Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Marrow DiseasesOsteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Mice, Inbred C57BLHematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.OsteomyelitisBone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Bones of Lower Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Mice, Inbred BALB CHip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Tibial FracturesRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Femoral NeoplasmsFractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Mandibular DiseasesOsteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Endocrinology 139: 4058 -4060 PMID 8756585 Athanasou N. (1996) The cellular biology of bone-resorbing cells. J Bone Joint ... 1998). Human tumour-associated macrophages differentiate into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells. J Pathol 184: 31-36. PMID ... 1997) Human arthroplasty-derived macrophages differentiate into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells. Ann Rheum Dis 56: 414 - 420 ... Ewing sarcoma and giant cell-rich lesions such as giant cell tumour of bone and pigmented villonodular synovitis. In addition, ...
The clusters of perivascular plasma cells still appears from the established lesion. Bone is resorbed, producing scarring and ... Features of the Established Lesion: Predominance of plasma cells without bone loss Presence of extravascular immunoglobulins in ... Features of the Advanced Lesion: Extension of the lesion into alveolar bone, periodontal ligament with significant bone loss ... Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare condition thought to be a hypersensitivity reaction. Lichenoid lesions may also occur on the ...
"Resorption-cycle-dependent polarization of mRNAs for different subunits of V-ATPase in bone-resorbing osteoclasts". Molecular ... Morel N (Oct 2003). "Neurotransmitter release: the dark side of the vacuolar-H+ATPase". Biology of the Cell / Under the ... Stevens TH, Forgac M (1998). "Structure, function and regulation of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase". Annual Review of Cell and ... Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 3 (2): 94-103. doi:10.1038/nrm729. PMID 11836511. Kawasaki-Nishi S, Nishi T, Forgac M ( ...
Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that resorb bone and are essential for bone homeostasis. This gene encodes an osteoclast- ... 2004). "OSCAR is an FcRgamma-associated receptor that is expressed by myeloid cells and is involved in antigen presentation and ... 2005). "Fc receptor gamma-chain activation via hOSCAR induces survival and maturation of dendritic cells and modulates Toll- ... 2005). "Association of the OSCAR promoter polymorphism with BMD in postmenopausal women". J. Bone Miner. Res. 20 (8): 1342-8. ...
It is occasionally secreted by cancer cells (breast cancer, certain types of lung cancer including squamous cell lung carcinoma ... It regulates endochondral bone development by maintaining the endochondral growth plate at a constant width. It also regulates ... Without PTHrP, the bony crypt surrounding the tooth follicle will not resorb, and therefore the tooth will not erupt. In the ... Loss of PTHrP or its receptor causes the mammary bud cell fate to change back into epidermis. In lactation, it may regulate in ...
Bone continuously undergoes remodeling by actions of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts. One of the main ... specifically Th17 cells. Th17 cells are present in higher quantities at the site of bone destruction in joints and produce ... "Prominent bone loss mediated by RANKL and IL-17 produced by CD4+ T cells in TallyHo/JngJ mice". PLoS ONE. 6 (3): e18168. doi: ... a cell surface protein present in Th17 cells and osteoblasts. Osteoclast activity can be directly induced by osteoblasts ...
Blood cells that are created in bone marrow include red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.[34] Progenitor cells such ... the rate at which osteoclasts resorb bone is inhibited by calcitonin and osteoprotegerin. Calcitonin is produced by ... Cancellous bone, also called trabecular or spongy bone,[6] is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell ... Bone marrow[edit]. Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds ...
Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals ... The cells of cementum are the entrapped cementoblasts, the cementocytes. Each cementocyte lies in its lacuna, similar to the ... Cementum is capable of repairing itself to a limited degree and is not resorbed under normal conditions. Some root resorption ... Cementum is secreted by cells called cementoblasts within the root of the tooth and is thickest at the root apex. These ...
These are the cells responsible for the resorption of bone. Osteoclasts are generally present on the outer layer of bone, just ... Bone is resorbed by osteoclasts, and is deposited by osteoblasts in a process called ossification. Osteocyte activity plays a ... Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ... Bone remodelling is a process which maintains bone strength and ion homeostasis by replacing discrete parts of old bone with ...
... bone resorbing cells), macrophages, neutrophils, sperm, midgut cells of insects, and certain tumor cells. Plasma membrane V- ... V-ATPases are also found in the plasma membranes of a wide variety of cells such as intercalated cells of the kidney, ... V-ATPases in the osteoclast plasma membrane pump protons onto the bone surface, which is necessary for bone resorption. In the ... Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis shows mild symptoms in adults experiencing frequent bone fractures due to brittle bones { ...
