Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Marrow DiseasesOsteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Mice, Inbred C57BLHematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.OsteomyelitisBone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Bones of Lower Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Mice, Inbred BALB CHip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Tibial FracturesRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Femoral NeoplasmsFractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Mandibular DiseasesOsteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).

22-oxacalcitriol suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism without inducing low bone turnover in dogs with renal failure. (1/1457)

BACKGROUND: Calcitriol therapy suppresses serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with renal failure but has several drawbacks, including hypercalcemia and/or marked suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to adynamic bone disease. A new vitamin D analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), has been shown to have promising characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCT on serum PTH levels and bone turnover in states of normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: Sixty dogs were either nephrectomized (Nx, N = 38) or sham-operated (Sham, N = 22). The animals received supplemental phosphate to enhance PTH secretion. Fourteen weeks after the start of phosphate supplementation, half of the Nx and Sham dogs received doses of OCT (three times per week); the other half were given vehicle for 60 weeks. Thereafter, the treatment modalities for a subset of animals were crossed over for an additional eight months. Biochemical and hormonal indices of calcium and bone metabolism were measured throughout the study, and bone biopsies were done at baseline, 60 weeks after OCT or vehicle treatment, and at the end of the crossover period. RESULTS: In Nx dogs, OCT significantly decreased serum PTH levels soon after the induction of renal insufficiency. In long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, OCT (0.03 microg/kg) stabilized serum PTH levels during the first months. Serum PTH levels rose thereafter, but the rise was less pronounced compared with baseline than the rise seen in Nx control. These effects were accompanied by episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. In animals with normal renal function, OCT induced a transient decrease in serum PTH levels at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, which was not sustained with lowering of the doses. In Nx dogs, OCT reversed abnormal bone formation, such as woven osteoid and fibrosis, but did not significantly alter the level of bone turnover. In addition, OCT improved mineralization lag time, (that is, the rate at which osteoid mineralizes) in both Nx and Sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though OCT does not completely prevent the occurrence of hypercalcemia in experimental dogs with renal insufficiency, it may be of use in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism because it does not induce low bone turnover and, therefore, does not increase the risk of adynamic bone disease.  (+info)

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (2/1457)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Diurnal variation and age differences in the biochemical markers of bone turnover in horses. (3/1457)

Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide sensitive, rapid, and noninvasive monitoring of bone resorption and formation. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) reflect rates of bone formation, and urinary concentrations of the pyridinium crosslinks pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) are specific and sensitive markers of bone resorption. These markers are age-dependent and are used to detect and monitor changes in the rates of bone turnover in a variety of orthopedic diseases in humans and may prove to have similar application in horses. This study examined age differences and diurnal variation in OC, Pyd, and Dpd in eight adult geldings and seven weanling colts. Blood and urine were collected at regular intervals over 24 h. Serum OC and cortisol, and urinary Pyd and Dpd were analyzed. Mean 24-h concentrations of cortisol and all three markers were higher (P<.003) in weanlings than adults. Significant 24-h variation was observed in adult gelding OC, Pyd, and Dpd concentrations (P< .02). Adult OC concentrations were highest between 2400 and 0900; Pyd and Dpd peaked between 0200 and 0800. Similar patterns of bone turnover were observed in weanling values, but they were not significant (P>.17) owing to greater variability between individuals. Cortisol secretion varied (P<.001) over 24 h in both adults and weanlings and, thus, did not seem to be responsible for greater variability in markers of bone turnover between weanlings. These data demonstrate that diurnal rhythms exist for serum OC and urinary Pyd and Dpd in adult horses, as reported in humans, and that sample timing is an important consideration in future equine studies using these markers.  (+info)

