Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Diseases of BONES.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Breaks in bones.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation of periapical tissue resulting from irritation following pulp disease or endodontic treatment.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The spinal or vertebral column.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The shaft of long bones.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (1/2466)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible. (2/2466)

The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns.  (+info)

Ibandronate reduces osteolytic lesions but not tumor burden in a murine model of myeloma bone disease. (3/2466)

We determined the effects of the potent bisphosphonate ibandronate in a murine model of human myeloma bone disease. In this model, bone lesions typical of the human disease develop in mice following inoculation of myeloma cells via the tail vein. Treatment with ibandronate (4 micrograms per mouse per day) significantly reduced the occurrence of osteolytic bone lesions in myeloma-bearing mice. However, ibandronate did not prevent the mice from developing hindlimb paralysis and did not produce a detectable effect on survival. There was no significant effect of ibandronate on total myeloma cell burden, as assessed by morphometric measurements of myeloma cells in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen, or by measurement of serum IgG2b levels. These results support clinical findings that bisphosphonates may be useful for the treatment of myeloma-associated bone destruction, but suggest that other therapies are also required to reduce tumor growth.  (+info)

Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans. (4/2466)

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection.  (+info)

Biochemical markers of bone turnover in breast cancer patients with bone metastases: a preliminary report. (5/2466)

BACKGROUND: Some biochemical markers of bone turnover are expected to reflect the disease activity of metastatic bone tumor. In the present study six biochemical markers were evaluated to determine appropriate markers for the detection of metastatic bone tumors from breast cancer (BC). METHODS: A panel of bone turnover markers was assessed in 11 normocalcemic patients with bone metastases from BC and in 19 BC patients without clinical evidence of bone metastases. Bone formation was investigated by measuring serum bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP): Bone resorption was investigated by measuring serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), fasting urinary pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr). RESULTS: PICP was influenced by age and menopausal status. Significant correlations were observed between each of bone turnover markers except between BALP and OC. The mean levels of the six bone turnover markers were higher in patients with bone metastases than in those without them and significance was observed except for OC. The best diagnostic efficiency by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was provided by ICTP followed by Pyr or D-Pyr, BALP, PICP and OC and significance was observed between ICTP and OC. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by age revealed that the only significant marker related to bone metastases was ICTP. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ICTP appears to be the leading marker of bone metastases from BC. However, to reveal the clinical usefulness of these markers, further examination will be needed to account for the ease and cost-effectiveness of the measurements.  (+info)

Acute fasting diminishes the circadian rhythm of biochemical markers of bone resorption. (6/2466)

OBJECTIVE: Biochemical markers of bone turnover exhibit circadian rhythms with the peak during the night/early morning and the nadir in the late afternoon. The nocturnal increase in bone resorption could theoretically be caused by the absence of food consumption which brings about a decrease in net calcium absorption and an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH), followed by increased bone resorption in response to the body's demand for calcium. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of a 33-h fast on the circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. DESIGN: Eleven healthy premenopausal women (age: 24+/-5 years) participated in a randomised, cross-over study consisting of two periods: either 33h of fasting (fasting) followed 1 week later by a 33-h period with regular meals eaten at 0800-0830h, 1130-1230h and 1800-1900h (control) or vice versa. METHODS: Urinary CrossLaps (U-CL/Cr) corrected with creatinine, as a marker of bone resorption; serum osteocalcin (sOC) as a marker of bone formation; serum intact PTH (iPTH); serum phosphate; and serum calcium corrected with albumin. RESULTS: Both the fasting and the control periods showed a significant circadian rhythm in U-CL/Cr (P<0.001), but the decrease was significantly less pronounced in the morning hours during the fasting period. Fasting resulted in a significant decrease in serum iPTH (throughout the study period) as compared with the control period (P<0.05-0.001). No change was observed in sOC by fasting. CONCLUSION: Food consumption has a small influence on the circadian variation in bone resorption, independent of PTH. The fall in iPTH during fasting may be secondary to an increased bone resorption produced by fasting.  (+info)

A prospective study of bone loss and turnover after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: effect of calcium supplementation with or without calcitonin. (7/2466)

Transplantation of solid organs including heart, kidney, and liver is associated with rapid bone loss and increased rate of fracture; data on bone marrow transplantation recipients (BMT) are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude, timing, and mechanism of bone loss following allogeneic BMT, and to study whether bone loss can be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin. Sixty-nine patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for malignant blood diseases were enrolled into the study. Forty-four (22 women, 22 men) completed 6 months, and 36 patients 1 year follow-up. They were randomized to receive either no additional treatment (n = 22), or oral calcium 1 g twice daily for 12 months (n = 12) or the same dose of calcium plus intranasal calcitonin 400 IU/day for the first month and then 200 IU/day for 11 months (n = 10). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and three femoral sites (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's triangle) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover rate was followed with markers of bone formation and resorption (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I procollagen carboxyterminal (PICP) and aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), serum type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP)). Serum testosterone was assayed in men. Calcium with or without calcitonin had no effect on bone loss or bone markers; consequently the three study groups were combined. During the first 6 post-transplant months BMD decreased by 5.7% in the lumbar spine and by 6.9% to 8.7% in the three femoral sites (P < 0.0001 for all); no significant further decline occured between 6 and 12 months. Four out of 25 assessable patients experienced vertebral compression fractures. Markers of bone formation reduced: B-ALP by 20% at 3 weeks (P = 0.027), PICP by 40% (P < 0.0001) and PINP by 63% at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001), with a return to baseline by 6 months. The marker of bone resorption, serum ICTP was above normal throughout the whole observation period, with a peak at 6 weeks (77% above baseline, P < 0.0001). In male patients serum testosterone decreased reaching a nadir (57% below baseline) at 6 weeks (P = 0.0003). In conclusion, significant bone loss occurs after BMT. It results from imbalance between reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption; hypogonadism may be a contributing factor in men. Bone loss can not be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin.  (+info)

An odyssey from breast to bone: multi-step control of mammary metastases and osteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases. (8/2466)

Development of metastases distant to the primary site of solid tumors marks late stages of tumor progression. Almost all malignant mammary tumors are carcinomas arising from the breast epithelium, but the morphological and molecular alterations in the mammary stroma surrounding the premalignant and the growing tumor contribute to its conversion into neoplastic tissue. Two parameters are critical for initiation of the metastatic process and access of tumor cells to the circulation. These are the ability of tumor cells to invade the basement membrane and the stroma, and the neovascularization of breast tumor tissue. A major site for development of distant metastases is the skeleton. After colonizing the bone, tumor cells promote a cascade of events leading to recruitment of osteoclasts and subsequent osteolytic bone destruction. A ubiquitous theme of neoplastic progression of breast tumors is the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases. In this review, we summarize the recent insights into the functional consequences of matrix metalloproteinase expression and activation during malignant conversion in the breast, and after bone colonization. The current literature supports the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in the metastatic expansion of most, if not all, mammary tumors and in the ensuing bone loss.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Supplementation with a low-moderate dose of n-3 long-chain PUFA has no short-term effect on bone resorption in human adults. AU - Appleton, K M. AU - Fraser, W D. AU - Rogers, P J. AU - Ness, A R. AU - Tobias, J H. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Abstract Previous research suggests that n-3 PUFA may play a role in bone health. The present analysis aimed to investigate the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on bone resorption in adult men and women. Serum samples from 113 mild-moderately depressed individuals (twenty-six males and eighty-seven females, aged 18-67 years) randomised to receive 1·48 g EPA+DHA/d (n 53) or placebo (n 60) for 12 weeks as part of a large recent randomised controlled trial were assayed for n-3 PUFA status and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX). Regression analyses revealed that n-3 PUFA status following supplementation was associated with randomisation (placebo/n-3 PUFA) (B = 3·25, 95 % CI 2·60, ...
Definition of osteoclast-activating factor in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is osteoclast-activating factor? Meaning of osteoclast-activating factor as a finance term. What does osteoclast-activating factor mean in finance?
Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhibition of bone resorption without inhibition of bone formation. We investigated the role of acidification in human osteoclastic resorption and life span in vitro using inhibitors of chloride channels (NS5818/NS3696), the proton pump (bafilomycin) and cathepsin K. We found that bafilomycin and NS5818 dose dependently inhibited acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment and bone resorption. Inhibition of bone resorption by inhibition of acidification, but not cathepsin K inhibition, augmented osteoclast survival, which resulted in a 150 to 300% increase in osteoclasts compared to controls. We investigated the effect of inhibition of osteoclastic acidification in vivo by using the rat ...
Monocytes and macrophages are capable of degrading both the mineral and organic components of bone and are known to secrete local factors which stimulate host osteoclastic bone resorption. Recent studies have shown that monocytes and macrophages, including those isolated from neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, can also be induced to differentiate into cells that show all the cytochemical and functional characteristics of mature osteoclasts, including lacunar bone resorption. Monocyte/macrophage-osteoclast differentiation occurs in the presence of osteoblasts/bone stromal cells (which express osteoclast differentiation factor) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor and is inhibited by osteoprotegerin. Various systemic hormones and local factors (e.g. cytokines, growth factors, prostaglandins) modulate osteoclast formation by controlling these cellular and humoral elements. Various pathological lesions of bone and joint (e.g. carcinomatous metastases, arthritis, aseptic loosening) are associated with
A heavy infiltrate of foreign-body macrophages is commonly seen in the fibrous membrane which surrounds an aseptically loose cemented implant. This is in response to particles of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and other biomaterials. We have previously shown that monocytes and macrophages responding to particles of bone cement are capable of differentiating into osteoclastic cells which resorb bone. To determine whether the radio-opaque additives barium sulphate (BaSO4) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) influence this process, particles of PMMA with and without these agents were added to mouse monocytes and cocultured with osteoblast-like cells on bone slices. Osteoclast differentiation, as shown by the presence of the osteoclast-associated enzyme tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and lacunar bone resorption, was observed in all cocultures. The addition of PMMA alone to these cocultures caused no increase in TRAP expression or bone resorption relative to control cocultures. Adding PMMA
It is generally accepted that bone formation is depressed during corticosteroid treatment, but the effects of glucocorticoids on bone resorption are less well characterized. We have investigated the effects of short-term treatment with high-dose oral glucocorticoids on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 20 consecutive patients with asthma who sought help for acute respiratory obstruction in our emergency department. Serum concentrations of the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP), reflecting bone resorption, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1CP), reflecting bone formation, were measured by radioimmunoassay. Changes of the circulating levels of the bone resorption marker 1CTP after treatment were age dependent with a significant negative correlation (r = -0.54, P = 0.01). The dependency on age remained when correcting, in a multiple linear regression analysis, for 1CTP levels at admission, weight, sex, and daily maintenance dose of ...
The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-binding integrin αVβ3is highly expressed on osteoclasts and has been proposed to mediate cell-matrix adhesion required for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Antagonism of this receptor should prevent stable osteoclast adhesion and thereby inhibit bone resorption. We have generated an orally bioavailable, nonpeptide RGD mimetic αvβ3antagonist, SB 265123, which prevents bone loss in vivo when dosed by oral administration. SB 265123 binds αvβ3and the closely related integrin αvβ5 with high affinity (Ki = 3.5 and 1.3 nM, respectively), but binds only weakly to the related RGD-binding integrins αIIbβ3(Ki ,1 μM) and α5β1 (Ki ,1 μM). The compound inhibits αvβ3-mediated cell adhesion with an IC50 = 60 nM and more importantly, inhibits human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro with an IC50 = 48 nM. In vivo, SB 265123 completely blocks bone resorption in a thyroparathyroidectomized rat model of acute bone resorption when dosed at 2.5 mg/kg/h by continuous ...
Do you have a protocol for osteoclast resorption on dentine slices? I have done a literature search (1966-present) and the seminal article seems to be Boyde & Jones (1984) Resorption of dentine by isolated osteoclasts in vitro. Br Dent J 156:216-220. Help! Our provencial library doesnt have this journal. Donna Montague, M.S. Research Associate Physiology/Biophysics and Orthopaedic Surgery University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (501) 603-1239 ...
Author: Rumpler, M. et al.; Genre: Meeting Abstract; Published in Print: 2011-05-07; Title: Microcracks and osteoclast resorption activity in vitro
Clinical studies in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) showed that single-dose infusions of zoledronic acid are associated with decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus and increases in urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion.. Osteoclastic hyperactivity resulting in excessive bone resorption is the underlying pathophysiologic derangement in hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM, tumor-induced hypercalcemia) and metastatic bone disease. Excessive release of calcium into the blood as bone is resorbed results in polyuria and gastrointestinal disturbances, with progressive dehydration and decreasing glomerular filtration rate. This, in turn, results in increased renal resorption of calcium, setting up a cycle of worsening systemic hypercalcemia. Reducing excessive bone resorption and maintaining adequate fluid administration are, therefore, essential to the management of hypercalcemia of malignancy.. Patients who have hypercalcemia of malignancy can generally be divided into two groups ...
The three main mechanisms by which osteoporosis develops are an inadequate peak bone mass (the skeleton develops insufficient mass and strength during growth), excessive bone resorption and inadequate formation of new bone during remodeling. An interplay of these three mechanisms underlies the development of fragile bone tissue.[9] Hormonal factors strongly determine the rate of bone resorption; lack of estrogen (e.g. as a result of menopause) increases bone resorption as well as decreasing the deposition of new bone that normally takes place in weight-bearing bones. The amount of estrogen needed to suppress this process is lower than that normally needed to stimulate the uterus and breast gland. The α-form of the estrogen receptor appears to be the most important in regulating bone turnover. In addition to estrogen, calcium metabolism plays a significant role in bone turnover, and deficiency of calcium and vitamin D leads to impaired bone deposition; in addition, the parathyroid glands react ...
Monocytes are frequently found adjacent to active bone resorption surfaces in both physiological and pathological situations and may play a key role in bone resorption. There is strong circumstantial...
Mechanisms of bone invasion by squamous carcinomas of the head and neck have been investigated using fresh tumours and established tumour cell lines in an in vitro bone resorption assay with 45Ca-labelled mouse calvaria. Fresh tumours regularly resorb bone in vitro. Activity is consistently reduced by indomethacin. The tumours release E 2 prostaglandins (PGE 2) in amounts sufficient to account for ~50% of the bone resorption observed. Small amounts of non-prostaglandin (indomethacin-resistant) osteolytic factors are also produced. Control non-neoplastic tissues show a variable capacity to resorb bone in vitro; PGE 2 levels in these tissues may be related to their content of inflammatory cells. Tumour cell lines also resorb bone in vitro but, for most lines, activity is not significantly blocked by indomethacin and PGE 2 levels are generally insufficient to account for the osteolysis observed. Non-prostaglandin bone resorbing factors thus predominate. It is concluded that most squamous cancers of ...
Bone, despite its rigid nature, is not a permanent, immutable tissue. It is in fact a very dynamic and living tissue that maintains its structure via an equilibrium of opposing activities: Bone Regeneration and Bone Resorption. Both activities are constantly ongoing in living bone. This process of bone regeneration and bone resorption in equilibrium is…
Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood. The osteoclasts are multi-nucleated cells that contain numerous mitochondria and lysosomes. These are the cells responsible for the resorption of bone. Osteoclasts are generally present on the outer layer of bone, just beneath the periosteum. Attachment of the osteoclast to the osteon begins the process. The osteoclast then induces an infolding of its cell membrane and secretes collagenase and other enzymes important in the resorption process. High levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and products of collagen will be released into the extracellular fluid as the osteoclasts tunnel into the mineralized bone. Osteoclasts are prominent in the tissue destruction found in psoriatic arthritis and rheumatology disorders. The human body is in a constant state of bone remodeling. Bone ...
To clarify what kind of process participates in bone resorption, time course of indices of bone resorption was investigated using 13-day-old embryonic chick calvaria. When calvariae were cultured...
The invention relates to a combined pharmaceutical preparation comprising parathyroid hormone and a bone resorption inhibitor, said preparation being adapted for (a) the administration of parathyroid hormone during a period of approximately 6 to 24 months; (b) after the administration of parathyroid hormone has been terminated, the administration of a bone resorption inhibitor during a period of approximately 12 to 36 months.
The invention relates to a combined pharmaceutical preparation comprising parathyroid hormone and a bone resorption inhibitor, said preparation being adapted for (a) the administration of parathyroid hormone during a period of approximately 6 to 24 months; (b) after the administration of parathyroid hormone has been terminated, the administration of a bone resorption inhibitor during a period of approximately 12 to 36 months.