... cells in the cartilage)." It was also shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis (the formation of bone resorbing cells) Harmine, and ... "The small molecule harmine regulates NFATc1 and Id2 expression in osteoclast progenitor cells". Bone. 49: 264-274. doi:10.1016/ ... "Harmine showed cytotoxicity against HL60 and K562 cell lines. This could explain the cytotoxic effect of P. harmala on these ... cells." "Harmine was shown to promote differentiation of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), and chondrocytes ( ...
Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major ... Cell Biol. 9 (8): 970-7. doi:10.1038/ncb1623. PMID 17643114. Bratkovič, et al. (2005). "Affinity selection to papain yields ... High levels of this enzyme in tumor cells seems to be associated with greater invasiveness. Cathepsin K is the most potent ... Cathepsin K is involved in osteoporosis, a disease in which a decrease in bone density causes an increased risk for fracture. ...
An osteoclast (from the Greek words for "bone" (ὀστέον), and "broken" (κλαστός)) is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone ... Nesbitt, S.; M.A. Horton (1997). "Trafficking of Matrix Collagens Through Bone-Resorbing Osteoclasts". Science. 276 (5310): 266 ... "Isolation of osteoclasts from Pagetic bone tissue: morphometry and cytochemistry on isolated cells". Bone. 9 (1): 1-6. doi: ... An osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell and human osteoclasts on bone typically have five nuclei and are about 150-200 µm ...
... is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue. This function is critical in the maintenance, repair, and remodelling of ... Nesbitt, S.; M.A. Horton (1997). "Trafficking of Matrix Collagens Through Bone-Resorbing Osteoclasts". Science. 276 (5310): 266 ... An osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell and human osteoclasts on bone typically have five nuclei and are 150-200 µm in ... At a site of active bone resorption, the osteoclast forms a specialized cell membrane, the "ruffled border", that opposes the ...
The osteolysis is followed by a compensatory increase in bone formation induced by the bone forming cells, called osteoblasts, ... The resorbed bone is replaced and the marrow spaces are filled by an excess of fibrous connective tissue with a marked increase ... and does not spread from bone to bone. Rarely, a bone affected by Paget's disease can transform into a malignant bone cancer. ... Gordon MT, Anderson DC, Sharpe PT (1991). "Canine distemper virus localised in bone cells of patients with Paget disease". Bone ...
... osteoclasts move to resorb the surface of the bone, followed by deposition of bone by osteoblasts. Together, the cells that are ... bone resorption and bone formation, results in many metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. Bone homeostasis involves ... Two main types of cells are responsible for bone metabolism: osteoblasts (which secrete new bone), and osteoclasts (which break ... Bone remodeling (or bone metabolism) is a lifelong process where mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process ...
New bone is deposited by osteoblast cells and resorbed or destroyed by osteoclast cells. This addition and subtraction of bone ... a bone resorption stimulant, is decreased. Although protein has shown to be beneficial for increasing bone mass, or bone ... Arnett, T (May 2003). "Regulation of bone cell function by acid-base balance". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 62 (2 ... Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is a measure commonly used to quantify bone health. A lower BMD value indicates an increased risk of ...
There is evidence that these giant cells represent osteoclasts (bone-eating cells); others suggest they are more like ... The former has a slow rate of growth and thus less likely to resorb roots and perforate the cortical plate. The aggressive form ... The giant cells may be diffusely located throughout the lesion or focally aggregate in the lesion. The giant cells are ... Central giant-cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign condition of the jaws. It is twice as likely to affect women and is more likely ...
... appropriate cell signaling occurs to trigger osteoclasts to resorb the surface of the bone, followed by deposition of bone by ... This occurs with the synchronized action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, cells that resorb and deposit bone, respectively. The ... Together, the cells in any given particular region of the bone surface that are responsible for bone remodeling are known as ... Bone 1989;10:215-221. Parfitt, AM, et al. Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. J Bone ...
Cells are accumulated in G0 and G1 phases. In vitro studies showed that tamoxifen acts as an estrogen agonist on bone and ... inhibits the resorbing activity of osteoclasts (disruption of bone tissue). Retinoids are used to improve skin manifestations. ... New bone formation under the periosteum can be detected by radiographs of long bones. In order diagnose PDP, often other ... Biphosphonates inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption and therefore reduce bone remodeling and alleviate painful polyarthritis. ...
