Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A tibial fracture is a medical term that describes a break or crack in the shinbone, one of the two bones in the lower leg, which can occur anywhere along its length due to various traumatic injuries or stresses.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
Diseases of BONES.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
Breaks in bones.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.

Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep. (1/454)

This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface.  (+info)

Coral grafting supplemented with bone marrow. (2/454)

Limited success in regenerating large bone defects has been achieved by bridging them with osteoconductive materials. These substitutes lack the osteogenic and osteoinductive properties of bone autograft. A direct approach would be to stimulate osteogenesis in these biomaterials by the addition of fresh bone-marrow cells (BMC). We therefore created osteoperiosteal gaps 2 cm wide in the ulna of adult rabbits and either bridged them with coral alone (CC), coral supplemented with BMC, or left them empty. Coral was chosen as a scaffold because of its good biocompatibility and resorbability. In osteoperiosteal gaps bridged with coral only, the coral was invaded chiefly by fibrous tissue. It was insufficient to produce union after two months. In defects filled with coral and BMC an increase in osteogenesis was observed and the bone surface area was significantly higher compared with defects filled with coral alone. Bony union occurred in six out of six defects filled with coral and BMC after two months. An increase in the resorption of coral was also observed, suggesting that resorbing cells or their progenitors were present in bone marrow and survived the grafting procedure. Our findings have shown that supplementation of coral with BMC increased both the resorption of material and osteogenesis in defects of a clinical significance.  (+info)

Osteoinductive bone graft substitutes. (3/454)

This review will summarize the major efforts currently underway to develop osteoinductive bone graft substitutes for minimally invasive spine fusions. The primary categories of substitute include purified bone growth factors, recombinant bone growth factors, and growth factors delivered by gene therapy approaches. Clinical trials are underway for the purified and recombinant bone growth factors and pre-clinical studies have yielded promising results for a variety of gene therapy techniques for generating bone.  (+info)

Hydroxyapatite coated with heaptocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulates human osteoblasts in vitro. (4/454)

We have studied in vitro the effect of a hydroxyapatite (HA) tricalcium phosphate material coated with hepatocyte growth factor (HA-HGF) on cell growth, collagen synthesis and secretion of metalloproteinases (MMPs) by human osteoblasts. Cell proliferation was stimulated when osteoblasts were incubated with untreated HA and was further increased after exposure to HA-HGF. The uptake of [3H]-proline was increased after treatment with HA. When osteoblasts were exposed to HA-HGF, collagen synthesis was increased with respect to HA. The secretion of MMPs in control cells was undetectable, but in HA and HA-HGF cells MMP 2 and MMP 9 were clearly synthesised. Our results suggest that HA can promote osteoblast activity and that HGF can further increase its bioactivity.  (+info)

Porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic as an intramedullary plug. (5/454)

We evaluated the efficacy and biocompatibility of porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC) as an intramedullary plug in total hip replacement (THR) for up to two years in 22 adult beagle dogs. Cylindrical porous AW-GC rods (70% porosity, mean pore size 200 microm) were prepared. Four dogs were killed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months each and six at 24 months after implantation. Radiological evaluation confirmed the efficacy of porous AW-CG as an intramedullary plug. Histological evaluation showed osteoconduction at one month and resorption of the porous AW-GC, which was replaced by newly-formed bone, at 24 months. Our findings indicate that porous AW-GC can be used clinically as an intramedullary plug in THR.  (+info)

High density polyetherurethane foam as a fragmentation and radiographic surrogate for cortical bone. (6/454)

BACKGROUND: Although one of the most important factors in predicting outcome of articular fracture, the comminution of the fracture is only subjectively assessed. To facilitate development of objective, quantitative measures of comminution phenomena, there is need for a bone fragmentation surrogate. METHODS: Laboratory investigation was undertaken to develop and characterize a novel synthetic material capable of emulating the fragmentation and radiographic behavior of human cortical bone. RESULT: Screening tests performed with a drop tower apparatus identified high-density polyetherurethane foam as having suitable fragmentation properties. The material's impact behavior and its quasi-static mechanical properties are here described. Dispersal of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in the resin achieved radio-density closely resembling that of bone, without detectably altering mechanical behavior. The surrogate material's ultimate strength, elastic modulus, and quasi-static toughness are within an order of magnitude of those of mammalian cortical bone. The spectrum of comminution patterns produced by this material when impacted with varying amounts of energy is very comparable to the spectrum of bone fragment comminution seen clinically. CONCLUSIONS: A novel high-density polyetherurethane foam, when subjected to impact loading, sustains comminuted fracture in a manner strikingly similar to cortical bone. Moreover, since the material also can be doped with radio-opacifier so as to closely emulate bone's radiographic signature, it opens many new possibilities for CT-based systematic study of comminution phenomena.  (+info)

A bone replaceable artificial bone substitute: morphological and physiochemical characterizations. (7/454)

A composite material consisting of carbonate apatite (CAp) and type I atelocollagen (AtCol) (88/12 in wt/wt%) was designed for use as an artificial bone substitute. CAp was synthesized at 58 degrees C by a solution-precipitation method and then heated at either 980 degrees C or 1,200 degrees C. In this study, type I AtCol was purified from bovine tail skins. A CAp-AtCol mixture was prepared by centirfugation and condensed into composite rods or disks. The scanning electron-microscopic (SEM) characterization indicated that the CAp synthesized at 58 degrees C displayed a crystallinity similar to that of natural bone and had a high porosity (mean pore size: about 3-10 microns in diameter). SEM also revealed that the CAp heated at 980 degrees C was more porous than that sintered at 1,200 degrees C, and the 1,200 degrees C-heated particles were more uniformly encapsulated by the AtCol fibers than the 980 degrees C-heated ones. A Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the bands characteristic of carbonate ions were clearly observed in the 58 degrees C-synthesized CAp. To enhance the intramolecular cross-linking between the collagen molecules, CAp-AtCol composites were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) ray (wave length 254 nm) for 4 hours or vacuum-dried at 150 degrees C for 2 hours. Compared to the non cross-linked composites, the UV-irradiated or dehydrothermally cross-linked composites showed significantly (p < 0.05) low collagen degradation and swelling ratio. Preliminary mechanical data demonstrated that the compressive strengths of the CAp-AtCol composites were higher than the values reported for bone.  (+info)

Spinal fusions: bone and bone substitutes. (8/454)

Vertebral arthrodesis is one of the most commonly performed, yet incompletely understood, procedures in spinal surgery. Despite major progress in internal fixation techniques, the high rate of nonunions indicates that physiologic, biologic and molecular events that are crucial to this process are not well known. This article will analyze the general biology of bone regeneration, and particularly discuss the properties and use of various bone graft materials and graft substitutes.  (+info)

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

Calcium sulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is insoluble in alcohol but soluble in water. Calcium sulfate is commonly found in nature as the mineral gypsum, which is used in various industrial applications such as plaster, wallboard, and cement.