Increased bone turnover may be a risk factor for fracture [Lønning 2005]. However, it is uncertain whether markers of bone resorption and markers of bone formation are both associated with fracture risk [Looker 2000]. Therefore, we will measure bone formation and bone resorption markers at baseline, year 1 and year 5. Blood specimens will be shipped to and stored in a central laboratory for future assays of bone biomarkers. For markers of bone formation, the N-terminal Propeptide of Type I Collagen (PINP) will be measured. For bone resorption markers, serum levels of cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) will be measured. Note: Subjects must fast 12-14 hours prior to blood draw ...
Osteoporosis (OP) is a common chronic skeletal disorder in aging individuals. In-spite of the progress made in this market, there is still a great demand for safer and more specific drugs for extended administration. Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts is central to the pathogenesis of OP and other bone-related diseases. Thus, inhibition of osteoclast activity is a desired outcome in the treatment of bone and bone-related disorders. However, complete irreversible shutdown of resorption by current drugs and uncontrolled duration of activity increase the risk for hypocalcemia, atypical fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw limiting their utilization and decreasing patients compliance to their administration.. The combined expression of M-CSF receptor c-FMS and αvβ3 integrin is unique to osteoclasts. Moreover, signaling through these receptors is essential to organize the osteoclast cytoskeleton elements and for its resorption machinery. Studies in animal models demonstrated that ...
Also Known As: Bone Losses, Osteoclastic; Bone Resorptions; Loss, Osteoclastic Bone; Losses, Osteoclastic Bone; Osteoclastic Bone Losses Show All ,, ...
Extracted from text ... SA Pharmaceutical Journal - April 2006 40 DRUG INFO Protos(r) - The first of a new class for osteoporosis: dual action bone agent Approved indication Protos(r) contains strontium ranelate and is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis to reduce the risk of vertebral and peripheral fractures, including the hip. Mode of action Strontium ranelate has a unique pharmacological profile characterised by an inhibition of bone resorption and a simultaneous stimulation of bone formation. It targets the bone remodelling process by stimulating osteoblast-mediated bone formation and by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The dual mode of action of strontium ranelate may ..
Critical appraisal of denosumab in the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone loss in patients undergoing hormone ablation David L Kendler1, Kenneth Shawn Davison21Prohealth Clinical Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Antiresorptive therapies are the mainstay for treating patients with excessively high rates of bone resorption. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL), secreted by osteoblasts, binds to the RANK receptor on the surface of preosteoclasts and osteoclasts to elicit osteoclast formation, survival, and activity. Osteoprotegerin, also secreted by the osteoblast, acts as a decoy RANK receptor reducing RANKL binding to RANK and reducing bone resorption. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, has a high affinity and specificity for RANKL. Denosumab rapidly decreases bone resorption
Src is really a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase essential for the activation of osteoclasts, the cells that degrade bone. genes in transgenic mice and crossed the mice with on bone resorption. However, the radiographs illustrated in the paper show that control mice had osteolysis in their tibiae, suggesting that the tumor cells induced osteolysis in these experiments and that dasatinib prevented it, but docetaxel alone did not. In clinical studies, dasatinib decreased bone turnover in two Phase II studies in 48 patients with CRPC, the response rates were similar, but modest for two dosing regimens; urinary [91]. One of these, AP23451 is a purine-based Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibited osteoclast formation and survival in the 0.1 to 1 1 M range and following daily sub-subcutaneous injections dose-dependently prevented PTH-induced bone resorption and ovariectomy-induced bone loss [92]. CHR2797 AP23451 also prevented osteolysis induced by metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, similar to ...
Osteoporosis is a common disorder which affects up to 30% women and 12% men at some point in life. This mostly age-associated disorder has becoming increasingly a major clinical and public health issue as human lifespan increases. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, alterations in bone micro-architecture, reduced bone strength, and elevated risk of fracture (Kanis, 1994). Although both genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of osteoporosis, it has been shown that familial traits are one of the most important clinical risk factors, suggesting the role of genetic factors. The fundamental pathogenic mechanism underlying this disorder includes, (a) failure to achieve peak bone mass during growth and development, (b) excessive bone resorption, and (c) defects in bone formation. Gene knockouts in mice have demonstrated that transcription factors Runx2 and a downstream factor Osterix (Osx) are essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation during development. However,
Illustration showing bone resorption; osteoclasts are breaking down bone and releasing minerals, to transfer calcium from the bone fluid into the blood. - Stock Image C024/9603
0055] Any amount of a pharmaceutical composition can be administered to a subject. The dosages will depend on many factors including the mode of administration and the age of the subject. In younger people there is extensive bone-turnover due to growing bone. Typically, the amount of a compound or agent of the present invention (e.g., 4-P-PDOT, a derivative, analog, conjugate or prodrug of 4-P-PDOT; a pharmaceutical acceptable salt thereof) contained within a single dose will be an amount that effectively prevent, delay or correct bone resorption in a subject in need thereof without inducing significant toxicity. As used herein the term therapeutically effective amount is meant to refer to an amount effective to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. A therapeutically effective amount is also one in which any adverse side effects of the compound are outweighed by the therapeutically beneficial effects. Typically, a compound or agent of the present invention (e.g., 4-P-PDOT, a derivative, ...
Principal Investigator:KITAZAWA Riko, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Experimental pathology
Principal Investigator:SHIBUTANI Toshiaki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Conservative dentistry
Clodronate, Disodium Salt - CAS 88416-50-6 - Calbiochem CAS 88416-50-6 A non-amino, chloro-containing bisphosphonate that acts as a potent inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Biochemical markers of bone turnover reflect bone formation or bone resorption. These markers (both formation and resorption) may be elevated in high-bone-turnover states (eg, early postmenopausal ost... more
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. It accounts for more than 90% of diabetic patients and usually develops after 35-40 years of age. T2DM is characterized by hyperglycemia and redundant fatty acid secretion due to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity (Schwartz, 2016). Diabetic osteoporosis is a major complication of T2DM that originates mainly from alterations in the bone microenvironment (Zhang et al., 2016), thus leading to subsequent bone loss, mineral density reduction and fractures (Schwartz, 2016).. High glucose (HG) and free fatty acids (FFA) reportedly inhibit osteogenic differentiation (You et al., 2014) and induce apoptosis of osteoblasts (Feng et al., 2011). Bone metabolic homeostasis relies on the balance between osteoblast-induced bone formation and osteoclast-induced bone resorption (Raisz, 2005). Diabetic osteoporosis primarily results from the disequilibrium between osteoblast and osteoclast, as osteoblast activity is ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
The pattern of changes in serum PTH, combined with the pattern of elevation in biochemical markers of bone remodeling (increases in bone formation markers followed by increases in bone resorption markers), suggests a pathway through which daily PTH injection may temporarily uncouple bone ...
Our results indicate that growth on bone particles stimulates early differentiation of NHOst cells compared with TCPS, but delays terminal differentiation, potentially due to lower production of BMP2 and BMP4. Numerous studies show that cancellous bone chips provide an osteoconductive surface for osteoprogenitor cell migration and proliferation,23,24 but terminal differentiation does not occur until proliferation ceases.25,26 In addition, progenitor cells resident in the bone chips are known to migrate out and proliferate in culture,27,28 contributing to the higher DNA content and lower osteocalcin content of the conditioned media.. MSCs responded to the bone particles with an increase in DNA compared with cells on TCPS, reflecting the stimulatory effect of the osteoconductive surface on proliferation. MSCs present in the bone chips may also have contributed to the higher DNA content. However, when MSCs were cultured in OM, which stimulates their transition to an osteoblast phenotype, an ...
Questions and answers about tooth root bone resorption Teeth gums roots and bone can resorb for a number of reasons or causes Learn how the diagnosis process starts what can be done to stop cure or prevent it suggested treatments More dental questions, dentist practices, Learn new fix treat repair replace options.
Buy fosamax generic - paypal. Active alendronate ingredient - non-hormonal specific inhibitor of an osteoclastic bone resorption, suppresses osteoclasts
Introduction: Inflammation is a critical hallmark of autoimmune arthritis (AA) and cancer. We have previously shown that the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. We have identified IL-17, a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in osteoclastic bone resorption in AA as the underlying mechanism for increased metastasis. In addition, high levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is linked to both AA and breast cancer metastasis. We report that blocking the IL-17 and COX-2 pathways simultaneously significantly reduces the development of breast cancer associated metastasis in a spontaneous model of AA.. Methods: 4T1 mammary gland tumors were generated in mice genetically prone to develop AA (designated SKG mice). When tumors reached , 0.2 gms, anti-IL17 antibody treatment was injected intraperitoneally once a week for three weeks. Celecoxib, a specific ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
1 The collection of new therapeutic entities first launched in 2003 originated from the following sources (a) CIPSLINE, Prous database (b) Iddb, Current Drugs database (c) IMS R& D Focus (d) Adis Business Intelligence R& D Insight (e) Pharmaprojects. 2 A. I. Graul, Drug News Perspect., 2004, 17, 43. 3 C. Boyer-Joubert, E. Lorthiois and F. Moreau, Ann. Rep. Med. Chem., 2003, 38, 347. 4 P. Bernardelli, B. Gaudilliere and F. Vergne, Ann. Rep. Med. Chem., 2002, 37, 257. 5 B. Gaudilliere, P..... ...
Nedwin, G E.; Mohler, M A.; and Luben, R A., Cloning of the coding sequences of a human lymphokine, osteoclast-activating factor. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3923 ...
Induces bone resorption, acting probably through a signaling cascade which results in the secretion of factor(s) enhancing osteoclast formation and activity.
Affiliation:埼玉医大,医学部,助教授, Research Field:Orthopaedic surgery,Hematology, Keywords:OCIF,ODF,巨核球,転写制御,破骨細胞分化因子,骨吸収,bone resorption,活性型ビタミンD_3,proplatelet_formation,胞体突起形成(prpplatelet formation, PPF), # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:3
Regulation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand)-induced osteoclast differentiation is of current interest in the development of antiresorptive agents. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) on the regulation of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. NMP inhibited RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells. The RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1) and c-Fos, which are key transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, was also reduced by treatment with NMP. Furthermore, NMP induced disruption of the actin rings and decreased the mRNAs of cathepsin K and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), both involved in bone resorption. Taken together, these results suggest that NMP inhibits osteoclast differentiation and ...
Y1 receptor (Y1R)-signalling pathway plays a pivotal role in the regulation of bone metabolism. The lack of Y1R-signalling stimulates bone mass accretion that has been mainly attributed to Y1R disruption from bone-forming cells. Still, the involvement of Y1R-signalling in the control of bone-resorbing cells remained to be explored. Therefore, in this study we assessed the role of Y1R deficiency in osteoclast formation and resorption activity. Here we demonstrate that Y1R germline deletion (Y1R(-/-)) led to increased formation of highly multinucleated (n | 8) osteoclasts and enhanced surface area, possibly due to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overexpression regulated by RANKL-signalling. Interestingly, functional studies revealed that these giant Y1R(-/-) multinucleated cells produce poorly demineralized eroded pits, which were associated to reduce expression of osteoclast matrix degradation markers, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAcP5b), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)
To determine whether synovial fluid (SF) macrophages isolated from the SF of osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and pyrophosphate arthropathy (PPA) joints are capable of osteoclast formation, and to investigate the cellular and humoral factors required for this to occur, SF macrophages (CD14+) were isolated from the knee joint SF from patients with OA, RA and PPA and cultured for up to 14 days with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and soluble receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) or tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha). Osteoclast differentiation was assessed by expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and vitronectin receptor (VNR), F-actin ring formation and lacunar resorption. Osteoclast formation and lacunar resorption was seen in RANKL-treated cultures of SF macrophages isolated from OA, RA and PPA joints with the largest amount of resorption noted in RA and PPA SF macrophage cultures. In TNFalpha/IL
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunological reaction in TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. AU - Kitaura, Hideki. AU - Kimura, Keisuke. AU - Ishida, Masahiko. AU - Kohara, Haruka. AU - Yoshimatsu, Masako. AU - Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF-α may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which are osteoclast precursor cells, osteoblasts, or stromal cells. These cells express receptor activator of NF-B ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclastogenesis, and T cells, which secrete RANKL, promote osteoclastogenesis during inflammation. Elucidating the detailed effects of TNF-α on bone metabolism may enable the identification of therapeutic targets that can ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Bone is composed of a living protein framework upon which mineral crystals are placed. As bone breaks down, bits of this living protein framework appear in the urine. Tests of bone breakdown, called bone resorption tests, measure the amount of one specific bone protein in the urine (or in the blood) and thus gauge the current rate of bone breakdown. Urinary markers of bone breakdown (known as markers of bone resorption) are simple urine tests that can help determine if you are currently losing bone or not. Such bone breakdown testing can also indicate if your bone-building program is effective at reducing and normalizing the bone breakdown process.. As bone is broken down certain bone protein by-products are excreted in the urine. Measurement of the amount of these bone breakdown by-products can determine the rate of bone breakdown. A high rate of bone breakdown is strongly suggestive of current, ongoing bone loss and a greater risk for osteoporotic fracture. A low rate of bone resorption would ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, resulting in tooth loss. The cytokine TGF-beta initially promotes the inflammatory response, but ultimately slows bone loss by suppressing bone degradation. On the basis of published reports and our preliminary data, it appears likely that an important component of this repression is the initiation of osteoclast apoptosis. Reducing osteoclast numbers through targeting osteoclast survival pathways may provide important future therapeutic targets to slow pathological bone loss during periodontitis, osteoporosis, and tumor-driven osteolysis. It is the goal of this research to define the molecular pathways linking TGF- beta to regulation of osteoclast apoptosis. In preliminary studies, we observed that (i) osteoclast survival is due to continual activation of the MEK/ERK and AKT/NF(B survival pathways; (ii) PI3K coordinately activates these pathways to promote ...
DR could be a supplementary medicine for periodontal therapy as it could reduce bone resorption in rat model of alveolar bone resorption and exert osteogenic effect on osteoblasts.
Inoxitol hexakisphosphate (IP6) has been found to have an important role in biomineralization and a direct effect inhibiting mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro without impairing extracellular matrix production and expression of alkaline phosphatase. IP6 has been proposed to exhibit similar effects to those of bisphosphonates on bone resorption, however, its direct effect on osteoclasts (OCL) is presently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of IP6 on the RAW 264.7 monocyte/macrophage mouse cell line and on human primary osteoclasts. On one hand, we show that IP6 decreases the osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells induced by RANKL, without affecting cell proliferation or cell viability. The number of TRAP positive cells and mRNA levels of osteoclast markers such as TRAP, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and MMP-9 was decreased by IP6 on RANKL-treated cells. On the contrary, when giving IP6 to mature osteoclasts after RANKL treatment, a significant increase of ...
|i|Background.|/i| Sublesional osteoporosis (SLOP) is characterized by excessive bone resorption at the hip and knee region after spinal cord injury (SCI), resu...
New research in animals triggered by a combination of serendipity and counterintuitive thinking could point the way to treating fractures caused by rapid bone loss in people, including patients with metastatic cancers.. A series of studies at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine found that steroid drugs, known for inducing bone loss with prolonged use, actually help suppress a molecule thats key to the rapid bone loss process. A report of the new findings appears online Feb. 5, 2013 in the journal PLOS ONE.. Osteoporosis or the loss of bone mass is a major public health problem in the Western world and commonly results in hip and spine fractures. But rib fractures are the most common and yet most unreported osteoporotic fractures and also occur in many cancers such as breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and myelomas, that metastasize and spread to the ribs, says Arjun Deb, MD, assistant professor in the departments of Medicine and Cell Biology and Physiology at UNC.. While ...
Bone formation and resorption coupling is a process wherein osteoclastic bone resorption is followed by osteoblastic bone formation. For resorption, two classes of axon guidance molecules, SLITs (SLIT3) and semaphorins (SEMA3a), act together to fine-tune repulsive signals for osteoclast migration, while inhibiting differentiation and cell fusion. SLIT3 is produced by mature osteoclasts, whereas the critical bone actions of SEMA3a originate from nerves. These repulsive and inhibitory effects of SEMA3a and SLIT3 on osteoclasts are countered by netrin-1, another molecule originally identified for its role in axon guidance. Netrin-1 attracts osteoclasts and promotes their fusion. Additional molecular pathways controlling osteoclasts include ephrin/ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase (ephrin/EPH) signaling via cell contact between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and the RANKL/RANK pathway for osteoclastogenesis. For bone formation, signals released from mineralized matrix, such as TGF-β and IGF-1, in ...