... characterized by proliferation of osteogenic cells from the adjacent bone marrow in the alveolar bone. Bone formation starts ... Bone remodeling as the alveolus adapts to the edentulous state occurs in the longer term as the alveolar process slowly resorbs ... Bone fragments: Particularly when extraction of molars is involved, it is not uncommon for the bones which formerly supported ... in the alveolar bone. At the time of extraction a platelet rich fibrin (PRF) membrane containing bone growth enhancing elements ...
The selective ingrowth of bone-forming cells into a bone defect region could be improved if the adjacent tissue is kept away ... Horia Barbu, Monica Comăneanu, Mihai Bucur (Mar 2012). "Guided Bone Regeneration in severely resorbed maxilla". Rev. chir. oro- ... Bone grafting used in conjunction with sound surgical technique, GBR is a reliable and validated procedure.Guided bone ... There are several uses of bone regeneration: Fenestration and Dehiscence building up bone around implants placed in tooth ...
As the cyst grows from hydraulic pressure it causes the bone around it to resorb, and may cause movement of teeth or other ... This "resting" epithelium (also termed cell rests) is usually dormant or undergoes atrophy, but, when stimulated, may form a ... Cysts that have expanded beyond the normal anatomic boundaries of a bone are still often covered with a thin layer of new bone ... The bones of the jaws, the mandible and maxilla, are the bones with the highest prevalence of cysts in the human body. This is ...
... and long-term studies suggest that bones regrown with ePTFE function as well as non-augmented naive bone. Resorbable membranes ... They are often cross-linked and take between four and forty weeks to resorb, depending on the type. Collagen absorbable barrier ... The purpose of a membrane is to prohibit the penetration of cells, primarily epithelial, through its structure. When barrier ... Membranes used in guided bone regeneration (GBR) and grafting may be of two principal varieties: non-resorbable resorbable. ...
The remodeling process substitutes the trabecular bone with compact bone. The trabecular bone is first resorbed by osteoclasts ... The periosteal cells distal to (at the far end of) the fracture gap develop into osteoblasts, which form woven bone. The ... Young bone unites more rapidly than adult bone. Pre-existing bone malignancy. Mechanical factors such as the bone not being ... Age, Bone type, drug therapy and pre existing bone pathology are factors which affect healing. The role of bone healing is to ...
Cells called osteoclasts secrete enzymes that dissolve old bone, allowing another type of cells called osteoblasts to form new ... The resorbed bone is replaced by a markedly vascularized fibrous tissue. The apparent contradiction concerning the presence or ... As the disease progresses bone deformity occurs with further loss of bone mass and, in the tubular bones (the long bones of the ... Massive osteolysis (acute spontaneous absorption of bone, phantom bone, disappearing bone): its relation to hemangiomatosis. J ...
Bone homeostasis requires precise balance between resorption of old bone by osteoclasts and deposition of new bone by ... Osteoporosis is a bone disease that leads to an increased risk of fractures. The bone mass is reduced and the bones are porous ... Bone homeostasis requires precise balance between resorption of old bone by osteoclasts and deposition of new bone by ... Renal Osteodystrophy / Mineral Bone Disorder. Renal Osteodystrophy which is referred to as Mineral Bone Disorder is a result of ...
Despite similarities, an important distinction between these cell types is that osteoclasts can resorb bone, but it is unknown ... Both cell types differentiated into multinucleated cells on bone, but FBGCs were larger and had a higher number of nuclei ... Both cell types were cultured on bovine bone slices and analyzed for typical osteoclast features, such as bone resorption, ... FBGCs were not able to resorb bone, yet they were able to dissolve the mineral fraction of bone at the surface. Remarkably, ...
Study reveals how cancer cells use bone marrow fat for growth and survival ... Research breakthrough into more efficient creation of STEM cell like cells * Guidelines on reporting multi-arm parallel-group ... Joint cell discovery offers new hope for people with rheumatoid arthritis * Kennedy Professor leads Cellular Life Theme of ... TRoMbone feasibility study finishes recruitment * OCTRU Apprentice Katie Chegwin wins Oxfordshire Apprentice of the Year 2018 ...
