Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Diseases of BONES.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Breaks in bones.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation of periapical tissue resulting from irritation following pulp disease or endodontic treatment.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The spinal or vertebral column.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The shaft of long bones.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.

Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. (1/2466)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis. To assess the role of collagenase in the bone resorptive actions of PTH, we used mice homozygous (r/r) for a targeted mutation (r) in Col1a1 that are resistant to collagenase cleavage of type I collagen. Human PTH(1-34) was injected subcutaneously over the hemicalvariae in wild-type (+/+) or r/r mice four times daily for three days. Osteoclast numbers, the size of the bone marrow spaces and periosteal proliferation were increased in calvariae from PTH-treated +/+ mice, whereas in r/r mice, PTH-induced bone resorption responses were minimal. The r/r mice were not resistant to other skeletal effects of PTH because abundant interstitial collagenase mRNA was detected in the calvarial periosteum of PTH-treated, but not vehicle-treated, r/r and +/+ mice. Calcemic responses, 0.5-10 hours after intraperitoneal injection of PTH, were blunted in r/r mice versus +/+ mice. Thus, collagenase cleavage of type I collagen is necessary for PTH induction of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible. (2/2466)

The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns.  (+info)

Ibandronate reduces osteolytic lesions but not tumor burden in a murine model of myeloma bone disease. (3/2466)

We determined the effects of the potent bisphosphonate ibandronate in a murine model of human myeloma bone disease. In this model, bone lesions typical of the human disease develop in mice following inoculation of myeloma cells via the tail vein. Treatment with ibandronate (4 micrograms per mouse per day) significantly reduced the occurrence of osteolytic bone lesions in myeloma-bearing mice. However, ibandronate did not prevent the mice from developing hindlimb paralysis and did not produce a detectable effect on survival. There was no significant effect of ibandronate on total myeloma cell burden, as assessed by morphometric measurements of myeloma cells in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen, or by measurement of serum IgG2b levels. These results support clinical findings that bisphosphonates may be useful for the treatment of myeloma-associated bone destruction, but suggest that other therapies are also required to reduce tumor growth.  (+info)

Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans. (4/2466)

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection.  (+info)

Biochemical markers of bone turnover in breast cancer patients with bone metastases: a preliminary report. (5/2466)

BACKGROUND: Some biochemical markers of bone turnover are expected to reflect the disease activity of metastatic bone tumor. In the present study six biochemical markers were evaluated to determine appropriate markers for the detection of metastatic bone tumors from breast cancer (BC). METHODS: A panel of bone turnover markers was assessed in 11 normocalcemic patients with bone metastases from BC and in 19 BC patients without clinical evidence of bone metastases. Bone formation was investigated by measuring serum bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP): Bone resorption was investigated by measuring serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), fasting urinary pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr). RESULTS: PICP was influenced by age and menopausal status. Significant correlations were observed between each of bone turnover markers except between BALP and OC. The mean levels of the six bone turnover markers were higher in patients with bone metastases than in those without them and significance was observed except for OC. The best diagnostic efficiency by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was provided by ICTP followed by Pyr or D-Pyr, BALP, PICP and OC and significance was observed between ICTP and OC. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by age revealed that the only significant marker related to bone metastases was ICTP. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ICTP appears to be the leading marker of bone metastases from BC. However, to reveal the clinical usefulness of these markers, further examination will be needed to account for the ease and cost-effectiveness of the measurements.  (+info)

Acute fasting diminishes the circadian rhythm of biochemical markers of bone resorption. (6/2466)

OBJECTIVE: Biochemical markers of bone turnover exhibit circadian rhythms with the peak during the night/early morning and the nadir in the late afternoon. The nocturnal increase in bone resorption could theoretically be caused by the absence of food consumption which brings about a decrease in net calcium absorption and an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH), followed by increased bone resorption in response to the body's demand for calcium. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of a 33-h fast on the circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. DESIGN: Eleven healthy premenopausal women (age: 24+/-5 years) participated in a randomised, cross-over study consisting of two periods: either 33h of fasting (fasting) followed 1 week later by a 33-h period with regular meals eaten at 0800-0830h, 1130-1230h and 1800-1900h (control) or vice versa. METHODS: Urinary CrossLaps (U-CL/Cr) corrected with creatinine, as a marker of bone resorption; serum osteocalcin (sOC) as a marker of bone formation; serum intact PTH (iPTH); serum phosphate; and serum calcium corrected with albumin. RESULTS: Both the fasting and the control periods showed a significant circadian rhythm in U-CL/Cr (P<0.001), but the decrease was significantly less pronounced in the morning hours during the fasting period. Fasting resulted in a significant decrease in serum iPTH (throughout the study period) as compared with the control period (P<0.05-0.001). No change was observed in sOC by fasting. CONCLUSION: Food consumption has a small influence on the circadian variation in bone resorption, independent of PTH. The fall in iPTH during fasting may be secondary to an increased bone resorption produced by fasting.  (+info)

A prospective study of bone loss and turnover after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: effect of calcium supplementation with or without calcitonin. (7/2466)

Transplantation of solid organs including heart, kidney, and liver is associated with rapid bone loss and increased rate of fracture; data on bone marrow transplantation recipients (BMT) are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude, timing, and mechanism of bone loss following allogeneic BMT, and to study whether bone loss can be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin. Sixty-nine patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for malignant blood diseases were enrolled into the study. Forty-four (22 women, 22 men) completed 6 months, and 36 patients 1 year follow-up. They were randomized to receive either no additional treatment (n = 22), or oral calcium 1 g twice daily for 12 months (n = 12) or the same dose of calcium plus intranasal calcitonin 400 IU/day for the first month and then 200 IU/day for 11 months (n = 10). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and three femoral sites (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's triangle) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover rate was followed with markers of bone formation and resorption (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I procollagen carboxyterminal (PICP) and aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), serum type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP)). Serum testosterone was assayed in men. Calcium with or without calcitonin had no effect on bone loss or bone markers; consequently the three study groups were combined. During the first 6 post-transplant months BMD decreased by 5.7% in the lumbar spine and by 6.9% to 8.7% in the three femoral sites (P < 0.0001 for all); no significant further decline occured between 6 and 12 months. Four out of 25 assessable patients experienced vertebral compression fractures. Markers of bone formation reduced: B-ALP by 20% at 3 weeks (P = 0.027), PICP by 40% (P < 0.0001) and PINP by 63% at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001), with a return to baseline by 6 months. The marker of bone resorption, serum ICTP was above normal throughout the whole observation period, with a peak at 6 weeks (77% above baseline, P < 0.0001). In male patients serum testosterone decreased reaching a nadir (57% below baseline) at 6 weeks (P = 0.0003). In conclusion, significant bone loss occurs after BMT. It results from imbalance between reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption; hypogonadism may be a contributing factor in men. Bone loss can not be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin.  (+info)

An odyssey from breast to bone: multi-step control of mammary metastases and osteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases. (8/2466)

Development of metastases distant to the primary site of solid tumors marks late stages of tumor progression. Almost all malignant mammary tumors are carcinomas arising from the breast epithelium, but the morphological and molecular alterations in the mammary stroma surrounding the premalignant and the growing tumor contribute to its conversion into neoplastic tissue. Two parameters are critical for initiation of the metastatic process and access of tumor cells to the circulation. These are the ability of tumor cells to invade the basement membrane and the stroma, and the neovascularization of breast tumor tissue. A major site for development of distant metastases is the skeleton. After colonizing the bone, tumor cells promote a cascade of events leading to recruitment of osteoclasts and subsequent osteolytic bone destruction. A ubiquitous theme of neoplastic progression of breast tumors is the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases. In this review, we summarize the recent insights into the functional consequences of matrix metalloproteinase expression and activation during malignant conversion in the breast, and after bone colonization. The current literature supports the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in the metastatic expansion of most, if not all, mammary tumors and in the ensuing bone loss.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Supplementation with a low-moderate dose of n-3 long-chain PUFA has no short-term effect on bone resorption in human adults. AU - Appleton, K M. AU - Fraser, W D. AU - Rogers, P J. AU - Ness, A R. AU - Tobias, J H. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Abstract Previous research suggests that n-3 PUFA may play a role in bone health. The present analysis aimed to investigate the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on bone resorption in adult men and women. Serum samples from 113 mild-moderately depressed individuals (twenty-six males and eighty-seven females, aged 18-67 years) randomised to receive 1·48 g EPA+DHA/d (n 53) or placebo (n 60) for 12 weeks as part of a large recent randomised controlled trial were assayed for n-3 PUFA status and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX). Regression analyses revealed that n-3 PUFA status following supplementation was associated with randomisation (placebo/n-3 PUFA) (B = 3·25, 95 % CI 2·60, ...
Definition of osteoclast-activating factor in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is osteoclast-activating factor? Meaning of osteoclast-activating factor as a finance term. What does osteoclast-activating factor mean in finance?
Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhibition of bone resorption without inhibition of bone formation. We investigated the role of acidification in human osteoclastic resorption and life span in vitro using inhibitors of chloride channels (NS5818/NS3696), the proton pump (bafilomycin) and cathepsin K. We found that bafilomycin and NS5818 dose dependently inhibited acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment and bone resorption. Inhibition of bone resorption by inhibition of acidification, but not cathepsin K inhibition, augmented osteoclast survival, which resulted in a 150 to 300% increase in osteoclasts compared to controls. We investigated the effect of inhibition of osteoclastic acidification in vivo by using the rat ...
Monocytes and macrophages are capable of degrading both the mineral and organic components of bone and are known to secrete local factors which stimulate host osteoclastic bone resorption. Recent studies have shown that monocytes and macrophages, including those isolated from neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, can also be induced to differentiate into cells that show all the cytochemical and functional characteristics of mature osteoclasts, including lacunar bone resorption. Monocyte/macrophage-osteoclast differentiation occurs in the presence of osteoblasts/bone stromal cells (which express osteoclast differentiation factor) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor and is inhibited by osteoprotegerin. Various systemic hormones and local factors (e.g. cytokines, growth factors, prostaglandins) modulate osteoclast formation by controlling these cellular and humoral elements. Various pathological lesions of bone and joint (e.g. carcinomatous metastases, arthritis, aseptic loosening) are associated with
A heavy infiltrate of foreign-body macrophages is commonly seen in the fibrous membrane which surrounds an aseptically loose cemented implant. This is in response to particles of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and other biomaterials. We have previously shown that monocytes and macrophages responding to particles of bone cement are capable of differentiating into osteoclastic cells which resorb bone. To determine whether the radio-opaque additives barium sulphate (BaSO4) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) influence this process, particles of PMMA with and without these agents were added to mouse monocytes and cocultured with osteoblast-like cells on bone slices. Osteoclast differentiation, as shown by the presence of the osteoclast-associated enzyme tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and lacunar bone resorption, was observed in all cocultures. The addition of PMMA alone to these cocultures caused no increase in TRAP expression or bone resorption relative to control cocultures. Adding PMMA
It is generally accepted that bone formation is depressed during corticosteroid treatment, but the effects of glucocorticoids on bone resorption are less well characterized. We have investigated the effects of short-term treatment with high-dose oral glucocorticoids on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 20 consecutive patients with asthma who sought help for acute respiratory obstruction in our emergency department. Serum concentrations of the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (1CTP), reflecting bone resorption, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1CP), reflecting bone formation, were measured by radioimmunoassay. Changes of the circulating levels of the bone resorption marker 1CTP after treatment were age dependent with a significant negative correlation (r = -0.54, P = 0.01). The dependency on age remained when correcting, in a multiple linear regression analysis, for 1CTP levels at admission, weight, sex, and daily maintenance dose of ...
The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-binding integrin αVβ3is highly expressed on osteoclasts and has been proposed to mediate cell-matrix adhesion required for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Antagonism of this receptor should prevent stable osteoclast adhesion and thereby inhibit bone resorption. We have generated an orally bioavailable, nonpeptide RGD mimetic αvβ3antagonist, SB 265123, which prevents bone loss in vivo when dosed by oral administration. SB 265123 binds αvβ3and the closely related integrin αvβ5 with high affinity (Ki = 3.5 and 1.3 nM, respectively), but binds only weakly to the related RGD-binding integrins αIIbβ3(Ki ,1 μM) and α5β1 (Ki ,1 μM). The compound inhibits αvβ3-mediated cell adhesion with an IC50 = 60 nM and more importantly, inhibits human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro with an IC50 = 48 nM. In vivo, SB 265123 completely blocks bone resorption in a thyroparathyroidectomized rat model of acute bone resorption when dosed at 2.5 mg/kg/h by continuous ...
Do you have a protocol for osteoclast resorption on dentine slices? I have done a literature search (1966-present) and the seminal article seems to be Boyde & Jones (1984) Resorption of dentine by isolated osteoclasts in vitro. Br Dent J 156:216-220. Help! Our provencial library doesnt have this journal. Donna Montague, M.S. Research Associate Physiology/Biophysics and Orthopaedic Surgery University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (501) 603-1239 ...
Author: Rumpler, M. et al.; Genre: Meeting Abstract; Published in Print: 2011-05-07; Title: Microcracks and osteoclast resorption activity in vitro
Clinical studies in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) showed that single-dose infusions of zoledronic acid are associated with decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus and increases in urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion.. Osteoclastic hyperactivity resulting in excessive bone resorption is the underlying pathophysiologic derangement in hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM, tumor-induced hypercalcemia) and metastatic bone disease. Excessive release of calcium into the blood as bone is resorbed results in polyuria and gastrointestinal disturbances, with progressive dehydration and decreasing glomerular filtration rate. This, in turn, results in increased renal resorption of calcium, setting up a cycle of worsening systemic hypercalcemia. Reducing excessive bone resorption and maintaining adequate fluid administration are, therefore, essential to the management of hypercalcemia of malignancy.. Patients who have hypercalcemia of malignancy can generally be divided into two groups ...
The three main mechanisms by which osteoporosis develops are an inadequate peak bone mass (the skeleton develops insufficient mass and strength during growth), excessive bone resorption and inadequate formation of new bone during remodeling. An interplay of these three mechanisms underlies the development of fragile bone tissue.[9] Hormonal factors strongly determine the rate of bone resorption; lack of estrogen (e.g. as a result of menopause) increases bone resorption as well as decreasing the deposition of new bone that normally takes place in weight-bearing bones. The amount of estrogen needed to suppress this process is lower than that normally needed to stimulate the uterus and breast gland. The α-form of the estrogen receptor appears to be the most important in regulating bone turnover. In addition to estrogen, calcium metabolism plays a significant role in bone turnover, and deficiency of calcium and vitamin D leads to impaired bone deposition; in addition, the parathyroid glands react ...
Monocytes are frequently found adjacent to active bone resorption surfaces in both physiological and pathological situations and may play a key role in bone resorption. There is strong circumstantial...
Mechanisms of bone invasion by squamous carcinomas of the head and neck have been investigated using fresh tumours and established tumour cell lines in an in vitro bone resorption assay with 45Ca-labelled mouse calvaria. Fresh tumours regularly resorb bone in vitro. Activity is consistently reduced by indomethacin. The tumours release E 2 prostaglandins (PGE 2) in amounts sufficient to account for ~50% of the bone resorption observed. Small amounts of non-prostaglandin (indomethacin-resistant) osteolytic factors are also produced. Control non-neoplastic tissues show a variable capacity to resorb bone in vitro; PGE 2 levels in these tissues may be related to their content of inflammatory cells. Tumour cell lines also resorb bone in vitro but, for most lines, activity is not significantly blocked by indomethacin and PGE 2 levels are generally insufficient to account for the osteolysis observed. Non-prostaglandin bone resorbing factors thus predominate. It is concluded that most squamous cancers of ...