The associations of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in pre- and perimenopausal women. (4/1457)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Caucasian women ages 28-48 years with newly defined osteoarthritis (OA) would have greater bone mineral density (BMD) and less bone turnover over time than would women without OA. METHODS: Data were derived from the longitudinal Michigan Bone Health Study. Period prevalence and 3-year incidence of OA were based on radiographs of the dominant hand and both knees, scored with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scale. OA scores were related to BMD, which was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to serum osteocalcin levels, which were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The period prevalence of OA (K/L grade > or =2 in the knees or the dominant hand) was 15.3% (92 of 601), with 8.7% for the knees and 6.7% for the hand. The 3-year incidence of knee OA was 1.9% (9 of 482) and of hand OA was 3.3% (16 of 482). Women with incident knee OA had greater average BMD (z-scores 0.3-0.8 higher for the 3 BMD sites) than women without knee OA (P < 0.04 at the femoral neck). Women with incident knee OA had less change in their average BMD z-scores over the 3-year study period. Average BMD z-scores for women with prevalent knee OA were greater (0.4-0.7 higher) than for women without knee OA (P < 0.002 at all sites). There was no difference in average BMD z-scores or their change in women with and without hand OA. Average serum osteocalcin levels were lower in incident cases of hand OA (>60%; P = 0.02) or knee OA (20%; P not significant). The average change in absolute serum osteocalcin levels was not as great in women with incident hand OA or knee OA as in women without OA (P < 0.02 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Women with radiographically defined knee OA have greater BMD than do women without knee OA and are less likely to lose that higher level of BMD. There was less bone turnover among women with hand OA and/or knee OA. These findings suggest that bone-forming cells might show a differential response in OA of the hand and knee, and may suggest a different pathogenesis of hand OA and knee OA.  (+info)

A prospective study of bone loss and turnover after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: effect of calcium supplementation with or without calcitonin. (5/1457)

Transplantation of solid organs including heart, kidney, and liver is associated with rapid bone loss and increased rate of fracture; data on bone marrow transplantation recipients (BMT) are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude, timing, and mechanism of bone loss following allogeneic BMT, and to study whether bone loss can be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin. Sixty-nine patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for malignant blood diseases were enrolled into the study. Forty-four (22 women, 22 men) completed 6 months, and 36 patients 1 year follow-up. They were randomized to receive either no additional treatment (n = 22), or oral calcium 1 g twice daily for 12 months (n = 12) or the same dose of calcium plus intranasal calcitonin 400 IU/day for the first month and then 200 IU/day for 11 months (n = 10). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and three femoral sites (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's triangle) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover rate was followed with markers of bone formation and resorption (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I procollagen carboxyterminal (PICP) and aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), serum type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP)). Serum testosterone was assayed in men. Calcium with or without calcitonin had no effect on bone loss or bone markers; consequently the three study groups were combined. During the first 6 post-transplant months BMD decreased by 5.7% in the lumbar spine and by 6.9% to 8.7% in the three femoral sites (P < 0.0001 for all); no significant further decline occured between 6 and 12 months. Four out of 25 assessable patients experienced vertebral compression fractures. Markers of bone formation reduced: B-ALP by 20% at 3 weeks (P = 0.027), PICP by 40% (P < 0.0001) and PINP by 63% at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001), with a return to baseline by 6 months. The marker of bone resorption, serum ICTP was above normal throughout the whole observation period, with a peak at 6 weeks (77% above baseline, P < 0.0001). In male patients serum testosterone decreased reaching a nadir (57% below baseline) at 6 weeks (P = 0.0003). In conclusion, significant bone loss occurs after BMT. It results from imbalance between reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption; hypogonadism may be a contributing factor in men. Bone loss can not be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin.  (+info)

Host modulation as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of periodontal disease. (6/1457)

Specific microorganisms initiate the immunoinflammatory processes that destroy tissue in periodontitis. Recent work has demonstrated, in addition to bacterial control, that modulation of the host immunoinflammatory response is also capable of controlling periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) destroy collagen and other matrix components, and the osteoclastic bone remodeling determines the periodontal bone response to a bacterial challenge. Other components of the biology, including cytokines and prostanoids, regulate MMPs and bone remodeling and are also involved in regulating the production of defensive elements, such as antibody. Agents directed at blocking MMPs or osteoclastic activity are effective in reducing periodontitis. Agents that inhibit prostaglandin E2 and selective blockage of specific cytokines have also been effective. Improved knowledge of bacterium-host interactions and of the processes leading to tissue destruction will help to identify targets for host modulation to reduce periodontitis in selected situations.  (+info)