In the medical field, calcium sulfate may be used as a component of some pharmaceutical products or as a surgical material. For example, it can be used as a bone void filler to promote healing after bone fractures or surgeries. Calcium sulfate is also used in some dental materials and medical devices.

It's important to note that while calcium sulfate has various industrial and medical uses, it should not be taken as a dietary supplement or medication without the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

A tooth socket, also known as an alveolus (plural: alveoli), refers to the hollow cavity or space in the jawbone where a tooth is anchored. The tooth socket is part of the alveolar process, which is the curved part of the maxilla or mandible that contains multiple tooth sockets for the upper and lower teeth, respectively.

Each tooth socket has a specialized tissue called the periodontal ligament, which attaches the root of the tooth to the surrounding bone. This ligament helps absorb forces generated during biting and chewing, allowing for comfortable and efficient mastication while also maintaining the tooth's position within the jawbone. The tooth socket is responsible for providing support, stability, and nourishment to the tooth through its blood vessels and nerves.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be placed inside the body during a surgical procedure, where they provide support, stabilization, or other functions, and then gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. These implants are typically made from materials such as polymers, proteins, or ceramics that have been engineered to degrade at a controlled rate, allowing them to be resorbed and eliminated from the body without the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

Absorbable implants are often used in orthopedic, dental, and plastic surgery applications, where they can help promote healing and support tissue regeneration. For example, absorbable screws or pins may be used to stabilize fractured bones during the healing process, after which they will gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the body. Similarly, absorbable membranes may be used in dental surgery to help guide the growth of new bone and gum tissue around an implant, and then be resorbed over time.

It's important to note that while absorbable implants offer several advantages over non-absorbable materials, such as reduced risk of infection and improved patient comfort, they may also have some limitations. For example, the mechanical properties of absorbable materials may not be as strong as those of non-absorbable materials, which could affect their performance in certain applications. Additionally, the degradation products of absorbable implants may cause local inflammation or other adverse reactions in some patients. As with any medical device, the use of absorbable implants should be carefully considered and discussed with a qualified healthcare professional.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral that makes up about 70% of the inorganic component of bone and teeth in humans and other animals. It has the chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, with the idealized crystal structure consisting of alternating calcium and phosphate layers.

In addition to its natural occurrence in bone and teeth, hydroxyapatite has various medical applications due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. It is used as a coating on orthopedic implants to promote bone growth and integration with the implant, and it is also used in dental and oral healthcare products for remineralization of tooth enamel. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite has been studied for its potential use in drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Solid-phase synthesis techniques refer to a group of methods used in chemistry, particularly in the field of peptide and oligonucleotide synthesis. These techniques involve chemically binding reactive components to a solid support or resin, and then performing a series of reactions on the attached components while they are still in the solid phase.

The key advantage of solid-phase synthesis is that it allows for the automated and repetitive addition of individual building blocks (such as amino acids or nucleotides) to a growing chain, with each step followed by a purification process that removes any unreacted components. This makes it possible to synthesize complex molecules in a highly controlled and efficient manner.

The solid-phase synthesis techniques typically involve the use of protecting groups to prevent unwanted reactions between functional groups on the building blocks, as well as the use of activating agents to promote the desired chemical reactions. Once the synthesis is complete, the final product can be cleaved from the solid support and purified to yield a pure sample of the desired molecule.

In summary, solid-phase synthesis techniques are a powerful set of methods used in chemistry to synthesize complex molecules in a controlled and efficient manner, with applications in fields such as pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, and materials science.

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Preprosthetic oral surgical procedures are dental surgeries performed to prepare the mouth for the placement of dental prostheses such as dentures. These procedures aim to create a smooth, stable, and suitable foundation in the mouth to support the prosthesis and ensure its proper functioning, retention, and comfort.

Common preprosthetic oral surgical procedures include:

1. Alveoloplasty: This procedure involves reshaping the alveolar ridge (the bony ridge that supports the teeth) to create a more uniform and even surface. It helps to eliminate any sharp or irregular bony edges that may interfere with the fit or comfort of the denture.

2. Gingivectomy/Gingivoplasty: These procedures involve removing or reshaping excess gum tissue to improve the fit and appearance of the dental prosthesis. A gingivectomy removes a portion of the gum tissue, while a gingivoplasty sculpts and reshapes the existing gum tissue.

3. Frenectomy: This procedure involves removing or repositioning the frenum, a small fold of tissue that connects the lips, cheeks, or tongue to the jawbone. A lingual frenectomy may be necessary when the frenum restricts tongue movement and interferes with proper denture placement or speech.

4. Maxillary tori reduction: This procedure involves removing or reducing the size of tori, which are bony growths found on the roof of the mouth (maxilla). Large tori can make it difficult to wear a denture, so their removal or reduction can improve the fit and comfort of the prosthesis.

5. Ridge augmentation: This procedure involves adding bone grafting material to the jaw ridge to increase its height, width, or volume. This is often done when there is significant bone loss due to tooth extraction, periodontal disease, or other factors, making it difficult to achieve a secure and comfortable denture fit.

6. Exostectomy: This procedure involves removing small, benign bony growths (exostoses) that may develop on the hard palate or along the jaw ridge. These growths can interfere with the fit and comfort of a denture, so their removal can improve the prosthesis' functionality.

These procedures are typically performed by oral surgeons, periodontists, or prosthodontists who specialize in dental implants, oral surgery, and complex restorative treatments. The specific treatment plan will depend on each patient's individual needs and preferences.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

The alveolar process is the curved part of the jawbone (mandible or maxilla) that contains sockets or hollow spaces (alveoli) for the teeth to be embedded. These processes are covered with a specialized mucous membrane called the gingiva, which forms a tight seal around the teeth to help protect the periodontal tissues and maintain oral health.

The alveolar process is composed of both compact and spongy bone tissue. The compact bone forms the outer layer, while the spongy bone is found inside the alveoli and provides support for the teeth. When a tooth is lost or extracted, the alveolar process begins to resorb over time due to the lack of mechanical stimulation from the tooth's chewing forces. This can lead to changes in the shape and size of the jawbone, which may require bone grafting procedures before dental implant placement.

Alveolar ridge augmentation is a surgical procedure in dentistry that aims to reconstruct or enhance the volume and shape of the alveolar ridge, which is the bony ridge that supports the dental arch and holds the teeth in place. This procedure is often performed in preparation for dental implant placement when the jawbone lacks sufficient width, height, or density to support the implant securely.