Material and methods/results The authors used organ cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bones and isolated periosteal osteoblasts which express TLRs to study the role of TLR2 in bone resorption. LPS from the perio-pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg; which is a weak agonist for TLR4 but a strong for TLR2 because of the contaminating lipoprotein), enhanced number of osteoclasts, 45Ca release and bone matrix degradation (CTX) by a process inhibited by osteoprotegerin and zolendronic acid. LPS Pg enhanced the expression of osteoclastic genes (c-Fos, trap, oscar and cathepsin K) and reduced the expression of osteoblastic genes (osteocalcin, runx2, alp and procollagen α1). The effects were associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of RANKL, whereas OPG mRNA and protein were unaffected. Similar to LPS Pg, Pam2CSK4 (synthetic ligand for TLR2/TLR6), Pam3CSK4 (ligand for TLR1/TLR2), HKLM (a heat killed preparation of Listeria monocytogenes, a TLR2 agonist) and FSL1 (a synthetic ...
OBJECTIVE: Human osteoclast formation from mononuclear phagocyte precursors involves interactions between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily members and their receptors. LIGHT is a transmembrane protein expressed and shed from the surface of activated T cells. Since activated T cells have been implicated in osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), this study sought to determine whether LIGHT can regulate RANKL/cytokine-induced osteoclast formation, to identify the mechanism by which LIGHT influences osteoclastogenesis, and to investigate the presence of LIGHT in the serum of RA patients. METHODS: The effect of LIGHT on human and murine osteoclast formation was assessed in the presence and absence of neutralizing reagents to known osteoclastogenic factors. Serum levels of LIGHT in RA patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the presence and absence of RANKL, LIGHT induced osteoclast formation from both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Growth hormone protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in states of low circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Pharmacological Action:. Raloxifene : Raloxifene binds to estrogen receptors, resulting in differential expression of multiple estrogen-regulated genes in different tissues. Raloxifene produces estrogen-like effects on bone, reducing resorption of bone and increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, thus slowing the rate of bone loss. The maintenance of bone mass by raloxifene and estrogens is, in part, through the regulation of the gene-encoding transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), which is a bone matrix protein with antiosteoclastic properties. Raloxifene activates TGF-β3 through pathways that are estrogen receptor-mediated but involve DNA sequences distinct from the estrogen response element. The drug also binds to the estrogen receptor and acts as an estrogen agonist in preosteoclastic cells, which results in the inhibtion of their proliferative capacity. This inhibition is thought to contribute to the drugs effect on bone resorption. Other mechanisms include the ...
The underlying mechanism in all cases of osteoporosis is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Either bone resorption is excessive, or bone formation is diminished. Bone matrix is manufactured by the osteoblast cells, whereas bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclast cells. Trabecular bone is the sponge-like bone in the center of long bones and vertabrae. Cortical bone is the hard outer shell of bones. Because osteoblasts and osteoclasts inhabit the surface of bones, trabecular bone is more active, more subject to bone turnover, to remodeling. Long before any overt fractures occur, the small spicules of trabecular bone break and are reformed in the process known as remodeling. Bone will grow and change shape in response to physical stress. The bony prominences and attachments in runners are different in shape and size than those in weightlifters. It is an accumulation of fractures in trabecular bone that are incompletely repaired that leads to the manifestation of ...
Pathological bone resorption by osteoclasts is primarily treated with bisphosphonates. Because the administration of bisphosphonates is associated with a risk for multiple adverse symptoms, a precise understanding of the mechanisms underlying osteoclastogenesis is required to develop drugs with minimal side-effects. Osteoclastogenesis depends on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) signaling mediated by TRAF6. We previously identified a highly conserved domain in the cytoplasmic tail of RANK (HCR), which did not share any significant homology with other proteins and was essential for osteoclastogenesis. HCR acts as a platform for the formation of Gab2- and Vav3-containing signal complexes, and ectopic expression of the HCR peptide inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Here, we uncover the mechanisms of HCR peptide-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Expression of either the amino- or carboxyl-terminal half of the HCR peptide (N- or C-peptide) independently inhibited RANK signaling ...
The reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and the tissue-specific stroma is critical for primary and metastatic tumor growth progression. Prostate cancer cells colonize preferentially bone (osteotropism), where they alter the physiological balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and elicit prevalently an osteoblastic response (osteoinduction). The molecular cues provided by osteoblasts for the survival and growth of bone metastatic prostate cancer cells are largely unknown. We exploited the sufficient divergence between human and mouse RNA sequences together with redefinition of highly species-specific gene arrays by computer-aided and experimental exclusion of cross-hybridizing oligonucleotide probes. This strategy allowed the dissection of the stroma (mouse) from the cancer cell (human) transcriptome in bone metastasis xenograft models of human osteoinductive prostate cancer cells (VCaP and C4-2B). As a result, we generated the ...
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is constitutively activated in human myeloma, has been implicated in bone destruction by this cancer, but the processes it recruits are obscure. In this study, we show that p38 activity in myeloma inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, but also enhances osteoclast maturation and bone resorption. p38 regulated the expression and secretion of the Wnt pathway antagonist DKK-1 and the monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1. Attenuating p38, DKK-1, or MCP-1 were each sufficient to reduce bone lesions in vivo. Although it is well known that DKK-1 inhibits osteoblast differentiation, we found that together with MCP-1, it could also promote osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The latter effects were mediated by enhancing expression of RANK in osteoclast progenitor cells and by upregulating secretion of its ligand RANKL from stromal cells and mature osteoblasts. In summary, our study defined the mechanisms by which p38 signaling in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokine regulation and the signaling mechanism of osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1/hSca) to inhibit osteoclast formation. AU - Koide, Masanori. AU - Maeda, Hidefumi. AU - Roccisana, Jennifer L.. AU - Kawanabe, Noriaki. AU - Reddy, Sakamuri V.. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - The osteoclast (OCL) is the primary bone resorbing cell. OCL formation and activity is regulated by local factors produced in the bone microenvironment. We recently identified OCL inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1/ hSca) as a novel inhibitor of OCL formation and bone resorption that is produced by OCLs. OIP-1 is a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-linked membrane protein (16 kDa) related to the mouse Ly-6 family of hematopoietic proteins. OIP-1 mRNA is expressed in human OCL precursors, granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (GM-CFU), bone marrow cells, and osteoblast cells. We used cycle-dependent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, which further demonstrated that ...
Background: Hypothyroidism is associated with dysfunction of the bone turnover with reduced osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete various factors and cytokines that may stimulate bone regeneration.  The aim of this study was to determine the effects of MSCs-conditioned medium (CM) in hypothyroidism male ...
To determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) can exert an anti-osteoporosis role through anti-aging mechanisms, we analyzed the bone phenotype of mice with 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency due to deletion of the enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, while on a rescue diet. 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency accelerated age-related bone loss by activating the p16/p19 senescence signaling pathway, inhibiting osteoblastic bone formation, and stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption, osteocyte senescence, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Supplementation of exogenous 1,25(OH)2 D3 corrected the osteoporotic phenotype caused by 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency or natural aging by inhibiting the p16/p19 pathway. The proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and ectopic bone formation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from mice with genetically induced deficiency of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were significantly reduced by mechanisms including increased oxidative stress, DNA ...
Periodontitis is a common disease that is characterized by resorption of the alveolar bone and mediated by commensal bacteria that trigger host immune responses and bone destruction through unidentified mechanisms. We report that Nod1, an innate intracellular host receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan-related molecules, is critical for commensal-induced periodontitis in a mouse model. Mice lacking Nod1 exhibit reduced bone resorption as well as impaired recruitment of neutrophils to gingival tissues and osteoclasts to the alveolar bone, which mediate tissue and bone destruction. Further analysis showed that accumulation of a Nod1-stimulating commensal bacterium, NI1060, at gingival sites was sufficient to induce neutrophil recruitment and bone resorption. Genomic sequencing revealed that NI1060 is a mouse-specific bacterium that is related to bacteria associated with the development of aggressive periodontitis in humans. These findings provide insight into commensal-host interactions contributing ...
They display a characteristic ruffled border where proteases and acid are secreted, allowing for bone resorption and formation of resorption pits in the bone surface [25]. Osteoclast morphology varies between mammals and teleosts (bony fishes), and also between different groups of teleosts [20]. In the skeleton of young zebrafish for example, osteoclast activity is carried out by both mononucleated and multinucleated cells [26]. In fact, there is an ontogenetic progression from mono- towards multinucleated osteoclasts. In juvenile zebrafish, bone resorbing cells in the developing lower jaw are. at first mononucleated. In thin skeletal tissues such as the neural arch, mononucleated cells are even predominant in adults [26]. In rainbow trout, scale resorption Selleck BIBF1120 PD0325901 is predominantly carried out by mononucleated osteoclasts [27]. Although in mammals these mononucleated cells are often just regarded as osteoclast precursors, in fish mononucleated osteoclasts are active bone ...
Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells whose primary function is bone resorption. This process is regulated at multiple levels, including the proliferation and homing of osteoclast progenitors and their fusion into multinucleated cells (reviewed by Teitelbaum, 2000). Upon identification of appropriate resorption sites, osteoclasts reorganize their small matrix adhesions - podosomes - into a circular adhesion structure at the cell periphery known as the `sealing zone, and secrete protons and lysosomal enzymes into the space between the cell and the bone surface (Nesbitt and Horton, 1997; Salo et al., 1997). These structures form readily on bone surfaces; similar organization of podosome super-structures was observed in cells grown on standard tissue culture surfaces (Calle et al., 2004; Lakkakorpi et al., 1993; Zambonin-Zallone et al., 1988).. Podosomes are small (∼1 μm in diameter) dot-like adhesion structures found in osteoclasts, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of ...
Background: Artificial hip joint replacement has undergone tremendous development in the past 100 years. In the beginning, complications, such as infection and early loosening, were the rule rather than the exception. Today, complications of any sort are rare during the first decade after the operation. Artificial hip joint replacement has been chosen as the Operation of the Century and has dramatically improved the quality of life of millions of patients. Unfortunately, in the long-term, prosthesis loosening due to pathological bone resorption (osteolysis) around the prosthesis is still common. Traditionally, the prosthesis is anchored in the bone with bone cement (Plexiglas). However, since this cementation method was suspected to cause late loosening, alternative methods, such as the implantation of so-called uncemented prostheses, have been developed and are being increasingly applied. Because the early movement of a prosthesis (migration) increases the risk of loosening, uncemented cups ...
Just minutes after I had asked her, Sherlock sent me the full study…a blog reader did the same just a few hours later…then another blogging friend…so now I have three copies of the same study…fabulous! Thank you all!. Lets dive right into the report, which is only six pages long but is packed with interesting information. There is so much good stuff, in fact, that it was difficult not to go ahead and print the whole thing! (I cannot do that, of course, for obvious reasons…) It begins with a description of MGUS and how it differs from multiple myeloma, including this item of interest, which explains why the bone turnover marker is so important, even in MGUS: Although MGUS is largely considered a benign condition, a number of studies show that patients with MGUS are at increased risk of developing fractures even before progression to myeloma. Elevated bone turnover is an independent predictor of fracture risk, and a number of studies have shown elevated bone resorption and/or reduced ...
Bone remodeling is a lifelong process in which mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton by bone resorption and is replenished by new during ossification or bone formation. The remodeling cycle requires both the differentiation and activation of two cell types with opposing functions; the osteoclast, which orchestrates bone resorption, and the osteoblast, which orchestrates bone formation. The differentiation of these cells from their respective precursors is a process which has been overshadowed by enigma, particularly because the precise osteoclast precursor has not been identified and because the identification of skeletal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts, is very recent ...
Osteoclasts are responsible for bone tissue erosion in osteoporosis and arthritis rheumatoid (RA). (SLP) family members adaptor, B-cell linker proteins (BLNK) (Lee et al., 2008) and for that reason, it might be the molecular change integrating ITAM and RANK indicators. Tirabrutinib is a covalent type inhibitor with comparable efficacy to ibrutinib in the treatment of B-cell malignancies (Walter et al., 2016) and has greater selectivity for Btk (IC50, 2?nmol/L) and Tec (IC50, 5?nmol/L) Cidofovir (Vistide) than other kinases, including Lck, Fyn, Lyn and Itk (KINOMEscan platform: 442 kinases) (Yasuhiro et al., 2017). Tirabrutinib inhibits cell proliferation in some malignant B-cell lines but does not inhibit the activation of T-lymphocytes from human PBMCs (Kozaki et al., 2018). Herein, we extended our studies and evaluated the effect of tirabrutinib on a murine bone resorption model. The data indicate that tirabrutinib could be effective in bone diseases. 2.?Materials and methods 2.1. Animal used ...
Introduction. Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have become the accepted adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal patients with breast cancer with hormonal receptor expression1. AI brought about a marked reduction in estrogen levels through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme2 whose activity is relegated to peripheral tissues during menopause3. The American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommends using the AI for 5 years, or for 2 or 3 years, after previous therapy with tamoxifen (TMX)4, where the latter option is prescribed for pre/peri-menopausal women5.. However, reduced estrogen levels increase bone resorption and raise the risk of fracture that occurs after menopause1,6-9. Clinical guidelines for the management of bone loss associated with AI (AIBL: Aromatase Inhibitor associated Bone Loss) recommends a strict monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD) and other risk factors to assess the need for treatment with anti-resortive therapies10.. Despite existing data, most of which based on randomized ...
Bone is living, growing tissue. It is made mostly of collagen, a protein that provides a soft framework, and calcium phosphate, a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework.. This combination of collagen and calcium makes bone both flexible and strong, which in turn helps it to withstand stress. More than 99 percent of the bodys calcium is contained in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood.. Throughout your lifetime, old bone is removed (resorption) and new bone is added to the skeleton (formation). During childhood and teenage years, new bone is added faster than old bone is removed. As a result, bones become larger, heavier, and denser. Bone formation outpaces resorption until peak bone mass (maximum bone density and strength) is reached around age 30. After that time, bone resorption slowly begins to exceed bone formation.. For women, bone loss is fastest in the first few years after menopause, and it continues into the postmenopausal years. ...
Alendronic acid is a drug that belongs to a class of medicines known as bisphosphonates. It acts by inhibiting bone resorption which is mediated by osteoclasts, further leading to increase in bone mineral density.. Cholecalciferol is a substance that is produced by the skin that results from the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to split (seco) sterol previt D3 and subsequently colecalciferol (vit D3) through ultraviolet light. Vitamin D3 is the natural precursor of1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol, which in turn mobilizes calcium in the bones. Calcitriol increases the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate and also acts to regulate bone formation and bone resorption.. ...
Alendronate is a bisphosphonate which prevent the osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Alendronate may decrease bone resorption and increase the density of the bone.
A. Gallois, J. Lachuer, G. Yvert, A. Wierinckx, F. Brunet, C. Rabourdin-Combe, C. Delprat, P. Jurdic, and M. Mazzorana (2010) J Bone Miner Res, 25(3):661-72.. ...
Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast ...
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast ...
The current standard of care for bone metastasis is therapies targeting the cells that degrade bone. These cells are directed by cancer cells to degrade bone in order to release pro-tumorigenic growth factors stored within the skeletal extracellular matrix. These therapies are not curative and do not halt metastasis-mediated bone degradation, indicating additional factors contribute to bone degradation. My research program focuses on the skeletal mechanical environment and its regulation of cancer. Specifically, I will investigate 1) the skeletons mechanical environment and its regulation of the remodeling process, and 2) the role of osteoblastic cells, which comprise the principal sensor and effector cells of mechanical cues, in metastatic processes. My long-term goal is to identify novel therapeutic targets for treating and preventing bone metastases as well as cancer-associated reductions in bone strength. My experimental approach uses novel in vivo and in vitro mechanical loading model ...