Bone, despite its rigid nature, is not a permanent, immutable tissue. It is in fact a very dynamic and living tissue that maintains its structure via an equilibrium of opposing activities: Bone Regeneration and Bone Resorption. Both activities are constantly ongoing in living bone. This process of bone regeneration and bone resorption in equilibrium is…
Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood. The osteoclasts are multi-nucleated cells that contain numerous mitochondria and lysosomes. These are the cells responsible for the resorption of bone. Osteoclasts are generally present on the outer layer of bone, just beneath the periosteum. Attachment of the osteoclast to the osteon begins the process. The osteoclast then induces an infolding of its cell membrane and secretes collagenase and other enzymes important in the resorption process. High levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and products of collagen will be released into the extracellular fluid as the osteoclasts tunnel into the mineralized bone. Osteoclasts are prominent in the tissue destruction found in psoriatic arthritis and rheumatology disorders. The human body is in a constant state of bone remodeling. Bone ...
To clarify what kind of process participates in bone resorption, time course of indices of bone resorption was investigated using 13-day-old embryonic chick calvaria. When calvariae were cultured...
The invention relates to a combined pharmaceutical preparation comprising parathyroid hormone and a bone resorption inhibitor, said preparation being adapted for (a) the administration of parathyroid hormone during a period of approximately 6 to 24 months; (b) after the administration of parathyroid hormone has been terminated, the administration of a bone resorption inhibitor during a period of approximately 12 to 36 months.
The invention relates to a combined pharmaceutical preparation comprising parathyroid hormone and a bone resorption inhibitor, said preparation being adapted for (a) the administration of parathyroid hormone during a period of approximately 6 to 24 months; (b) after the administration of parathyroid hormone has been terminated, the administration of a bone resorption inhibitor during a period of approximately 12 to 36 months.
Increased bone turnover may be a risk factor for fracture [Lønning 2005]. However, it is uncertain whether markers of bone resorption and markers of bone formation are both associated with fracture risk [Looker 2000]. Therefore, we will measure bone formation and bone resorption markers at baseline, year 1 and year 5. Blood specimens will be shipped to and stored in a central laboratory for future assays of bone biomarkers. For markers of bone formation, the N-terminal Propeptide of Type I Collagen (PINP) will be measured. For bone resorption markers, serum levels of cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) will be measured. Note: Subjects must fast 12-14 hours prior to blood draw ...
Osteoporosis (OP) is a common chronic skeletal disorder in aging individuals. In-spite of the progress made in this market, there is still a great demand for safer and more specific drugs for extended administration. Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts is central to the pathogenesis of OP and other bone-related diseases. Thus, inhibition of osteoclast activity is a desired outcome in the treatment of bone and bone-related disorders. However, complete irreversible shutdown of resorption by current drugs and uncontrolled duration of activity increase the risk for hypocalcemia, atypical fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw limiting their utilization and decreasing patients compliance to their administration.. The combined expression of M-CSF receptor c-FMS and αvβ3 integrin is unique to osteoclasts. Moreover, signaling through these receptors is essential to organize the osteoclast cytoskeleton elements and for its resorption machinery. Studies in animal models demonstrated that ...
Also Known As: Bone Losses, Osteoclastic; Bone Resorptions; Loss, Osteoclastic Bone; Losses, Osteoclastic Bone; Osteoclastic Bone Losses Show All ,, ...
Osteoporosis is a disorder in which loss of bone strength leads to fragility fractures. This review examines the fundamental pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disorder, which include: (a) failure to achieve a skeleton of optimal strength during growth and development; (b) excessive bone resorption resulting in loss of bone mass and disruption of architecture; and (c) failure to replace lost bone due to defects in bone formation. Estrogen deficiency is known to play a critical role in the development of osteoporosis, while calcium and vitamin D deficiencies and secondary hyperparathyroidism also contribute. There are multiple mechanisms underlying the regulation of bone remodeling, and these involve not only the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages but also other marrow cells, in addition to the interaction of systemic hormones, local cytokines, growth factors, and transcription factors. Polymorphisms of a large number of genes have been associated with differences in bone
Extracted from text ... SA Pharmaceutical Journal - April 2006 40 DRUG INFO Protos(r) - The first of a new class for osteoporosis: dual action bone agent Approved indication Protos(r) contains strontium ranelate and is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis to reduce the risk of vertebral and peripheral fractures, including the hip. Mode of action Strontium ranelate has a unique pharmacological profile characterised by an inhibition of bone resorption and a simultaneous stimulation of bone formation. It targets the bone remodelling process by stimulating osteoblast-mediated bone formation and by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The dual mode of action of strontium ranelate may ..
Critical appraisal of denosumab in the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone loss in patients undergoing hormone ablation David L Kendler1, Kenneth Shawn Davison21Prohealth Clinical Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Antiresorptive therapies are the mainstay for treating patients with excessively high rates of bone resorption. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL), secreted by osteoblasts, binds to the RANK receptor on the surface of preosteoclasts and osteoclasts to elicit osteoclast formation, survival, and activity. Osteoprotegerin, also secreted by the osteoblast, acts as a decoy RANK receptor reducing RANKL binding to RANK and reducing bone resorption. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, has a high affinity and specificity for RANKL. Denosumab rapidly decreases bone resorption
Src is really a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase essential for the activation of osteoclasts, the cells that degrade bone. genes in transgenic mice and crossed the mice with on bone resorption. However, the radiographs illustrated in the paper show that control mice had osteolysis in their tibiae, suggesting that the tumor cells induced osteolysis in these experiments and that dasatinib prevented it, but docetaxel alone did not. In clinical studies, dasatinib decreased bone turnover in two Phase II studies in 48 patients with CRPC, the response rates were similar, but modest for two dosing regimens; urinary [91]. One of these, AP23451 is a purine-based Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibited osteoclast formation and survival in the 0.1 to 1 1 M range and following daily sub-subcutaneous injections dose-dependently prevented PTH-induced bone resorption and ovariectomy-induced bone loss [92]. CHR2797 AP23451 also prevented osteolysis induced by metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, similar to ...
Osteoporosis is a common disorder which affects up to 30% women and 12% men at some point in life. This mostly age-associated disorder has becoming increasingly a major clinical and public health issue as human lifespan increases. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, alterations in bone micro-architecture, reduced bone strength, and elevated risk of fracture (Kanis, 1994). Although both genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of osteoporosis, it has been shown that familial traits are one of the most important clinical risk factors, suggesting the role of genetic factors. The fundamental pathogenic mechanism underlying this disorder includes, (a) failure to achieve peak bone mass during growth and development, (b) excessive bone resorption, and (c) defects in bone formation. Gene knockouts in mice have demonstrated that transcription factors Runx2 and a downstream factor Osterix (Osx) are essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation during development. However,
Illustration showing bone resorption; osteoclasts are breaking down bone and releasing minerals, to transfer calcium from the bone fluid into the blood. - Stock Image C024/9603
0055] Any amount of a pharmaceutical composition can be administered to a subject. The dosages will depend on many factors including the mode of administration and the age of the subject. In younger people there is extensive bone-turnover due to growing bone. Typically, the amount of a compound or agent of the present invention (e.g., 4-P-PDOT, a derivative, analog, conjugate or prodrug of 4-P-PDOT; a pharmaceutical acceptable salt thereof) contained within a single dose will be an amount that effectively prevent, delay or correct bone resorption in a subject in need thereof without inducing significant toxicity. As used herein the term therapeutically effective amount is meant to refer to an amount effective to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. A therapeutically effective amount is also one in which any adverse side effects of the compound are outweighed by the therapeutically beneficial effects. Typically, a compound or agent of the present invention (e.g., 4-P-PDOT, a derivative, ...
Principal Investigator:KITAZAWA Riko, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Experimental pathology
Principal Investigator:SHIBUTANI Toshiaki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Conservative dentistry
Clodronate, Disodium Salt - CAS 88416-50-6 - Calbiochem CAS 88416-50-6 A non-amino, chloro-containing bisphosphonate that acts as a potent inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Biochemical markers of bone turnover reflect bone formation or bone resorption. These markers (both formation and resorption) may be elevated in high-bone-turnover states (eg, early postmenopausal ost... more
The histopathology of osteopetrosis shows_______________? A. Endosteal bone formation and lack of normal bone resorption B. Periosteal bone formation and lack of normal bone resorption C. Persence of extra collagen fibres and less ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. It accounts for more than 90% of diabetic patients and usually develops after 35-40 years of age. T2DM is characterized by hyperglycemia and redundant fatty acid secretion due to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity (Schwartz, 2016). Diabetic osteoporosis is a major complication of T2DM that originates mainly from alterations in the bone microenvironment (Zhang et al., 2016), thus leading to subsequent bone loss, mineral density reduction and fractures (Schwartz, 2016).. High glucose (HG) and free fatty acids (FFA) reportedly inhibit osteogenic differentiation (You et al., 2014) and induce apoptosis of osteoblasts (Feng et al., 2011). Bone metabolic homeostasis relies on the balance between osteoblast-induced bone formation and osteoclast-induced bone resorption (Raisz, 2005). Diabetic osteoporosis primarily results from the disequilibrium between osteoblast and osteoclast, as osteoblast activity is ...
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The pattern of changes in serum PTH, combined with the pattern of elevation in biochemical markers of bone remodeling (increases in bone formation markers followed by increases in bone resorption markers), suggests a pathway through which daily PTH injection may temporarily uncouple bone ...
Our results indicate that growth on bone particles stimulates early differentiation of NHOst cells compared with TCPS, but delays terminal differentiation, potentially due to lower production of BMP2 and BMP4. Numerous studies show that cancellous bone chips provide an osteoconductive surface for osteoprogenitor cell migration and proliferation,23,24 but terminal differentiation does not occur until proliferation ceases.25,26 In addition, progenitor cells resident in the bone chips are known to migrate out and proliferate in culture,27,28 contributing to the higher DNA content and lower osteocalcin content of the conditioned media.. MSCs responded to the bone particles with an increase in DNA compared with cells on TCPS, reflecting the stimulatory effect of the osteoconductive surface on proliferation. MSCs present in the bone chips may also have contributed to the higher DNA content. However, when MSCs were cultured in OM, which stimulates their transition to an osteoblast phenotype, an ...
Questions and answers about tooth root bone resorption Teeth gums roots and bone can resorb for a number of reasons or causes Learn how the diagnosis process starts what can be done to stop cure or prevent it suggested treatments More dental questions, dentist practices, Learn new fix treat repair replace options.
Buy fosamax generic - paypal. Active alendronate ingredient - non-hormonal specific inhibitor of an osteoclastic bone resorption, suppresses osteoclasts
Introduction: Inflammation is a critical hallmark of autoimmune arthritis (AA) and cancer. We have previously shown that the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. We have identified IL-17, a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in osteoclastic bone resorption in AA as the underlying mechanism for increased metastasis. In addition, high levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is linked to both AA and breast cancer metastasis. We report that blocking the IL-17 and COX-2 pathways simultaneously significantly reduces the development of breast cancer associated metastasis in a spontaneous model of AA.. Methods: 4T1 mammary gland tumors were generated in mice genetically prone to develop AA (designated SKG mice). When tumors reached , 0.2 gms, anti-IL17 antibody treatment was injected intraperitoneally once a week for three weeks. Celecoxib, a specific ...
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1 The collection of new therapeutic entities first launched in 2003 originated from the following sources (a) CIPSLINE, Prous database (b) Iddb, Current Drugs database (c) IMS R& D Focus (d) Adis Business Intelligence R& D Insight (e) Pharmaprojects. 2 A. I. Graul, Drug News Perspect., 2004, 17, 43. 3 C. Boyer-Joubert, E. Lorthiois and F. Moreau, Ann. Rep. Med. Chem., 2003, 38, 347. 4 P. Bernardelli, B. Gaudilliere and F. Vergne, Ann. Rep. Med. Chem., 2002, 37, 257. 5 B. Gaudilliere, P..... ...
Nedwin, G E.; Mohler, M A.; and Luben, R A., Cloning of the coding sequences of a human lymphokine, osteoclast-activating factor. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3923 ...
Induces bone resorption, acting probably through a signaling cascade which results in the secretion of factor(s) enhancing osteoclast formation and activity.
Regulation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand)-induced osteoclast differentiation is of current interest in the development of antiresorptive agents. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) on the regulation of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. NMP inhibited RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells. The RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1) and c-Fos, which are key transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, was also reduced by treatment with NMP. Furthermore, NMP induced disruption of the actin rings and decreased the mRNAs of cathepsin K and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), both involved in bone resorption. Taken together, these results suggest that NMP inhibits osteoclast differentiation and ...
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important local regulator in bone. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of PGE2 on osteoclast-like cell formation and bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in the presence or absence of osteoblasts, PGE2 (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) significantly stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation in osteoblast-containing mouse bone cell cultures, although it did not affect osteoclast-like cell formation from hemopoietic blast cells supported by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in osteoblast-free mouse spleen cell cultures. The conditioned medium from osteoblastic UMR-106 cells pretreated with PGE2 (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) significantly stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation from hemopoietic blast cells. PGE2 also significantly stimulated the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in osteoblast-containing mouse bone cell cultures. In contrast, PGE2 significantly inhibited the bone-resorbing activity and osteopontin mRNA expression ...
Y1 receptor (Y1R)-signalling pathway plays a pivotal role in the regulation of bone metabolism. The lack of Y1R-signalling stimulates bone mass accretion that has been mainly attributed to Y1R disruption from bone-forming cells. Still, the involvement of Y1R-signalling in the control of bone-resorbing cells remained to be explored. Therefore, in this study we assessed the role of Y1R deficiency in osteoclast formation and resorption activity. Here we demonstrate that Y1R germline deletion (Y1R(-/-)) led to increased formation of highly multinucleated (n | 8) osteoclasts and enhanced surface area, possibly due to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overexpression regulated by RANKL-signalling. Interestingly, functional studies revealed that these giant Y1R(-/-) multinucleated cells produce poorly demineralized eroded pits, which were associated to reduce expression of osteoclast matrix degradation markers, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAcP5b), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)
To determine whether synovial fluid (SF) macrophages isolated from the SF of osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and pyrophosphate arthropathy (PPA) joints are capable of osteoclast formation, and to investigate the cellular and humoral factors required for this to occur, SF macrophages (CD14+) were isolated from the knee joint SF from patients with OA, RA and PPA and cultured for up to 14 days with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and soluble receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) or tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha). Osteoclast differentiation was assessed by expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and vitronectin receptor (VNR), F-actin ring formation and lacunar resorption. Osteoclast formation and lacunar resorption was seen in RANKL-treated cultures of SF macrophages isolated from OA, RA and PPA joints with the largest amount of resorption noted in RA and PPA SF macrophage cultures. In TNFalpha/IL
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunological reaction in TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. AU - Kitaura, Hideki. AU - Kimura, Keisuke. AU - Ishida, Masahiko. AU - Kohara, Haruka. AU - Yoshimatsu, Masako. AU - Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF-α may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which are osteoclast precursor cells, osteoblasts, or stromal cells. These cells express receptor activator of NF-B ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclastogenesis, and T cells, which secrete RANKL, promote osteoclastogenesis during inflammation. Elucidating the detailed effects of TNF-α on bone metabolism may enable the identification of therapeutic targets that can ...