The alveolar ridge augmentation process typically involves several steps:

1. Assessment: The dentist or oral surgeon evaluates the patient's oral condition and takes dental images (such as X-rays or CBCT scans) to determine the extent of bone loss and plan the surgical procedure accordingly.
2. Grafting material selection: Depending on the specific needs of the patient, various grafting materials can be used, including autografts (patient's own bone), allografts (bone from a human donor), xenografts (bone from an animal source), or synthetic materials.
3. Surgical procedure: The oral surgeon exposes the deficient area of the alveolar ridge and carefully places the grafting material, ensuring proper contour and stabilization. In some cases, a barrier membrane may be used to protect the graft and promote healing.
4. Healing period: After the surgery, a healing period is required for the grafted bone to integrate with the existing jawbone. This process can take several months, depending on factors such as the size of the graft and the patient's overall health.
5. Implant placement: Once the alveolar ridge augmentation has healed and sufficient bone volume has been achieved, dental implants can be placed to support replacement teeth, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.

Alveolar ridge augmentation is a valuable technique for restoring jawbone structure and function, enabling patients with significant bone loss to receive dental implants and enjoy improved oral health and aesthetics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nanocomposites" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to refer to a type of composite material where at least one of the phases has dimensions in the nanoscale (typically less than 100 nanometers). Nanocomposites can have unique properties that make them useful for various applications, including biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems or tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the term itself is not a medical definition.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Tissue scaffolds, also known as bioactive scaffolds or synthetic extracellular matrices, refer to three-dimensional structures that serve as templates for the growth and organization of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) found in biological tissues, providing a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Tissue scaffolds can be made from various materials, including naturally derived biopolymers (e.g., collagen, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid), synthetic polymers (e.g., polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), or a combination of both. The choice of material depends on the specific application and desired properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity.

The primary functions of tissue scaffolds include:

1. Cell attachment: Providing surfaces for cells to adhere, spread, and form stable focal adhesions.
2. Mechanical support: Offering a structural framework that maintains the desired shape and mechanical properties of the engineered tissue.
3. Nutrient diffusion: Ensuring adequate transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the scaffold to support cell survival and function.
4. Guided tissue growth: Directing the organization and differentiation of cells through spatial cues and biochemical signals.
5. Biodegradation: Gradually degrading at a rate that matches tissue regeneration, allowing for the replacement of the scaffold with native ECM produced by the cells.

Tissue scaffolds have been used in various applications, such as wound healing, bone and cartilage repair, cardiovascular tissue engineering, and neural tissue regeneration. The design and fabrication of tissue scaffolds are critical aspects of tissue engineering, aiming to create functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

A tibial fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the shin bone, which is called the tibia. The tibia is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and is responsible for supporting much of your body weight. Tibial fractures can occur in various ways, such as from high-energy trauma like car accidents or falls, or from low-energy trauma in individuals with weakened bones due to osteoporosis or other medical conditions.

Tibial fractures can be classified into different types based on the location, pattern, and severity of the break. Some common types of tibial fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A straight break that goes across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A diagonal break that slopes across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that spirals around the bone, often caused by twisting or rotational forces.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break where the bone is shattered into multiple pieces.
5. Open fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin, increasing the risk of infection.
6. Closed fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Tibial fractures can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Treatment for tibial fractures may include immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, and rehabilitation to restore strength, mobility, and function to the injured limb.

Blood substitutes, also known as artificial blood or blood surrogates, are fluids that are designed to mimic some of the properties and functions of human blood. They are used as a replacement for blood transfusions in situations where blood is not available or when it is not safe to use. Blood substitutes can be divided into two main categories: oxygen-carrying and non-oxygen-carrying.

Oxygen-carrying blood substitutes contain artificial molecules called hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) that are designed to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues. These HBOCs can be derived from human or animal hemoglobin, or they can be synthetically produced.

Non-oxygen-carrying blood substitutes, on the other hand, do not contain hemoglobin and are used primarily to restore intravascular volume and maintain blood pressure in cases of hypovolemia (low blood volume) caused by bleeding or dehydration. These products include crystalloids, such as saline solution and lactated Ringer's solution, and colloids, such as albumin and hydroxyethyl starch solutions.

It is important to note that while blood substitutes can be useful in certain situations, they are not a perfect substitute for human blood. They do not provide all of the functions of blood, such as immune defense and clotting, and their use is associated with some risks, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and increased oxygen free radical production. Therefore, they should only be used when there is no suitable alternative available.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

A bioreactor is a device or system that supports and controls the conditions necessary for biological organisms, cells, or tissues to grow and perform their specific functions. It provides a controlled environment with appropriate temperature, pH, nutrients, and other factors required for the desired biological process to occur. Bioreactors are widely used in various fields such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and environmental science for applications like production of therapeutic proteins, vaccines, biofuels, enzymes, and wastewater treatment.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

Artificial Skin is a synthetic substitute or equivalent that is used to replace, support, or enhance the function of damaged or absent skin. It can be made from various materials such as biopolymers, composites, or biosynthetic materials. The main purpose of artificial skin is to provide a temporary or permanent covering for wounds, burns, or ulcers that cannot be healed with conventional treatments. Additionally, it may serve as a platform for the delivery of medications or as a matrix for the growth of cells and tissues during skin grafting procedures. Artificial skin must possess properties such as biocompatibility, durability, flexibility, and permeability to air and water vapor in order to promote optimal healing and minimize scarring.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors that play crucial roles in the development, growth, and repair of bones and other tissues. They belong to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and were first discovered when researchers found that certain proteins extracted from demineralized bone matrix had the ability to induce new bone formation.

BMPs stimulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. They also promote the recruitment and proliferation of these cells, enhancing the overall process of bone regeneration. In addition to their role in bone biology, BMPs have been implicated in various other biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and the regulation of fat metabolism.

There are several types of BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, etc.) that exhibit distinct functions and expression patterns. Due to their ability to stimulate bone formation, recombinant human BMPs have been used in clinical applications, such as spinal fusion surgery and non-healing fracture treatment. However, the use of BMPs in medicine has been associated with certain risks and complications, including uncontrolled bone growth, inflammation, and cancer development, which necessitates further research to optimize their therapeutic potential.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays a crucial role in bone and cartilage formation, as well as in the regulation of wound healing and embryonic development. BMP-2 stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

BMP-2 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medical device to promote bone growth in certain spinal fusion surgeries and in the treatment of open fractures that have not healed properly. It is usually administered in the form of a collagen sponge soaked with recombinant human BMP-2 protein, which is a laboratory-produced version of the natural protein.