Non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that regulates reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, cell polarization, cell migration, adhesion, spreading and bone remodeling. Plays a role in the regulation of the humoral immune response, and is required for normal levels of marginal B-cells in the spleen and normal migration of splenic B-cells. Required for normal macrophage polarization and migration towards sites of inflammation. Regulates cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell spreading in T-cells, and contributes to the regulation of T-cell responses. Promotes osteoclastic bone resorption; this requires both PTK2B/PYK2 and SRC. May inhibit differentiation and activity of osteoprogenitor cells. Functions in signaling downstream of integrin and collagen receptors, immune receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor receptors, and mediates responses to cellular stress. Forms multisubunit signaling complexes with SRC and SRC family members upon activation; this leads to
div class=citation vocab=,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource= typeof=Book,,span property=name,,a href=,Diminished bone formation during diabetic fracture healing is related to accelerated resorption of cartilage associated with high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and increased osteoclast activity, Erin H. McKenzie,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem resource=,,span property=name,,a property=url href=,Boston University Libraries,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
Pavlos, N. J.; Xu, J.; Riedel, D.; Yeoh, J. S.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Papadimitriou, J. M.; Jahn, R.; Ross, F. P.; Zheng, M. H.: Rab3D regulates a novel vesicular trafficking pathway that is required for osteoclastic bone resorption. Molecular and Cellular Biology 25 (12), S. 5253 - 5269 (2005 ...
Osteoporosis is a public health problem that affects approximately 25 million people in the United States. Regardless of the etiology, osteoporosis is character...
541-737-2141. [email protected] The college is fully accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association, Council on Education (COE).. ...
cdc15 encodes a member of the PCH protein family, conserved from yeast to mammals, that has been linked to actin cytoskeletal functions (Lippincott and Li, 2000). Though Cdc15p is the founding member of this protein family, little progress has been made toward understanding its precise function in cytokinesis. Here we have provided the first clues as to its critical role in this process. Cdc15p interacts directly with both the Arp2/3 complex activation machinery and the formin Cdc12p to orchestrate early events in CAR formation. As predicted by these interactions, the CAR does not form in the absence of Cdc15p function.. The critical role of Cdc15p in CAR formation was suggested by the observation that overexpression of Cdc15p was sufficient to drive medial recruitment of actin during interphase (Fankhauser et al., 1995). We have extended this observation to show that Cdc15p recruits Myo1p and other F-actin nucleators (this study; unpublished data) that presumably allow this to occur. Plo1p ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
... increased bone resorption, allowing flow of calcium from bone to blood reduced kidney clearance of calcium increased intestinal ... clinical problems are due to bone resorption and manifest as bone syndromes such as rickets, osteomalacia, and renal ... This increases bone resorption. In chronic kidney failure the problem is more specifically failure to convert vitamin D to its ... A history of acquired racquet nails (brachyonychia) may be indicative of bone resorption. Radiographically, hyperparathyroidism ...
They reduces bone resorption. Mechanism of action: Bisphosphonate binds to the mineral component of the bone and inhibits ... It inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activation, reduces bone resorption, improves bone density and lessens skeletal- ... "Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis". Bone. 41 ... Such medications are frequently used to treat diseases that cause bone resorption such as osteoporosis, or to treat cancer. The ...
Bone resorption Gallium Nitrate monograph. Lexi-Comp Online, Lexi-Drugs Online, Lexi-Comp Inc. Hudson, OH. Available at: [1] ... Also, the increased concentration of gallium in the bone leads to increasing the synthesis of collagen as well as the formation ... It works by preventing the breakdown of bone through the inhibition of osteoclast activity, thus lowering the amount of free ... Warrell, RP Jr (1997). "Gallium nitrate for the treatment of bone metastases". Cancer. 80: 1680-1685. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097- ...
Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct resorption, which starts from the lining cells of the alveolar bone ... September 2010). "Bone deposition, bone resorption, and osteosarcoma". Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 28 (9): 1142-8. doi: ... This is called bone remodeling. Bone remodelling is a biomechanical process responsible for making bones stronger in response ... Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen, and voids will ...
"Regulation of bone resorption and formation". The American Journal of Medicine. 43 (5): 696-710. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(67)90112 ... in particular in the domain of developing new antirachitic sterols to treat metabolic bone disease. He resided in Cambridge, ...
... increases bone resorption, as well as decreasing the deposition of new bone that normally takes place in weight-bearing bones. ... Trabecular bone (or cancellous bone) is the sponge-like bone in the ends of long bones and vertebrae. Cortical bone is the hard ... PTH increases bone resorption, leading to bone loss. A positive association exists between serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol ... In normal bone, matrix remodeling of bone is constant; up to 10% of all bone mass may be undergoing remodeling at any point in ...
In osteoclasts, V-ATPases are required for pumping protons onto the bone surface. The protons are then used for bone resorption ... However, it is believed that abnormal/impaired secretion of the brain and bone-specific ECM proteins caused by dysregulation of ... Elastin is not required for brain or bone growth. ... can be monitored via developmental assessments and bone density ...
Salo, J.; Lehenkari, P.; Mulari, M.; Metsikkö, K.; Väänänen, H. K. (1997). "Removal of osteoclast bone resorption products by ...
Compounds of zinc Zinc deficiency Zinc toxicity Yamaguchi M (1995). "beta-Alanyl-L-histidinato zinc and bone resorption". ... It has a stimulatory effect on bone formation and a restorative effect on bone loss under various pathophysiologic conditions. ... Zinc acexamate has also been shown to have a potent-anabolic effect on bone. The oral administration of AHZ or zinc acexamate ... The stimulatory effect of AHZ on bone formation is more intensive than that of zinc sulfate. ...
... a novel mediator of inflammatory bone resorption". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 5334. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05654-w. PMC 5509729 ... During periods of bone inflammation, CCL11 and CCR3 are upregulated. This is associated with an increase in osteoclast activity ...
"Gallium inhibits bone resorption by a direct effect on osteoclasts". PMID 2278540. "The effects of gallium nitrate on bone ... Work at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York and elsewhere suggested that gallium reduced bone resorption and might ... "Gallium nitrate inhibits calcium resorption from bone and is effective treatment for cancer-related hypercalcemia". Retrieved 5 ... "Use of gallium to treat Paget's disease of bone: a pilot study". Retrieved 5 December 2019. "A multicenter trial of low dose ...
Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki (July 2008). "Roles of Wnt signaling in bone formation and resorption ... Under certain circumstances adenosine stimulates bone destruction and in other situations it promotes bone formation, depending ... Adenosine is very relevant in bone metabolism, as it plays a role in formation and activation of both osteoclasts and ... In TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor β) pathway, BMP (Bone Morphogenic Protein), Activin and Nodal ligands bind to their ...
1984). Resorption of bone by isolated rabbit osteoclasts. J Cell Science 66: 383 - 399 PMID 6746762 Athanasou NA, Quinn J. ( ... With TJ Chambers he developed the osteoclast lacunar bone resorption assay system. His work was the first to show that the ... This led to the discovery of cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathological bone resorption associated with primary and ... 1996) Human osteoclast formation and bone resorption by monocytes and synovial macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum ...
Raisz, Lawrence G.; Simmons, Hollis A.; Sandberg, Ann L.; Canalis, Ernesto (July 1980). "lDirect Stimulation of Bone Resorption ... "Complement-Dependent Stimulation of Prostaglandin Synthesis and Bone Resorption". Science. 185 (4153): 789-791. Bibcode:1974Sci ...
In GAP, generalized bone destruction is present that ranges from mild crestal bone resorption to severe alveolar bone ... Bone resorption agents Inhibitors of bone formation Antibiotic resistance Fc-binding proteins Stimulators of inflammatory ... "Five-year alveolar bone level changes in women of varying skeletal bone mineral density and bone trabeculation". Oral Surgery, ... and usually horizontal bone pattern of bone loss at the interproximal surface of the incisors as the bone is thinner than at ...
These include: increased rate of bone turnover with resorption exceeding formation; an initial rapid phase of bone loss ... greater loss of cancellous bone than cortical bone; reduced intestinal calcium absorption; some protection against bone loss by ... Kalu DN (December 1991). "The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss". Bone Miner. 15 (3): 175-91. doi:10.1016/ ... Van Linden JC; Waarsing JH; Weinans H. (2006). "The use of micro-CT to study bone architecture dynamics noninvasively". Drug ...
... has shown to have positive effects on bone turnover. It has aided in decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone ... This was indicated by a decrease in the levels of two bone resorption markers (deoxypyridinoline and N-telopeptide) and an ... in pro-inflammatory responses and an increase in anti-inflammatory responses which indicates a reduction in bone resorption as ... Ribonuclease-enriched lactoferrin has been used to examine how lactoferrin affects bone. ...
... used for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone disorders that cause bone fragility and diseases where bone resorption is ... They only had a rather weak inhibiting effect on bone resorption. The inclusion of an amino group marked the beginning of the ... The compound can be made more potent by optimizing the structure of the R2 group to best inhibit bone resorption. Phosphonate ... all bisphosphonate drugs is a physicochemical interaction with the bone mineral to prevent the physical resorption of the bone ...
Methods for the treatment of bone resorption disorders, including osteoporosis". "USPTO: Acid sphingomyelinase gene". "USPTO: ...
Bone Resorption When teeth and roots are extracted, bone resorption ensues. This is greatest in the mandible and can be ... Bone Resorption Another tissue change that can result from wearing an overdenture is resorption of the alveolar bone. Although ... Other than that, retention of natural teeth in the jaw helps preserve bone by delaying the process of bone resorption in the ... Patient Anatomy - Overdentures can be useful for patients with a severe ridge defect or bone resorption. - Patients who have ...
"Serum leptin as a determinant of bone resorption in healthy postmenopausal women". Bone. 33 (5): 847-852. doi:10.1016/j.bone. ...
This may cause bone pain and tenderness, due to increased bone resorption. Due to increased circulating calcium, there may be ... Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, characterized by alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism, are ... as well as bone physiology. Parathyroid hormone has effects antagonistic to those of calcitonin. Calcium. PTH increases blood ... to break down bone and release calcium. PTH increases gastrointestinal calcium absorption by activating vitamin D, and promotes ...
In bone, osteoclasts are found in pits in the bone surface which are called resorption bays, or Howship's lacunae. Osteoclasts ... which is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Osteoclast activity is also mediated by the interaction of ... Resorption of bone matrix by the osteoclasts involves two steps: (1) dissolution of inorganic components (minerals), and (2) ... The ruffled border lies in contact with the bone surface within a resorption bay. The periphery of the ruffled border is ...
X-rays may reveal bone resorption and degenerative changes in the joint. These findings in the presence of intact skin and loss ... The resulting hyperemia leads to increased osteoclastic resorption of bone, and this, in concert with mechanical stress, leads ... bone resorption, and eventual deformity due to loss of sensation. Onset is usually insidious. If this pathological process ... commonly seen at the distal aspect of the metatarsals Diabetic osteolysis Bone resorption Once the process is recognized, it ...
It also induces calcium and phosphate resorption from the bone by osteoclasts. Parathyroid hormone also plays a role in ... Conditions due to bone loss such as osteopenia and osteoporosis are common in tertiary hyperparathyroidism along with ... Pseudoclubbing of the digits can also be indicative of a severe tertiary hyperparathyroidism due to excess resorption at the ... Radiological investigations include looking for signs of bone loss in both the hands and pelvis which is characteristic of ...
Like other AAS, oxandrolone may worsen hypercalcemia by increasing osteolytic bone resorption. When taken by pregnant women, ... It is FDA-approved for treating bone pain associated with osteoporosis, aiding weight gain following surgery or physical trauma ... Activation of the androgen receptor stimulates protein synthesis, which increases muscle growth, lean body mass, and bone ... to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other ...
One of the effects of periodontal disease is that it causes bone resorption and damage to the supportive tissues. This then ... Dental abscesses can cause resorption of bone and consequent loss of attachment. Depending on the type of abscess, this loss of ... This is because the tooth is not fused to the bones of the jaws, but is connected to the sockets by the periodontal ligament. ... Severe infection at the apex of a tooth can again result in bone loss and this in turn can cause mobility. Depending on the ...
Acquired racquet nail may also be diagnostic of bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism. Racquet nail often presents with other ...
Reduce bone resorption, increase bone formation. *Protein synthesis *Increase hepatic production of binding proteins ... In addition, estrogens are responsible for bone maturation and maintenance of bone mineral density throughout life. Due to ... Bone/skeletal system[edit]. Estrogens are responsible for both the pubertal growth spurt, which causes an acceleration in ... Some estrogens are also produced in smaller amounts by other tissues such as the liver, pancreas, bone, adrenal glands, skin, ...
In other countries is prescribed as a bone resorption inhibitor and antihypercalcemic agent. It is not approved for use in the ... Clodronic acid is approved for use in horses under the trade name Osphos, for treatment of bone resorptive processes of ...
... induced by resorption of the innermost bone layer of the skull with deposition of new bone on the outermost layer, thereby ... The bone is still more malleable and can be remodelled relatively 'simply' by greenstick fractures of the bone.[42] At ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time.[42] A bone graft is ... Most of the bones that collectively form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are ...
positive regulation of bone resorption. • regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • transforming growth factor beta receptor ...
Root resorption[edit]. Root resorption following traumatic dental injuries, whether located along the root surface or within ... This injury involves the alveolar bone and may extend beyond the alveolus.[5][6] There are 5 different types of alveolar ... Dental trauma refers to trauma (injury) to the teeth and/or periodontium (gums, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone), and ... Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM (1992). "Root resorption following traumatic dental injuries". Proceedings of the Finnish Dental ...
... resulting in increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. It is likely to exert this effect by binding to specific ... Stimulation of bone resorption by vitamin A has been reported to be independent of its effects on vitamin D.[23] ... such as hypercalcemia and numerous bone changes such as bone loss that potentially leads to osteoporosis, spontaneous bone ... Increased bone turnoverEdit. Retinoic acid suppresses osteoblast activity and stimulates osteoclast formation in vitro,[23] ...
... either testosterone or oestrogen can increase the rate of bone resorption while at the same time slowing down the rate of bone ... Bone density scans are recommended to monitor the bone mineral density.[13] ... Laitinen EM, Hero M, Vaaralahti K, Tommiska J, Raivio T (August 2012). "Bone mineral density, body composition and bone ... "Treatment of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover". The Journal of Clinical ...
... bone age 15 years), a severely undermineralized skeleton, evidence of increased bone resorption, and very early-onset ... her bone age was 11 or 12 years, and at the age of 17 years, 8 months, her bone age was 13.5 years.[9] Her bone mass was lower ... Bone age is delayed and bones are more brittle.[citation needed] Variations in these patterns can be achieved by selectively ... Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were both substantially elevated (18.7-21.6 ng/mL and 33.3-35.9 ng/mL ...
Osteoclasts become highly active during MM, leading to bone resorption and secretion of various MM survival factors. They ... July 1994). "Bone marrow angiogenesis and progression in multiple myeloma". Br. J. Haematol. 87 (3): 503-8. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... The secretion of IL-6 by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and the secretion of the adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and LFA, ... They discovered increased bone marrow angiogenesis correlates with myeloma growth and supporting stromal cells are a ...
Parathyroid hormone (in high concentrations in the blood) causes bone resorption, releasing calcium into the plasma. This is a ... namely high plasma ionized Ca2+ levels and the resorption of bone, which can lead to spontaneous fractures. The abnormally high ... The effector organs of the first homeostatic mechanism are the bones, the kidney, and, via a hormone released into the blood by ... This hormone acts primarily on bone, causing the rapid removal of calcium from the blood and depositing it, in insoluble form, ...
... infiltrate accumulation as well as collagen breakdown in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone resorption. At this stage, ... Alveolar Bone[edit]. In periodontal health, the alveolar bone surrounds the teeth and forms the bony socket that supports each ... Within the cortical plates and dental sockets lies cancellous bone, a spongy or trabecular type bone which is less dense than ... Untreated, these diseases can lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss. As of 2013[update], Periodontal disease accounted for ...
Regulate Bone Resorption II Adenosine A1R Blockade or Deletion Increases Bone Density and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. Adenosine receptors play a key role in the homeostasis of bone. The A1 receptor has been shown to ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. The role of A3 receptor is less defined in this field. Studies have shown that it plays a role in the ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. The role of A2A receptor opposes that of A1 in that it inhibits osteoclast differentiation and ...
The kype grows rapidly from bony needles proliferating from the tip of the dentary (the anterior and largest of the bones ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Kacem, A., Baglinière, J.L. and Meunier, F.J. (2013). "Resorption of scales in ... The kype formation process has been described as "making bone as fast as possible and with as little material as possible". ... In the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), kype development is accompanied by a morphogenesis of bones and cartilages in the ...