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Bone is composed of a living protein framework upon which mineral crystals are placed. As bone breaks down, bits of this living protein framework appear in the urine. Tests of bone breakdown, called bone resorption tests, measure the amount of one specific bone protein in the urine (or in the blood) and thus gauge the current rate of bone breakdown. Urinary markers of bone breakdown (known as markers of bone resorption) are simple urine tests that can help determine if you are currently losing bone or not. Such bone breakdown testing can also indicate if your bone-building program is effective at reducing and normalizing the bone breakdown process.. As bone is broken down certain bone protein by-products are excreted in the urine. Measurement of the amount of these bone breakdown by-products can determine the rate of bone breakdown. A high rate of bone breakdown is strongly suggestive of current, ongoing bone loss and a greater risk for osteoporotic fracture. A low rate of bone resorption would ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, resulting in tooth loss. The cytokine TGF-beta initially promotes the inflammatory response, but ultimately slows bone loss by suppressing bone degradation. On the basis of published reports and our preliminary data, it appears likely that an important component of this repression is the initiation of osteoclast apoptosis. Reducing osteoclast numbers through targeting osteoclast survival pathways may provide important future therapeutic targets to slow pathological bone loss during periodontitis, osteoporosis, and tumor-driven osteolysis. It is the goal of this research to define the molecular pathways linking TGF- beta to regulation of osteoclast apoptosis. In preliminary studies, we observed that (i) osteoclast survival is due to continual activation of the MEK/ERK and AKT/NF(B survival pathways; (ii) PI3K coordinately activates these pathways to promote ...
DR could be a supplementary medicine for periodontal therapy as it could reduce bone resorption in rat model of alveolar bone resorption and exert osteogenic effect on osteoblasts.
Inoxitol hexakisphosphate (IP6) has been found to have an important role in biomineralization and a direct effect inhibiting mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro without impairing extracellular matrix production and expression of alkaline phosphatase. IP6 has been proposed to exhibit similar effects to those of bisphosphonates on bone resorption, however, its direct effect on osteoclasts (OCL) is presently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of IP6 on the RAW 264.7 monocyte/macrophage mouse cell line and on human primary osteoclasts. On one hand, we show that IP6 decreases the osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells induced by RANKL, without affecting cell proliferation or cell viability. The number of TRAP positive cells and mRNA levels of osteoclast markers such as TRAP, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and MMP-9 was decreased by IP6 on RANKL-treated cells. On the contrary, when giving IP6 to mature osteoclasts after RANKL treatment, a significant increase of ...
|i|Background.|/i| Sublesional osteoporosis (SLOP) is characterized by excessive bone resorption at the hip and knee region after spinal cord injury (SCI), resu...
New research in animals triggered by a combination of serendipity and counterintuitive thinking could point the way to treating fractures caused by rapid bone loss in people, including patients with metastatic cancers.. A series of studies at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine found that steroid drugs, known for inducing bone loss with prolonged use, actually help suppress a molecule thats key to the rapid bone loss process. A report of the new findings appears online Feb. 5, 2013 in the journal PLOS ONE.. Osteoporosis or the loss of bone mass is a major public health problem in the Western world and commonly results in hip and spine fractures. But rib fractures are the most common and yet most unreported osteoporotic fractures and also occur in many cancers such as breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and myelomas, that metastasize and spread to the ribs, says Arjun Deb, MD, assistant professor in the departments of Medicine and Cell Biology and Physiology at UNC.. While ...
Bone formation and resorption coupling is a process wherein osteoclastic bone resorption is followed by osteoblastic bone formation. For resorption, two classes of axon guidance molecules, SLITs (SLIT3) and semaphorins (SEMA3a), act together to fine-tune repulsive signals for osteoclast migration, while inhibiting differentiation and cell fusion. SLIT3 is produced by mature osteoclasts, whereas the critical bone actions of SEMA3a originate from nerves. These repulsive and inhibitory effects of SEMA3a and SLIT3 on osteoclasts are countered by netrin-1, another molecule originally identified for its role in axon guidance. Netrin-1 attracts osteoclasts and promotes their fusion. Additional molecular pathways controlling osteoclasts include ephrin/ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase (ephrin/EPH) signaling via cell contact between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and the RANKL/RANK pathway for osteoclastogenesis. For bone formation, signals released from mineralized matrix, such as TGF-β and IGF-1, in ...
Material and methods/results The authors used organ cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bones and isolated periosteal osteoblasts which express TLRs to study the role of TLR2 in bone resorption. LPS from the perio-pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg; which is a weak agonist for TLR4 but a strong for TLR2 because of the contaminating lipoprotein), enhanced number of osteoclasts, 45Ca release and bone matrix degradation (CTX) by a process inhibited by osteoprotegerin and zolendronic acid. LPS Pg enhanced the expression of osteoclastic genes (c-Fos, trap, oscar and cathepsin K) and reduced the expression of osteoblastic genes (osteocalcin, runx2, alp and procollagen α1). The effects were associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of RANKL, whereas OPG mRNA and protein were unaffected. Similar to LPS Pg, Pam2CSK4 (synthetic ligand for TLR2/TLR6), Pam3CSK4 (ligand for TLR1/TLR2), HKLM (a heat killed preparation of Listeria monocytogenes, a TLR2 agonist) and FSL1 (a synthetic ...
OBJECTIVE: Human osteoclast formation from mononuclear phagocyte precursors involves interactions between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily members and their receptors. LIGHT is a transmembrane protein expressed and shed from the surface of activated T cells. Since activated T cells have been implicated in osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), this study sought to determine whether LIGHT can regulate RANKL/cytokine-induced osteoclast formation, to identify the mechanism by which LIGHT influences osteoclastogenesis, and to investigate the presence of LIGHT in the serum of RA patients. METHODS: The effect of LIGHT on human and murine osteoclast formation was assessed in the presence and absence of neutralizing reagents to known osteoclastogenic factors. Serum levels of LIGHT in RA patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the presence and absence of RANKL, LIGHT induced osteoclast formation from both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and murine
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Growth hormone protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in states of low circulating Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Pharmacological Action:. Raloxifene : Raloxifene binds to estrogen receptors, resulting in differential expression of multiple estrogen-regulated genes in different tissues. Raloxifene produces estrogen-like effects on bone, reducing resorption of bone and increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, thus slowing the rate of bone loss. The maintenance of bone mass by raloxifene and estrogens is, in part, through the regulation of the gene-encoding transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), which is a bone matrix protein with antiosteoclastic properties. Raloxifene activates TGF-β3 through pathways that are estrogen receptor-mediated but involve DNA sequences distinct from the estrogen response element. The drug also binds to the estrogen receptor and acts as an estrogen agonist in preosteoclastic cells, which results in the inhibtion of their proliferative capacity. This inhibition is thought to contribute to the drugs effect on bone resorption. Other mechanisms include the ...
The underlying mechanism in all cases of osteoporosis is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Either bone resorption is excessive, or bone formation is diminished. Bone matrix is manufactured by the osteoblast cells, whereas bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclast cells. Trabecular bone is the sponge-like bone in the center of long bones and vertabrae. Cortical bone is the hard outer shell of bones. Because osteoblasts and osteoclasts inhabit the surface of bones, trabecular bone is more active, more subject to bone turnover, to remodeling. Long before any overt fractures occur, the small spicules of trabecular bone break and are reformed in the process known as remodeling. Bone will grow and change shape in response to physical stress. The bony prominences and attachments in runners are different in shape and size than those in weightlifters. It is an accumulation of fractures in trabecular bone that are incompletely repaired that leads to the manifestation of ...
Pathological bone resorption by osteoclasts is primarily treated with bisphosphonates. Because the administration of bisphosphonates is associated with a risk for multiple adverse symptoms, a precise understanding of the mechanisms underlying osteoclastogenesis is required to develop drugs with minimal side-effects. Osteoclastogenesis depends on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) signaling mediated by TRAF6. We previously identified a highly conserved domain in the cytoplasmic tail of RANK (HCR), which did not share any significant homology with other proteins and was essential for osteoclastogenesis. HCR acts as a platform for the formation of Gab2- and Vav3-containing signal complexes, and ectopic expression of the HCR peptide inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Here, we uncover the mechanisms of HCR peptide-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Expression of either the amino- or carboxyl-terminal half of the HCR peptide (N- or C-peptide) independently inhibited RANK signaling ...
The reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and the tissue-specific stroma is critical for primary and metastatic tumor growth progression. Prostate cancer cells colonize preferentially bone (osteotropism), where they alter the physiological balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and elicit prevalently an osteoblastic response (osteoinduction). The molecular cues provided by osteoblasts for the survival and growth of bone metastatic prostate cancer cells are largely unknown. We exploited the sufficient divergence between human and mouse RNA sequences together with redefinition of highly species-specific gene arrays by computer-aided and experimental exclusion of cross-hybridizing oligonucleotide probes. This strategy allowed the dissection of the stroma (mouse) from the cancer cell (human) transcriptome in bone metastasis xenograft models of human osteoinductive prostate cancer cells (VCaP and C4-2B). As a result, we generated the ...
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is constitutively activated in human myeloma, has been implicated in bone destruction by this cancer, but the processes it recruits are obscure. In this study, we show that p38 activity in myeloma inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, but also enhances osteoclast maturation and bone resorption. p38 regulated the expression and secretion of the Wnt pathway antagonist DKK-1 and the monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1. Attenuating p38, DKK-1, or MCP-1 were each sufficient to reduce bone lesions in vivo. Although it is well known that DKK-1 inhibits osteoblast differentiation, we found that together with MCP-1, it could also promote osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The latter effects were mediated by enhancing expression of RANK in osteoclast progenitor cells and by upregulating secretion of its ligand RANKL from stromal cells and mature osteoblasts. In summary, our study defined the mechanisms by which p38 signaling in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokine regulation and the signaling mechanism of osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1/hSca) to inhibit osteoclast formation. AU - Koide, Masanori. AU - Maeda, Hidefumi. AU - Roccisana, Jennifer L.. AU - Kawanabe, Noriaki. AU - Reddy, Sakamuri V.. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - The osteoclast (OCL) is the primary bone resorbing cell. OCL formation and activity is regulated by local factors produced in the bone microenvironment. We recently identified OCL inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP-1/ hSca) as a novel inhibitor of OCL formation and bone resorption that is produced by OCLs. OIP-1 is a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-linked membrane protein (16 kDa) related to the mouse Ly-6 family of hematopoietic proteins. OIP-1 mRNA is expressed in human OCL precursors, granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming unit (GM-CFU), bone marrow cells, and osteoblast cells. We used cycle-dependent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, which further demonstrated that ...
Background: Hypothyroidism is associated with dysfunction of the bone turnover with reduced osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete various factors and cytokines that may stimulate bone regeneration.  The aim of this study was to determine the effects of MSCs-conditioned medium (CM) in hypothyroidism male ...
To determine whether 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) can exert an anti-osteoporosis role through anti-aging mechanisms, we analyzed the bone phenotype of mice with 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency due to deletion of the enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, while on a rescue diet. 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency accelerated age-related bone loss by activating the p16/p19 senescence signaling pathway, inhibiting osteoblastic bone formation, and stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption, osteocyte senescence, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Supplementation of exogenous 1,25(OH)2 D3 corrected the osteoporotic phenotype caused by 1,25(OH)2 D deficiency or natural aging by inhibiting the p16/p19 pathway. The proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and ectopic bone formation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from mice with genetically induced deficiency of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were significantly reduced by mechanisms including increased oxidative stress, DNA ...
Periodontitis is a common disease that is characterized by resorption of the alveolar bone and mediated by commensal bacteria that trigger host immune responses and bone destruction through unidentified mechanisms. We report that Nod1, an innate intracellular host receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan-related molecules, is critical for commensal-induced periodontitis in a mouse model. Mice lacking Nod1 exhibit reduced bone resorption as well as impaired recruitment of neutrophils to gingival tissues and osteoclasts to the alveolar bone, which mediate tissue and bone destruction. Further analysis showed that accumulation of a Nod1-stimulating commensal bacterium, NI1060, at gingival sites was sufficient to induce neutrophil recruitment and bone resorption. Genomic sequencing revealed that NI1060 is a mouse-specific bacterium that is related to bacteria associated with the development of aggressive periodontitis in humans. These findings provide insight into commensal-host interactions contributing ...
They display a characteristic ruffled border where proteases and acid are secreted, allowing for bone resorption and formation of resorption pits in the bone surface [25]. Osteoclast morphology varies between mammals and teleosts (bony fishes), and also between different groups of teleosts [20]. In the skeleton of young zebrafish for example, osteoclast activity is carried out by both mononucleated and multinucleated cells [26]. In fact, there is an ontogenetic progression from mono- towards multinucleated osteoclasts. In juvenile zebrafish, bone resorbing cells in the developing lower jaw are. at first mononucleated. In thin skeletal tissues such as the neural arch, mononucleated cells are even predominant in adults [26]. In rainbow trout, scale resorption Selleck BIBF1120 PD0325901 is predominantly carried out by mononucleated osteoclasts [27]. Although in mammals these mononucleated cells are often just regarded as osteoclast precursors, in fish mononucleated osteoclasts are active bone ...
Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells whose primary function is bone resorption. This process is regulated at multiple levels, including the proliferation and homing of osteoclast progenitors and their fusion into multinucleated cells (reviewed by Teitelbaum, 2000). Upon identification of appropriate resorption sites, osteoclasts reorganize their small matrix adhesions - podosomes - into a circular adhesion structure at the cell periphery known as the `sealing zone, and secrete protons and lysosomal enzymes into the space between the cell and the bone surface (Nesbitt and Horton, 1997; Salo et al., 1997). These structures form readily on bone surfaces; similar organization of podosome super-structures was observed in cells grown on standard tissue culture surfaces (Calle et al., 2004; Lakkakorpi et al., 1993; Zambonin-Zallone et al., 1988).. Podosomes are small (∼1 μm in diameter) dot-like adhesion structures found in osteoclasts, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of ...
Background: Artificial hip joint replacement has undergone tremendous development in the past 100 years. In the beginning, complications, such as infection and early loosening, were the rule rather than the exception. Today, complications of any sort are rare during the first decade after the operation. Artificial hip joint replacement has been chosen as the Operation of the Century and has dramatically improved the quality of life of millions of patients. Unfortunately, in the long-term, prosthesis loosening due to pathological bone resorption (osteolysis) around the prosthesis is still common. Traditionally, the prosthesis is anchored in the bone with bone cement (Plexiglas). However, since this cementation method was suspected to cause late loosening, alternative methods, such as the implantation of so-called uncemented prostheses, have been developed and are being increasingly applied. Because the early movement of a prosthesis (migration) increases the risk of loosening, uncemented cups ...