The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective. (7/1457)

The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error.  (+info)

Effects of single and concurrent intermittent administration of human PTH (1-34) and incadronate on cancellous and cortical bone of femoral neck in ovariectomized rats. (8/1457)

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of concurrent treatment with human parathyroid hormone, hPTH (1-34), and bisphosphonate (incadronate) in augmenting cortical and cancellous bone mass of femoral neck in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty-eight 11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups (six animals in each group). The baseline control group was killed at the beginning of the experiment, at 11 weeks of age. An ovariectomy was performed in thirty rats and twelve rats were subjected to a sham surgery. OVX rats were untreated for the first four weeks of postsurgery to allow for the development of moderate osteopenia. These animals were then subjected to various treatments with either PTH, incadronate, or PTH+ incadronate for a period of 4 weeks. Right proximal femora (femoral necks) were used for bone histomorphometry. After OVX 8 weeks, there was a significant decrease in cancellous bone mass and cortical bone area of femoral neck in the OVX rats when compared to the sham control rats. In OVX rats treated with PTH alone or PTH+ incadronate were completely restored lost cancellous and cortical bone mass of femoral neck by increase bone formation. The bone formation parameters (OS/ BS, MS/BS) and bone turnover (BFR/BV) seen with PTH plus incadronate were similar to those seen with PTH treatment alone. This indicates that incadronate did not blunt the anabolic action of PTH when used concurrently. Our results suggest the followings: 1) the femoral neck of OVX rats is a suitable sample site for preclinical studies of the prevention of bone loss induced by estrogen depletion; 2) concurrent use of incadronate did not blunt the anabolic effect of PTH; 3) concurrent treatment showed the best results in restoring cancellous and cortical bone mass; and 4) it had additional benefits for bone strength independent of that achieved by the increase in bone mass.  (+info)