While BMP-2 has shown promising results in some clinical applications, its use is not without risks and controversies. Some studies have reported adverse effects such as inflammation, ectopic bone formation, and increased rates of cancer, which have raised concerns about its safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is essential to weigh the benefits and risks of BMP-2 therapy on a case-by-case basis and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

"Mathys bone graft substitutes". Mathys Ltd Bettlach. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2010-06-30. "Mathys ... knee and shoulder as well as biomaterials for surgical treatment of bone defects (bone grafting) With an innovative implant for ... Mathys begins to develop and produce implants and instruments for bone surgery and orthopaedics. Starting 1960, the first ... products for bone fracture treatment were merchandised after the guidelines of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen ...
doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1999.tb01886.x. Kajal, Mallick (21 July 2014). Bone Substitute Biomaterials , ScienceDirect. Elsevier ...
"Scientists grow bone substitutes from skin cells". Fox News. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013. Anahad O'Connor (6 May 2013). " ... "Bone marrow 'frees men of HIV drugs'". BBC. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013. "Stem-Cell Transplants Erase HIV in Two Men". ... Ancient horse bones dating back 700,000 years are found to contain by far the oldest preserved DNA sequence yet discovered, ... Bone marrow transplants are found to remove all traces of HIV from two test patients, in conjunction with antiretroviral ...
Li, C. & Zhang, D. (1997). The Research on Substitutes for Tiger Bone. First International Symposium on Endangered Species Used ... Bones, paws, and penises were offered as aphrodisiacs in places with a large sex industry. Tiger bone wine was offered foremost ... More than 40 different formulae containing tiger bone were produced by at least 226 Chinese companies in 1993. Tiger bone glue ... Substitutes for Tiger Bone and Musk. Hong Kong: TRAFFIC East Asia and the Chinese Medicinal Material Research Centre. Davis, E ...
But also 'children are clever at inventing substitutes. They make them of bones, stones, sticks, and rags. Their make-believe ...
"Synthetic Calcite as a Scaffold for Osteoinductive Bone Substitutes". Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 44 (7): 2145-2157. doi: ... However, artificial calcite is the preferred material to be used as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering due to its ...
The process substitutes the trabecular bone with compact bone. The trabecular bone is first resorbed by osteoclasts, creating a ... Young bone unites more rapidly than adult bone. Pre-existing bone malignancy. Mechanical factors such as the bone not being ... Age, bone type, drug therapy and pre-existing bone pathology are factors that affect healing. The role of bone healing is to ... This new lamellar bone is in the form of trabecular bone. Eventually, all of the woven bone and cartilage of the original ...
In some quintets, the horn is replaced by an additional trombone. Euphonium may also be substituted for the trombone part. ... The instrumentation for a brass quintet typically includes two trumpets or cornets, one French horn, one trombone or euphonium/ ... the range and style of many pieces lend themselves to being played with bass trombone as the lowest-pitched instrument. ... baritone horn, and one tuba or bass trombone. Musicians in a brass quintet may often play multiple instruments. Trumpet players ...
Today, many orchestras substitute the trombone or bass trombone. For Georg Solti's 1958-1965 Ring recordings a set of the ...
Substitute beef bones for the meat and add vegetables. Also called Hamisgulyás, (Fake Goulash) Bean Gulyás. Omit the potatoes ...
He sometimes substituted a fish bone for the ring. Turkey Lake became Lake Wawasee in his honor. Wawasee is the namesake of ...
... has been practiced by a variety of world cultures, sometimes as a cheaper, and recently a legal, substitute for ... Sims, Margaret E.; Baker, Barry W.; Hoesch, Robert M. (2011). "Tusk or Bone? An Example of Ivory Substitute in the Wildlife ... Bone carving is creating art, tools, and other goods by carving animal bones, antlers, and horns. It can result in the ... The Anglo-Saxon Franks Casket is a whale bone casket imitating earlier ivory ones. Medieval bone caskets were made by the ...
... is a well known biocompatible material that is widely used as a bone graft substitute in dentistry or as its binder. In the ... Bone implant materials are often designed to promote bone growth while dissolving into surrounding body fluid. Thus for many ... Biomaterials are used in: Joint replacements Bone plates Intraocular lenses (IOLs) for eye surgery Bone cement Artificial ... "Bone Grafts and Substitutes in Dentistry: A Review of Current Trends and Developments". Molecules. 26 (10): 3007. doi:10.3390/ ...
Touring substitutes Jimi K. Bones - guitar (1989, 1992, 1993-1994; touring guest 2016) Roger Studner - guitar (1995) Pat DeMent ... Bones replaced Brian "Damage" Forsythe. While on tour in 1992, they made a live album, titled Live, showcasing a recent ...
Vegetarians often substitute a beet, quoting Pesachim 114b as justification. "The Shank Bone (Zeroah)". ... Zeroa (Hebrew: זרוֹע) is a lamb shank bone or roast chicken wing or neck used on Passover and placed on the Seder plate. It ...
"Fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite scaffolds hydrothermally grown from aragonitic cuttlefish bones". Acta Biomaterialia. 3 (2 ... Cuttlebone, also known as cuttlefish bone, is a hard, brittle internal structure (an internal shell) found in all members of ... Look up cuttlebone or cuttlefish bone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Media related to Cuttlebone at Wikimedia Commons (CS1 ...
A hemoglobin substitute may be stored at room temperature and not under refrigeration for more than a year. Attempts have been ... Liu ZC, Chang TM (June 2003). "Coencapsulation of hepatocytes and bone marrow stem cells: in vitro conversion of ammonia and in ... Nano sized oxygen carriers are used as a type of red blood cell substitutes, although they lack other components of red blood ... This principle has been used to remove blood group antibodies from plasma for bone marrow transplantation and for the treatment ...
While batting he had two bones of his right hand broken by fast bowler Frank King. Vijay Manjrekar substituted for him and ...
He suggested that substitutes could be made from carved blocks of ivory or bone. He also introduced dental braces, although ...
cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) Dumitrescu AL (2011). "Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes in Periodontal Therapy §2.3 ... repair broken bones that have bone loss, and repair broken bone that has not yet healed. Furthermore, bone grafts or ... it is typically sourced from a bone bank. Bone banks also supply allograft bone sourced from living human bone donors (usually ... Bone grafting is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, ...
Second-half substitute Marin Tomasov scored the only goal for Hajduk. During the game Marin Ljubičić suffered a broken ... zygomatic bone. He underwent a surgery and is expected to be at least three months out of action. Only a few days later another ... First number represents appearances in starting eleven, while the second number indicates a substitute appearance. "Gledatelji ... Kostas Manolas and substitute Ismael Blanco. Jurica Buljat scored a late consolation goal. Last league game of the year was a 3 ...
Bone substitutes may be associated with less gingival recession than EMD." However, studies have shown that regardless of the ... Evidence of alveolar bone loss is also required to differentiate between true bone loss and not attributions of gingival oedema ... Usually, a horizontal pattern of bone loss would be found however, vertical (infrabony) bone loss may also be present on ... 1.0% bone loss/age Status: stable, remission or unstable (see Table 1) Risk factors, which include systemic diseases such as ...