Just minutes after I had asked her, Sherlock sent me the full study…a blog reader did the same just a few hours later…then another blogging friend…so now I have three copies of the same study…fabulous! Thank you all!. Lets dive right into the report, which is only six pages long but is packed with interesting information. There is so much good stuff, in fact, that it was difficult not to go ahead and print the whole thing! (I cannot do that, of course, for obvious reasons…) It begins with a description of MGUS and how it differs from multiple myeloma, including this item of interest, which explains why the bone turnover marker is so important, even in MGUS: Although MGUS is largely considered a benign condition, a number of studies show that patients with MGUS are at increased risk of developing fractures even before progression to myeloma. Elevated bone turnover is an independent predictor of fracture risk, and a number of studies have shown elevated bone resorption and/or reduced ...
Bone remodeling is a lifelong process in which mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton by bone resorption and is replenished by new during ossification or bone formation. The remodeling cycle requires both the differentiation and activation of two cell types with opposing functions; the osteoclast, which orchestrates bone resorption, and the osteoblast, which orchestrates bone formation. The differentiation of these cells from their respective precursors is a process which has been overshadowed by enigma, particularly because the precise osteoclast precursor has not been identified and because the identification of skeletal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts, is very recent ...
Osteoclasts are responsible for bone tissue erosion in osteoporosis and arthritis rheumatoid (RA). (SLP) family members adaptor, B-cell linker proteins (BLNK) (Lee et al., 2008) and for that reason, it might be the molecular change integrating ITAM and RANK indicators. Tirabrutinib is a covalent type inhibitor with comparable efficacy to ibrutinib in the treatment of B-cell malignancies (Walter et al., 2016) and has greater selectivity for Btk (IC50, 2?nmol/L) and Tec (IC50, 5?nmol/L) Cidofovir (Vistide) than other kinases, including Lck, Fyn, Lyn and Itk (KINOMEscan platform: 442 kinases) (Yasuhiro et al., 2017). Tirabrutinib inhibits cell proliferation in some malignant B-cell lines but does not inhibit the activation of T-lymphocytes from human PBMCs (Kozaki et al., 2018). Herein, we extended our studies and evaluated the effect of tirabrutinib on a murine bone resorption model. The data indicate that tirabrutinib could be effective in bone diseases. 2.?Materials and methods 2.1. Animal used ...
Introduction. Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have become the accepted adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal patients with breast cancer with hormonal receptor expression1. AI brought about a marked reduction in estrogen levels through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme2 whose activity is relegated to peripheral tissues during menopause3. The American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommends using the AI for 5 years, or for 2 or 3 years, after previous therapy with tamoxifen (TMX)4, where the latter option is prescribed for pre/peri-menopausal women5.. However, reduced estrogen levels increase bone resorption and raise the risk of fracture that occurs after menopause1,6-9. Clinical guidelines for the management of bone loss associated with AI (AIBL: Aromatase Inhibitor associated Bone Loss) recommends a strict monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD) and other risk factors to assess the need for treatment with anti-resortive therapies10.. Despite existing data, most of which based on randomized ...
Bone is living, growing tissue. It is made mostly of collagen, a protein that provides a soft framework, and calcium phosphate, a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework.. This combination of collagen and calcium makes bone both flexible and strong, which in turn helps it to withstand stress. More than 99 percent of the bodys calcium is contained in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood.. Throughout your lifetime, old bone is removed (resorption) and new bone is added to the skeleton (formation). During childhood and teenage years, new bone is added faster than old bone is removed. As a result, bones become larger, heavier, and denser. Bone formation outpaces resorption until peak bone mass (maximum bone density and strength) is reached around age 30. After that time, bone resorption slowly begins to exceed bone formation.. For women, bone loss is fastest in the first few years after menopause, and it continues into the postmenopausal years. ...
Alendronic acid is a drug that belongs to a class of medicines known as bisphosphonates. It acts by inhibiting bone resorption which is mediated by osteoclasts, further leading to increase in bone mineral density.. Cholecalciferol is a substance that is produced by the skin that results from the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to split (seco) sterol previt D3 and subsequently colecalciferol (vit D3) through ultraviolet light. Vitamin D3 is the natural precursor of1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol, which in turn mobilizes calcium in the bones. Calcitriol increases the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate and also acts to regulate bone formation and bone resorption.. ...
Alendronate is a bisphosphonate which prevent the osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Alendronate may decrease bone resorption and increase the density of the bone.
A. Gallois, J. Lachuer, G. Yvert, A. Wierinckx, F. Brunet, C. Rabourdin-Combe, C. Delprat, P. Jurdic, and M. Mazzorana (2010) J Bone Miner Res, 25(3):661-72.. ...
Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast ...
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast ...
The current standard of care for bone metastasis is therapies targeting the cells that degrade bone. These cells are directed by cancer cells to degrade bone in order to release pro-tumorigenic growth factors stored within the skeletal extracellular matrix. These therapies are not curative and do not halt metastasis-mediated bone degradation, indicating additional factors contribute to bone degradation. My research program focuses on the skeletal mechanical environment and its regulation of cancer. Specifically, I will investigate 1) the skeletons mechanical environment and its regulation of the remodeling process, and 2) the role of osteoblastic cells, which comprise the principal sensor and effector cells of mechanical cues, in metastatic processes. My long-term goal is to identify novel therapeutic targets for treating and preventing bone metastases as well as cancer-associated reductions in bone strength. My experimental approach uses novel in vivo and in vitro mechanical loading model ...
Non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that regulates reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, cell polarization, cell migration, adhesion, spreading and bone remodeling. Plays a role in the regulation of the humoral immune response, and is required for normal levels of marginal B-cells in the spleen and normal migration of splenic B-cells. Required for normal macrophage polarization and migration towards sites of inflammation. Regulates cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell spreading in T-cells, and contributes to the regulation of T-cell responses. Promotes osteoclastic bone resorption; this requires both PTK2B/PYK2 and SRC. May inhibit differentiation and activity of osteoprogenitor cells. Functions in signaling downstream of integrin and collagen receptors, immune receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor receptors, and mediates responses to cellular stress. Forms multisubunit signaling complexes with SRC and SRC family members upon activation; this leads to
div class=citation vocab=,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource= typeof=Book,,span property=name,,a href=,Diminished bone formation during diabetic fracture healing is related to accelerated resorption of cartilage associated with high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and increased osteoclast activity, Erin H. McKenzie,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem resource=,,span property=name,,a property=url href=,Boston University Libraries,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
Pavlos, N. J.; Xu, J.; Riedel, D.; Yeoh, J. S.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Papadimitriou, J. M.; Jahn, R.; Ross, F. P.; Zheng, M. H.: Rab3D regulates a novel vesicular trafficking pathway that is required for osteoclastic bone resorption. Molecular and Cellular Biology 25 (12), S. 5253 - 5269 (2005 ...
Osteoporosis is a public health problem that affects approximately 25 million people in the United States. Regardless of the etiology, osteoporosis is character...
541-737-2141. [email protected] The college is fully accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association, Council on Education (COE).. ...
cdc15 encodes a member of the PCH protein family, conserved from yeast to mammals, that has been linked to actin cytoskeletal functions (Lippincott and Li, 2000). Though Cdc15p is the founding member of this protein family, little progress has been made toward understanding its precise function in cytokinesis. Here we have provided the first clues as to its critical role in this process. Cdc15p interacts directly with both the Arp2/3 complex activation machinery and the formin Cdc12p to orchestrate early events in CAR formation. As predicted by these interactions, the CAR does not form in the absence of Cdc15p function.. The critical role of Cdc15p in CAR formation was suggested by the observation that overexpression of Cdc15p was sufficient to drive medial recruitment of actin during interphase (Fankhauser et al., 1995). We have extended this observation to show that Cdc15p recruits Myo1p and other F-actin nucleators (this study; unpublished data) that presumably allow this to occur. Plo1p ...
... is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ... During childhood, bone formation exceeds resorption. As the aging process occurs, resorption exceeds formation. Bone resorption ... In some cases where bone resorption outpaces ossification, the bone is broken down much faster than it can be renewed. The bone ... Light weight bearing exercise tends to eliminate the negative effects of bone resorption. Bone resorption is highly stimulated ...
... increased bone resorption, allowing the flow of calcium from bone to blood reduced kidney clearance of calcium increased ... clinical problems are due to bone resorption and manifest as bone syndromes such as rickets, osteomalacia, and renal ... This increases bone resorption. In chronic kidney failure the problem is more specifically failure to convert vitamin D to its ... A history of acquired racquet nails (brachyonychia) may be indicative of bone resorption. Radiographically, hyperparathyroidism ...
They reduces bone resorption. Mechanism of action: Bisphosphonate binds to the mineral component of the bone and inhibits ... It inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activation, reduces bone resorption, improves bone density and lessens skeletal- ... "Low bone mineral density is associated with bone microdamage accumulation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis". Bone. 41 ... Such medications are frequently used to treat diseases that cause bone resorption such as osteoporosis, or to treat cancer. The ...
Bone resorption Gallium Nitrate monograph. Lexi-Comp Online, Lexi-Drugs Online, Lexi-Comp Inc. Hudson, OH. Available at: [1] ... Also, the increased concentration of gallium in the bone leads to increasing the synthesis of collagen as well as the formation ... It works by preventing the breakdown of bone through the inhibition of osteoclast activity, thus lowering the amount of free ... Warrell, RP Jr (1997). "Gallium nitrate for the treatment of bone metastases". Cancer. 80 (8 Suppl): 1680-1685. doi:10.1002/( ...
Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct resorption, which starts from the lining cells of the alveolar bone ... September 2010). "Bone deposition, bone resorption, and osteosarcoma". Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 28 (9): 1142-8. doi: ... This is called bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is a biomechanical process responsible for making bones stronger in response to ... Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen, and voids will ...
"Regulation of bone resorption and formation". The American Journal of Medicine. 43 (5): 696-710. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(67)90112 ... in particular in the domain of developing new antirachitic sterols to treat metabolic bone disease. He resided in Cambridge, ...
This causes more bone resorption than formation. Additionally, women tend to have smaller bones and lower bone mass than men, ... Bone density level decreases as the level of oestrogen, a hormone essential for healthy bones, drops after menopause. ... Vitamin D enhances calcium absorption in the gut and vitamin K plays a role in the formation of bones and the maintenance of ... A steady supply of calcium, protein, vitamin D and vitamin K are required for the constant regeneration of bones. 700-800 mg of ...
... increases bone resorption, as well as decreasing the deposition of new bone that normally takes place in weight-bearing bones. ... Trabecular bone (or cancellous bone) is the sponge-like bone in the ends of long bones and vertebrae. Cortical bone is the hard ... PTH increases bone resorption, leading to bone loss. A positive association exists between serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol ... In normal bone, matrix remodeling of bone is constant; up to 10% of all bone mass may be undergoing remodeling at any point in ...
In osteoclasts, V-ATPases are required for pumping protons onto the bone surface. The protons are then used for bone resorption ... However, it is believed that abnormal/impaired secretion of the brain and bone-specific ECM proteins caused by dysregulation of ... Elastin is not required for brain or bone growth. ... can be monitored via developmental assessments and bone density ...
Salo, J.; Lehenkari, P.; Mulari, M.; Metsikkö, K.; Väänänen, H. K. (1997). "Removal of osteoclast bone resorption products by ...
Compounds of zinc Zinc deficiency Zinc toxicity Yamaguchi M (1995). "beta-Alanyl-L-histidinato zinc and bone resorption". ... It has a stimulatory effect on bone formation and a restorative effect on bone loss under various pathophysiologic conditions. ... Zinc acexamate has also been shown to have a potent-anabolic effect on bone. The oral administration of AHZ or zinc acexamate ... The stimulatory effect of AHZ on bone formation is more intensive than that of zinc sulfate. ...
... a novel mediator of inflammatory bone resorption". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 5334. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7.5334K. doi:10.1038/ ... During periods of bone inflammation, CCL11 and CCR3 are upregulated. This is associated with an increase in osteoclast activity ...
"Gallium inhibits bone resorption by a direct effect on osteoclasts". PMID 2278540. "The effects of gallium nitrate on bone ... Work at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York and elsewhere suggested that gallium reduced bone resorption and might ... "Gallium nitrate inhibits calcium resorption from bone and is effective treatment for cancer-related hypercalcemia". Retrieved 5 ... "Use of gallium to treat Paget's disease of bone: a pilot study". Retrieved 5 December 2019. "A multicenter trial of low dose ...
Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki (July 2008). "Roles of Wnt signaling in bone formation and resorption ... Under certain circumstances adenosine stimulates bone destruction and in other situations it promotes bone formation, depending ... Adenosine is very relevant in bone metabolism, as it plays a role in formation and activation of both osteoclasts and ... In TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor β) pathway, BMP (Bone Morphogenic Protein), Activin and Nodal ligands bind to their ...
... volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested that certain growth ... Most of the bones of the skull are flat bones, as is the sternum. Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act ... Bone tissue is mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones include ... cancellous bone at the ends of the bones. Most bones of the limbs, including those of the fingers and toes, are long bones. The ...
1984). Resorption of bone by isolated rabbit osteoclasts. J Cell Science 66: 383 - 399 PMID 6746762 Athanasou NA, Quinn J. ( ... With TJ Chambers he developed the osteoclast lacunar bone resorption assay system. His work was the first to show that the ... This led to the discovery of cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathological bone resorption associated with primary and ... 1996) Human osteoclast formation and bone resorption by monocytes and synovial macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum ...
Raisz, Lawrence G.; Simmons, Hollis A.; Sandberg, Ann L.; Canalis, Ernesto (July 1980). "lDirect Stimulation of Bone Resorption ... "Complement-Dependent Stimulation of Prostaglandin Synthesis and Bone Resorption". Science. 185 (4153): 789-791. Bibcode:1974Sci ...
"Bone Formation and Resorption as a Requirement for Marrow Development". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 140 (1): 205-207. ... Patt, H. M.; Maloney, M. A. (1975). "Bone marrow regeneration after local injury: A review". Experimental Hematology. 3 (2): ... "Hematopoietic microenvironment transfer by stromal fibroblasts derived from bone marrow varying in cellularity". Experimental ...
These include: increased rate of bone turnover with resorption exceeding formation; an initial rapid phase of bone loss ... greater loss of cancellous bone than cortical bone; reduced intestinal calcium absorption; some protection against bone loss by ... Kalu DN (December 1991). "The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss". Bone Miner. 15 (3): 175-91. doi:10.1016/ ... Van Linden JC; Waarsing JH; Weinans H. (2006). "The use of micro-CT to study bone architecture dynamics noninvasively". Drug ...
... has shown to have positive effects on bone turnover. It has aided in decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone ... This was indicated by a decrease in the levels of two bone resorption markers (deoxypyridinoline and N-telopeptide) and an ... in pro-inflammatory responses and an increase in anti-inflammatory responses which indicates a reduction in bone resorption as ... Ribonuclease-enriched lactoferrin has been used to examine how lactoferrin affects bone. ...
... used for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone disorders that cause bone fragility and diseases where bone resorption is ... They only had a rather weak inhibiting effect on bone resorption. The inclusion of an amino group marked the beginning of the ... The compound can be made more potent by optimizing the structure of the R2 group to best inhibit bone resorption. Phosphonate ... all bisphosphonate drugs is a physicochemical interaction with the bone mineral to prevent the physical resorption of the bone ...
"Methods for the treatment of bone resorption disorders, including osteoporosis", published 1998-11-03, assigned to Mount Sinai ... Methods for the treatment of bone resorption disorders, including osteoporosis, (1998). Methods for determining susceptibility ...