... characteristics within the heterogeneous RAW264.7 cells that define sub-clones with an augmented ability to form bone-resorbing ... Sub-clone H9 cells presented a higher expression of OC-markers in cultures without added RANKL compared to the parental ... In contrast to H9, J8 cells expressed initially very low levels of OC-markers, and they did not respond to RANKL-stimulation by ... RAW264.7 is a heterogeneous cell line, containing sub-clones with different abilities to form OCs. The aim of this study was to ...
Osteoclasts are marrow-derived, multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells which express a macrophage phenotype. We have determined ... These results indicate that the tumour osteolysis associated with the growth of mesenchymal tumours in bone is likely to be due ... Macrophages were cultured on both coverslips and dentine slices for up to 21 days with UMR 106 osteoblastic cells in the ... in the absence of UMR 106 cells, with M-CSF and RANK ligand. In all tumours, the formation of osteoclasts from CD14-positive ...
Genome-wide expression analyses establish dendritic cells as a new osteoclast precursor able to generate bone-resorbing cells ... Genome-wide expression analyses establish dendritic cells as a new osteoclast precursor able to generate bone-resorbing cells ...
... with low bone mass for more than one year. ... 27 (HealthDay News) -- The drug denosumab can boost bone mass ... Denosumab inhibits the activation of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. The women were randomly assigned to receive ... At the end of the study, more of the women who received denosumab had gained at least 3 percent of bone mass at the hip and ... "The fact that bone density changes were greater than the most commonly used antiresorptive agent, alendronate, shows that ...
resorbing osteoclasts. Cells will be stained for numbers and resorption markers and properties. ... hyperglycemia on bone matrix and the bone cells. T2DM patients have reduced bone formation ... project is aimed at testing whether hyperglycemia directly reduces the activity of the bone resorbing ... telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), indicating bone cells are adversely affected. This ...
The clusters of perivascular plasma cells still appears from the established lesion. Bone is resorbed, producing scarring and ... Features of the Established Lesion: Predominance of plasma cells without bone loss Presence of extravascular immunoglobulins in ... Features of the Advanced Lesion: Extension of the lesion into alveolar bone, periodontal ligament with significant bone loss ... Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare condition thought to be a hypersensitivity reaction. Lichenoid lesions may also occur on the ...
... also play a crucial role in bone formation, according to findings by UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers. The findings ... Choloroquine reduces formation of bone resorbing cells in murine osteoporosis. December 9, 2013 Bone homeostasis requires ... After we are born, these multipotent cells give rise to all our cell lineages: lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid cells. ... Common osteoporosis drug slows formation of new bone. April 17, 2013 Although the drug zoledronic acid slows bone loss in ...
Her laboratory focuses on the osteoclast, the cell responsible for resorbing bone. She also has a clinical practice at the VA ... on cell volume regulation in vascular endothelial cells the cells lining the blood vessel walls. His research has important ... Daniel Reines, biochemistry and co-director of the program in biochemistry, cell and development biology, is interested in ... His research interests include molecular mechanisms of intestinal cell growth and nutritional regulation of intestinal growth ...
Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorbing cells that maintain bone homeostasis. OC differentiation, survival, and activity are ... These cells are highly motile and alternate between migratory and bone-resorbing stages, with dramatic phenotype changes. ... Osteopetrosis is an inherited heterogeneous bone disease that is characterized by the inability to resorb bone and consequent ... Pagets Disease of Bone. Pagets disease of bone (PDB) is characterized by focal and disorganized increases in bone turnover. ...
... and maybe even some clinicians about bone biology. The various animations ... The cells responsible for building and resorbing bone. • How RANK ligand and sclerostin regulate bone. • The cause and ... The biology and impact of metastatic bone disease. Links: New Insights into Bone Biology; Pioneering New Frontiers into ... Tiny 3D Printed Cubes Serve as Scaffolding for Broken Bones. Augmented Reality Telemedicine Shown to be Effective for ...
These agents strongly inhibit bone resorbing osteoclast cells. If treated in the presence of vitamin D deficiency, these drugs ... Suboptimal vitamin D in the blood also causes poor bone calcification, leading to a softening of bones (rickets in children, ... Having strong bones and good neuromuscular control are the keys to minimizing falls and fractures. Fall risks increase when ... When calcium is deficient, active vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D, which is in fact, a hormone] starts to rob calcium from bones to ...