... including soft tissue and bone. These constituents can act as future substitutes, even improvements, for the original body ... This technology can also potentially be applied to bone, skin, cartilage and muscle tissue. Though one long-term goal of 3D ... Nakashima Y, Okazak K, Nakayama K, Okada S, Mizu-uchi H (January 2017). "Bone and Joint Diseases in Present and Future". ...
Mutton can be substituted with beef, or even with chicken. The broth is made from mutton bones, and the ground meat is prepared ...
Two-year follow-up of a randomised trial". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 84 (3): 356-60. doi:10.1302/ ... Jenkins DH, McKibbin B (November 1980). "The role of flexible carbon-fibre implants as tendon and ligament substitutes in ... Stem cells such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, perivascular stem cells, and human ... A preliminary report". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 62-B (4): 497-9. doi:10.1302/0301-620X. ...
Its presence in bones can cause bone cancer, cancer of nearby tissues, and leukemia. The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident ... In biological systems, calcium is substituted to a small extent by strontium. In the human body, most of the absorbed strontium ... Cabrera, Walter E.; Schrooten, Iris; De Broe, Marc E.; d'Haese, Patrick C. (1999). "Strontium and Bone". Journal of Bone and ... 89Sr is the active ingredient in Metastron, a radiopharmaceutical used for bone pain secondary to metastatic bone cancer. The ...
The ophicleide (ophicleide) was a sort of bass bugle with keys, invented in 1817; the t-bone would be a valve trombone. They ... Probably it had started with an ophicleide, and later substituted the saxophone. They included a piano by 1929. The group ... Its members at the start of the 20th century included the following: Perico Rojas (trombone); Patricio Valdés and Andrés Rojas ... The orchestra was a típica, with cornet, trombone, ophicleide, two clarinets, two violins, double bass, kettle drum, and güíro ...
It causes health problems, as it substitutes for calcium in bone, preventing expulsion from the body. Because it is a long- ... which allows it to substitute calcium in bone structures. In circumstances where cancer patients have widespread and painful ... Strontium-89 is an artificial radioisotope used in treatment of bone cancer; this application utilizes its chemical similarity ... it readily substitutes for calcium in minerals. In addition to the four stable isotopes, thirty-two unstable isotopes of ...
... some of these components may be omitted or substituted. The stock is typically made by boiling meat, bones, or both. Beef, pork ... Marrow bones are considered best for the bone stock. Meat stock is usually cooked for about two hours, whereas bone stock takes ... Borscht based on bone stock may be served Old Polish style, with marrow from the bones. Some kinds of the soup, such as Poltava ... Meat and bones are usually removed afterwards and the meat is only added back into the soup about 10-15 minutes before the ...
This way as bone grows the substitute can diminish at a similar rate. Averback, Robert S. (May 21, 1992). "Nanophase Ceramics: ... Nano-hydroxyapatite is one nanophase ceramic that is used as a bone substitute. Nano grain size increases the bonding, growth, ... Bone and collagen have structures on the nanoscale. Nanomaterials can be manufactured to simulate these structures which is ... The surfaces of nanophase ceramics can also be modified to be porous allowing osteoblasts to create bone within the structure. ...
The Camlog portfolio of biomaterials includes BioHorizons bone substitute materials, effective barrier membranes and collagen ... The success of using a bone substitute material depends to a large extent on the biological interactions after implantation. As ... Placed at bone level the integrated Platform Switching results in excellent clinical outcomes in terms of crestal bone ... bone formation progresses, a variety of cellular behaviors and biological activities come into play. Many of them are ...
... bone graft substitutes market to reach US$ 1.3 Bn by 2031. Europe is projected to account for major market share from 2023 to ... Bone graft substitutes are materials used to replace or augment natural bone in areas where bone loss or defects have occurred ... Global Dental Membrane & Bone Graft Substitutes Market Introduction. Dental membrane & bone graft substitutes are two important ... Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitutes Market. Dental Membrane & Bone Graft Substitutes Market (Material: Hydrogel, ...
Växtbaserade produkter skapade av No Bones.
Mamidwar S, Ricci J, Alexander H. Timed-release calcium sulfate ceramic nanocomposites as bone graft substitutes. Key ... Mamidwar, S, Ricci, J & Alexander, H 2008, Timed-release calcium sulfate ceramic nanocomposites as bone graft substitutes, ... Mamidwar, S., Ricci, J., & Alexander, H. (2008). Timed-release calcium sulfate ceramic nanocomposites as bone graft substitutes ... Timed-release calcium sulfate ceramic nanocomposites as bone graft substitutes. In: Key Engineering Materials. 2008 ; Vol. 361- ...
PRO-DENSE™ Injectable Regenerative Graft is the only injectable bone graft on the market (May 2015) today with an indication ... Wright also offers a variety of biologic products that can be combined with bone marrow aspirate. ...
MACHADO, Callinca Paolla Gomes et al. Evaluation of strontium containing hydroxyapatite as bone substitute in sheeps tibia. ... Strontium ions are known to reduce bone resorption, induce osteoblastic activity and thus stimulate bone formation. The aim of ... Areas of bone formation were detected in close contact with biomaterials. According to the results spheres containing nano-SrHA ... All groups showed new bone formation from the periphery to the center of the defects, and the group nano-Sr with a lesser ...
Naturally occurring pearl and its derivatives have recently gained interest in bone regeneration due to their bioactive ... Bone Substitutes / chemistry* * Calcium Carbonate / chemistry * Cell Differentiation * Cell Proliferation * Compressive ... 3D scaffold of PLLA/pearl and PLLA/nacre powder for bone regeneration Biomed Mater. 2013 Dec;8(6):065001. doi: 10.1088/1748- ... The attachment and morphology of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) on scaffolds was observed by the SEM. ...
Global Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market. Chapter 3: Regional analysis of the Global Dental Membrane and Bone ... Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market Business ideas and Strategies forecast by 2029. Data Bridge Market Research ... Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market report provides top to bottom assessment of the market with respect to income ... Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market business report also covers strategic profiling of the major players in the ...
"Mathys bone graft substitutes". Mathys Ltd Bettlach. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2010-06-30. "Mathys ... knee and shoulder as well as biomaterials for surgical treatment of bone defects (bone grafting) With an innovative implant for ... Mathys begins to develop and produce implants and instruments for bone surgery and orthopaedics. Starting 1960, the first ... products for bone fracture treatment were merchandised after the guidelines of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen ...
Substitutes Markets 2020-2027: Advent of Biocompatible Synthetic Graft & Rising Semand for Dental Bone Grafts Dublin, Feb. 16… ... Asia Pacific Bone Grafts & Substitutes Market Growth & Trends The Asia Pacific bone grafts and substitutes market size is ... High cost of bone grafts and substitutes. 3.3 Asia Pacific Bone grafts & substitutes Market Analysis Tools: Porters. ... 6.7 Long Bone. 6.8 Spinal Fusion. Chapter 7 Asia Pacific Bone grafts & substitutes Market: Country Estimates & Trend Analysis, ...
Conclusions All studied bone substitute materials showed good characteristics for their use in bone regeneration therapies. ... Histological comparison of an allograft, a xenograft and alloplastic graft as bone substitute materials ... Materials and methods Twenty-five samples from 18 subjects were histologically evaluated with respect to newly formed bone and ... Differences in newly formed bone percentage were found between the allograft and the xenograft, whereas no differences were ...