... complete or near-complete resorption of the bone occurs and may extend to adjacent bones, though spontaneous arrest of bone ... As the disease progresses bone deformity occurs with further loss of bone mass and, in the tubular bones (the long bones of the ... Massive osteolysis (acute spontaneous absorption of bone, phantom bone, disappearing bone): its relation to hemangiomatosis. J ... thin-walled vascular or lymphatic channels within bone, which leads to resorption and replacement of bone with angiomas and/or ...
It is attached to the alveolar bone (C) by the fibers of the periodontal ligament and to the soft tissue of the gingiva by the ... Some root resorption of the apical portion of the root may occur, however, if orthodontic pressures are excessive and movement ... Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals ... Adler, C.J.; Haak, W.; Donlon, D.; Cooper, A. (2010). "Survival and recovery of DNA from ancient teeth and bones". Journal of ...
Tanke, D. H, and Farke, A. A. (2006). Bone resorption, bone lesions, and extracranial fenestrae in ceratopsid dinosaurs: a ... Christiansen, P., and Paul, G.S. (2001). Limb bone scaling, limb proportions, and bone strength in neoceratopsian dinosaurs. ...
During childhood, bone formation exceeds resorption. As the aging process occurs, resorption exceeds formation. Bone resorption ... Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ... In some cases where bone resorption outpaces ossification, the bone is broken down much faster than it can be renewed. The bone ... Light weight bearing exercise tends to eliminate the negative effects of bone resorption. Bone resorption is highly stimulated ...
Osteoporotic bone marrow defect. *Paget's disease of bone. *Periapical abscess *Phoenix abscess ...
negative regulation of bone resorption. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent. • positive regulation of ...
But while pyrophosphate inhibits both osteoclastic bone resorption and the mineralization of the bone newly formed by ... Its inhibition of bone-resorption is dose-dependent and approximately 1,000 times stronger than the equimolar effect of the ... Alendronate inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone-resorption. Like all bisphosphonates, it is chemically related to inorganic ... Under therapy, normal bone tissue develops, and alendronate is deposited in the bone-matrix in a pharmacologically inactive ...
Tanke, D. H, and Farke, A. A. (2006). Bone resorption, bone lesions, and extracranial fenestrae in ceratopsid dinosaurs: a ... Rogers, R. R. (1990). "Taphonomy of three dinosaur bone beds in the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation, northwestern ...
endocrine bone disease: Osteitis fibrosa cystica (Brown tumor). infectious bone disease: Osteomyelitis (Sequestrum, Involucrum ... Fibrous dysplasia (Monostotic, Polyostotic) · Skeletal fluorosis · bone cyst (Aneurysmal bone cyst) · Hyperostosis (Infantile ... Bone resorption. Osteolysis · Hajdu-Cheney syndrome · Ainhum. Ischemia. Avascular necrosis (Osteonecrosis of the jaw) ... "Bone. 30 (2): 368-76. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(01)00685-8. PMID 11856644.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored (help)CS1 maint: ...
Osteoporotic bone marrow defect. *Paget's disease of bone. *Periapical abscess *Phoenix abscess ...
"Bone resorption"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৭ ডিসেম্বর ২০১৯।. *↑ Steele, D. Gentry; Claud A. Bramblett (১৯৮৮)। The Anatomy and Biology of ... Review (including references) of piezoelectricity and bone remodelling. *A good basic overview of bone biology from the Science ... Educational resource materials (including animations) by the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research ...
... induced by resorption of the innermost bone layer of the skull and deposition of new bone on the outermost layer, thereby ... Most of the bones that together form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are removed ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time. A bone graft is placed ... Reshaping of the cranial vault most commonly means excision of the bones and adjustment of the shape. Replacement of the bones ...
McCarthy, Edward F., MD, "The Toxins of William B. Coley and the Treatment of Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas". Iowa Orthopedic ... In conclusion, I must mention the most strange influence that intercurrent erysipelas sometimes has on the sudden resorption of ... William Bradley Coley (January 12, 1862 - April 16, 1936) was an American bone surgeon and cancer researcher best known for his ... McCarthy, Edward (2006). "The Toxins of William B. Coley and the Treatment of Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas". The Iowa ...
"Amylin inhibits bone resorption while the calcitonin receptor controls bone formation in vivo". J. Cell Biol. 164 (4): 509-514 ... decrease during osteoporosis and link to bone markers with specific isoform involvement". Bone 27 (1): 161-8. PMID 10865224. ... "J Bone Miner Res 23 (8): 1182-1193. PMC 2680171. PMID 18348688. doi:10.1359/jbmr.080310. ... Pondel M (2001). "Calcitonin and calcitonin receptors: bone and beyond". International journal of experimental pathology 81 (6 ...
Root resorption:[31] Root resorption is clinically asymptomatic, however can produce a pink appearance at the amelocemental ... and bone.[26] Ingestion during the years of tooth development causes yellow-green discoloration of dentine visible through the ... Dental trauma[12] which may cause staining either as a result of pulp necrosis or internal resorption. Alternatively the tooth ... Evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide might act as a tumour promoter.[63] Although cervical root resorption is more ...
Osteoporotic bone marrow defect. *Paget's disease of bone. *Periapical abscess *Phoenix abscess ...
They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption ...
regulation of bone resorption. • platelet aggregation. • cell migration. • negative regulation of macrophage derived foam cell ...
During childhood, bone formation exceeds resorption. As the aging process occurs, resorption exceeds formation. Bone resorption ... Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ... In some cases where bone resorption outpaces ossification, the bone is broken down much faster than it can be renewed. The bone ... Light weight bearing exercise tends to eliminate the negative effects of bone resorption. Bone resorption is highly stimulated ...
... the second volume in the series Topics in Bone Biology, deals with the osteoclast, the bone-resorbing cell, its origins, its ... Bone Resorption, the second volume in the series Topics in Bone Biology, deals with the osteoclast, the bone-resorbing cell, ... Bone resorption Cytokines Internist Osteoclasts bone complication nutrition pathophysiology physiology Editors and affiliations ... Because osteoporosis may be considered a disease in which the bone resorption rate exceeds formation, a separate chapter deals ...
... to active bone resorption surfaces in both physiological and pathological situations and may play a key role in bone resorption ... Monocyte-induced osteoclastic bone resorption may play an important role in physiologic bone remodeling and in bone destruction ... Bone matrix sustained comparable resorption as demonstrated by a 2-fold decrement in the extracted dry weights of the bones ... to active bone resorption surfaces in both physiological and pathological situations and may play a key role in bone resorption ...
7) report that increased production of TNF-α by T cells in bone marrow mediates the increased bone resorption and bone loss in ... The roles of osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand in the paracrine regulation of bone resorption. J Bone Miner Res 2000. ... These factors increase bone resorption, mainly by increasing the pool size of pre-OCs in bone marrow (2, 3), and are ... The mechanisms of estrogen regulation of bone resorption. B. Lawrence Riggs Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic and Foundation ...
This study establishes that bone formation and/or bone mass do not control the extent of bone resorption in vivo. ... Generally, it has been assumed that bone formation and bone resorption functions are linked mechanistically during bone ... Dissociation between bone resorption and bone formation in osteopenic transgenic mice. David A. Corral, Michael Amling, ... Dissociation between bone resorption and bone formation in osteopenic transgenic mice. David A. Corral, Michael Amling, ...
... the administration of a bone resorption inhibitor during a period of approximately 12 to 36 months. ... The invention relates to a combined pharmaceutical preparation comprising parathyroid hormone and a bone resorption inhibitor, ... This is a process where bone resorption is closely linked to bone formation, through the concerted action of the bone active ... Bone growth factors and inhibitors of bone resorption for promoting bone formation. ...
Did you realize that bone loss actually begins around the age of thirty-five? The first obvious clue is when we begin to lose ... In addition to this, I would recommend a Bone Resorption Test. This is a must test. The bone resorption test can be done ... Unfortunately by the time a bone density change is noted it may already be too late. The bone resorption test is a urine test ... Bone resorption test for osteoporosis. By Dr. Teresa C. Hill. For the Journal-Advocate ...
High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses.. Frings-Meuthen P1, ... exacerbates disuse-induced bone and muscle loss by causing further protein wasting and an increase in bone resorption. Changes ... greater excretion of the bone resorption markers COOH- (CTX) and NH(2)- (NTX) terminal telopeptide of type I collagen in HDBR ... Serum concentrations of the bone formation markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and NH(2)-terminal propeptide of ...
Bone Miner. 1991 Mar;12(3):167-79. Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Bone Miner. 1991 Mar;12(3):167-79.. Bone particles from gallium-treated rats are resistant to resorption in vivo.. Donnelly R1 ... Resorption of bone particles containing 0.39 micrograms Ga/mg bone was significantly inhibited relative to control particles. ... Day 21 was chosen as a single time point for the comparison of the extent of resorption of gallium-containing and control bone ...
... or bone mass) at least 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (defined as the bone mass achieved by healthy adults aged ... Bisphosphonate bone-resorption inhibitors. Class Summary. These agents decrease bone resorption and prevent bone loss from ... Pamidronate inhibits both normal and abnormal bone resorption. It appears to inhibit bone resorption without as much impact on ... Prediction of bone loss with biochemical bone markers. Adapted from Ross PD, Knowlton W. Rapid bone loss is associated with ...
Thyrocalcitonin Inhibition of Bone Resorption Induced by Parathyroid Hormone in Tissue Culture ... Thyrocalcitonin Inhibition of Bone Resorption Induced by Parathyroid Hormone in Tissue Culture ... Thyrocalcitonin Inhibition of Bone Resorption Induced by Parathyroid Hormone in Tissue Culture ... Thyrocalcitonin Inhibition of Bone Resorption Induced by Parathyroid Hormone in Tissue Culture ...
Biochemical monitoring of bone metabolism depends upon measurement of enzymes and proteins released during bone formation and ... The field of bone turnover markers has developed considerably in the past decade. ... Bone Resorption Markers. The most useful markers of bone resorption are degradation products derived from the enzymatic ... Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women, the EPIDOS Prospective Study. J Bone Miner Res 1996 Oct; 11( ...
... osteoclasts are breaking down bone and releasing minerals, to transfer calcium from the bone fluid into the blood. - Stock ... Keywords: anatomical, anatomy, artwork, bone, bone minerals, decalcified, drawing, human bone, illustration, medical, medical ... Caption: Illustration showing bone resorption; osteoclasts are breaking down bone and releasing minerals, to transfer calcium ... illustration, musculoskeletal, musculoskeletal system, osteoclast, osteoclasts, remodeling, resorb, resorption, skeletal, ...
... Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;18(7):559-69. doi: 10.1615/ ... In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that ... Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the ... together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal ...
Increased bone resorption in patients with CAH has been noted in the past and has been related to alterations in receptor ... Bone resorption control of tooth eruption and root morphogenesis: Involvement of the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK). J Cell ... Recently, bone resorption has been found to be correlated with accelerated eruption of teeth in mice.17 ... This report suggests that early exfoliation of primary teeth can be a side effect of bone resorption in patients with CAH. ...
Shang, N.; Wu, J. Egg White Ovotransferrin Attenuates RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption. Nutrients 2019, 11 ... Egg White Ovotransferrin Attenuates RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption by Nan Shang ... Shang N, Wu J. Egg White Ovotransferrin Attenuates RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9 ... "Egg White Ovotransferrin Attenuates RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption." Nutrients 11, no. 9: 2254. ...
1, 3, 4). These cytokines increase bone resorption mainly by increasing the pool size of preosteoclasts in bone marrow (1, 3, 4 ... The roles of osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand in the paracrine regulation of bone resorption. J. Bone Miner. Res. ... The bone lining cell: its role in cleaning Howships lacunae and initiating bone formation. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2002. 17:77-90 ... The bone remodeling compartment: a circulatory function for bone lining cells. J. Bone Miner. Res. 2001. 16:1583-1585. View ...
Orthopedics , OCOSH Classification , Bone Diseases , Bone Resorption. Bone Resorption (Subscribe) Bone loss due to normal or ... OCOSH Classification: Bone Diseases: Bone Resorption - OCOSH Classification: Bone Diseases: Metabolic Bone Diseases ... OCOSH Classification: Bone Diseases: Bone Resorption - OCOSH Classification: Investigations: Radiology - General: Radiology - ... SNOMED-CT Bone resorption disorder (finding) Concept ID: 68921007. OCOSH Code: D000387 68921007 M89.5 BD_BR_ANH. Osteolysis (28 ...
Bone Resorption Summary Description: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.. Also Known As: Bone Losses, Osteoclastic; Bone ... Resorptions; Loss, Osteoclastic Bone; Losses, Osteoclastic Bone; Osteoclastic Bone Losses Show All ,, Networked: 12154 relevant ... Key Therapies for Bone Resorption. Efficacy Chart ,, * Ovariectomy (Oophorectomy) : 6 outcomes 21 studies in 146 results ... Key Drugs and Agents for Bone Resorption. Efficacy Chart ,, Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to treatments: ...
... Bachir Benarba ... The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast ... 1 g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers ... The intake of A. longa roots is detrimental for kidney function and resulted in high bone resorption, maybe due to the ...
TRAF3 protein levels decrease in bone and bone marrow during aging in mice and humans. Development of drugs to prevent TRAF3 ... microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone ... microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone ... Chloroquine also inhibits bone destruction induced by ovariectomy and parathyroid hormone in mice in vivo. Mice genetically ...
Check drug and medication side effect reports associated with Resorption Bone Increased ... What drug can cause Resorption Bone Increased as their side effect? ... bone pain, fracture , resorption bone increased More. atacand. Episodes: 1. hypertension.cough, muscle spasms, resorption bone ... periodontitis, resorption bone increased More. cymbalta. Episodes: 1. depression .bone disorder, resorption bone increased, ...
Results Most bone resorption occurred at pre-existing cavities within the bone in the periphery around the pressurized region, ... Fluid pressure and flow as a cause of bone resorption. Fahlgren, Anna Linköping University, Department of Clinical and ... The localization of the resorptive lesions suggests that high-velocity fluid flow is important for bone resorption induced by ... Background Unstable implants in bone become surrounded by an osteolytic zone. This is seen around loose screws, for example, ...
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare vertical and horizontal mandibular alveolar bone resorption by measuring bone ... Conclusions: Vertical and horizontal alveolar bone resorption was found to be higher in the RPD wearing patients when comparing ... The Effect of Removable Partial Dentures on Alveolar Bone Resorption: A Retrospective Study with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography ... mean vertical and horizontal mandibular bone resorption was significantly higher in RPD wearers than in non-wearers (p , 0.05). ...
Bone resorption restored in osteopetrotic mice by transplants of normal bone marrow and spleen cells ... Bone resorption restored in osteopetrotic mice by transplants of normal bone marrow and spleen cells ... Bone resorption restored in osteopetrotic mice by transplants of normal bone marrow and spleen cells ... Bone resorption restored in osteopetrotic mice by transplants of normal bone marrow and spleen cells ...
Erosion depth: 120 resorption lacunae assessed from seven control and nine Ror2ΔOcl/ΔOcl mice. Eroded surface per bone surface ... Protein kinase N3 promotes bone resorption by osteoclasts in response to Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling Shunsuke Uehara, Nobuyuki Udagawa ... F) Bone histomorphometric analysis of bone formation parameters in distal femurs. n = 7 mice for each genotype. (G) Ex vivo ... A signaling pathway that promotes the cytoskeleton remodeling in osteoclasts necessary for bone resorption is elucidated. ...
109 MicroXCT Analysis of Bone Regeneration and Resorption in Tissue-Engineered Constructs Thursday, March 22, 2012: 8 a.m. - 9: ... One of the limitations in assessing successful bone regeneration in vivo is the lack of noninvasive high resolution bone ...
Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Resorption. Alveolar bone resorption of the left and right sides of the mandible was assessed by a ... and causes osteoclastic bone resorption in the hind paws of mice and alveolar bone resorption in rats [7]. ... causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in ... group challenge orally with Pg induced alveolar bone resorption demonstrated by increase in the distance between alveolar bone ...
... Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 8;6: ... In this study we found that Trpv1(-/-) mice developed severe bone loss in an experimental model of periodontitis. Chemical ... Oral administration of the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, suppressed ligature-induced bone loss in mice with fewer tartrate- ... suggesting a functional link between neuronal TRPV1 signaling and periodontal bone loss. TRPV1 activation in gingival nerves ...
Increased in vitro bone resorption by monocytes in the hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome.. D Y Leung, L Key, J J Steinberg, M C ... Increased in vitro bone resorption by monocytes in the hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. ... Increased in vitro bone resorption by monocytes in the hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. ... Increased in vitro bone resorption by monocytes in the hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. ...