Endothelial proteolytic activity and interaction with non-resorbing osteoclasts mediate bone elongation. ... Cell Stem Cell. 2018 Jan 4;22(1):64-77.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2017.11.006. Epub 2017 Dec 21. ... Angiocrine signals regulate quiescence and therapy resistance in bone metastasis.. Singh A, Veeriah V, Xi P, Labella R, Chen J ... Exp Cell Res. 2018 Apr 1;365(1):46-56. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.02.016. Epub 2018 Feb 23. ...
Journal Article] In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Bone-Resorbing Osteoclasts2011. *. Author(s). T. Kowada, J. Kikuta, A. Kubo, M ... Presentation] S1P-mediated control of bone cell dynamics visualized by intra-vital microscopy2014. *. Author(s). Masaru Ishii ... Presentation] Intravital multiphoton imaging revealing immune cell dynamics in bone destruction in vivo.2014. *. Author(s). ... In this study we have revealed novel mechanisms controlling migration and function of different bone cells in situ and also ...
Endocrinology 139: 4058 -4060 PMID 8756585 Athanasou N. (1996) The cellular biology of bone-resorbing cells. J Bone Joint ... 1998). Human tumour-associated macrophages differentiate into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells. J Pathol 184: 31-36. PMID ... 1997) Human arthroplasty-derived macrophages differentiate into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells. Ann Rheum Dis 56: 414 - 420 ... Ewing sarcoma and giant cell-rich lesions such as giant cell tumour of bone and pigmented villonodular synovitis. In addition, ...
The critical interplay between bone resorbing and bone forming cells Ulf H Lerner, E. Kindstedt, P. Lundberg Journal of ... Trabecular bone pattern assessment in dental radiographs for prediction of bone fracture risk Astera Johanen, Susanne ... Analysis of the bone ultrastructure around biodegradable Mg-xGd implants using small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray ...
For cancer cells to grow in bone, malignant cells recruit and activate osteoclasts (OC; bone resorbing cells) to resorb the ... Given these data, we next asked whether modulation of ERRα in breast cancer cells could alter OCs, the bone resorbing cells. ... staining for OPG is higher in bone metastasis induced by BO2-ERRαWT cells compared with BO2-CT and BO2-ERRαΔAF2 cells; tissues ... Bone marrow cells from 6-week-old OF1 male mice were cultured for 7 days in differentiation medium: α-MEM medium containing 10 ...
Adult bones are maintained by a balance of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Although Wnt signaling ... The study appears online on March 14 in The Journal of Cell Biology (www.jcb.org). ... Mice lacking one copy of Fzd9 also had low bone mass, suggesting that insufficient Fzd9 may cause the reduced bone density seen ... New research shows that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd9) promotes bone formation, providing a potential new target for the ...
Bone KR, Gruper Y, Goldenberg D, Levanon D, Groner Y. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2010 Aug 15;45(2):112-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2010.04 ... Role of tyrosine phosphatases in regulating production and function of bone-resorbing osteoclasts ... Transdifferentiation of neural crest cell derived melanoma into myelinating Schwann cell. Genes controlling cell growth, ... Levanon D, Negreanu V, Lotem J, Bone KR, Brenner O, Leshkowitz D, Groner Y. Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Mar;34(6):1158-69. doi: 10.1128 ...
Both bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells are potential targets of IL-11. (1) ... IL-11 is produced by bone marrow stromal cells and is part of the cytokine family that shares the gp130 signal transducer. ... the average number of units of red blood cells transfused per patient, and the duration of neutropenia ,500 cells/μL were ... Red blood cell volume decreased similarly (due to repeated phlebotomy) in the Neumega and placebo groups. As a result, whole ...
... parafollicular cells) in the thyroid gland. Calcitonin is involved in prompting bone to resorb calcium from the bloodstream. ... The bones are the bodys major storage compartment for calcium. About 99% of the bodys total calcium is located in bone. In ... cancer in the bones;. *too much calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin A in the diet; excessive intake of dairy products; excessive ... It is a major component of bones and teeth, and is also important in the functioning of the muscles, nervous system, heart, and ...
J Cell Biol. 2007 Sep 10;178(6):1053-64. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Cells were fixed, permeabilized, and labeled with anti-Src antibodies or with rhodamine-phalloidin. More than 75% of the cells ... Average area, depth, and volume of pits resorbed by wild-type and Pyk2-null osteoclasts were measured and analyzed using a ... of bone surface) (h); ObS/BS, osteoblast surface (% of bone surface) (i); BFR/BS, bone formation rate (j). Bars show means ± ...
Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Excess osteoclast activity leads to reduced ... To identify and characterize drugs for treatment of bone diseases, suitable in vivo models are needed to complement cell- ... This led to increased bone resorption and a dramatic reduction of mineralized matrix similar to the situation in humans with ... Our data show that transgenic medaka lines are suitable in vivo models for the characterization of antiresorptive or bone- ...
  • Angiocrine signals regulate quiescence and therapy resistance in bone metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • Bone metastasis is a complication occurring in up to 70% of advanced breast cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bone metastasis is not a direct cause of death but is associated with significant morbidity ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, osteolytic breast cancer metastasis are characterized by an increase in OC number and activity at the bone metastatic site, where excessive bone destruction provides a permissive microenvironment for breast cancer cells to proliferate and expand ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unfortunately, current treatments for bone metastasis that rely on antiresorptive agents are only palliative, raising the need for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this pathology so as to design potential alternative therapies ( 3, 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The role of ERRα in bone metastasis formation is currently unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the light of these findings, we asked here whether ERRα is involved in breast cancer bone metastasis formation and progression, and whether modulating its activity abrogates bone destruction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This led to the discovery of cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathological bone resorption associated with primary and secondary bone tumours, particularly breast cancer metastasis, Ewing sarcoma and giant cell-rich lesions such as giant cell tumour of bone and pigmented villonodular synovitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone metastasis is the ultimate stage of prostate cancer progression and the primary cause of prostate cancer mortality 1 . (urotoday.com)
  • Patients with metastasis in bone have an impaired quality of life due to spinal cord compression leading to severe pain, fractures, hypercalcemia, etc. (urotoday.com)
  • Bone metastasis can be osteolytic or osteosclerotic (osteoblastic) 2 . (urotoday.com)
  • Anti-resorptive therapies, i.e., bisphosphonates and denosumab (a human monoclonal antibody that is a RANKL inhibitor), are used for osteoclastic bone metastasis 5 . (urotoday.com)
  • In a recent study, we used a pre-clinical bone metastasis experimental model involving intra-cardiac implantation of PC3-ML human prostate cancer cells to study the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant MDA-7/IL-24 protein 10 . (urotoday.com)
  • Currently, no curative options are available for prostate cancer bone metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using bone metastasis experimental models, animals treated with recombinant MDA-7/IL24 had significantly less metastatic lesions in their femurs as compared with controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results expand the potential applications of MDA-7/IL24 as an anticancer molecule and demonstrate that purified recombinant protein is nontoxic in preclinical animal models and has profound inhibitory effects on bone metastasis, which can be enhanced further when combined with an Mcl-1 inhibitory small molecule. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regulation of cancer cell migration and bone metastasis by RANKL. (springer.com)
  • At the Texas Biomedical Research Institute, research with baboons may help explain why some people who take bone-strengthening drugs like bisphosphonates are at-risk for atypical fractures in the long bones in their legs. (medindia.net)
  • Even minor falls can lead to serious bone fractures. (innovations-report.com)
  • The keratin material may be porous for use as a bone replacement and augmentation product but also provided is the use of dense keratin materials in bone treatment for use as an internal fixation appliance in the treatment of bone fractures and bone regeneration, and a method for preparing the keratin material for use in the preservation, restoration and development of form and function of bone. (google.com)
  • The keratin materials described are biocompatible, biointegratable, and biodegradable and the primary application of the materials is in orthopaedic surgery for replacement and augmentation of bone, and fixation and immobilization of bone fractures and bone segments. (google.com)
  • 25 Higher intake of vitamin K1 is associated with lower rates of bone loss and fractures. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Pathology of trauma, bone fractures and healing. (slideserve.com)
  • New research in animals triggered by a combination of serendipity and counterintuitive thinking could point the way to treating fractures caused by rapid bone loss in people, including patients with metastatic cancers. (redorbit.com)
  • It is remarkable that orexins manage to regulate bone formation by using two different receptors located in two different tissues. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By using this advanced imaging technique in this study we have established a new system for visualizing in situ behavior of a diversity of living cells within intact tissues and organs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2005). Phenotypic and molecular studies on giant cell tumours of bone and soft tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinized tissues can form onto a base of skin or bone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some babies may show signs of bruising on the face or head simply as a result of the trauma of passing though the birth canal and contact with the mother's pelvic bones and tissues. (chop.edu)