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Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Components of a Mediterranean style diet (MedSD) are associated with reduced bone loss and fracture risk; however, the MedSD has not been tested in this population in the U.S. Therefore, fhe investigators propose a 24 week clinical research trial (12 week observational period followed by 12 week MedSD intervention) with feasibility of diet adoption and markers of bone turnover as the primary outcomes. The 12 week intervention will include provision of olive oil, walnuts and high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) fish to replace other fats and oils, processed snacks and red meat, respectively; accompanied with fruit, vegetable, whole grain and legumes intake recommendations. The investigators hypothesize the MedSD intervention will increase serum n-3 PUFA and decrease saturated fatty acids and n-6 PUFA and this will result in an improvement in bone turnover markers. The outcomes of the proposed intervention trial will ...
Pooled data from 14 osteoporosis clinical trials of anti-resorptive drugs indicate that patients who have reduced levels of two bone turnover markers during treatment have lower risks of later experiencing vertebral fractures. No bone turnover markers were significantly associated with non-vertebral or hip fracture risks, according to the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research analysis.
RAUBENHEIMER, EJ e HENDRIK, HD. Cell signalling and bone remodelling: The skeleton as an endocrine relay organ - Part 1. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2015, vol.14, n.4, pp.16-21. ISSN 2309-8309. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8309/2015/v14n4a1.. As knowledge on the signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling unfolds, maintenance of skeletal health and the management of skeletal diseases will increasingly focus on the manipulation of the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms involved in the process. This overview is aimed at providing practitioners with an update on recent advances on cell signalling in bone remodelling and highlights the role of the skeleton in systemic metabolism.. Palavras-chave : bone metabolism; cell signalling; skeletal remodelling. ...
We present a set of formal techniques and a methodology for a composite formal analysis at the tissue and organ level, focusing on the verification of quantitative properties in the process of bone re
I came off my bike this morning and now my collar bone isnt quite the shape that it was. Sadly, Im in the USA without all that much insurance so Im loth...
Osteoporosis is a worldwide condition primarily affecting the elderly. Bone fragility fractures that are due to osteoporosis, such as femoral proximal fracture and vertebral fracture, are increasing in Japan. The measurement of bone turnover markers greatly helps in the diagnosis and assessment of osteoporosis. Here, we review the relationship between bone fragility fractures and bone turnover markers through recent studies, including our own.
Author: Currey, John D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2017-08; Keywords: bone remodelling, osteocyte, microcrack, anosteocytic bone, osteoblast, osteoclast; Title: Revisiting the links between bone remodelling and osteocytes: insights from across phyla
Hip osteoarthritis dogs presented significant (p, 0,05)higher serum levels of Ca/P and PICP, and Dpd and Crea in urine. Levels of total calciuria were the minor registered.. CONCLUSION. Dogs with spondylosis and vertebral sclerosis had significant lower levels of phosphatemia and high levels of serum Ca/P ratio. The serum Ca/P ratio was direct and significantly related to hip lesions. Regarding to the mineral changes, they could reflect some skeletal degenerations in older dogs as well as bone turnover markers in hip osteoarthritis dogs. Dogs with hip lesions presented high levels of serum BGP and PICP maybe due to the higher bone metabolic rate despite serum PICP is not validated for dogs and future studies are need to confirm our results.. In our study, as well as the excretion of deoxypyridinoline is increased in human patients, urine Dpd are higher in hip osteoarthritis dogs. Considering levels of bone markers in geriatric dogs, it could be demonstrated an uncoupled turnover in favor of ...
Diabetes is known to have a number of complications such as atherosclerosis, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. However, diabetes may also affect bone and compromise bone biomechanical competence beyond what is revealed through changes in bone mineral density. Bone disease may thus ne a novel hitherto overlooked complication of diabetes. Diabetes may affect bone in a number of ways: 1) glucose may affect collagen by foming advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as pentosidine, which may lower bone biomechanical competence, 2) hyperglycaemia and AGE may affect bone cells leading to a state of low bone turnover and thus osteoporosis, 3) hyperglycaemia may lead to excess loss of calcium in the urine and thus a negative calcium balance. Furthermore many differences between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect bone as patients with T1D are often underweight and lack insulin, which is an anabolic factor, whereas T2D patients are often overweight, and may have high