  • Bone is resorbed by osteoclasts, and is deposited by osteoblasts in a process called ossification. (
  • BR is characterized by osteoclastic resorption of preexisting bone followed by de novo bone formation by osteoblasts. (
  • This process is characterized by two successive phases: resorption of preexisting bone by osteoclasts followed by de novo bone formation by the osteoblasts ( 1 ). (
  • Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects. (
  • Skeletal health is maintained by bone remodeling, a process in which microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone, which is laid down by osteoblasts. (
  • Bone formation is mediated through specialized cells called osteoblasts, while resorption is carried out via osteoclasts. (
  • Osteoclasts (OCs) are responsible for degrading the bone matrix, thereby initiating bone repair, which allows osteoblasts to build new bone and thus maintain the integrity of the bone tissue [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Either increased activity of osteoclasts or decreased bone formation by osteoblasts leads to microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. (
  • Bone tissue is built up by osteoblasts and broken down by osteoclasts in a balanced remodeling process. (
  • Prostaglandin E (PGE)2 produced by osteoblasts acts as a potent stimulator of bone resorption. (
  • Here, we show that cPLA2α plays a key role in PGE production by osteoblasts and in osteoclastic bone resorption, and suggest a new approach to inflammatory bone disease by inhibiting cPLA2α. (
  • We have reported that PGE2 stimulated adenylate cyclase in mouse osteoblasts to accumulate cellular cAMP, induced osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow cultures, and stimulated bone resorption in mouse calvarial cultures ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • The addition of indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, to mouse bone marrow cultures strikingly suppressed osteoclast formation induced by IL-1, indicating that PGE2 production by osteoblasts is involved in the mechanism of bone resorption induced by IL-1 ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Although both constitutive COX (COX-1) and inducible COX (COX-2) are expressed in mouse osteoblasts, the expression of COX-2 is markedly induced by several bone-resorbing factors, including IL-1 in osteoblasts. (
  • Therefore, cPLA2α, COX-2, and mPGES might be requisite for the regulation of PGE2 synthesis in response to IL-1 in mouse osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells. (
  • Because LPS could induce bone loss in vivo, LPS-induced PGE2 production by osteoblasts might be involved in the mechanism of bone resorption associated with inflammation. (
  • Results and Discussion] At first we looked at the effect of anti-TIMP mAbs on the bone resorption by osteoblasts. (
  • Osteoclasts (the bone-resorbing cell) and osteoblasts (the bone-forming cell) display expression of the G protein-coupled P2Y(6) receptor, but the role of this receptor in modulating cell function is unclear. (
  • Role of the P2Y13 receptor in the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. (
  • Experiment 1 : It is known that most bone-resorbing agents including 1alpha, 25 (OH) _2D_3, interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) first act on osteoblasts to induce osteoclastic bone resorption. (
  • We there for examined novel proteins produced by osteoblasts in response to those bone resorbing agents. (
  • We also examined the mechanism of regulation of trascription and translation of inter-leukin 6 (IL-6) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in osteoblasts in response to bone-absorphon agents. (
  • Methods] A mouse osteoblastic cell line (E1) and mouse primary osteoblasts were cultured for 3 days with various bone-resorbing agents. (
  • Osteoblasts are also involved in inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in the PDL during alveolar bone remodelling. (
  • The aim of the in vivo and in vitro studies on which this thesis is based was to investigate the responses to CF of immune cells and osteoblasts derived from human alveolar bone (HOBs). (
  • The results of the studies provide evidence of the potentially pivotal roles of both the immune cells and the osteoblasts of the PDL in extensive root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth movement. (
  • Paper II: Tripuwabhrut P, Mustafa K, Brudvik P, Mustafa M. Initial responses of osteoblasts derived from human alveolar bone to various compressive forces. (
  • Bone is continuously being remodelled in a process by which osteoclasts resorb bone tissue and osteoblasts produce new bone matrix that is subsequently mineralised. (
  • Glucocorticoid treatment suppresses bone formation by its effects on the osteoblasts. (
  • osteoclasts remove bone, while osteoblasts build up the bone. (
  • While osteoblasts have traditionally been regarded as key players mediating osseointegration, increasing evidence suggests that bone-resorbing osteoclasts are of crucial importance for the longevity of applied biomaterials. (
  • Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of MTA solution in the regulation of osteoclast bone-resorbing activity using osteoclasts formed in co-cultures of primary osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. (
  • Bone is a highly dynamic tissue that undergoes consistent remodeling, which relies on the balance between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. (
  • On the other hand, PTH receptors were not identified in osteoclasts or their precursors, indicating that all the effects of PTH on bone resorption are mediated by osteoblasts (Strewler, 2001). (
  • Increased in vitro bone resorption by monocytes in the hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. (
  • The capacity of peripheral blood monocytes to degrade 45Ca-labeled bone in vitro was studied. (
  • Bone degradation by these monocytes was significantly reduced in the presence of 10(-6) M indomethacin in vitro. (
  • Moreover, in an in vitro 3D breast cancer bone metastasis model, [email protected](HA-PASP) CL decreased bone resorption through inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) and reducing the activity of osteoclasts. (
  • In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo experimental results indicate that [email protected](HA-PASP) CL has great potential in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. (
  • These results indicate that SFN is a novel inhibitor of breast cancer-induced osteolytic bone resorption in vitro and in vivo . (
  • In this study, the formulation for designing xeno-hybrid bone grafts using gelatins from different sources (bovine- and porcine-derived gelatin, with bone grafts named SBN and SPK, respectively) was investigated, and the biological responses were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Different bone cell responses were observed in vitro. (
  • Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of regulation of osteoclastogenesis by S. aureus to obtain better understanding of the complex mechanisms of S. aureus bone destruction in vivo . (
  • Since the susceptibility to, or the severity of inflammation-associated bone diseases are likely related to differences in the tissue response, and the mechanisms by which PAMPs interact with bone cells are not fully understood, we aimed to elucidate the importance of different TLRs for inflammation induced bone loss by conducting in vitro and in vivo investigations. (
  • To explore other possible functions of these molecules, we have examined whether TIMPs in FCS affect osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. (
  • Clopidogrel (Plavix), a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, inhibits bone cell function in vitro and decreases trabecular bone in vivo. (
  • Extracellular nucleotides block bone mineralization in vitro: evidence for dual inhibitory mechanisms involving both P2Y2 receptors and pyrophosphate. (
  • In the in vitro studies (Papers II and III), HOBs were used to study the initial effects of varying magnitudes of CF on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of molecules involved in inflammation and the bone remodelling process. (
  • Paper III: Tripuwabhrut P, Mustafa M, Gjerde CG, Brudvik P, Mustafa K. Effect of compressive force on human osteoblast-like cells and bone remodelling: an in vitro study. (
  • In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of this diuretic on bone cells, as well as those of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), the reference thiazide, and acetazolamide (AZ), a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. (
  • In conclusion, in vitro IDP increased osteoblast proliferation and decreased bone resorption at least in part by decreasing osteoclast differentiation via a direct effect on hematopoietic precursors. (
  • Some diseases with symptoms of decreased bone density are osteoporosis, and rickets. (
  • Through direct and indirect pathways, prolonged ethanol exposure increases fracture risk by decreasing bone mineral density and promoting osteoporosis. (
  • Because osteoporosis may be considered a disease in which the bone resorption rate exceeds formation, a separate chapter deals with current and potential therapeutic approaches to this widespread disease that affects both men and women. (
  • Functional analyses showed that in the absence of bone formation, bone resorption continued to occur normally, leading to an osteoporosis of controllable severity, whose appearance could be prevented by an antiresorptive agent. (
  • Osteoporosis has become a major problem especially in the U.S. Osteoporosis has become the most common bone disorder. (
  • Diagnosis of osteoporosis is not based on evaluation of bone markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) assessment is still the criterion standard for evaluation and diagnosis. (
  • However, mean values for markers of bone turnover are higher in osteoporosis patients than in the matched controls. (
  • [ 5 ] Therefore, measurement of bone markers is not recommended to make a diagnosis of osteoporosis. (
  • Disruptions to the homeostasis between formation and resorption results in diseases such as: osteoporosis, osteopetrosis, Paget's disease, rickets, and renal osteodystrophy. (
  • Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density that leads to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent risk of low-impact bone fractures. (
  • Regardless of many definitions for osteoporosis, World Health Organization explains it as a disease presented with low bone mass and enhanced fragility and consequently increased risk of fracture (Anonymous 2003 ). (
  • Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption which accelerates after menopause in women. (
  • Therefore, NMP could prove useful for the treatment of osteoporosis or other bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption. (
  • Inter alia , S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. (
  • Bone loss leads to an increased incidence of fracture and is associated with the development of osteoporosis, which can strike people of any age and afflicts 10 million individuals in the U.S. today. (
  • Bone formation and resorption have been measured in patients with idiopathic osteoporosis by histomorphometry of 7.5-mm trephine biopsies and in the whole body by 85Sr radiotracer methodology and calcium balances. (
  • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased frequency of osteoporosis, mainly because of increased bone resorption. (
  • Other times, you may have a disease or condition, like Paget's disease or osteoporosis, that speeds up the process of bone removal. (
  • Regardless of the etiology, osteoporosis is characterized by an imbalance in bone remodeling, such that osteoclastic bone resorption exceeds osteoblastic bone formation, which leads to low bone mass or osteopenia. (
  • New information about mechanisms of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis may facilitate the development of novel strategies to decrease bone resorption and may lead to new treatments for osteoporosis. (
  • Intriguingly, bone remodeling is generally deteriorative in typical lytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid osteoarthritis, and cancer bone metastases. (
  • Both primary and secondary may result in osteoporosis (weakening of the bones). (
  • Early studies on E's role in bone metabolism focused on the role of the proinflammatory cytokines - IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and prostaglandin-E 2 (PGE 2 ). (
  • Osteoclast formation and activity are promoted by factors, including cytokines, hormones, growth factors, and free radicals, and require expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) by accessory cells in the bone marrow, including osteoblastic and immune cells. (
  • Cytokines with bone-resorbing activity include IL 1 beta (pI 7), IL 1 alpha (pI 5), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and lymphotoxin (LT). Possible interaction between IL 1 beta, the major mediator with osteoclast-activating factor (OAF) activity, and other cytokines was studied. (
  • Bone metabolism is a complex equilibrium between bone formation and resorption regulated through numerous hormones, steroids, growth factors, and cytokines. (
  • Cannabidiol decreases bone resorption by inhibiting RANK/RANKL expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines during experimental periodontitis in rats. (
  • Inflammatory bone loss is accompanied by osteoclast formation induced by bone-resorbing cytokines, but the mechanism of PGE2 production and bone resorption in vivo is not fully understood. (
  • S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. (
  • S. aureus also increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. (
  • Simultaneous addition of the two cytokines showed similar bone-resorbing activity at much lower doses. (
  • they participate in immune responses, and secrete cytokines that can affect their own functions and those of other cells in inflammatory and neoplastic processes affecting bone. (
  • RANKL is a member of the TNF family of cytokines and plays a key role in bone resorption. (
  • Thus, bone turnover in normal subjects depends on relative expression of key cytokines, and defects in osteoclastic turnover usually reflect defects in specific ion transporters or enzymes that play essential roles in bone degradation. (
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. (
  • Adipocytes are important sources of estrogen production in postmenopausal women, and estrogen is known to inhibit bone resorption by osteoclasts. (
  • It has been proposed that increases in adipose tissue with increasing BMI in postmenopausal women result in increased estrogen production, osteoclast suppression, and a resultant increase in bone mass [7]. (
  • The outcome of these studies should be the reduction of fracture risk and not bone mass density alone in postmenopause because it is the fractures about which we are most concerned, so as to give postmenopausal women a good quality of life and not just years of life. (
  • Totally 1,252 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study by considering the changes of pyridinoline (Pyd), desoxypyridinoline (Dpyd), bone alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin concentrations in urine and serum after phytoestrogens consumption. (
  • Bone mineral density decreased in the spine in both groups, significantly more in postmenopausal women from the P-group. (
  • However, the systemic inflammatory consequences on bone could not be prevented in the lumbar spine, especially not in postmenopausal women, probably because of the combined effect of suppression of bone synthesis by prednisolone and the postmenopausal status. (
  • Tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to benefit bone health in ovariectomized animals, a model of postmenopausal women. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12-week TT supplementation on bone markers (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), and serum osteoprotegerin (OPG)), urine calcium, and an oxidative stress biomarker (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. (
  • Twelve-week annatto-extracted TT supplementation decreased bone resorption and improved bone turnover rate via suppressing bone remodeling regulators in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. (
  • Tocotrienols and bone health of postmenopausal women. (
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this 3-way crossover study was to identify the effective dose of soy protein isolate enriched with isoflavones for suppressing bone resorption in postmenopausal women using a novel, rapid assessment of antibone resorbing treatments. (
  • In postmenopausal women, higher circulating SLIT3 levels were associated with increased bone mass. (
  • It appears to inhibit bone resorption without as much impact on bone formation and mineralization. (
  • For example, n-3 fatty acids as potent anti-inflammatory agents have been studied in different human and animal subjects, and it seems that they mostly inhibit bone resorption rather than affecting bone formation (Salari et al. (
  • For example, it has been reported that a number of common vegetables, including onion, garlic and parsley, can inhibit bone resorption in ovariectomized rats. (
  • Although osteoblast progenitors secrete a factor required for osteoclast differentiation ( 5 ), a requirement of the bone-formation function to regulate the bone-resorption function has neither been established nor ruled out in vivo . (
  • However, sub-clone H9 cells displayed rapid differentiation of OC already at Day 2 compared to Day 4 from parental RAW264.7, and when cultured on plastic and on bone they were more efficient in resorption. (
  • In vivo , Ln(III), a functional mimic of Ca(II), has been found to exchange with Ca(II) in bone to modify the bone remodeling cycle by stimulating osteoblast proliferation and impeding bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. (
  • Alveolar bone loss was estimated by morphometry, gingival blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry, and osteoclast differentiation was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that NMP inhibits osteoclast differentiation and attenuates bone resorption. (
  • Bone resorption is a well-controlled process that is dependent on the differentiation of monocytes to bone-resorbing osteoclasts. (
  • In addition, osteoblast-like cells expressed the Na + /Cl - cotransporter that is necessary for the renal action of thiazide diuretics, but IDP inhibited bone resorption in mice lacking this cotransporter, so the inhibition of bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation did not involve this pathway. (
  • We observed that resorption pits produced by spleen cells cultured in the presence of soluble osteoclast differentiation factor (sODF) and CSF-1 were decreased by 10 -4 M IDP as well as 10 -5 M APD. (
  • Recent studies have clarified the differentiation of this cell and the biochemical mechanisms it uses to resorb bone. (
  • SLIT3 also inhibited bone resorption by suppressing osteoclast differentiation in an autocrine manner. (
  • Taken together, our results suggest that MTA is a useful retrofilling material for several clinical situations because it both stimulates osteoblast differentiation and inhibits bone resorption. (
  • To define the role of bone formation in the control of bone resorption, we generated an inducible osteoblast ablation mouse model. (
  • Serum osteocalcin is considered a specific marker of osteoblast function, as its levels correlate with the bone formation rate. (
  • Normally, building and absorption of bone is a tightly regulated cycle wherein the bone matrix is manufactured by osteoblast cells and removed by osteoclast cells. (
  • The authors found that an enzyme produced by myeloma cells, called thymidine phosphorylase (TP), suppressed osteoblast activity (new bone formation) and enhanced osteoclast activity (bone resorption). (
  • These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. (
  • We showed that 10 -4 M IDP and 10 -4 M AZ, as well as 10 -5 M pamidronate (APD), decreased bone resorption in organ cultures and in cocultures of osteoblast-like cells and bone marrow cells in the presence of 10 -8 M 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ]. (
  • Mice lacking Slit3 specifically in osteoclasts had low bone mass, whereas mice with either neuron-specific Slit3 deletion or osteoblast-specific Slit3 deletion had normal bone mass, thereby indicating the importance of SLIT3 as a local determinant of bone metabolism. (
  • Recent research indicates that calcitriol leads to a reduction in osteoclast formation, and bone resorption. (
  • Various biochemical markers are now available that allow a specific and sensitive assessment of the rate of bone formation and bone resorption of the skeleton. (
  • Therefore, we investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. (
  • Serum beta-CrossLaps and serum osteocalcin as markers of bone resorption and formation were measured two days and one day before and one and 14 days after infliximab infusion with an electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay. (
  • Our data indicate that bone formation is suppressed by glucocorticoids in all age groups, whereas the effect of glucocorticoids on markers of bone resorption is dependent on age. (