  • As the foreign materials are broken down by these systems, artificial components, which can have detrimental effects on the cells and surrounding tissues, are released. (sfexaminer.com)
  • Medical materials which are absorbed (resorbed) by the body tissues after fulfilling their function are an example of an area of high value products in which the specific characteristics of keratin allow it to outperform both natural and synthetic competitive materials. (google.com)
  • Osteoporotic bones are more porous and therefore more vulnerable to fracture. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The keratin material may be porous for use as a bone. (google.com)
  • 1. A porous material product for the replacement and augmentation of bone, comprising S-sulfonated keratin treated with reducing agent to remove sulfonate functionality and form disulfide crosslinks in the presence of a water soluble porogen and optionally containing up to 60% by weight of hydroxyapatite relative to the total weight of the material. (google.com)
  • Despite the important contribution of cell-cell fusion in the development and physiology of eukaryotes, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This observation suggests that the TREM-2-DAP12 complex may regulate the function of an unexpectedly vast array of myeloid cells, including not only DCs, but also osteoclasts (OCs) and microglial cells, which are critical for bone modeling and brain function, respectively. (rupress.org)
  • Orexin proteins, which are blamed for spontaneous daytime sleepiness, also play a crucial role in bone formation, according to findings by UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers. (medicalxpress.com)
  • At the nonpermissive temperature, cessation of large T antigen expression was accompanied by induction of p53, as well as the p53-dependent proteins, wild-type p53-activated fragment-1/Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase)-interacting protein-1 (p21/Waf1), Bcl (B-cell lymphoma)-associated protein (Bax), and murine double minute 2 (MDM2), that lead to cell cycle-arrest, suicide, and p53 inhibition, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • Engagement of cell surface cytokine receptors activates the Janus kinase (JAK) family of protein tyrosine kinases, which phosphorylate and activate cytoplasmic STAT proteins ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a name that designates two proteins, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, which are the products of distinct genes, but which show approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity and which recognize the same cell surface receptors. (rndsystems.com)
  • Although cell-cell fusion requires the presence of fusogenic membrane proteins and actin-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization, the precise machinery allowing cells to fuse is still poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • HeLa cervical cancer cells stained for the cytoskeletal proteins actin (red) and tubulin (green). (statnews.com)
  • Examining how cancer cells use cytoskeletal proteins to move through the body may lead to targeted therapies that reverse these protein signals. (statnews.com)
  • Journal Article] Interferon-α acts on the S/G2/M phases to induce apoptosis in the G1 phase of an IFNAR2-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 15 ) have shown that human MM cells also express constitutively activated STAT3, which confers resistance to apoptosis in these cells through expression of high levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x L ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Bony defects with fewer wall generally have more predictable bone fill results. (dentalcare.com)
  • It was believed that as the body healed, these screws would be replaced by bone in the bony tunnels, making any future surgery easier. (sfexaminer.com)
  • Although the reason for the development of the early autoimmune reaction is unknown, the mechanisms that connect immune activation to bone destruction are better defined and built the basis of a new field of research called osteoimmunology ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Dr. Hoey's research has discovered novel mechanisms by which bone can sense and respond to a biophysical stimulus. (tcd.ie)
  • For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. (mdpi.com)
  • 2. Interrogate the molecular mechanisms by which the PODXL, CXCR4, and NHERF-1 complex influences osteoclast lineage cells. (labome.org)
  • Through these simulations, the researchers were able to study the link between local mechanical stress and its impact on the bone at the cellular level. (cscs.ch)
  • Treatments thus far involve the use of frames to stabilize bone and of osteo-inductive agents (such as BMP) to increase the amount of bone deposition at the site of injury. (springer.com)
  • In resorbing OCs, polarized vesicular trafficking pathways also result in formation of the ruffled membrane, the resorbing organelle, and in transcytosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Bone modeling and remodeling are precisely coordinated through interactions and regulation by multiple genes and signaling pathways including GNAS , which encodes the α-subunit of stimulatory G-protein (Gsα) of adenylyl cyclase and activates cAMP signaling. (nature.com)
  • Fracture repair is a complex and well-orchestrated regenerative process involving numerous signaling pathways and cell types. (springer.com)
  • Genetic perturbations in YAP1/Hippo and p53 pathways are known to contribute to the cells' ability to turn rogue and initiate tumorigenesis. (stanford.edu)