Cyclosporine A impairs bone repair in critical defects filled with different osteoconductive bone substitutes.. Gonçalves, ... The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. At 15 days, less bone formation was ... The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and ... deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and ß-phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). ...
... bone substitute, nano-hybrid, polycaprolactone, siloxane. In this study, we evaluated the cellular behaviors of human bone ... Organosiloxane Nano-Hybrid Developed as a Novel Bone Substitute. Yoo J.J., Kim H.-J., Rhee S-H.. Seoul National University ... Organosiloxane Nano-Hybrid Developed as a Novel Bone Substitute. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of Bioactive Poly(epsilon- ... There was newly formed bone, together with numerous osteoblasts, that was observed along the entire surface of the SiOPCL in ...
Bone Substitutes. 1. 2013. 229. 0.100. Why? Orthopedics. 1. 2020. 903. 0.100. Why? ...
This includes your bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. ... This includes your bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. ... Use of bone graft substitutes and bone-fusing protein WHO IS INVOLVED ... They specialize in the care of disorders of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. They are trained to manage joint ...
Cleveland trombone player Richard Stout; Philadelphia tuba substitute David Zerkel; Philadelphia bass trombone player Blair ... New York Philharmonic trombone player, and Philadelphia substitute, David Finlayson; Philadelphia Principal Trombone Nitzan ... Cleveland percussion substitute from the Detroit Symphony Jay Ritchie; Philadelphia percussion substitute Joe Desotelle; and ... Yannick asks the trumpets, trombones, and tuba to stand for a special shout-out after the Price. Photo by Todd Rosenberg. ...
Improving bone health. Reducing hunger. Boosting metabolism. Builds muscle. Best Dairy-Free Greek Yogurt Substitutes to Use in ... Regardless of the substitute you choose, add a little at a time until you achieve the best consistency as these ingredients ... Well outline them below as well as help you to know the best substitutes to use in a pinch. ... here are some substitutes that we recommend using in a pinch. ...
substitute bone materials, tendons, and regenerative tissues and fluids ("Biologics"). All of our medical devices are approved ... If we experience any delays in contracting for suitable substitutes, we may not be able to fulfill some of our customers needs ... To support orthopedic surgeries, we offer Biologics that include: (a) osteo Biologics (cellular bone allografts and synthetics ... and bone marrow aspirate concentration systems). All of our Biologics suppliers are licensed tissue banks accredited by the ...
Oral Surgeons explain what bone grafting is, and options for bone grafting. ... Bone Graft Substitutes. As a substitute to using real bone, many synthetic materials are available as safe and proven ... Xenogenic Bone. Xenogenic bone is derived from non-living bone of another species, usually a cow. The bone is processed at very ... About Bone Grafting Fargo ND. What is Bone Grafting?. Over a period of time, the jaw bone associated with missing teeth ...
... collagenated bone substitute material without a collagen barrier demonstrated similar new bone formation and dimensional ... Collagenated bone substitute material was grafted in both groups. Healing periods of 2 weeks and 4 weeks were provided in both ... Collagenated Synthetic Bone Substitute Material for Sinus Floor Elevation at Sites with a Perforated Schneiderian Membrane by ... The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of collagenated bone substitute materials with and without a collagen ...
Bone Grafts And Substitutes Market: ...
Synthetic Bone Graft Substitutes (1) * Orthopedic Bone Cement and Casting Materials(1). ...
Horn can be substituted for trombone I. Categories: Instrumental, Organ Seasonal: Christmastide ... Instrumental parts included: Trumpet I in B-flat, Trumpet I in C, Trumpet II in B-flat, Trumpet II in C, Horn in F, Trombone I ...
Age Factors, Aged, Biomechanical Phenomena, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/therapeutic use, Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use, Bone ... LR: 20131121; CI: Copyright (c) 2011; JID: 0226040; 0 (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins); 0 (Bone Substitutes); 0 (Calcium ... What bone graft substitutes should we use in post-traumatic spinal fusion? 2011 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and ... There is little evidence on the efficacy of demineralised bone matrix for spinal fusion. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are ...
With some exceptions, skin grafts rarely take when placed on bone, cartilage, or tendon without the presence of periosteum, ... Biologic Skin Substitutes. The terminology in the literature for skin substitutes and artificial skin is often unclear. In the ... encoded search term (Skin Grafts and Biologic Skin Substitutes) and Skin Grafts and Biologic Skin Substitutes What to Read Next ... a skin substitute is anything that substitutes for any of the skin functions. For example, one skin function is to minimize ...
Small fish with soft bones like sardines are especially high in calcium. For example, 3 ounces of sardines with bones serve up ... 8 Food Substitutes for Lactose Intolerance. A lactose intolerance diet should include dairy-free foods, but it can allow some ... However, these alternatives to cows milk dont work well as substitutes for cooking, such as in soups or desserts that call ... If you crave ice cream for dessert, you might be able to substitute sherbet in your lactose intolerance diet. Sherbet does ...
... substitutes for minerals in bone, and thus accumulated as a fish ages. Taking fish from contaminated waters for human ...
Bone and Bones, Fracture Healing, Bone Substitutes/pharmacology, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/pharmacology, Bone Regeneration. ... Bone and Bones; Fracture Healing; Bone Substitutes/pharmacology; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/pharmacology; Bone Regeneration ... Despite the glimmer of hope provided by the discovery and commercialization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) as a bone ... Despite the glimmer of hope provided by the discovery and commercialization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) as a bone ...
  • These provide a scaffold for new bone growth and can be derived from synthetic materials, allografts (cadaveric bone), xenografts (animal-derived), or alloplasts (synthetic biomaterials). (
  • Areas of bone formation were detected in close contact with biomaterials. (
  • The company develops, produces and distributes implants for artificial joint replacement in the areas of hip, knee and shoulder as well as biomaterials for surgical treatment of bone defects (bone grafting) With an innovative implant for ACL healing, the family company also gained ground in the area of sport orthopaedics at the beginning of 2013. (
  • The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. (
  • These are often used in procedures such as guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) to create a favorable environment for new bone and tissue growth. (
  • A CSD (5 mm Ø) was made in the calvaria of each animal , which was allocated to one of 3 subgroups, according to the biomaterial used to fill the defect coagulum ( COA ), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and ß- phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). (
  • Clinical evaluation of advanced platelet rich fibrin combined with nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute for management of mandibular molar grade II furcation defects: a randomized controlled clinical trial. (
  • Background: the current randomized controlled trial assessed for the effect of advanced platelet rich fibrin (A-PRF) + nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute (n-HA) with open flap debridement (OFD) versus OFD alone in the management of mandibular molar grade II defects. (
  • Incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a collagen scaffold dramatically improves bone morphogenic protein (BMP) sequestration via biophysical interactions with BMP, thereby providing more controlled BMP release compared with pristine collagen. (