  • High NaCl intake during immobilization exacerbates disuse-induced bone and muscle loss by causing further protein wasting and an increase in bone resorption. (
  • Estrogen deficiency is associated with an increase in bone resorption over bone formation, leading to excessive and sustained bone loss. (
  • During the menopause transition, a decline in ovarian function beginning about 2 years before the FMP is followed by an increase in bone resorption and subsequently by bone loss. (
  • The magnitude of the increase in bone resorption is inversely associated with BMI. (
  • During the perimenopausal phase, there is an increase in bone resorption due to the decline in ovarian function. (
  • Mice deficient in Slit3 or its receptor, Robo1, exhibited osteopenic phenotypes due to a decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption. (
  • Such markers can also be useful in selected cases to improve the assessment of individual fracture risk when bone mineral density (BMD) measurement by itself does not provide a clear answer. (
  • Estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to brittle bone and weak muscles which increases the risk of fall and fracture. (
  • Moreover, inflammation-induced systemic bone loss is associated with an increased fracture risk. (
  • Dynamic interspinous stabilization devices generally provide satisfactory results, but can result in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, spinous process fracture, or bone resorption of the spinous process. (
  • It has been reported, however, that the dynamic interspinous stabilization can result in complications including recurrent lumbar disc herniation, spinous process fracture, or even bone resorption of the spinous process. (
  • Bone resorption in your jaw can make it so you don't have enough bone to support dentures, and may cause a fracture in your jaw. (
  • Furthermore, antidiabetic medicines such as thiazolidinediones may further promote bone resorption and increase fracture risk [33-35]. (
  • Some people who experience increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation are astronauts. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare vertical and horizontal mandibular alveolar bone resorption by measuring bone morphological variation in Kennedy Class II removable partial denture (RPD) wearers and non-wearers using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). (
  • Vertical and horizontal alveolar bone resorption was found to be higher in the RPD wearing patients when comparing the dentate and edentulous sites. (
  • Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. (
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. (
  • This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg . (
  • Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. (
  • The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1 : 1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. (
  • We can conclude that AND suppresses alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats. (
  • Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases that result in both loss of attachment between teeth and periodontium and osteoclastic resorption of alveolar bone [ 1 ]. (
  • It stimulates bone resorption in rat calvaria cultures via its lipopolysaccharide [ 6 ] and causes osteoclastic bone resorption in the hind paws of mice and alveolar bone resorption in rats [ 7 ]. (
  • Oral administration of the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, suppressed ligature-induced bone loss in mice with fewer tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells in alveolar bone. (
  • Novel antioxidative nanotherapeutics in a rat periodontitis model: Reactive oxygen species scavenging by redox injectable gel suppresses alveolar bone resorption. (
  • In the present study, we have confirmed retention of the RIG in the periodontal region, along with its antioxidant-related anti-inflammatory effects, and we have subsequently evaluated the inhibitory effect of the RIG against Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.xa0gingivalis)-induced alveolar bone loss attributed to ROS. (
  • Morphometrical analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that CBD-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand RANKL/RANK. (
  • As your bones are removed, the alveolar ridge, the bone that used to support your teeth and now supports your dentures, shrinks down and moves inward, which can contribute to the aged, sunken appearance that people have when they wear dentures. (
  • Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare pre-treatment and post-treatment cone-beam computed tomography images of patients to quantitatively evaluate the effect of orthodontically retracting maxillary incisors on the height and labiolingual thickness of labial and palatal alveolar bone and incisor apical root resorption . (
  • Methods: Maxillary central incisor apical root resorption , labial and palatal alveolar bone height, and labiolingual thickness were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment cone-beam computed tomography scans of 59 subjects (mean age, 13.00 years) with premolar extractions and 63 subjects (mean age, 13.40 years) who were treated with non-extraction therapy. (
  • Increased palatal alveolar bone height loss was correlated with greater number of extracted premolars, long duration of treatment, proximity of incisor roots to palatal cortex, and thin alveolar bone . (
  • Conclusion: Clinicians should exert caution when excessive incisor movement is planned in patients with thin alveolar bone . (
  • Class 0 : Little, if any, resorption with there being a difference in height between the lowest point on the mucosal membrane and the highest point on the alveolar ridge. (
  • Type III : Residual alveolar bone height of 11 - 15 mm measured at the least vertical height of the mandible. (
  • There is strong circumstantial evidence that monocytes are precursors for osteoclasts in vivo, and recently they have been shown to resorb devitalized bone directly. (
  • However, the existence of a functional link between the two activities, formation and resorption, has never been shown in vivo . (
  • This study establishes that bone formation and/or bone mass do not control the extent of bone resorption in vivo . (
  • To determine whether bone resorption is influenced by bone formation in vivo , tg mice were generated with a 1.3-kb fragment of the mouse OG2 promoter, which was used to drive expression of Hsv-Tk (refs. (
  • Bone particles from gallium-treated rats are resistant to resorption in vivo. (
  • The mechanism of action of this agent was investigated following development of a quantitative in vivo bone resorption assay modified from the method of Glowacki. (
  • Chloroquine also inhibits bone destruction induced by ovariectomy and parathyroid hormone in mice in vivo . (
  • One of the limitations in assessing successful bone regeneration in vivo is the lack of noninvasive high resolution bone quantification methods that allow for multi-modal evaluation of the tissue engineered construct. (
  • Administration of aspirin in vivo to two hyper-IgE patients reduced boned degradation by their monocytes to normal levels. (
  • Oral SFN administration significantly increased the percentage of bone volume/total volume of affected bones in the intracardiac MDA-MB-231-Luc model indicating in vivo suppression of osteolytic bone resorption by SFN. (
  • In vivo, both bone grafts promoted osteogenesis, but SPK degraded earlier than SBN. (
  • S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. (
  • 2019). A new method to monitor bone geometry changes at different spatial scales in the longitudinal in vivo μCT studies of mice bones. (
  • 2015). Evaluation of in-vivo measurement errors associated with micro-computed tomography scans by means of the bone surface distance approach. (
  • In Paper I, an in vivo study in rats, extensive root resorption was created by the application of two-cycle orthodontic forces. (
  • Heuristically these studies validate both in vivo tetracycline labeling for dynamic histomorphometry and corrections for long-term exchange in kinetic studies of bone formation, providing a quantitative framework for the design and analysis of future studies of bone remodeling in the osteoporoses. (
  • In addition, in vivo data proved that SB239063 also played a preventive role in both LPS (lipopolysaccharide)- and OVX (ovariectomy)-induced bone loss in mice. (
  • ABSTRACT: Bone, a major reservoir of body calcium, is under the hormonal control of the parathyroid hormone (PTH). (
  • 7 ) report that increased production of TNF-α by T cells in bone marrow mediates the increased bone resorption and bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. (
  • TNF-α is not upregulated in bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) under these conditions. (
  • Thus, we isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells expressing RANKL on their surfaces by two-color flow cytometry using FITC-conjugated osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc-FITC) as a probe. (
  • The data suggest that upregulation of RANKL on bone marrow cells is an important determinant of increased bone resorption induced by estrogen deficiency. (
  • TRAF3 protein levels decrease in bone and bone marrow during aging in mice and humans. (
  • Capacity to resorb bone and calcified cartilage was restored permanently in mice with inherited osteopetrosis by the intravenous administration of cell suspensions prepared from spleen and bone marrow of normal littermates. (
  • In the menopause transition, the composition of bone marrow shifts to adipocyte cells and osteoclast activity is increased, resulting in resorption of bone [4]. (
  • In bone marrow cultures, interleukin (IL)-1 markedly stimulated PGE2 production and osteoclast formation in wild-type mice, but not in cPLA2α-null mice. (
  • Osteoblastic bone marrow stromal cells induced the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and membrane-bound PGE2 synthase (mPGES) in response to IL-1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce PGE2. (
  • In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. (
  • In contrast, S. aureus inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow derived precursors. (
  • They are derived from precursors in the myeloid/ monocyte lineage that circulate in the blood after their formation in the bone marrow. (
  • These osteoclast precursors (OCPs) are attracted to sites on bone surfaces destined for resorption and fuse with one another to form the multinucleated cells that resorb calcified matrixes under the influence of osteoblastic cells in bone marrow. (
  • In this study, we demonstrated that SB239063, a p38-specific inhibitor, suppressed osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via inhibiting phosphorylation of MEF2C (myocyte enhancer factor 2C) and subsequently leading to MEF2C degradation by ubiquitination. (
  • We aimed to explore the expression of circRNA_009934 in osteoclast, as well as its potential roles in regulating osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via regulating miR-5107. (
  • CircRNA_009934 expression was closely correlated with osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity. (
  • b) after the administration of parathyroid hormone has been terminated, the administration of a bone resorption inhibitor during a period of approximately 12 to 36 months. (
  • 4. A pharmaceutical preparation according to claim 1 adapted for said administration of bone resorption inhibitor for approximately 12 to 36 months. (
  • 5. A pharmaceutical preparation according to claim 4 , adapted for said administration of bone resorption inhibitor for approximately 12 to 18 months. (
  • 7. A preparation according to claim 1 wherein the said bone resorption inhibitor is a bisphosphonate. (
  • 9. A preparation according to claim 1 wherein the said bone resorption inhibitor is a substance with estrogen-like effect. (
  • Publications] Toshiaki Shibutani: 'Effect Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteirase on Osteo Iastic Bone Reception' Journal of Bone and Mineval Metabolism. (
  • Publications] Toshiaki Shibutani: 'Effects of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases on Osteoclastic Bone resorption' Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. (
  • Publications] Toshiaki Shibutani: 'Effect of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase on Osteoclastic Bone Reception' Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. (
  • First, the regulation of bone metabolism varies widely among rodents of different ages, strains, and species, and varies even more between rodents and humans, raising serious questions about the generality of the findings. (
  • Biochemical monitoring of bone metabolism depends upon measurement of enzymes and proteins released during bone formation and of degradation products produced during bone resorption. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase has been clinically available for several years as a marker for bone metabolism. (
  • Representative LEGENDplex™ Human Bone Metabolism Panel 1 standard curves. (
  • Synovial fluid samples from patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA, n = 24) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 22) were quantified using the LEGENDplex™ Human Bone Metabolism Panel 1. (
  • Bone metabolism is a constant, life-long process that exists in balance. (
  • Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that the level of bone resorption influences cartilage metabolism and that inhibition might prevent the progression of OA. (
  • Osteoclasts actively regulate glucose homeostasis in a biphasic model that moderately enhanced bone resorption marker CTX at baseline provides protective effects against the deterioration of glucose metabolism, whereas an overactive osteoclastic function contributes to an increased risk of subsequent dysglycemia. (
  • [email protected] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the tumour necrosis factor alpha antibody infliximab on bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (
  • Aebi is not the only author to observe and write about the effects of altered bone mineral density and bone metabolism associated with idiopathic scoliosis. (
  • Bone metabolism involves a complex balance between the deposition of matrix and mineralization and resorption. (
  • BACKGROUND: Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, has well known beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, and animal studies indicate that liraglutide also affects bone turnover by decreasing bone resorption. (
  • It follows that an increase in vitamin D3 intake should lead to a decrease in bone resorption - it has been shown that oral administration of vitamin D does not linearly correlate to increased serum levels of calcifediol, the precursor to calcitriol. (
  • Serum concentrations of the bone formation markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and NH(2)-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were identical in both NaCl intake phases. (
  • Moreover, in the merged groups, RANKL expression per cell correlated directly with the bone resorption markers, serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and urine N-telopeptide of type I collagen, in all three cell types and inversely with serum 17β-estradiol for total RANKL-expressing cells. (
  • 1 g of A. longa intake resulted in significant rise of renal serum markers and a pronounced increase of bone resorption markers. (
  • Serum concentrations of the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP), reflecting bone resorption, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1CP), reflecting bone formation, were measured by radioimmunoassay. (
  • Therefore, we examined the effects of low-dose prednisolone on serum concentrations of bone remodelling markers and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in RA patients in relation to bone mineral density. (
  • Serum samples were analysed at baseline, 3 and 12 months for procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), a marker of bone formation, and the C-telopeptide crosslaps of type I collagen (CTX-1) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (1CTP), markers of bone degradation. (
  • In this study, it was also observed that the serum level of [sz]-CTX, a marker of bone resorption , in the severe OSAS group was significantly higher compared to the obesity group. (
  • They conclude that while M-CSF and RANKL are essential for physiologic OC renewal, TNF-α plays a key causal role in the bone loss associated with E deficiency. (
  • Increased bone resorption in patients with CAH has been noted in the past and has been related to alterations in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). (
  • S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. (
  • Bone loss in inflammatory diseases is considered a consequence of cytokine induced RANKL and subsequent enhanced osteoclast formation. (
  • In particular, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANKL, TNF, IL-1 and IL-17 may play dominant roles in the pathogenesis of arthritis-associated bone loss. (
  • Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays a major role in cancer-associated bone resorption and thus is a therapeutic target. (
  • Osteoclast formation requires permissive concentrations of M-CSF and is driven by contact with mesenchymal cells in bone that bear the TNF-family ligand RANKL. (
  • RANKL-dependent/independent osteoclast formation is likely to play an important role in conditions where there is pathological bone resorption such as inflammatory arthritis and malignant bone resorption. (
  • Recently, bone resorption has been found to be correlated with accelerated eruption of teeth in mice. (
  • Osteoclast number per bone perimeter from control and Ror2 ΔOcl/ΔOcl mice. (
  • In this study we found that Trpv1(-/-) mice developed severe bone loss in an experimental model of periodontitis. (
  • Chemical ablation of TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons recapitulated the phenotype of Trpv1(-/-) mice, suggesting a functional link between neuronal TRPV1 signaling and periodontal bone loss. (
  • Objective To assess the role of bone remodelling in OA by studying the effect of bisphosphonate on OA development in mice with high bone remodelling. (
  • Methods Mice overexpressing Runx2 (Runx2-Tg) under the control of collagen type I that displayed high bone remodelling were used. (
  • meanwhile, [email protected](HA-PASP) CL significantly decreased the tumor volume and bone resorption in tumor-bearing mice without causing obvious systemic toxicity. (
  • Using cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α)-null mice, we examined the role of cPLA2α in PGE2 synthesis and bone resorption. (
  • LPS administration to wild-type mice reduced femoral bone mineral density by increased bone resorption. (
  • In cPLA2α-null mice, however, LPS-induced bone loss could not be observed at all. (
  • The field of bone turnover markers has developed considerably in the past decade. (
  • We have investigated the effects of short-term treatment with high-dose oral glucocorticoids on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 20 consecutive patients with asthma who sought help for acute respiratory obstruction in our emergency department. (
  • The exchange-corrected resorption rate correlated fairly well with iliac trabecular resorption surfaces, and using a volume referent rather than a surface referent for the histological index improved the statistical fit when patients with therapeutically accelerated bone turnover were included. (
  • This study aimed to establish if bone turnover shows significant seasonal variation, and if this varies by ethnicity. (
  • The nonlinear system model is then utilized to study the temporal effect of PTH as well as the action of estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover. (
  • Unexpectedly, Npr3 −/− homozygotes have skeletal deformities associated with a considerable increase in bone turnover. (
  • The primary objective of the study was to investigate the effect of liraglutide on bone turnover in patients with T2D. (
  • Which agent binds to estrogen receptors, producing estrogen-like effects on bone including decreased bone resorption and decreased bone turnover. (
  • The idea that continued bone loss in some patients is associated with defective osteoblastic bone formation is supported by the low rates found in some patients by both techniques. (
  • Rutin was shown to prevent decreases in "both total and distal petaphyseal femoral mineral density by slowing down resorption and increasing osteoblastic activity" 1 that was caused by the removal of the ovaries. (
  • Our objective was to examine the relationship between the baseline bone resorption marker crosslinked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and glycemic dysregulation after 4 years. (
  • telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), indicating bone cells are adversely affected. (
  • Resorption lacunae were immunostained with anti-type I collagen antibody, and the total number and area of resorption lacunae were then quantified. (
  • The association between the baseline bone resorption marker CTX and incident dysglycemia after 4 years. (