Bone Resorption When teeth and roots are extracted, bone resorption ensues. This is greatest in the mandible and can be ... Bone Resorption Another tissue change that can result from wearing an overdenture is resorption of the alveolar bone. Although ... Other than that, retention of natural teeth in the jaw helps preserve bone by delaying the process of bone resorption in the ... Patient Anatomy - Overdentures can be useful for patients with a severe ridge defect or bone resorption. - Patients who have ...
"Serum leptin as a determinant of bone resorption in healthy postmenopausal women". Bone. 33 (5): 847-852. doi:10.1016/j.bone. ...
This may cause bone pain and tenderness, due to increased bone resorption. Due to increased circulating calcium, there may be ... Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, characterized by alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism, are ... as well as bone physiology. Parathyroid hormone has effects antagonistic to those of calcitonin. Calcium. PTH increases blood ... to break down bone and release calcium. PTH increases gastrointestinal calcium absorption by activating vitamin D, and promotes ...
In bone, osteoclasts are found in pits in the bone surface which are called resorption bays, or Howship's lacunae. Osteoclasts ... Osteoporosis occurs when there is an imbalance between the bone resorption activities of osteoclasts and the bone formation ... Resorption of bone matrix by the osteoclasts involves two steps: (1) dissolution of inorganic components (minerals), and (2) ... The ruffled border lies in contact with the bone surface within a resorption bay. The periphery of the ruffled border is ...
X-rays may reveal bone resorption and degenerative changes in the joint. These findings in the presence of intact skin and loss ... The resulting hyperemia leads to increased osteoclastic resorption of bone, and this, in concert with mechanical stress, leads ... bone resorption, and eventual deformity due to loss of sensation. Onset is usually insidious. If this pathological process ... commonly seen at the distal aspect of the metatarsals Diabetic osteolysis Bone resorption Once the process is recognized, it ...
Osteoclasts are cells of bones that promote bone demineralization or bone resorption. In contrast, Osteoblast promotes calcium ... The cells of our bone that is involved in bone formation and bone breakdown is osteoblast and osteoclast respectively. ... An endocrine bone disease is a bone disease associated with a disorder of the endocrine system. An example is osteitis fibrosa ... Thus Calcitonin activates osteoblasts, therefore decrease blood calcium levels by decreasing bone breakdown (resorption) by ...
It also induces calcium and phosphate resorption from the bone by osteoclasts. Parathyroid hormone also plays a role in ... Conditions due to bone loss such as osteopenia and osteoporosis are common in tertiary hyperparathyroidism along with ... Pseudoclubbing of the digits can also be indicative of a severe tertiary hyperparathyroidism due to excess resorption at the ... Radiological investigations include looking for signs of bone loss in both the hands and pelvis which is characteristic of ...
Like other AASs, oxandrolone may worsen hypercalcemia by increasing osteolytic bone resorption. When taken by pregnant women, ... It is FDA-approved for treating bone pain associated with osteoporosis, aiding weight gain following surgery or physical trauma ... Activation of the androgen receptor stimulates protein synthesis, which increases muscle growth, lean body mass, and bone ... to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other ...
Also the muscles of the jaw and the formation of the jaw bones depend on the primary teeth to maintain proper spacing for ... The erupting permanent teeth cause root resorption, where the permanent teeth push on the roots of the primary teeth, causing ... The primary teeth maintain the arch length within the jaw, the bone and the permanent teeth replacements develop from the same ... Medicaments used in pulpectomy include resorbable materials so that they will undergo resorption (dissolution) along with the ...
... bone matrix proteins osteopontin and bone sialoprotein and the osteoclast integrin alpha v beta 3 potentiate bone resorption". ... She served as co-editor of the seven volumes reference book Topics in Bone Biology. In 2010, Farach-Carson was elected AAAS ... In 2021, she was given the Stephen M. Krane Award by the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Consortium, Fantom; ... tissue engineering and bone metastasis. She is a professor of Diagnostic and Biomedical Sciences and Director of Clinical and ...
Root resorption following traumatic dental injuries, whether located along the root surface or within the root canal appears to ... Dental trauma refers to trauma (injury) to the teeth and/or periodontium (gums, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone), and ... Common complications are pulpal necrosis, pulpal obliteration, root resorption and damage to the successors teeth in primary ... Potential sequelae can involve pulpal necrosis, pulp obliteration and root resorption. Necrosis is the most common complication ...
The underlying alveolar bone can be destroyed, leaving a unique appearance referred to as "cupping resorption" or " ... Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the lesion down to the bone. If there are any adjacent teeth, they are cleaned ...
... it can result in resorption and reduction of the alveolar bone as shown in Henrikson's studies when dogs were fed a low calcium ... Becks, H.; Weber, M. (1931). "The Influence of Diet on the Bone System with Special Reference to the Alveolar Process and the ... The ratio of calcium to phosphorus is essential to bone and teeth health; if there is excessive phosphorus within a diet, ... Vitamin D also plays a major role in calcium absorption and bone health because it helps to maintain calcium homeostasis and ...
... is a synthetic isoflavone which may be used to inhibit bone resorption, maintain bone density and to prevent osteoporosis in ... 651-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Civitelli R (1997). "In vitro and in vivo effects of ipriflavone on bone formation and bone ... It slows down the action of the osteoclasts (bone-eroding cells), possibly allowing the osteoblasts (bone-building cells) to ... The drug prevents bone loss via mechanisms that are distinct from those of estrogens. Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary ...
Tanke, D. H.; Farke, A. A. (2006). "Bone resorption, bone lesions, and extracranial fenestrae in ceratopsid dinosaurs: a ... non-pathological bone resorption, or unknown bone diseases, are suggested as causes. A newer study compared incidence rates of ... The bones of the skull roof were fused. By a folding of the frontal bones, a "double" skull roof was created. In Triceratops, ... The cavity between the layers invaded the bone cores of the brow horns. At the rear of the skull, the outer squamosal bones and ...
The soft tissues are protected and resorption of the alveolar bone at the saddle areas is likely to be slow. However, with ' ... Force placed on these areas dissipates into the alveolar bone and will cause resorption over time. Dentures quickly begin to ... reducing the rate of resorption. Direct retainers may come in various designs: Cast circumferential clasp (suprabulge) Akers' ...
... on bone resorption and bone formation markers in type 2 diabetic patients". DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 20 (1): 84 ...
TRAP is associated with osteoclast migration to bone resorption sites, and, once there, TRAP is believed to initiate osteoclast ... Darden AG, Ries WL, Wolf WC, Rodriguiz RM, Key LL (May 1996). "Osteoclastic superoxide production and bone resorption: ... It has been shown that osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, bone matrix phosphoproteins, are highly efficient in vitro TRAP ... "Transgenic mice overexpressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase exhibit an increased rate of bone turnover". Journal of Bone ...
Multiple basioccipitals (a bone at the lower part of the occiput), stapes (one of the ear bones), and a basisphenoid (a bone ... Some of the roots of SNHM1284-R had resorption pits, indicating its teeth were still growing. The only-known complete tooth ... Two probable hyoid bones (tongue bones) are preserved in specimen SNHM1284-R; these bones were rod-like with one spatula-shaped ... Several of the bones are essentially identical to those of A. densus, while others differ in some details. The bones are ...
Their limb bones were reduced in length and their paddles were formed by webbing between their long finger and toe bones. Their ... In the third stage, the developing crown firmly cemented itself within the resorption pit and grew in size; by the fourth stage ... Lastly, mosasaur bones and teeth are also known from California, Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, Peru, and Chile. Many of the so- ... Replacement teeth developed within a pit inside the roots of the original tooth called the resorption pit. This is done through ...
... inhibition of bone resorption, and relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. In addition, estradiol levels were found ... bone turnover and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women". Clinical Endocrinology. 30 (3): 241-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
Deficiency in either testosterone or oestrogen can increase the rate of bone resorption while at the same time slowing down the ... Bone density scans are recommended to monitor the bone mineral density. The bone density scan is known as a dual energy X-ray ... Laitinen EM, Hero M, Vaaralahti K, Tommiska J, Raivio T (August 2012). "Bone mineral density, body composition and bone ... "Treatment of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover". The Journal of Clinical ...
... producing an increase in both bone volume and bone density due to increased bone deposition and resorption. However, long term ... use of these causes resorption, degrading the bone to raise blood calcium. Consequently, these drugs have been researched for ... Silver J, Bushinsky D (July 2004). "Harnessing the parathyroids to create stronger bones". Current Opinion in Nephrology and ... Nemeth EF, Shoback D (June 2013). "Calcimimetic and calcilytic drugs for treating bone and mineral-related disorders". Best ...
... there occurs a resorption (or loss) of alveolar bone, which continues throughout life. Although the rate of resorption varies, ... Increased retention of prosthesis Reduced alveolar bone resorption and preservation of alveolar ridge Reduced horizontal forces ... lead to an increased rate of bone resorption. Therefore, in order to ensure an equal distribution of forces across the mucosa, ... the effects of this muscle are more evident when there has been considerable alveolar bone resorption in the mandibular (lower ...
... root resorption The list continues at List of MeSH codes (C08). (Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2020, All ... alveolar bone loss MeSH C07.465.714.204 - furcation defects MeSH C07.465.714.258 - gingival diseases MeSH C07.465.714.258.250 ...
Additionally, bone resorption and inadequate hydration in space can lead to the formation of kidney stones, and subsequent ... "Bone metabolism and renal stone risk during International Space Station missions". Bone. 81: 712-720. doi:10.1016/j.bone. ...
... bone age 15 years), a severely undermineralized skeleton, evidence of increased bone resorption, and very early-onset ... At the age of 15 years, 5 months, her bone age was 11 or 12 years, and at the age of 17 years, 8 months, her bone age was 13.5 ... Bone age is delayed and bones are more brittle.[citation needed] Variations in these patterns can be achieved by selectively ... Her bone mass was lower than expected for her age, and levels of osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide were both elevated, ...
However, this may give rise to serious complications such as fractures, resorption of the bone, or a flattened nasofacial angle ... Often, a new nasal bone will have to be interpositioned, using a bone transplant. Complications of this procedure are: bleeding ... In this procedure, bone grafts are used to reconstruct the nasal bridge. However, a second procedure is often needed after the ... For example, CT can be used to reveal widening of nasal bones. Diagnostics are mainly used before reconstructive surgery, for ...
They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption ...
... premolar tooth and part of the adjacent bone and ligaments are removed A bolt-shaped structure is fashioned from the tooth-bone ... with the main risks being laminar resorption, particularly in allografts, and glaucoma. Another, bigger study comparing OOKP ... The cheek mucosal lining over the eye is opened and the inner contents of the eye are removed The tooth-bone-cylinder complex ... complex which is fitted with a plastic optical cylinder The tooth-bone-cylinder complex is implanted into the patient's cheek ...
However, the problem is that these glucocorticoids reduce the creation of bone and induce the resorption of bone. They signal ... in bone formation during development and cause an increased amount of bone resorption causing the breaking down of bone tissue ... LIN-SU, K.; NEW, M. I. (2007-11-01). "Effects of Adrenal Steroids on the Bone Metabolism of Children with Congenital Adrenal ... This commonly leads to diseases such as osteopenia and osteoporosis in developing humans due to reduced bone mineral density ...
... participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation IL-11 causes bone-resorption. It stimulates the ... "Interleukin-11 receptor signaling is required for normal bone remodeling". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 20 (7): 1093- ... IL-11 is a cytokine and first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like stromal cells. It was initially thought ... A murine knockout model has been produced for this particular gene, with initial studies involving IL11 role in bone ...
... and ultimately leading to increased plasma calcium levels-through the resorption (breakdown) of bone[citation needed]. ... Han, Yujiao; You, Xiuling; Xing, Wenhui; Zhang, Zhong; Zou, Weiguo (2018). "Paracrine and endocrine actions of bone-the ... and bone marrow progenitor cells. M-CSF affects macrophages and monocytes in several ways, including stimulating increased ... "Failed renoprotection by alternatively activated bone marrow macrophages is due to a proliferation-dependent phenotype switch ...
The recovery phase occurs next, with resorption of the leaked fluid into the bloodstream. This usually lasts two to three days ... Furthermore, dysfunction of the bone marrow due to infection of the stromal cells leads to reduced numbers of platelets, which ... 1779-1780: 'Knokkel-koorts' in Batavia (now Jakarta, Indonesia) and 'break bone fever' in Philadelphia dengue in Oxford ... The term break-bone fever was applied by physician and United States Founding Father Benjamin Rush, in a 1789 report of the ...
Also called "disappearing bone disease", although that name can refer to other forms of bone resorption too. Diabetic ... Some varieties are, save for bone, the structural components of cells and so of the body. Other varieties are enzymes, which ... There are several classes, which act at different points in the water resorption portion of the kidney tubule. Deoxyribonucleic ... Diabetic nephropathy See: Nephropathy Diabetic neuropathy See: Neuropathy Diabetic osteopathy Bone disease secondary to chronic ...
It is part of proton pumps in the plasma membranes of osteoclasts and aids with extracellular acidification in bone resorption ... is an essential component of the osteoclast-specific proton pump that mediates extracellular acidification in bone resorption ... ". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 24 (5): 871-85. doi:10.1359/jbmr.081239. PMC 2672205. PMID 19113919. Human ATP6V0D2 ...
Exogenous corticosteroids induce osteoporosis by increasing bone resorption and reducing bone formation. Bone loss can be ... Trabecular bone loss in the lumbar spine precedes cortical bone loss in the femoral neck. Allergic: allergic or ... Osteoporosis is a type of bone disease characterized by a loss of bone density, mass and architecture that leaves a patient ... "Osteoporosis Overview , NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center". Retrieved 7 ...
... bone fusion, or osteolysis (bone resorption). Although a 2011 research article stated that disagreements between hand surgeons ... and can include bone edema, bone erosions, and new bone growth. Most often psoriatic arthritis is seronegative for rheumatoid ... The bone edema in arthritis mutilans can be treated with TNF inhibitors in the short term: a 2007 study found that the bone ... Specifically, bone marrow edema can be detected within bone on T1-weighted images as poorly defined areas of low signal, with a ...
Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Prospective Study. Download Prime PubMed App to ... Increased bone resorption predicted hip fracture independently of bone mass, i.e., after adjustment for femoral neck bone ... Increased bone resorption predicted hip fracture independently of bone mass, i.e., after adjustment for femoral neck bone ... Absorptiometry, PhotonAgedAged, 80 and overAmino AcidsBiomarkersBone DensityBone ResorptionCohort StudiesCollagenCollagen Type ...
... promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via simultaneously decreasing bone formation and increasing bone resorption (26 ... ELISA analyses revealed that bone formation markers, ALP and osteocalcin, and bone resorption markers, TRAP-5b and CTX, were ... 5p-administered OVX-operated mice may be caused by a combination of increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption. ... A liver-bone endocrine relay by IGFBP1 promotes osteoclasto-genesis and mediates FGF21-induced bone resorption. Cell Metab. 22: ...
Retracted] Dynamic Evaluation of Orthodontically-Induced Tooth Movement, Root Resorption, and Alveolar Bone Remodeling in Rats ...