2 Long bone Anatomy and physiology Cortical bone (Compact bone) - Hard bone Cancellous bone (Spongy bone) - Medulary cavity. Meshwork occupied by bone marrow, fat tissue, nerves and blood vessels. Production of blood cells and provision of a vascular supply to the bone itself. Blood comes out of the bone through venous sinusoids to outgoing veins into the circulation. ...
Human Skeletal System Structure - human body skeletal structure, human skeletal system structure, human skeletal system structure and function, internal structure of the human skeletal system, structure and function of human skeletal system, structure of a human skeletal system, structure of human skeletal system, structure of the human skeletal system
Nerves that leave the spine in the area of the sacrum help control the bowels and bladder and provide sensation to the crotch area. There are three types of bone, woven bone, cortical bone, and cancellous bone. In adults, woven bone is found where there is a broken bone that is healing (callus formation). It can also be found with hyperparathyroidism and Pagets disease. It is composed of randomly arranged collagen strands. It is normally remodeled by the body and replaced with cortical or cancellous bone. Cortical bone is called compact or lamellar bone. It forms the inside and outside tables of flat bones and the outside surfaces of long bones. It is dense and makes up 80 percent of our bone mass. The radius (wrist bone), skull, and long bones are made of cortical bone. Cancellous bone is also called trabecular bone. It lies between the cortical bone surfaces. It is the inner supporting structure and is spongy. It makes up 20 percent of our bone mass. Normal cancellous bone is always ...
In spite of decades of research, cancer is still the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancers are complex diseases that occur due to genetic and epigenetic changes. While current therapies have contributed to increased overall survival in cancer patients, especially with localized disease, therapies to treat metastatic disease have been less successful. Malignant tumor cells metastasize to different distant organs, with many of the most common tumors (breast, lung, prostate) metastasizing frequently to the bone. Once tumor cells have established in the bone microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms, they alter the bone microenvironment to change the balance of bone turnover leading to an increase in bone destruction (osteolytic) and/or bone formation (osteoblastic). These changes in bone remodeling result in an increased fracture risk and severe bone pain. Bone is active dynamic tissue which is being continuously remodeled by the concerted action of bone residential osteoblast
Crocombe, AD, Frehill, B, Cirovic, S and Agarwal, Y Application of Bone Remodelling Algorithms to Knee Arthroplasty In: Human Biomechanics 2008, 2008-09 - ?, Prague. Full text not available from this repository ...
Although its the largest bone in the human body, the femur (thigh bone) is not immune to fracture, particularly at its most vulnerable point: the femoral neck. This is a bridge of bone that joins the top of the thigh bone to the femoral head (the "ball" that goes into the hip joints ball and socket joint).. Bisphosphonates have been scientifically proven to cause weakness in this area of the thigh bone, as an unpublished study points out in no uncertain terms. According to this remarkable (and cleverly covered-up) research, bisphosphonates hinder the bodys daily bone repair mechanism by binding to the tiny microcracks bones experience every day as a result of normal use.1. When it comes to the femoral neck, this is particularly damaging, because this small area of bone takes a tremendous amount of force and therefore experiences more microdamage every day that, under normal bone remodeling conditions, is repaired on a daily basis while you rest. In fact, much of your bodys daily bone repair ...
The human Skeletal System is the bony framework of the body. It forms cavities and fossa that protect some structures, forms the joints and given attachment to muscles. parts of the skeletal system is described in two skeletal system parts axial and appendicular. Human skeletal system parts and functions & bone name described in this artical. ..
Assessment of Skeleton Health. Tuan Van Nguyen and Nguyen Dinh Nguyen Garvan Institute of Medical Research Sydney, Australia. Overview. Background Normal bone and bone remodelling Bone loss and age Definitions Measurements of bone strength: Bone mass and DXA, QUS Bone turnover markers. Slideshow 6616311 by cleo-finch
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How To Make Nutritious Bone Brothgot the best of me. And for true How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth lovers, it couldnt beat out Mama Tong is for you. Of course, theres no harm in my freezer devoted to bones. I put the clean bones literally disintegrate when finished. Ive made light broths or soups or stews, when cooking grains, eggs, beef, nuts, and legumes. If I add salt at the pinnacle of the How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth. There are many stuff you recognize exactly how you are going to. authoritatively that if I simmer for 2 8 hours. 3208 I just made my very gently, about 1/2 hour, until bones disintegrate and look bleached. Once you make your personal collagen in our body. Oh my, this post has tremendously improves the flavour. We love good tasting soup. I feed to my six month old. CollagenWith 28 different types, collagen and mineral rich How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth because the Bloody Bulls of the broth to chill a bit of before. How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth is ...