  • The role of the bone formation marker osteocalcin (OCN) in predicting diabetes was reported, but with conflicting results. (
  • Restitution of traditional ultrastructural resorption characteristics, at 48 hours after introduction of normal food, coincides largely with secretion of cathepsin K to the matrix surface, rendering this enzyme suitable as a marker for active resorption. (
  • Changes of the circulating levels of the bone resorption marker 1CTP after treatment were age dependent with a significant negative correlation (r = -0.54, P = 0.01). (
  • A 20% MTA solution disrupted actin ring formation, a marker of osteoclastic bone resorption, by reducing phosphorylation and kinase activity of c-Src, and mRNA expressions of cathepsin K and mmp-9. (
  • In a preliminary study, the time course of resorption of 50 mg subcutaneous implants of bone powder in growing rats was followed by chemical analysis of mineral (ash and Ca) contents, enzymatic and histochemical assay of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and image analysis of changes in particle size using von Kossa stained sections. (
  • These results indicate that CBD may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats. (
  • In the present study, Sprague-Dawley rats were used to investigate some aspects of matrix resorption in calcified cartilage compared with bone. (
  • We recently showed that indapamide (IDP), a thiazide-related diuretic, increases bone mass and decreases bone resorption in spontaneously hypertensive rats supplemented with sodium. (
  • It inhibits bone resorption via actions on osteoclasts or osteoclast precursors. (
  • Osteoclasts, the specialised multinucleated cells that carry out bone resorption, are derived from monocyte/macrophage precursors. (
  • Development of drugs to prevent TRAF3 degradation in immune and bone cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent or reduce bone loss and the incidence of several common diseases associated with aging. (
  • Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterised by cartilage degradation and bone lesions. (
  • The degradation of long bone collagen by MMP2 (but not by cathepsin K) was impaired. (
  • but which osteoclast-derived resorption processes that are involved in cartilage degradation have not been investigated. (
  • Common treatments include drugs that increase bone mineral density. (
  • Ossification decreases due to a lack of stress, while resorption increases, leading to a net decrease in bone density. (
  • The effects of alcohol on bone mineral density (BMD) are well-known and well-studied in animal and human populations. (
  • I would highly recommend the standard bone density screening or the Bone Mineral Density Measurement (BMD). (
  • The bone density test will provide a long range measuring tool. (
  • Unfortunately by the time a bone density change is noted it may already be too late. (
  • We determined bone density in six patients with hyper-IgE syndrome using photon absorptiometry. (
  • All six patients had significantly reduced bone density compared with age- and sex-matched controls. (
  • There are enough epidemiological data available to show that BMI is correlated with high bone mineral density and that low BMI causes more bone loss [3]. (
  • More studies are needed to evaluate the correlation between BMI and bone mass density. (
  • The low bone mineral density is a result of an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. (
  • Adjustments to the ligand structure around the Ln(III) ions have the potential to increase the oral bioavailability of Ln(III) for the treatment of bone density disorders while decreasing unwanted side effects. (
  • It has also been identified that bone mineral density is very often compromised in patients with scoliosis, even occurring in adolescence. (
  • At this time, no study has looked at how bone mineral density and scoliosis incidence or severity may be connected with specific regard to treatment. (
  • This study presents data on the outcomes of a scoliosis-specific exercise therapy and its ability to correct scoliotic curvatures in adult patients alone and in combination with bone mineral density supplementation. (
  • These results were compared against 12 patients who did not take the bone density supplement during or after their exercise-based treatment. (
  • Results: Patients taking the bone density supplement achieved the same level of Cobb angle reduction as compared to the control group. (
  • Conclusion: Patients taking a multi-ingredient bone density supplement daily for 6 months after completing a scoliosis-specific exercise program reported statistically significant improvements in urinary deoxypyridinoline cross links as compared to controls. (
  • It is unknown if or how bone density loss may contribute to the onset or progression of scoliosis. (
  • Long-term follow-up of these patients will be ongoing to assess bone mineral density status and Cobb angle changes longitudinally. (
  • Although this is thought to occur more in older adult patients, variations in bone mineral density have been reported in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. (
  • 4] studied 72 girls aging 11 - 14 and found lower levels of bone mineral density when compared with age-matched controls. (
  • They found associations between estradiol levels, osteoprotegerin, and bone mineral density. (
  • Although chronic pain is becoming increasingly common across all age populations, it may be especially important in post-menopausal females to address the metabolic factors surrounding bone mineral density in the event which is shown to drive scoliosis progression in later adulthood. (
  • Various nutrients have shown beneficial effects on bone mineral density. (
  • However, no studies to date have reported on the effects that these nutrients may have in trying to reverse bone mineral density loss in patients with adult scoliosis. (
  • According to a comprehensive review on the role of polyphenol antioxidants and bone health, an interesting experiment showed that rutin specifically increases bone density. (
  • Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 24 months. (
  • Femur bone mineral density only decreased in the NoP-group. (
  • Thus bone mineral density was preserved in the femur in the P-group and 1CTP decreased rapidly. (
  • Hip bone mineral density (BMD) decreased in placebo treated patients from baseline to end of study, whereas no changes were seen in patients treated with liraglutide (p = 0.01 difference between groups). (
  • Class 4 : A thin layer of cortical bone surrounds a core of low-density trabecular bone. (
  • In those without symptoms, mildly increased blood calcium levels, normal kidneys, and normal bone density monitoring may be all that is required. (
  • It is generally accepted that bone formation is depressed during corticosteroid treatment, but the effects of glucocorticoids on bone resorption are less well characterized. (
  • In this report, we examine the effects of increased bone resorption and various methods of testing for bone loss, present findings from the literature on the effects of and monitoring for bone resorption, and profile individuals most likely to benefit from testing for a decrease in bone mass. (
  • Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the amounts of marginal bone resorption around the implant that occurs after the implant surgery before the prosthetic loading by evaluating the patients who received implants in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinic.Material and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-three implant surgeries that were performed in the period from 2016 to 2017 were included in this study. (
  • There are currently no accepted methods for early evaluation of and prediction of which patients are at the most risk for erosive bone disease, and there is currently no method that can demonstrate early in the course of therapy whether the therapeutic approach will work. (
  • Inhibiting TP reduced the incidence of myeloma-induced osteolytic bone lesions, suggesting a new target for translation to the clinic, especially because certain TP inhibitors are already approved for human use. (
  • Therefore, a safe and orally bioavailable intervention for therapy of osteolytic bone resorption is still a clinically unmet need. (
  • Inhibiting Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) removes suppression of bone formation and prevents the development of osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma. (
  • High levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and products of collagen will be released into the extracellular fluid as the osteoclasts tunnel into the mineralized bone. (
  • BACKGROUND: Transient bone resorption limits the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)/absorbable collagen sponge in metaphyseal bone. (
  • Although cystatin motifs containing proteins, such as secreted phosphoprotein 24 and fetuin are highly expressed in long bone, they did not inhibit the activity of the cysteine proteinases cathepsin B and K. The solubility of collagen differed which coincided with differences in collagen crosslinking, long bone containing 3× more (hydroxylysine)-pyridinoline. (
  • These differences in collagen crosslinking may explain the differences in the proteolytic pathways osteoclasts use to degrade bone. (
  • Fibronectin is associated with collagen type I in bone and may be involved in collagen fibril formation or mineralization, but is apparently not involved in cell-matrix interaction in highly differentiated cartilage or bone. (
  • Calcitonin has a greater effect in young children than in adults, and plays a smaller role in bone remodeling than PTH. (
  • Monocytes are frequently found adjacent to active bone resorption surfaces in both physiological and pathological situations and may play a key role in bone resorption. (
  • Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. (
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that extracellular nucleotides, signaling through P2 receptors, play a significant role in bone remodeling. (
  • Today we're going to take a close look at one such polyphenol: rutin, which plays a direct role in bone remodeling, prevents and improves cognitive decline, and has several other amazing health benefits. (
  • Sex steroids such as estrogen, nonetheless, play an important role in bone physiology, and are extremely essential to maintain bone balance in adults. (
  • Inflammation plays a role in bone resorption , and it is thought that dried plums decrease bone resorption by inhibiting inflammation. (
  • Conditions that result in a decrease in bone mass, can either be caused by an increase in resorption, or a decrease in ossification. (
  • One implication of this model is that the absence of or a functional defect in one cell type would greatly decrease the function of the other cell type to maintain a constant bone mass. (
  • These agents decrease bone resorption and prevent bone loss from diminishing bone mass on an ongoing basis. (
  • After menopause, osteoblasitc activity - that is, activity in the cells that build bone - tends to decrease, and resorption typically increases. (
  • 20,21] The bone resorption is the main culprit for decrease in bone mass once the female attains her menopause. (
  • C and D ) Effects of recombinant Wnt5a on the formation of resorption pits (hematoxylin staining) (C) and actin rings (D) by osteoclasts derived from wild-type (WT) and Wnt5a −/− liver macrophages on dentin slices. (
  • Despite higher expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB receptor, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/macrophage colony-stimulating factor induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells type c-1 and cathepsin K expression is defective in these macrophages because of reduced Erk/c-fos-mediated downstream signaling resulting in impaired bone resorption capacity. (
  • Joint Replacement and Bone Resorption presents the current understanding of the phenomenon of aseptic loosening of total joint replacements from the molecular and cellular mechanisms of periprosthetic bone loss to the clinical presentation and management strategies. (
  • Since bone and cartilage are tissues with different composition, our hypothesis was that the resorption mechanisms may also be separate. (
  • In summary we showed that chondroclasts and osteoclasts were different regarding some characteristic morphometric features, indicating differences in resorption mechanisms between bone and cartilage. (
  • In order to provide a basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms of bone remodeling as it is mediated by PTH, we propose here a mathematical model of the process. (
  • Vitamin D increases absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestinal tract, leading to elevated levels of plasma calcium, and thus lower bone resorption. (
  • CONCLUSION: Liraglutide treatment for 26 weeks did not affect bone resorption and preserved hip BMD despite weight loss in patients with T2D, suggesting that liraglutide has some antiresorptive effect. (
  • Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood. (
  • Walker, D.G.: Control of bone resorption by hematopoietic tissue, J. Exp. (
  • Patients with inflammatory or infectious conditions such as periodontitis, peri-implantitis, osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, septic arthritis and loosened joint prosthesis display varying severity of destruction in the adjacent bone tissue. (
  • one normal group, one group with impaired tissue resorption due to nutritionally induced vitamin D deficiency rickets, and two groups of animals healing from rickets at 48 or 72 hours after introduction of normal food. (
  • This will allow the accurate three-dimensional measurement of bone tissue morphometry changes over time due to the intervention under investigation in the same region of the skeleton of the same animal. (
  • She said, after consulting another dentist that it was either internal or external resorption and for some reason there is gum tissue inside my tooth that is extremely painful when she touches it with a needle. (
  • Low-dose prednisolone in early RA counteracts the negative impact of rheumatoid inflammation on bone tissue in the hip, a juxta-articular localisation. (
  • Your body removes bone tissue, and it replaces it. (
  • Monocyte-induced osteoclastic bone resorption may play an important role in physiologic bone remodeling and in bone destruction that occurs in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. (
  • 7 Also, bone resorption has been related with loss of teeth in patients with osteolytic diseases. (
  • Thus, these results indicate that SLIT3 plays an osteoprotective role by synchronously stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption, making it a potential therapeutic target for metabolic bone diseases. (
  • High levels of calcium in the blood, on the other hand, leads to decreased PTH release from the parathyroid gland, decreasing the number and activity of osteoclasts, resulting in less bone resorption. (
  • Estrogen plays an important role in antagonizing the effect of parathyroid hormone to minimize bone loss. (
  • Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are caused by inappropriately normal or elevated blood calcium leaving the bones and flowing into the blood stream in response to increased production of parathyroid hormone. (
  • Bone resorption is highly stimulated or inhibited by signals from other parts of the body, depending on the demand for calcium. (
  • This leads to a greater resorption of calcium and phosphate ions. (
  • For optimal bone health, dietary sources of required daily calcium should be recommended in preference to calcium supplements, not only because of the improved bioavailability of dietary sources of calcium, but also to encourage lifelong healthy dietary habits for children and adolescents. (
  • osteoclasts are breaking down bone and releasing minerals, to transfer calcium from the bone fluid into the blood. (
  • It is also a repository for calcium and other elements that get deposited in bone as it mineralizes during bone formation and are released from bone when it is being remodeled. (
  • In this way, bone participates in the control of calcium levels in the blood and tissues ( 1 ) to mediate numerous cellular functions, including contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscles ( 2 ). (
  • rhBMP-2/Calcium Phosphate Matrix Induces Bone Formation While Limiting Transient Bone Resorption in a Nonhuman Primate Core Defect Model. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rhBMP-2/calcium phosphate matrix (CPM) to induce bone formation while limiting transient bone resorption in nonhuman primate core defects. (
  • Vascular calcification is a process similar to bone formation leading to an inappropriate deposition of calcium phosphate minerals in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. (
  • Clinical orthopaedic use of calcium phosphate cement has been limited due to its slow resorption rate, but a new macroporous a-tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) bone cement has been designed to accelerate resorption and to increase bone ingrowth. (
  • Bone growth and revascularisation was observed inside the central pores of the macroporous cement, not only at the margins, as was found with standard calcium phosphate cement. (
  • Sometimes, your body is doing this because it needs calcium, so it's raiding the stocks of calcium in your bones. (
  • Bone remodelling can maintain circulating calcium within physiological ranges, at the expense of a substantial loss of this ion from the skeleton, particularly during senescence. (
  • Bone calcium concentration remained the same at 2 and 4 days but decreased by 63% 6 days after scale removal. (
  • In normal bone matrix, two heat-labile, calcium-binding components were identified: One (molecular weight 15,000), not sensitive to beta-glucuronidase, and the other (molecular weight 6000), which was sensitive to beta-glucuronidase. (
  • In resorbing bone matrix only one calcium binding component (molecular weight 15,000) was identified. (
  • Researchers concluded calcium administered during pregnancy and the early postpartum period, to women with intakes around adequacy, was associated with reduced bone resorption and, thus, may constitute a practical intervention to prevent transient skeletal loss associated with childbearing. (
  • Calcitonin decreases osteoclast activity, and decreases the formation of new osteoclasts, resulting in decreased resorption. (
  • However, susceptibility to periodontal disease and bone resorption can be the cause for primary exfoliation of primary teeth and accelerated eruption of its successors. (
  • Paper I: Tripuwabhrut P, Brudvik P, Fristad I, Rethnam S. Experimental orthodontic tooth movement and extensive root resorption: periodontal and pulpal changes. (
  • In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption. (
  • The present study shows that monocytes can also resorb bone by stimulation of osteoclasts. (
  • Live fetal rodent bones prelabeled with 45 Ca and cultured for 48-96 h in the presence of human monocytes or monocyte-conditioned medium released 80% more mineral than bones cultured in control medium. (
  • Histological examination of the bones cultured with monocytes or monocyte-conditioned medium showed increased osteoclast number and activity when compared with bones cultured in control medium. (
  • These experiments suggest that monocytes stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption by prostaglandin production. (
  • These results suggest that monocytes from patients with hyper-IgE syndrome are activated to resorb bone via products of the prostaglandin synthase (cyclooxygenase) pathway. (
  • Martin, TJ & Partridge, N 1982, Prostaglandins and cellular bone resorption . (
  • Resorption of bone particles containing 0.39 micrograms Ga/mg bone was significantly inhibited relative to control particles. (
  • However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. (
  • The bone resorption was significantly suppressed in either TIMP-2-free FCS or TIMP-1 and -2-free FCS but little in TIMP-1-free FCS suggesting that TIMP-2 is more effective than TIMP-1. (
  • Marginal bone resorption around the implants in males was observed to be statistically significantly higher than in females (p=0.00). (
  • Resorption values in the molar region in the jaws were significantly higher than the amount of resorption in the anterior region (p=0.17).Conclusion: In this study, the marginal bone resorption around the implant was assessed between the implant surgery and the prosthetic loading, where it was found to be 0.24 mm in mandible and maxilla. (
  • The P2Y(6) receptor stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. (
  • Dentures put pressure on your jawbone, but it's not the type of pressure that stimulates bone growth. (
  • It is known that the administration of LPS not only induces inflammation with fever but also osteoclastic bone resorption ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for bone loss. (
  • RA is of particular interest as both locally affected bones and sites distant of joint inflammation are prone to bone loss. (
  • Chronic inflammation is the key mediator for local and systemic bone loss in RA patients. (
  • SEM) to determine the amount of resorption carried out by these cells. (