kind of injury that leaves you unable to work whether for a short time or for much longer. (
  • Should you have sustained any sort of injury in the workplace due to tripping over wires and cables, you would have every right to seek compensation from an employer providing the incident occurred in the last 3 years and you have enough evidence to prove employer negligence. (
  • Following an accident at work where you tripped over wires and cables that resulted in you sustaining an injury whether minor or more severe, you should collect as much evidence as possible even if you are not thinking about filing for compensation at the time. (
  • Overview of Dislocations A dislocation is complete separation of the bones that form a joint. (
  • We specialized in manufacturing stainless steel brassiere wire as well as plastic brassiere adjusters and other accessories. (
  • Slips, trips and falls over wires or cables are some of the most commonplace workplace accidents that can leave you suffering from quite serious injuries. (
  • What Are the Most Common Injuries Sustained in a Tripping Over Wires and Cables Accident? (
  • Loss of fixation: Smooth K-wires may back out of the bone losing the fixation. (
  • It could be that appropriate hazard signs were not erected when a contractor was carrying out necessary work in the workplace and as a result you tripped over wires or cables that were lying about. (
  • This technique can result in an increase of 25% or more in bone length. (
  • Residential electrical wiring safety practices in the US result in the possibility of a small voltage (up to a few tenths of a volt) on appliance surfaces with respect to water pipes or other grounded surfaces. (
  • A brand new skin-adhesive stereotactic affected person tracker (SpineMask) eliminates each an invasive bone-anchored tracker and Ok-wires for pedicle screw placement. (
  • A breach was outlined as any violation of a pedicle screw involving the cortical bone of the pedicle. (
  • The lingual bone was placed into its original place with position screw. (
  • BONE CONDUCTION TECHNOLOGY]Adopt innovative bone conduction technology, the headphone conducts the speaker through the bone and transmits sound to the bone near the external canal, then to auditory nerve. (
  • Tension band wiring is a technique in which the bone fragments are transfixed by K-wires which are then also used as an anchor for a loop of flexible wire. (
  • In traction of the femur for example, the protruding ends of the wire are fixed to the legs of a horseshoe shaped frame which maintains tension in the wire while the crook of the horseshoe is attached via line and pulleys to weights which maintain the traction. (
  • While the patient is sleepy (sedated) or deep asleep and pain-free (regional anesthesia or general anesthesia),the bone ends are shortened to eliminate tension on the repaired vessels. (
  • A wire is passed through the skin then transversely through the bone and out the other side of the limb. (
  • Widespread osteopenia, carpal crowding (due to cartilage loss), and several erosions affecting the carpal bones and metacarpal heads in particular in a child with advanced juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (also known as juvenile idiopathic arthritis). (
  • Master Smith Joe Keeslar describes the tools needed for Silver Wire Inlay work on knife handles and sheaths. (
  • So when director D.J. Caruso found a promising screenplay by writer Melanie Toast on The Black List (a website used by screenwriters to shop unproduced work to industry professionals), The Daily Wire knew what to do. (
  • Music multihyphenate T Bone Burnett , whose work has spread beyond the recording industry to film and television, will extend his reach to Broadway, having signed on to pen music and lyrics for Happy Trails, the developing bio-musical about the career and lives of Hollywood cowboy couple Roy Rogers and Dale Evans. (
  • Can I Claim for Tripping Over Wires or Cables at Work? (
  • Check out our exclusive peek at 1First Comics' Alien Bones in the full galley below, then let us know how you'll be celebrating in style for International Dinosaur Month come October. (
  • A bird full of bones, now I'm held by a sand bag. (
  • Estonia will provide Lithuania with a total of 100 kilometers of razor wire, the dispatch of which is organized by the defense forces' Support Command in conjunction with civilian partners. (
  • Today, #Estonia sent 100km of Concertina barbed wire from @kaitsevagi as measure to support in the current state-sponsored hybrid attack on the border - important to monitor developments in light of #Russia - #Belarus strategic exercise Zapad 2021. (
  • They also form a strong bond to bone tissue. (
  • The wire is then attached to some form of traction so that the pull is applied directly to bone. (
  • Pin tract infection: Because K-wires often pass through the skin into bone they form a potential passage for bacteria from the skin to migrate into the bone and cause an infection. (
  • They come in different sizes and are used to hold bone fragments together (pin fixation) or to provide an anchor for skeletal traction. (
  • Boy, Juli N., it's a good thing they put that electrical wire in there to hold the legs on. (
  • The separated lingual bone was hold with wire. (
  • This can put you under a lot of financial pressure and as such, providing the accident happened in the last 3 years and you can prove employer negligence, you would be within your rights to file a tripping over wires or cables claim against them and receive the level of compensation you deserve. (
  • Would My Tripping Over Wires or Cables Claim Be Valid? (
  • What Evidence Is Needed to Make a Tripped Over Wires and Cables Claim? (
  • Our Dunoon mugs with animal designs are delightful fine bone china from our Dunoon collection at Distinctive Decor. (
  • We have beautifully detailed animal design fine bone china coffee or tea mugs and whimsical storybook animal art on Dunoon's bone china mugs. (
  • To qualify as bone china, each cup or teapot is made with a combination of fine clay and bone ash. (
  • Only liquid clay is used by Dunoon for its fine bone china mugs. (
  • [ 12 , 13 ] Lengthening is usually performed by using corticotomy and gradual distraction with a ring fixator and fine wires. (
  • Specific cells continuously break down bones and rebuild them. (
  • Substitutes that break down too quickly are not suitable for bone grafts, as they do not allow enough time for the new bone to grow. (
  • This substitute has a low infection rate but is not strong enough to be a stand-alone bone substitute. (
  • Variety of core diameters yields bone samples of sufficient size for pathology. (
  • A bone substitute with similar gaps allows blood vessels to grow into the graft to supply nutrients and encourage new bone growth. (
  • K-wires passed across the acromioclavicular (AC) joint in the shoulder have been found to migrate into the chest with the potential to penetrate the major blood vessels, the trachea, lung, or the heart. (
  • In subluxation, the bones in a joint are partly out of position. (

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