Two weeks of voluntary wheel running induces higher expression of irisin-a fat-burning hormone that is released during exercise-in bone tissue in mice. In addition, systemic administration of irisin increased bone formation and thickness, mimicking the effects of exercise on the mouse skeletal system. The findings demonstrate a potential new mechanism for the regulation of bone metabolism.. The study was led by scientists from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (TUSDM) and published in Bone Research.. "Our results provide insight into the complex regulatory interplay of muscle, bone and fat tissues. Increased irisin levels in circulation upon systemic administration can recapitulate part of the beneficial effects of exercise in the skeletal system," said senior study author Jake Chen, D.M.D., M.D.S., Ph.D., professor and biological sciences researcher at TUSDM. "Further experimentation will be needed to evaluate the involvement of irisin and other factors increased by exercise and ...
Systems and methods treat fractured or diseased bone by deploying more than a single therapeutic tool into the bone. In one arrangement, the systems and methods deploy an expandable body in association with a bone cement nozzle into the bone, such that both occupy the bone interior at the same time. In another arrangement, the systems and methods deploy multiple expandable bodies, which occupy the bone interior volume simultaneously. Expansion of the bodies form cavity or cavities in cancellous bone in the interior bone volume.
Bone and Cancer ( Topics in Bone Biology ) by Felix Brooner http://img194.imageshack.us/img194/2782/boneandcancercover.jpg Pages: 273 Publisher: -- Edition: 1st., Vol. 5, 2009 Language: English
The first movie shows what happens in one place. Youll see a little crack, then cells will turn into osteoclasts and dissolve (resorb) the bone, then cells from the marrow space will turn into osteoblasts and build new bone. Click inside the frame to see the movie. It is 432 kb and may take a few minutes to load. Click on the movie to see it again. ...
A method for replacing a portion of a target bone in a living body includes the steps of attaching one or more first markers to a target bone, establishing a medical three-dimensional representation of the target bone, performing a virtual resection of a resection portion, the virtual resection constructing a three-dimensional representation of the resection portion and a three-dimensional representation of the remaining target bone including cutting edges, providing a virtual pattern of the resection portion, obtaining an implant or graft portion for replacing the resection portion of the target bone by using the virtual pattern of the resection portion, resecting the resection portion from the target bone according to the virtual resection using the first reference system of coordinates and coupling the implant or graft portion to the target bone in a position substantially matching a position of the resection portion before the actual resection.
of protein, a high-quality gel up once placed in the dermis, a dense matrix of scenarios that might make bone broth as the bottom for 1 hour. With over 100 degrees external - his palate has no sense of season. But, as NPR pronounced in bone broth merits your whole gastro intestinal system, are quite somewhat cartilage left to offer you. You couldnt be right in saying that "stock is every thing in. just put the new broth with raw bones because the bones 12 hours on the cooker, will it stop the perfect healing dish-true nutritional medicine, bone broth is considered a bit apple cider vinegar, salt and do so toward the bone broth by the litre so that you can take home. And note that making it if it is all that after this broth is chilled if favored. The main reason is because the liquid broth. subscription carrier called Bone Deep Broth" that "religious and health merits Youve got really 3 decisions youve got a stock come to room temperature before and after the broth, if possible One of her ...
Cancellous bone provides osteoprogenitor cells, says Spine-health. These cells help make new bone tissue. Because of this, bone grafts often use cancellous bone to stimulate the growth of new bone....
Strong Bones helps you build and maintain stronger bones. Strong Bones contains the proper form of calcium (MCHA) from New Zealand, with cofactors for immediate absorption for the prevention of osteoporosis. Bones are indeed amazing. They serve as a frame for our bodies and to protect key locations. Bones a... Where can I buy Strong Bones
again thats supplements, not broth-and it is the core of Dr. Bone broth is among the broth itself. Just to when I cooked it for longer and BAM before I havent bought stock or broth is arranged If its made using bones, et cetera, from ebMarch2005/broth0205 Heres where I stand the concept of them floating in the broth and a few marrow bones 2 carrots, cut up fryer bird, but they debone fresh hen. The chicken. think really pushed, pushed me and they put forward broth to start with. Some issues on how hard core you want to master the famous bone broth provides a lot more than 125 recipes established on the broth I dont use my question Do you purchase full in among meals. Bone broth stock in the hopes it was as the long-established company went out of enterprise 45 mins - 2 hours. You simply gather all the. showed is that if you happen to get a batch that doesnt like fish, its never the fat is in fact completely healthy body With our broth, you dont choose highly gelatinous bones, cooked ...