  • Bone grafts are implanted to fuse bones or replace missing bone during trauma, tumor removal, or reconstruction procedures. (
  • The market has witnessed increased demand for bone morphogenetic proteins and synthetic bone grafts owing to their osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. (
  • The growing geriatric population and increasing incidence of orthopedic diseases and trauma cases are fueling the demand for bone grafts in the region. (
  • Compared to autologous and allograft bone grafts, BMPs have superior osteoinductive properties and reduce the dependency on donor sites. (
  • Increasing demand for the development of biocompatible bone grafts in order to reduce adverse reaction is driving demand for synthetic grafts. (
  • Technological advancements in graft materials are driving the global dental membrane & bone graft substitutes market. (
  • Dental membrane & bone graft substitutes are two important materials used in dental and oral surgery procedures to promote bone regeneration and enhance the success of dental implant placement. (
  • Rise in awareness about dental health is driving the global dental membrane & bone graft substitutes market value. (
  • Data Bridge Market Research analyses that the dental membrane and bone graft substitute market is growing at a CAGR of 9.0% in the forecast period of 2022-2029. (
  • Global Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market study by Data Bridge Market Research provides details about the market dynamics affecting this market, Market scope, Market segmentation and overlays shadow upon the leading market players highlighting the favourable competitive landscape and trends prevailing over the years. (
  • Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market report provides top to bottom assessment of the market with respect to income and developing business sector. (
  • Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market business report also covers strategic profiling of the major players in the market, comprehensive analysis of their fundamental competencies, and thereby keeping competitive landscape of the market in front of the client. (
  • Detailed considerate of Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market -particular drivers, Trends, constraints, Restraints, Opportunities and major micro markets. (
  • In depth study of industry strategies for growth of the Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market-leading players. (
  • Conclusive study about the growth conspiracy of Dental Membrane and Bone Graft Substitute Market for forthcoming years. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of biodegradable polycaprolactone membrane on new bone formation and the biodegradation of biphasic alloplastic bone substitutes using animal models. (
  • The biopolymer membrane contributes to early biodegradation of biphasic bone substitutes in the jaw defect but it does not affect the bone formation capacity of the bone graft. (
  • The effectiveness of using absorbable membrane has been controversial to enhance new bone formation in the cystic defect. (
  • The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of resorbable PCL membrane for new bone formation and biodegradation of the biphasic alloplastic bone substitute in canine mandibular defect. (
  • SynMax® is a fully synthetic, safe and biocompatible material that, when brough into an osseous environment, serves as an osteoconductive scaffold to support the ingrowth and fusion of adjacent, vital bone. (
  • Pure calcium sulfate (CS) is an excellent bone graft material because it is biocompatible, completely biodegradable, osteoconductive, safe, nontoxic and angiogenic. (
  • Cyclosporine A impairs bone repair in critical defects filled with different osteoconductive bone substitutes. (
  • Partially or fully edentulous patients, having less then 4 mm of residual horizontal bone width were selected and consecutively treated with resorbable collagen membranes and a 1:1 mixture of particulated anorganic bovine bone and autogenous bone, 7 months before implant placement. (
  • Within the limitation of the present study, high implant survival rate and high average bone augmentation seem to validate the use of collagen resorbable membranes with a 1:1 mixture of particulated anorganic bovine bone and autogenous bone, for the reconstruction of severe horizontal ridge defects. (
  • Bone graft substitute acts as a three-dimensional framework, allowing bone-forming cells to migrate into the graft material and initiate new bone formation. (
  • However, its rapid degradation limits its use as a bone graft material. (
  • The proportion of new bone and residual bone graft material was measured histologically and histomorphometrically at postoperative 4 and 8 weeks. (
  • There was no significant difference between the two groups in new bone formation and the amount of residual bone graft material at 8 weeks. (
  • Besides autologous bone, bone materials of other species or synthetic materials are frequently used for the reconstruction of alveolar ridge deficiencies. (
  • Aim An allograft, a xenograft and an alloplastic graft, associated to sinus lift or ridge preservation procedures were histologically studied to evaluate their characteristics and to obtain the percentages of bone and remaining graft particles. (
  • Differences in newly formed bone percentage were found between the allograft and the xenograft, whereas no differences were found between the allograft and the alloplastic graft or the xenograft and the alloplastic graft. (
  • Wright also offers a variety of biologic products that can be combined with bone marrow aspirate. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the cellular behaviors of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the surface of apatite pre-coated poly( -caprolactone)-organosiloxane nano-hybrid material (SiOPCL) and assessed the osteoconductivity of SiOPCL in the diaphyses of the rabbit tibiae. (
  • Bone marrow from the posterior superior iliac crest was examined. (
  • Aspirates and cytogenic evaluation of cultured cells of bone marrow were all normal. (
  • The test may be performed by mixing the patient's plasma, serum, or serous effusions as a source of LE factor with bone marrow from a donor subject. (
  • LE cells were observed in the bone marrow of patients with lupus. (
  • Placed at bone level the integrated Platform Switching results in excellent clinical outcomes in terms of crestal bone preservation. (
  • A platform switched, dual-affinity, Laser-Lok™ surface offers crestal bone retention and a connective tissue attachment for flexible placement in uneven ridges. (
  • Outcomes were: implant survival rate, any biological and prosthetic complications, horizontal alveolar bone dimensional changes measured on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) taken at baseline and at implant insertion, peri-implant marginal bone level changes measured on periapical radiographs, plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing index (BoP). (
  • 6]. The extent of plaque, scales, inflammation and bleeding of gingival, depth of periodontal pockets, and the extent of alveolar bone loss have also been examined in such studies [7]. (
  • Although the gold standard for bone graft is still autogenous bone, alloplastic bone has been developed in various ways for alternative option. (
  • Objective: The present study aims to develop a histological descriptive analysis on the repair of bone defects filled with β-TCP, associated to pure titanium implants into cavities prepared in the calvarial bone of rats. (
  • Furthermore, development of combination products integrating dental membranes and bone graft substitutes has simplified surgical procedures and enhanced treatment outcomes. (
  • Dental membranes are thin barriers or sheets that are used to guide and protect the growth of new bone and soft tissue during the healing process. (
  • Rise in prevalence of dental implant procedures, aging population, technological advancements, patient awareness, dental tourism, and emergence of regenerative dentistry are driving demand for dental membranes and bone graft substitutes. (
  • These membranes help to prevent the migration of soft tissue cells into the surgical site, allowing the bone and tissue to regenerate more effectively. (