Dual targeting of SIK2/3 and CSF1R induces bone formation without concomitantly increasing bone resorption and thereby may ... Here we report that YKL-05-099 increases bone formation in hypogonadal female mice without increasing bone resorption. ... Dual targeting of salt inducible kinases and CSF1R uncouples bone formation and bone resorption. ... Dual targeting of salt inducible kinases and CSF1R uncouples bone formation and bone resorption ...
Replacement of an Upper Right Central Incisor with Root Resorption: Ridge Preservation, Early Placement of an RC Bone Level ... Replacement of an Upper Right Central Incisor with Root Resorption: Ridge Preservation, Early Placement of an RC Bone Level ... Replacement of an Ankylosed Upper Left Central Incisor: Bone Augmentation and Socket Grafting, Late Placement of an RC Bone ... Bone Level at Adjacent Teeth. ≤ 5 mm to contact point. 5.5 to 6.5 mm to contact point. > 7 mm to contact point. ...
Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption: Effectiveness of high concentration versus prolonged exposure. ... Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption: Effectiveness of high concentration versus prolonged exposure. ... T1 - Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption. T2 - Effectiveness of high concentration versus prolonged ... Effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 exposure on bone resorption : Effectiveness of high concentration versus prolonged exposure. ...
Expression of Heparanase by Primary Breast Tumors Promotes Bone Resorption in the Absence of Detectable Bone Metastases Thomas ... This increase in bone resorption releases numerous factors stored in the bone that fuels further tumor growth, thereby leading ... The finding that bone resorption is stimulated by breast cancer cells expressing high levels of heparanase before bone ... Although metastases to bones are not detected, surprisingly vigorous bone resorption is stimulated in animals bearing tumors ...
Xanthine oxidase mediates cytokine-induced, but not hormone-induced bone resorption. J M Kanczler, T M Millar, T Bodamyali, D R ... Dive into the research topics of Xanthine oxidase mediates cytokine-induced, but not hormone-induced bone resorption. ...
Stern, P. H., & Bell, N. H. (1970). Effects of glucagon on serum calcium in the rat and on bone resorption in tissue culture. ... Stern, Paula H. ; Bell, Norman H. / Effects of glucagon on serum calcium in the rat and on bone resorption in tissue culture. ... Effects of glucagon on serum calcium in the rat and on bone resorption in tissue culture. / Stern, Paula H.; Bell, Norman H. ... Stern, PH & Bell, NH 1970, Effects of glucagon on serum calcium in the rat and on bone resorption in tissue culture, ...
The data suggest that upregulation of RANKL on bone marrow cells is an important determinant of increased bone resorption ... The data suggest that upregulation of RANKL on bone marrow cells is an important determinant of increased bone resorption ... The data suggest that upregulation of RANKL on bone marrow cells is an important determinant of increased bone resorption ... The data suggest that upregulation of RANKL on bone marrow cells is an important determinant of increased bone resorption ...
Targeting TSC1 represents a novel strategy to inhibit bone resorption and prevent bone loss-related diseases. ... Targeting TSC1 represents a novel strategy to inhibit bone resorption and prevent bone loss-related diseases.", ... Targeting TSC1 represents a novel strategy to inhibit bone resorption and prevent bone loss-related diseases. ... Targeting TSC1 represents a novel strategy to inhibit bone resorption and prevent bone loss-related diseases. ...
The bone resorption activity of mature osteoclast was examined in osteoclasts cultured on a hydroxyapatite-coated culture plate ... Transcription factor and bone resorption marker mRNA levels were evaluated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain ... These results demonstrate that WEMV inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by suppressing the RANKL signaling pathway ... Furthermore, WEMV significantly attenuated osteoclast resorption activity and downregulated mRNA expression of resorption ...
Supplementation with a low-moderate dose of n-3 long-chain PUFA has no short-term effect on bone resorption in human adults. ... Supplementation with a low-moderate dose of n-3 long-chain PUFA has no short-term effect on bone resorption in human adults. In ... Supplementation with a low-moderate dose of n-3 long-chain PUFA has no short-term effect on bone resorption in human adults. / ... Supplementation with a low-moderate dose of n-3 long-chain PUFA has no short-term effect on bone resorption in human adults. ...
High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilisation-induced bone resorption and protein losses ... High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilisation-induced bone resorption and protein losses. ... High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilisation-induced bone resorption and protein losses. Journal of Applied ... high salt intake, bed rest, bone loss, protein wasting, acid base balance. ...
Bone resorption is often a feature of such diseases, and monocytes are frequently found at sites of localized bone resorption. ... Preliminary experiments with monocyte-conditioned medium indicated that MCF could stimulate bone resorption. We therefore ... Bone resorption is often a feature of such diseases, and monocytes are frequently found at sites of localized bone resorption. ... Preliminary experiments with monocyte-conditioned medium indicated that MCF could stimulate bone resorption. We therefore ...
Syk, c-Src, the αvβ3 integrin, and ITAM immunoreceptors, in concert, regulate osteoclastic bone resorption Wei Zou, Wei Zou ... Syk regulates bone resorption by its inclusion with the αvβ3 integrin and c-Src in a signaling complex, which is generated only ... Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. J. Clin. Invest. ... Bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone is strikingly diminished in collagenase-resistant mutant mice. J. Clin. Invest. ...
Dive into the research topics of Vitamin K1 intake is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption ... Vitamin K1 intake is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in early postmenopausal Scottish ... Vitamin K1 intake is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in early postmenopausal Scottish ... Vitamin K1 intake is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in early postmenopausal Scottish ...
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... raloxifene regulates osteoclast development of time ago as bone resorption assay protocol. ... 115 Bone culture bone differences 116 media 10 oxygen in 116 protocols. XN markedly inhibited bone issue and resorption by ... One clinical director of bone formation: bone resorption assay protocol of ion channels. In vitro resorption assay protocol. ... A bone resorption assay was carried out in vitro using bone slices RT-PCR was. The purification of Tregs was assessed by flow ...
Light, a TNF-superfamily member, induces osteoclast formation in vitro; A novel mediator of bone resorption? ... Light, a TNF-superfamily member, induces osteoclast formation in vitro; A novel mediator of bone resorption? ...
Tags Basic, bone formation, Bone mechanoregulation, bone remodeling, bone resorption, diabetes, ECTS, ECTS 2021, loading, ... bone resorption Investigating and analysing the effects of extracellular pH on osteoclast biology. 31 October 2021. 1 July 2021 ... Tags AKT-mTOR, bisphosphonate, bone resorption, burn injury, clinical research, muscle, myoblast, myotube, pamidronate, TGF- ... Tissue-level mechanical stimuli drive bone formation and resorption in humans and mice. 31 October 2021. 4 June 2021. Matthias ...
Decrease in bone supporting the roots of teeth, which is a common result of periodontal disease. ... Bone Resorption. By asw on December 3, 2013 in Decrease in bone supporting the roots of teeth, which is a common result of ...
... they lead to a variable degree of alveolar bone resorption. Raloxifene is an agonist in bone, and acts inhibiting bone loss. ... Under normal circumstances, bone volume and mass are held constant by bone resorption and apposition processes 1. Nevertheless ... In vitro, raloxifene plays a role in the modulation of bone homeostasis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, ... as different studies have reported bone resorption due to bone exposure by flap displacement 3,5,7. Yaffe et al. 4 conducted a ...
These bone losses are called jaw bone atrophy.. What are the Causes of Jaw Bone Loss?. After tooth extraction, the jawbone ... Can You Get an Implant After Jaw Bone Loss?. To patients with jaw bone loss, an implant can be applied as long as enough ... How Long Does The Jaw Bone Loss Treatment Take?. If treatment with the box technique is applied to the patients with jaw bone ... Thanks to the Box technique, the dentist could control the bone loss, and then the bone becomes suitable for prostheses by ...
Dental implants and continued dental care in San Jose can effectively prevent bone loss and protect patients dental health and ... Understanding Bone Resorption. Bone resorption, also known as bone loss, is a natural process that can occur when a tooth is ... Dental implants are made of titanium, which is a metal that can fuse with the bone to become part of its structure. As the ... It is essential that bone loss be avoided because it can lead to a weaker and malformed jawbone, which may soon affect a ...
Bone resorption is the process of braking down the bones into its mineral and collagenous constituents through a cellular ... What Is Bone Resorption?. Bone resorption is the process of breaking down the bones into its mineral and collagenous ... Bone resorption is the process of braking down the bones into its mineral and collagenous constituents through a cellular ... In order to explain the process of bone resorption, it is first vital to understand the structure of a bone and its cellular ...
Osteoclastic Bone Resorption. Bone remodeling is a lifelong process of bone degradation and formation important for bone ... Autophagy proteins regulate the secretory component of osteoclastic bone resorption. Dev Cell (2011) 21:966. doi:10.1016/j. ... Osteoclasts cooperate with osteoblasts in bone remodeling in which osteoclasts are responsible for bone degradation and ... and eventually have impaired bone resorption. Importantly, development of osteoclasts was not aberrant indicating that the ...
Find your preferred Bone Resorption Inhibitors right here. ... Bone Resorption Inhibitors. Largest database listed for your ... Home - Human - Miscellaneous Therapeutic Agents - Miscellaneous Autonomic Drugs - Bone Resorption Inhibitors. Bone Resorption ...
It inhibits osteoclast formation, decreases bone resorption, increases bone mineral density (BMD), and reduces the risk of ... Hypocalcemia results if the rate of skeletal mineralization exceeds the rate of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. ... this effect is presumably mediated by inhibition of bone resorption. Overfluorinated public water supplies and ingestion of ... and mediates PTH-stimulated bone reabsorption. Calcitonin lowers calcium by targeting bone, renal, and GI losses. ...
  • As a dynamic metabolic system, bone modeling or remodeling is modulated by two major bone cells: Osteoblasts, which are able to secrete bone matrix and accelerate calcium (Ca) deposition, and osteoclasts, which are responsible for resolving mineralized bone matrix ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • In the process of bone maintenance and repair, extracellular signaling transduction between osteoblasts and osteoclasts serves a crucial role in bone homeo-stasis ( 4 ). (
  • Reorganization of the podosome into the sealing zone is crucial for osteoclasts (OCLs) to resorb bone, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. (
  • Osteoclasts with bone resorbing function were obtained from coculture of BMCs and calvarial osteoblasts. (
  • Syk −/− osteoclasts fail to organize their cytoskeleton, and, as such, their bone-resorptive capacity is arrested. (
  • This defect results in increased skeletal mass in Syk −/− embryos and dampened basal and stimulated bone resorption in chimeric mice whose osteoclasts lack the kinase. (
  • Formation of osteoclasts on calcium phosphate bone cements and polystyrene depends on monocyte isolation conditions. (
  • Since osteoclasts leave pits after bone matrix resorption Charles et al. (
  • This will facilitate osteoclasts the easy access to the mineral dense portion of the bone. (
  • This will be facilitated by various chemical messengers released at the site of immature forms of osteoclasts (preosteoclasts) in the bone matrix. (
  • During this first step, many preosteoclasts mature into osteoclasts, which are able to de-mineralize the bone. (
  • Once activated, the osteoclasts can secrete various enzymes including collagenases that are capable of digesting the mineralized bone and its collagen. (
  • As a result of osteoclasts invading the periosteum, the densely mineralized bone will break into its constituents while minerals such as calcium gets released to the blood circulation. (
  • When the osteoclasts become highly active and appear abundant in the bony matrix, the most likely result would be an increased destruction of the bone at a rate higher than its formation. (
  • This study investigated the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW 264.7 murine pre-osteoclasts. (
  • Arthritic hTNFα tg mice transplanted with Atg7 fl/fl ×LysMCre + bone marrow cells (BMC) showed reduced numbers of osteoclasts and were protected from TNFα-induced bone erosion, proteoglycan loss and chondrocyte death. (
  • 1 Osteoclasts are the major cellular mediators of bone degradation in RA, which results in articular erosions and systemic osteoporosis. (
  • In this context, osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts are abundant at sites of arthritic bone erosions. (
  • In the present study we utilized a well-known human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231) in order to assess its capability to influence osteoclastogenesis in human bone marrow cultures and bone resorption in fully differentiated osteoclasts. (
  • Bone resorption activity of fully differentiated human osteoclasts and of osteoclast-like cell lines, from giant cell tumors of bone (GCT), was highly increased by the presence of MDA-231 CM. Moreover, while MDA-231 by themselves did not produce IL-6 tumor cell, CM increased the secretion of IL-6 by primary human osteoclasts and GCT cell lines compared to untreated controls. (
  • The contribution of osteoclasts to the process of bone loss in inflammatory arthritis has recently been demonstrated. (
  • In conclusion, we demonstrated that icariin has an in vitro inhibitory effects on osteoclasts differentiation that can prevent inflammatory bone loss. (
  • Bone biopsies in patients with Paget disease have demonstrated antigens from several different Paramyxoviridae viruses, including measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus, located within osteoclasts. (
  • Paget disease begins with the lytic phase, in which normal bone is resorbed by osteoclasts that are more numerous, are larger, and have many more nuclei (up to 100) than normal osteoclasts (5-10 nuclei). (
  • The longer the duration of menopause, the more estradiol function decreases, which causes osteoclasts to become active in bone resorption [3]. (
  • At the cellular level, alendronate shows preferential localization to sites of bone resorption, specifically under osteoclasts. (
  • The osteoclasts adhere normally to the bone surface but lack the ruffled border that is indicative of active resorption. (
  • Thus, alendronate must be continuously administered to suppress osteoclasts on newly formed resorption surfaces. (
  • Conversely, augmentation of miR‑100‑5p using a specific agomir in OVX‑operated mice decreased the levels of FGF21 in the serum and liver, and prevented osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. (
  • For example, overexpression of miR-34a, miR-125a and miR-503 inhibits osteoclastogenesis to rescue bone loss ( 9 , 11 , 12 ). (
  • Conversely, miR-214 promotes osteoclastogenesis, and inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation ( 10 , 13 ). (
  • Data obtained suggests an inhibitory effect of these compounds on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in the cell line tested. (
  • MEF2C regulates osteoclastogenesis and pathologic bone resorption via c-FOS. (
  • Hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase staining were performed to analyze the trabecular bone microstructure and osteoclast differentiation. (
  • The results revealed that in vitro osteoclast differentiation and in vivo bone resorption were suppressed by miR‑100‑5p overexpression. (
  • Benzydamine inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone. (
  • Conclusions These findings demonstrate that autophagy is activated in RA in a TNFα-dependent manner and regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. (
  • Here we show that intrinsic ageing of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) 2 in mice alters signalling in the bone marrow niche and skews the differentiation of bone and blood lineages, leading to fragile bones that regenerate poorly. (
  • Our hypothesis is that icariin can inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by suppressing MAPKs/NF-κB regulated HIF-1α and PGE 2 synthesis. (
  • Increased bone resorption predicted hip fracture independently of bone mass, i.e., after adjustment for femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and independently of mobility status assessed by the gait speed. (
  • Design: We measured bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) risk and a cohort of Scottish women aged 49-54 y in 1990-1994 (baseline) and in 1997-2000 (visit 2). (
  • Thus, resorption is an essential part of maintaining required density of a particular bone. (
  • Evaluation of bone mineral status can utilize measures of total bone mineral content and bone mineral density. (
  • Further, porosity reduces metal density and Young module, which causes bone resorption, leading to implant failure, phenomenon known as stress shielding. (
  • These data suggest (1) even brief sleep restriction and circadian disruption can adversely affect bone metabolism, and (2) there is no P1NP recovery with ongoing exposure that, taken together, could lead to lower bone density over time. (
  • Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at both the lumbar spine [AP: L1-L4] and femoral hip (neck, trochanter). (
  • To analyze the relationship between age, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and alveolar bone resorption with menopause duration in postmenopausal women. (
  • The longer the duration of menopause showed a tendency for lower bone density and higher age, BMI, and bone resorption. (
  • Osteoporosis is characterized by bone mineral density (BMD), thus increasing bone fragility and fracture risk. (
  • Bone density loss is a problem for astronauts on long spaceflights, such as to Mars and back. (
  • Researchers at the University of California, Davis College of Engineering have developed a transgenic, or genetically modified, lettuce producing a drug to protect against bone density loss in microgravity. (
  • These power relationships, which were shown to hold for all bone in the skeleton, allow meaningful predictions of bone tissue strength and stiffness based on in vivo density measurements. (
  • Tensile testing of bone over a wide range of strain rates:​ effects of strain rate, microstructure and density. (
  • Cortical bone in man, I:​ variation of the amount and density with age and sex. (
  • Bone compressive strength:​ the influence of density and strain rate. (
  • What foods destroy bone density? (
  • What is the fastest way to increase bone density? (
  • Keep reading for tips on increasing bone density naturally. (
  • Does Reclast build bone density? (
  • Fosamax and other drugs such as Actonel, Boniva, and Reclast increase bone density and help prevent and treat osteoporosis and/or reduce the risk of fractures. (
  • How much does Reclast improve bone density? (
  • Loss of bone mineral density is associated with low polyunsaturated n-3 levels in adults of all ages. (
  • A study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition of healthy young men showed concentrations of EPA and DHA were positively associated with total bone mineral density (BMD) and spine BMD. (
  • Women with osteoporosis had a far lower intake of EPA and DHA than women with normal bone density or those with osteopenia. (
  • To be eligible for the successful placement of dental implants, the patient must have good oral health and jaw bone density to support the implant. (
  • Zygomatic implants are an alternate solution to restoring lost bone density with a bone grafting procedure. (
  • During the placement of zygomatic implants, the implant is anchored in the zygoma bone, a part of the jawbone adjacent to the cheek, and is known for its high density. (
  • While we treat older patients and we believe it is never too late to improve a smile, the patient needs to have sufficient bone density to support a dental implant. (
  • Baseline samples were collected prior to fracture for the measurement of two markers of bone formation and three urinary markers of bone resorption: type I collagen cross-linked N- (NTX) or C-telopeptide (CTX) and free deoxypyridinoline (free D-Pyr). (
  • abstract = 'In healthy subjects, subcutaneous injections of GLP-2 have been shown to elicit dose-related decrease in the bone resorption marker, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and have been proposed for the treatment of osteoporosis. (
  • Moreover, in the merged groups, RANKL expression per cell correlated directly with the bone resorption markers, serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and urine N-telopeptide of type I collagen, in all three cell types and inversely with serum 17β-estradiol for total RANKL-expressing cells. (
  • First, hydroxyproline is check in all collagens, not being type I collagen, the type then in bone. (
  • The changes in 25(OH)D 3 , whole parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum pentosidine, and the bone turnover markers urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX), serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-5b, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were evaluated. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate root resorption and alveolar bone resorption pattern by jiggling movement. (
  • Root resorption pattern was not different between jiggling force and unidirectional force. (
  • The results indicate that inhibition of bone resorption may be a factor in the hypocalcemic response to glucagon. (
  • Otto f se, resorption assay allows them were also containing marine collagen structures in the inhibition of rankl to some. (
  • These results suggest that sodium salicylate has an inhibitory effect on the recruitment of osteoclast-like MNCs and that this inhibition is greater during the later stage of mouse bone marrow culture. (
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may interfere with calcium absorption through induction of hypochlorhydria but they also may reduce bone resorption through inhibition of osteoclastic vacuolar proton pumps. (
  • Stern, PH & Bell, NH 1970, ' Effects of glucagon on serum calcium in the rat and on bone resorption in tissue culture ', Endocrinology , vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 111-117. (
  • Serum samples from 113 mild-moderately depressed individuals (twenty-six males and eighty-seven females, aged 18-67 years) randomised to receive 1·48 g EPA+DHA/d (n 53) or placebo (n 60) for 12 weeks as part of a large recent randomised controlled trial were assayed for n-3 PUFA status and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX). (
  • At visit 2, bone markers (urinary pyridinoline crosslinks and serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen) were measured, 3199 women completed a food-frequency questionnaire, and 2721 women were genotyped for APOE. (
  • These agents decrease the movement of calcium from bone to serum. (
  • Halleen JM, Ranta R 2001 Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase as a Serum Marker of Bone Resorption . (
  • Measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase-in some cases, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)-along with several urinary markers, can be useful in the diagnosis of Paget disease. (
  • Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons, forelimb bones, and serum were assayed using ELISA for indicators of inflammation, tissue stress and repair, and bone turnover. (
  • Serum bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of bone formation and urinary N-telopeptides are markers of bone resorption. (
  • For NHANES 2001, the HybritechTandem-MP Ostase ImmunoEnzymetric assay was used for quantitative measurement of Bone Alkaline Phosphatase (BAP), an indicator of osteoblastic activity, in human serum. (
  • This study demonstrated that serum 25(OH)D 3 became significantly decreased after only 4 months of BP treatment in Japanese osteoporotic patients and confirmed that MIN more strongly inhibited bone turnover as compared with RIS. (
  • Introduction: A serum bone formation marker (procollagen type 1 N-terminal, P1NP) was lower after approximately 3 weeks of sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption. (
  • Here we report that YKL-05-099 increases bone formation in hypogonadal female mice without increasing bone resorption. (
  • Postnatal mice with inducible, global deletion of SIK2 and SIK3 show increased bone mass, increased bone formation, and, distinct from the effects of YKL-05-099, increased bone resorption. (
  • Rapamycin and active Rac1/Cdc42 restore podosome organization and bone resorption and alleviate osteopetrotic phenotypes in mutant mice. (
  • Conclusion: In this study, raloxifene did not inhibit alveolar bone resorption following MFS in male mice. (
  • The extent of bone and cartilage destruction was analysed in human tumour necrosis factor α transgenic (hTNFα tg) mice after adoptive transfer with myeloid specific Atg7-deficient bone marrow. (
  • Single-cell RNA-sequencing studies link the functional loss to a diminished transcriptomic diversity of SSCs in aged mice, which thereby contributes to the transformation of the bone marrow niche. (
  • Exposure to a youthful circulation through heterochronic parabiosis or systemic reconstitution with young haematopoietic stem cells did not reverse the diminished osteochondrogenic activity of aged SSCs, or improve bone mass or skeletal healing parameters in aged mice. (
  • Deficient bone regeneration in aged mice could only be returned to youthful levels by applying a combinatorial treatment of BMP2 and a CSF1 antagonist locally to fractures, which reactivated aged SSCs and simultaneously ablated the inflammatory, pro-osteoclastic milieu. (
  • We have previously reported that bone resorption induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in TNFR2-deficient mice is accelerated compared to that in wild-type (WT) mice. (
  • Injections of human TNF-α (hTNF), an agonist of mouse TNFR1, stimulated bone resorption lacunae on the calvariae in WT mice, but mouse TNF-α (mTNF), an agonist of both mouse TNFR1 and TNFR2, could not. (
  • Injection of mTNF resulted in clear bone resorption lacunae to the same extent observed after using hTNF in the TNFR2-deficient mice. (
  • Studies in mice on the localization of radioactive [ 3 H]alendronate in bone showed about 10-fold higher uptake on osteoclast surfaces than on osteoblast surfaces. (
  • Bones examined 6 and 49 days after [ 3 H]alendronate administration in rats and mice, respectively, showed that normal bone was formed on top of the alendronate, which was incorporated inside the matrix. (
  • Bone formation and resorption are typically coupled, such that the efficacy of anabolic osteoporosis treatments may be limited by bone destruction. (
  • Dual targeting of SIK2/3 and CSF1R induces bone formation without concomitantly increasing bone resorption and thereby may overcome limitations of most current anabolic osteoporosis therapies. (
  • Osteoporosis drastically affects the quality of life in menopausal women and patients affected by rheumatic inflammatory diseases, has significant economic repercussions, and increases the mortality associated with fractures provoked as a result of pathological and exacerbated bone resorption. (
  • Icariin has been reported to enhance bone healing and treat osteoporosis. (
  • [ 3 ] Paget disease, as the condition came to be known, is the second most common bone disorder (after osteoporosis) in elderly persons. (
  • The primary goals of osteoporosis (OP) treatment are the prevention of bone fragility fractures and maintenance of skeletal health. (
  • Uncoupling of bone formation and resorption by combined o estrogen and progestagen therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis. (
  • Although it does not cause death, menopause can decrease quality of life and lead to degenerative diseases especially bone loss or osteoporosis [2]. (
  • The loss of bone mass can also occur due to factors like periodontal disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, chemo treatment, or radiation treatment. (
  • TSC1 deletion in OCLs reduced podosome belt formation in vitro and sealing zone formation in vivo, leading to bone resorption deficiency and osteopetrosis. (
  • An interleukin 1 like factor stimulates bone resorption in vitro. (
  • OsteoLyseTM Bone Resorption Assay Kit This assay provides an prove to use protocol for quantitatively measuring in vitro osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. (
  • Mon inhibited hydroxyapatite resorption in vitro. (
  • Salicylates are reported to have an inhibitory effect on bone resorption in vivo and in vitro. (
  • Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine alveolar bone resorption by measuring alveolar bone height in the mandible of partially edentulous female patients through panoramic radiograph Material and Methods: The method of this study was descriptive using 34 panoramic radiographs of partially edentulous mandible in female patients aged 20-45 years in Dental Radiology Installation of Unpad Dental Hospital from 2016 to 2017. (
  • Conclusion: Alveolar bone height in partially edentulous mandible of female patients underwent resorption of mild classification according to proximal RABL method. (
  • Lack of retention and stability are the main complaints in complete removable mandibular dentures due to the continuous bone resorption in edentulous subjects. (
  • In this area, the pneumatization of Higmoro's antrum on one side and the edentulous alveolar process resorption on the other compete to make implant anchorage prosthetic rehabilitation impossible. (
  • A sliding bridge flap (SBF) was used in cases which were totally edentulous and had a reduced sulcus depth due to alveolar resorption. (
  • Increased bone turnover has been suggested as a potential risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. (
  • Elderly women are characterized by increased bone turnover, and some markers of bone resorption predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture independently of hip BMD. (
  • Conclusions: Vitamin K, intake was associated with markers of bone health, but no interaction was observed with APOE alleles on BMD or markers of bone turnover. (
  • Both substances stop bone turnover for multiple mechanisms, particularly by influencing OC and OB. (
  • Bone turnover rates increase to as much as 20 times normal. (
  • All bone turnover markers were significantly decreased at 4 months in both groups. (
  • 4 We previously compared the early changes in bone turnover markers between MIN and RIS and found MIN to more strongly and immediately inhibit bone turnover. (
  • Histomorphometry in baboons and rats showed that alendronate treatment reduces bone turnover (i.e., the number of sites at which bone is remodeled). (
  • And function with osteoclastogensis and hydroxyapatite resorption assays. (
  • A 70-kg person has approximately 1.2 kg of calcium in the body, more than 99% of which is stored as hydroxyapatite in bones. (
  • Bisphosphonates are analogues of inorganic pyrophosphate and act by binding to hydroxyapatite in bone matrix, thereby inhibiting the dissolution of crystals. (
  • The drug is adsorbed onto calcium pyrophosphate crystals and may block the dissolution of these crystals, also known as hydroxyapatite, which are an important mineral component of bone. (
  • Bisphosphonates are synthetic analogs of pyrophosphate that bind to the hydroxyapatite found in bone. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effects of miR‑100‑5p on the mechanism of liver‑bone endocrine metabolism. (
  • The present study revealed that FGF21 may be a signal molecule associated with the mechanism of liver‑bone endocrine metabolism and may be targeted by miR‑100‑5p. (
  • Several in vivo experimental models evaluating the effects of mechanical loading on bone metabolism have been reported. (
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism , 29 (6), 671-681. (
  • The important regulatory hormones in bone metabolism are 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH). (
  • These data suggest even brief exposure to sleep and circadian disruptions may disrupt bone metabolism. (
  • Calcium metabolism, in turn, is tightly regulated by a series of hormones that affect not only the entry of calcium into the extracellular space from bone and the GI tract but also control its excretion from the kidneys. (
  • Bone metabolism is dynamic, in concert with Wolff's law, and a normal subchondral bone plate displays the same capacity to increase in thickness according to physiologic loading [3]. (
  • Recent research suggests that an alkaline environment is important for healthy bone as well as healthy calcium, oxalate and uric acid metabolism. (
  • Tri-Alkali supportshealthy acid-alkaline balance and provides specific support for bone health and healthy kidney oxalate and uric acid metabolism. (
  • Elderly women had increased bone formation and resorption compared with healthy premenopausal women. (
  • Among the cells present in the bony matrix, some contributes towards the formation and maintenance of the bone while other cells facilitate breakdown of the same. (
  • In a healthy individual, the bone formation takes place until adulthood and thereafter a process known as 're-modeling' will take over. (
  • Effect of cytokines on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading of the periodontal membrane. (
  • These results suggest that osteoclast formation and bone resorption caused by loading forces on the periodontal ligament depend on TNF-α. (
  • In this review we describe and discuss the effect of cytokines in the periodontal ligament on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during mechanical force loading. (
  • Pit formation and bone-resorption area on the bone slices were also inhibited by adding sodium salicylate continuously with 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 . (
  • We demonstrated that conditioned medium (CM) harvested from MDA-231 increased the formation of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells in bone marrow cultures. (
  • These data suggest that MDA-231 produce osteoclastic activating factor(s) that increase both osteoclast formation in bone marrow culture and bone resorption activity by mature cells. (
  • Paget disease is a localized disorder of bone remodeling that typically begins with excessive bone resorption followed by an increase in bone formation. (
  • The second phase, the mixed phase, is characterized by rapid increases in bone formation from numerous osteoblasts. (
  • The newly made bone is abnormal, however, with collagen fibers deposited in a haphazard fashion rather than linearly, as with normal bone formation. (
  • Combined pattern of bone resorption and new bone formation appeared in jiggling group. (
  • New bone formation began to appear at periapical area of jiggling group after 24 days, because alveolar bone resorption was severe and extrusion resulted. (
  • Rapid suppression of bone formation marker in response to sleep restriction and circadian disruption in men. (
  • Summary: We describe the time course of bone formation marker (P1NP) decline in men exposed to approximately 3 weeks of sleep restriction with concurrent circadian disruption. (
  • In addition, bone formation exceeds bone resorption at these remodeling sites, leading to progressive gains in bone mass. (
  • By slowing or stopping the bone-resorbing portion of the remodeling cycle, bisphosphonates allow new bone formation to catch up with bone resorption. (
  • Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody (IgG2) whose mechanism of action inhibits osteoclast formation, function and survival, causing a decrease in bone resorption. (
  • Plus, EPA and DHA boost the production and activity of osteoblasts, thus increasing the rate of new bone formation. (
  • [1] The disease further leads to gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket formation, connective tissue destruction, and alveolar bone resorption, ultimately causing tooth loss, which is one of the major reasons for tooth loss in adults. (
  • Typically in cats with hyperplastic feline juvenile gingivitis, periodontitis changes, including alveolar bone loss, gingival resorption, pocket formation, or root exposure, are not seen initially but may result when proper treatment is not initiated early. (
  • Therefore, this study aimed to identify the onset of chondrification and ossification of the wing bones also to summarize the main histological sequences related to the formation of the humerus in Japanese quail. (
  • Bone growth starts with cartilage formation. (
  • Thanks to the Box technique, the dentist could control the bone loss, and then the bone becomes suitable for prostheses by applying an implant. (
  • Can You Get an Implant After Jaw Bone Loss? (
  • To patients with jaw bone loss, an implant can be applied as long as enough jawbone is left. (
  • The ONLY tooth replacement option that can stimulate bone is a dental implant. (
  • Patients who wear dentures for a long time before seeking dental implants may struggle with a jaw bone that cannot properly support the dental implant. (
  • With a mini-dental implant, the metal post is shorter, requiring less bone structure to secure the implant. (
  • Over the course of several months, your body will begin to deposit bone around the implant. (
  • They then drill a hole into the bone where the implant will be placed. (
  • These include chronic gum (periodontal) disease, a progressive bone infection known as chronic osteomyelitis, and an eye disease called open-angle glaucoma. (
  • The process used to rebuild or reshape bone and soft supporting tissue destroyed by periodontal disease is bone grafting or regenerative surgery. (
  • The proposed algorithm was verified by comparing simulation results with the analytical results of a simple geometry and biological in vivo data of bone substitutes. (
  • Bone deformation recorded in vivo from strain gauges attached to the human tibial shaft. (
  • Cameron JR, Sorenson J. Measurement of bone mineral in vivo:​ an improved method. (
  • After tooth extraction, the bone surrounding the root begins to dissolve rapidly. (
  • Bone resorption, also known as bone loss, is a natural process that can occur when a tooth is lost. (
  • Orthodontic tooth movement is a useful model for understanding the mechanism of bone remodeling induced by mechanical loading. (
  • This is because after a tooth is lost the bone will atrophy and the cheek will collapse into the open space. (
  • The opposite teeth will move through the bone to try contact the missing tooth. (
  • When a tooth is lost the bone that once supported the tooth is no longer needed. (
  • The gum is retracted to open access to the bone and root, then the bone defects are removed and the gum tissue is sutured back around the tooth. (
  • A flap is reflected (gum is slightly lifted away from the tooth), and a small amount of bone is trimmed away, just like a cavity would be drilled. (
  • Cases, for example, of dysodontiasis for which it is necessary to open a bone gap, cut a tooth (if needed) in order to be able to remove it safely and as less traumatically as possible. (
  • Tooth loss leads to resorption so the jawbone will change, and this can lead to ill-fitting and uncomfortable dentures. (
  • During the dissection process, the periosteum is detached from the alveolar bone, leading to a resorptive phase due to the stimulation offered by osteoclastic activity and loss of bone crest 2-4 . (
  • Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity. (
  • The multi-kinase inhibitor YKL-05-099 potently inhibits salt inducible kinases (SIKs) and may represent a promising new class of bone anabolic agents. (
  • WEMV inhibits bone resorption. (
  • IJMS Free Full-Text Aesculetin Inhibits Osteoclastic Bone. (
  • Furosemide inhibits the resorption of sodium and chloride in the loop of Henle and the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney. (
  • Zoledronate inhibits bone resorption. (
  • In tissue culture experiments with embryonic rat bone labeled with 45 Ca, glucagon inhibited the release of 46Ca induced with either parathyroid hormone or dibutyryl- 3′, 5′-adenosine monophosphate. (
  • In tissue culture experiments with embryonic rat bone labeled with 45Ca, glucagon inhibited the release of 46Ca induced with either parathyroid hormone or dibutyryl- 3′, 5′-adenosine monophosphate. (
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue with high remodeling capacity in response to the body's metabolic requirements. (
  • In most cases, performance of the HRHF task induced the greatest tissue degenerative changes, while performance of moderate level tasks induced bone adaptation and a suggestion of muscle adaptation. (
  • It is also involved in bone resorption, the breakdown and removal of bone tissue that is no longer needed. (
  • Through both surgical and non-surgical procedures our specialists are skilled in reversing bone & tissue damage, gum grafts to cover exposed roots, reduce a gummy smile or re-contour an uneven gum line. (
  • Resulting cellular activation collectively contribute to tissue destruction and bone resorption with the release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines, chemokines etc. [ 4 ]. (
  • Dynamic response of bone and muscle tissue. (
  • Bone tissue is the most common metastatic site for solid tumors. (
  • During the people, the alterations off bones and you will muscle tissue while in the adolescence are reigned over from the the fresh increasing levels of testosterone and IGF-1, which produce enhanced muscle mass and strength. (
  • The blend from large deformation forces plus the highest flexing moments due to longitudinal development contributes to a bone tissue increases pattern dominated from the periosteal apposition. (
  • The data suggest that upregulation of RANKL on bone marrow cells is an important determinant of increased bone resorption induced by estrogen deficiency. (
  • From inside the people, with low levels out-of testosterone, and higher estrogen levels, bone bulk, but not full mix-sectional town, tends to improve faster when it comes to muscle town. (
  • PTH stimulates osteoclastic bone reabsorption and distal tubular calcium reabsorption and mediates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH] 2 D) intestinal calcium absorption. (
  • [ 5 ] Vitamin D stimulates intestinal absorption of calcium, regulates PTH release by the chief cells, and mediates PTH-stimulated bone reabsorption. (
  • Besides replacing missing bone, bone grafting also stimulates new bone growth. (
  • Over time this resorption can cause a significant decrease in the quality of life for the patient, especially when multiple teeth are missing. (
  • There were two methods used to measure Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in NHANES 2001-2002. (
  • These findings provide no evidence for an association between n-3 PUFA supplementation (1·48 g EPA+DHA/d) for 12 weeks and bone resorption in humans assessed by β-CTX, and suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation may be unlikely to be of benefit in preventing bone loss. (
  • The mean steady-state volume of distribution, exclusive of bone, is at least 28 L in humans. (
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that results in severe destruction of articular cartilage and bone. (
  • Functionally, aged SSCs have a decreased bone- and cartilage-forming potential but produce more stromal lineages that express high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-resorptive cytokines. (
  • Pyd and Dpd are hydroxylysine-derived crosslinks of collagen found in bone and cartilage and excreted in the urine. (
  • Quantitative studies of human subchondral cancellous bone:​ its relationship to the state of tts overlying cartilage. (
  • Within joints, the subchondral bone layer is a supporting structure for the overlying articular cartilage. (
  • Three embryos were prepared and stained with Alcian blue and Alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. (
  • When mouse bone marrow cells were cultured for 8 days with 10 -8 M 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), numerous clusters of mononuclear and multinucleated cells (MNCs) formed, which stained positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive). (
  • At the same time, the calcium level in the body is also a determining factor on the resorption state of a bone. (
  • PTH will accelerate the resorption process in order to replenish the reduced calcium level in blood. (
  • As such, if it detects the calcium levels to be too high, the secretion of parathyroid hormone will lessen and therefore the resorption process will lose its steam. (
  • Calcium is necessary for bone mineralization and is an important cofactor for hormonal secretion in endocrine organs. (
  • Approximately 500 mg of calcium is removed from the bones daily and replaced by an equal amount. (
  • Plasma calcium is maintained despite its large movements across the gut, bone, kidney, and cells. (
  • When you drink, alcohol acts like a calcium-blocker, preventing the bone-building minerals you eat from being absorbed. (
  • However, approximately six months after teeth loss, the patient's jaw bone deterioration begins due to the bone resorption process, where the calcium from the jawbone gets redistributed to other body parts. (
  • Tri-Alkali supports healthy acid-alkaline balance in the body to promote optimal calcium absorption and healthy bones. (
  • Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein is required for synovitis and bone resorption in inflammatory arthritis. (
  • To clarify the role of TNFR2, we developed a TNF-α-induced bone resorption model using cholesterol-bearing pullulan nanogel as a TNF-α carrier to minimize the influence of inflammatory cytokines other than TNF-α. (
  • The same journal also published data on the effect of omega 6 (n-6) vis-a-vis n-3 concentrations and its effect on bone health for patients 45 and over. (
  • Objective: We investigated the relation between dietary vitamin K, intake, A POE polymorphisms, and markers of bone health. (
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 11, no. 10, 1996, pp. 1531-8. (
  • Bone resorption is the process of braking down the bones into its mineral and collagenous constituents through a cellular mechanism. (
  • In general, the bones are formed of cells, non-mineral collagenous matrix and mineral deposits. (
  • The matrix of the bone, which is mainly constituted by collagenous material, gains its hardness due to the deposition of mineral salts. (
  • Weaver JK, Chalmers J. Cancellous bone:​ its strength and changes with aging and an evaluation of some methods for measuring its mineral content, I:​ age changes in cancellous bone. (
  • Battle and you can intercourse outcomes for the association between muscles strength, softer structure, and you will limbs mineral occurrence for the compliment elders: the medical, aging, and the entire body constitution study," Record out-of Bones and you may Mineral Lookup, vol. 16, zero. (
  • This body mechanism is very similar to the phenomenon of thinning of our broken arm and leg bones after plastering. (
  • However, in a disease state, this would not be the main mechanism regulating the bone resorption and therefore the control may not be sufficient to prevent continued bone destruction. (
  • Breast cancers commonly cause osteolytic metastases in bone, a process that is dependent upon osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, but the mechanism responsible for tumor-mediated osteoclast activation has not yet been clarified. (
  • Also, an infected jawbone or widespread infection in maximal or mandible teeth can cause bone loss. (
  • Jawbone loss is treated with Box Technique with the grafts and membrane applications brought from bone banks abroad. (
  • It is essential that bone loss be avoided because it can lead to a weaker and malformed jawbone, which may soon affect a patient's appearance. (
  • This process is incredibly good for your jawbone because it can stop the process of resorption and even strengthen your jaw. (
  • In dentistry, surgical access to the alveolar bone is routinely conducted as part of different treatment approaches, including restoration, periodontal treatment, rehabilitation, endodontic treatment, and in the surgical removal of teeth and/or pathological processes. (
  • Role of RANKL in physiological and pathological bone resorption and therapeutics targeting RANKL-RANK signaling system. (
  • Nevertheless, some factors, including surgical bone exposure, may lead to some imbalance in these mechanisms. (
  • Chronic cadmium exposure primarily affects the kidneys and secondarily the bones. (
  • It is not adequate to remove gum since this would result in bone exposure. (
  • MIN) is the strongest inhibitor of bone resorption among commercially available. (
  • FOSAMAX * (alendronate sodium) is a bisphosphonate that acts as a specific inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. (
  • Women with both a femoral BMD value of 2.5 SD or more below the mean of young adults and either high CTX or high free D-Pyr levels were at greater risk of hip fracture, with an odds ratio of 4.8 and 4.1, respectively, than those with only low BMD or high bone resorption. (
  • Sedlin‌ ED, Hirsch C. Factors affecting the determination of the physical properties of femoral cortical bone. (
  • Eating fatty fish, which are rich in n-3, has been shown to slow bone resorption and help prevent the loss of BMD in the femoral neck in older patients. (
  • As previously reported, levels of a bone resorption marker (C-telopeptide (CTX)) were unchanged. (
  • Targeting TSC1 represents a novel strategy to inhibit bone resorption and prevent bone loss-related diseases. (
  • Raloxifene is an agonist in bone, and acts inhibiting bone loss. (
  • Digital images were obtained and the alveolar bone loss was measured (mm²) using an image analysis software. (
  • The europium fluorophore releasing reagent to protocols in bone resorption results therefore, for hair loss and building new members of tregs on the skin. (
  • What are the Causes of Jaw Bone Loss? (
  • One of the essential factors that cause jaw bone loss is Cyst and Tumor-like formations. (
  • How is Jaw Bone Loss Treated? (
  • How Long Does The Jaw Bone Loss Treatment Take? (
  • If multiple teeth are lost, and not replaced with dental implants, then patients can experience future gum and teeth problems because of bone loss. (
  • However, dental implants and continued dental care in San Jose can prevent bone loss. (
  • Dental implants can effectively prevent bone loss and protect patient's dental health and overall appearance. (
  • Fig. 1: Age-related bone loss coincides with altered skeletal stem-cell function. (
  • Alveolar bone height was measured using Proximal RABL (Radiographic Alveolar Bone Loss) method with the help of Ez-Pax Plus software. (
  • Bone loss seen on radiography was measured by drawing a vertical line from the cementoenamel in the distal part of the 36 teeth and the mesial portion of 46 teeth to the base of the bone marked by the lamina dura intact. (
  • There are specific bone loss patterns that lend themselves well to these treatments and others which are not appropriate. (
  • Our periodontists will assess the bone loss pattern and advise you if the bone loss pattern around your teeth will lend itself to this procedure. (
  • Prevents bone loss. (
  • Figure 4 - Bone loss adjacent to the left mandibular molars and premolars in a young cat with feline juvenile-onset periodontitis. (
  • The lack of bone loss on radiographs and the absence of caudal oral mucositis is strongly suggestive of feline juvenile feline hyperplastic gingivitis. (
  • Young cats with alveolar bone loss prior to one year of age are strongly suggestive of feline juvenile periodontitis and helps to differentiate the two conditions. (
  • These factors exert a distal effect resulting in resorption of bone and the accompanying enrichment of the bone microenvironment with growth-promoting factors that may nurture the growth of metastatic tumor cells. (
  • Icariin also inhibited LPS-induced bone resorption and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. (
  • However, if your teeth are lost due to an accident, infection, or age, then you need to replace them right away in order to limit resorption. (
  • Also, if you have suffered from resorption and do not have any strong, remaining teeth, they may be necessary. (
  • In order to maintain healthy gums and jaw bone, it is critical to clean under and around the dentures as well as cleaning the actual teeth. (
  • Abstract Previous research suggests that n-3 PUFA may play a role in bone health. (
  • Although these results suggested that TNFR2 might have a protective role in bone resorption, we could not exclude the possibility that TNFR2 has no role in bone resorption. (
  • In order to explain the process of bone resorption , it is first vital to understand the structure of a bone and its cellular constituents. (
  • Apart from these factors, certain disease processes such as psoriatic arthritis, lack of stimuli, disuse, and even the old age can accelerate the process of bone resorption. (
  • When looking at the cross section of a bone, the outermost layer is termed as the 'cortical zone' while the inner zone of the bone is given the name, 'trabecular' or 'spongy' zone. (
  • Compression tests of human and bovine trabecular bone specimens with and without marrow in situ were conducted at strain rates of from 0.001 to 10.0 per second. (
  • This enhancement of material properties at the highest strain rate was due primarily to the restricted viscous flow of marrow through the platen rather than the flow through the pores of the trabecular bone. (
  • A structural model for the mechanical behavior of trabecular bone. (
  • Hayes WC, Carter DR. Postyield behavior of subchondral trabecular bone. (
  • Elastic and viscoelastic properties of trabecular bone:​ dependence on structure. (
  • Composition of trabecular and cortical bone. (
  • Galante J, Rostoker W, Ray RD. Physical properties of trabecular bone. (