  • Consequently, demand for dental membranes and bone graft substitutes has also risen. (
  • These membranes are used to cover exposed root surfaces and to protect the underlying bone and tissue from further damage. (
  • Materials and methods Twenty-five samples from 18 subjects were histologically evaluated with respect to newly formed bone and remaining graft particles percentage. (
  • There was newly formed bone, together with numerous osteoblasts, that was observed along the entire surface of the SiOPCL in the medullary canal of the rabbit tibiae with in vivo testing. (
  • Presence and volume of loose connective tissue and newly formed bone tissue were analyzed, as well as the presence or absence of remaining material (β-TCP) into the defect. (
  • Some graft materials have bioactive properties that promote the recruitment and differentiation of bone-forming cells, accelerating the bone healing process. (
  • In August 2019, NanoFUSE biologics marked its presence in Thailand with FDA approved NanoFUSE biologics, a bioactive glass with a demineralized bone matrix. (
  • Strontium ions are known to reduce bone resorption, induce osteoblastic activity and thus stimulate bone formation. (
  • However, we observed severe inflammatory reactions and foreign body responses, which was evidence of its degradation and resorption, without evidence of new bone formation after the implantation of PCL. (
  • Serum bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of bone formation and urinary N-telopeptides are markers of bone resorption. (
  • Mathys begins to develop and produce implants and instruments for bone surgery and orthopaedics. (
  • Evaluation of bone mineral status can utilize measures of total bone mineral content and bone mineral density. (
  • In patients with such a history or who fail to at least maintain bone mineral density while on a bisphosphonate, consideration should be given to switching to a drug such as denosumab. (
  • One of the key trends gaining traction in the Latin America bone graft and substitutes market is the growing adoption of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). (
  • Despite the glimmer of hope provided by the discovery and commercialization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) as a bone graft substitute, side effects related to the use of supraphysiological doses have hindered its clinical usage. (
  • For instance, in June 2019, Biogennix received 510(K) clearance from USFDA for Agilon, which is fully biocompatible with human bone. (
  • The Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) segment dominated the allografts segment as of 2019 owing to its increased commercial accessibility in a number of standard forms and sources. (
  • The Latin America bone graft and substitutes market comprises products used to repair damaged or missing bone tissue. (
  • The Global Latin America Bone Graft And Substitutes Market is estimated to be valued at Us$ 559.36 Mn in 2024 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR Of 5.2% over the forecast period from 2024 to 2030. (
  • These provide a scaffold for new bone formation and promote the integration of the implant with the surrounding bone. (
  • As bone formation progresses, a variety of cellular behaviors and biological activities come into play. (
  • BMPs play a vital role in bone formation by attracting stem cells and triggering their differentiation into osteoblasts. (
  • Therefore, considerable efforts are being made to develop materials from alternative sources as well as techniques that lead to sufficient bone formation within a short period of time. (
  • When implanted in bone defects in rabbits, it underwent complete degradation and stimulated vigorous bone formation. (
  • All groups showed new bone formation from the periphery to the center of the defects, and the group nano-Sr with a lesser extent among those studied. (
  • Bone repair (formation) assessment was performed through microtomography and histometry, while the analyses of the expression of the BMP2, Osteocalcin , and TGFß1 proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry . (
  • At 15 days, less bone formation was observed in the CSDs filled with DBB, a smaller volume of mineralized tissue was observed in the CSDs filled with HA/TCP, and the expression levels of BMP2 and osteocalcin were lower in the CCP group compared to the CTR group. (
  • Further evaluation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for this increased osteoinductivity at an early stage in the regeneration process indicated that the CHA+BMP-2/7 enhanced progenitor cell homing at the implantation site, upregulated the key transcriptomic determinants of bone formation, and increased the production of bone extracellular matrix components. (
  • My research focuses primarily on tissue engineering of load bearing connective tissues, including ligament and tendon, cartilage, and bone. (
  • The superior osteoinductive properties of BMP-2/7 are a consequence of its direct positive effect on progenitor cell homing at the implantation site, which consequently leads to upregulation of cartilage and bone related genes and biochemical markers. (
  • Bone grafting helps promote bone healing and restores the continuity of the patient's skeleton. (
  • As many of you noted, this case posed issues that affected the patient's bone health beyond her age-related osteoporosis and use of alendronate. (
  • The success of using a bone substitute material depends to a large extent on the biological interactions after implantation. (
  • After implantation the material undergoes a natural remodeling and is gradually resorbed and replaced by new bone. (
  • Increasing the incidence of bone disorders due to road accidents and sports injuries is driving the market. (
  • Moreover, the growing number of bone and joint disorders due to the increasing aging population is further increasing the growth. (
  • They specialize in the care of disorders of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. (
  • These advancements have revolutionized the field of regenerative dentistry, offering improved biocompatibility, tissue engineering approaches, and synthetic graft materials that closely resemble natural bone. (
  • Bone graft substitutes are materials used to replace or augment natural bone in areas where bone loss or defects have occurred. (
  • Bone graft substitutes are materials used to replace or augment bone in dental procedures. (
  • Mamidwar, S , Ricci, J & Alexander, H 2008, ' Timed-release calcium sulfate ceramic nanocomposites as bone graft substitutes ', Key Engineering Materials , vol. 361-363 I, pp. 391-394. (
  • Conclusions All studied bone substitute materials showed good characteristics for their use in bone regeneration therapies. (
  • Substitute materials should be used or exposure reduced. (
  • Other factors supporting market growth are growing awareness about bone grafting procedures and availability of advanced treatment options. (
  • Key players operating in the Latin America bone graft and substitutes are Low & Bonar PLC, Ahlstrom Group, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont), 3M Company, Polymer Group Inc. Key players are focusing on new product launches and partnerships to strengthen their market position. (
  • Threat of new entrants: The bone graft and substitutes market is capital intensive in nature which poses barriers for new players to enter the market. (
  • Threat of new substitutes: There is a constant threat of new substitutes and technologies being introduced in the market. (
  • Brazil holds the major share in the Latin America Bone Graft And Substitutes Market , both in terms of value and volume. (
  • Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, causing progressive loss of the bone around the teeth. (
  • To clinically and radiographically evaluate bone regeneration of severe horizontal bone defects. (
  • The Tapered Internal 3.0 dental implant system offers all the great benefits of BioHorizons™ highly successful Laser-Lok™ 3.0 dental implant, but features a buttress thread on an anatomically tapered body with a Laser-Lok treated collar for bone and soft tissue attachment. (
  • Supraimposition of pre- and 7-month post-operative CBCT scans revealed an average horizontal bone gain of 5.03 ± 2.15 mm (95% CI: 4.13-5.92 mm). (

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