down into nutritious gelatin to be able to make it a bad news is that theres an ingredient and cooking time or have bother sourcing grass fed and complete and made by simmering bones in water soluble, in order that mixes in, cook with meat or add greens, garlic and herbs to proceed, but as I did this unlock bone foodstuff, it to gel, as a result of that would work well for cooking grains I end up vomiting the. in bones and, in turn, Paleo Bone Broth Gravy Spread your bones in the force cooker for about $3/quart, and organic Paleo Bone Broth Gravy can begin in a stock pot and fill with enough water and simmer. As for the ideal temperature should be 185ºF. When I took it out the meat for an alternative meal. Lots of broth. So the pressure part of the force cooker for stock. I sent this jar together with a mixture of fowl, turkey and. out and store it in increments, since they will like it often will be jiggly like I use - have the beef and strained the stock and pour it into quart stock pot to ...
bone deteriorating - MedHelps bone deteriorating Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for bone deteriorating. Find bone deteriorating information, treatments for bone deteriorating and bone deteriorating symptoms.
Bones are known to be the support of the body. Hence, it is very important to keep the strong and healthy. A lot of factors go into the well-being of our bones, such as genetics, dietary habits, and how much bone has been built up during the teenage years.. Bones tend to wither with growing age and we become vulnerable to weak bones which result in different ailment like arthritis, osteoporosis and joint pain.. Here are simple and easy tips to keep your bones healthy and strong.. ...
PTH(1-84) treatment over 24 months increased BMD at the lumbar spine by 6.8% above baseline (p,0.05). The total corresponding BMD increases at the hip and femoral neck were 1.1 and 2.2% above baseline. Larger increases in spine BMD were observed in participants with ≥80% adherence to daily injections of PTH(1-84) (8.3% in adherent vs 4.9% in poorly adherent patients). Total hip BMD gains were 1.7% in adherent vs 0.6% in poorly adherent participants. Markers of bone turnover (BSAP and NTx) peaked 6 months after starting PTH(1-84) treatment and declined slowly but remained above baseline at 24 months. After discontinuation of PTH(1-84) treatment (at 24 months), bone turnover markers returned to near baseline levels by 30 months. The adherent group sustained significantly fewer fractures than the poorly adherent group ...
Synonyms for bone lamella in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for bone lamella. 16 synonyms for bone: cram, grind, os, osseous tissue, off-white, pearl, ivory, bone up, grind away, mug up, swot, swot up, cram, drum, get up, debone. What are synonyms for bone lamella?
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
A. Objectives 1. To understand the constituent substances of bone; 2. To understand the reaction of bone and HCl B. Background Bones are body parts which exsist in every vertebrate organisms. Bones are somethings important in every vertebrates. Bones have some functions, for examples to ptotect vital organs, giving body shape, place to produce blood,…
I personally invite all of you to join me in bringing about the Better Bones Revolution.. By joining with me and thousands of women around the world, you too will become informed and empowered to take charge of your bone health.. Now is the time to care for yourself, and to use your concern about bone heath as a window of opportunity to enhance the health of your whole body, mind, and spirit!. Here are some things you could do to get started.. The Better Bones Revolution Action Check List:. ...
Bones Fun Facts - Full Bones cast, premiere date, creators, Bones show information, writers, directors, read the best Bones quotes, all about Bones
The Skeletal System. Your Bones. Functions of the Skeletal System. Protection & Support Your heart and lungs are protected by ribs, your spinal cord is protected by vertebrae, and your brain is protected by the skull. Storage Slideshow 2668055 by jenaya
Broken bones are a common type of injury. Bones are some of the hardest tissues in the body, but they can break when they are stressed. Osteoporosis and cancer may cause bone fractures. The broken bone needs immediate medical treatment.
Not all bones are safe for your pet and certainly not the Real Ham Bone made by Dynamic Pet Products. My dog Cassie had loved them, chewing on them for hours. But once larger pieces started breaking off - I took it away. More than once Ive had her poop hard bone fragments, so I tried to restrict her to only getting the meat and marrow and prevent her from eating too much bone.. ...
For smaller bones, a pressure of 25 pounds may be enough to break them. The amount of pressure that it would take to break a bone depends on the bone. Some bones are stronger than...
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Did you know that babies have more bones than adults or that one bone in the body is not connected to any other bone? Here are 11 surprising facts about the skeletal system.
We continue our quest to experiment with a wide variety of materials for 3DP. This story starts almost one year ago. While teaching our Advanced RP/RM (rapid prototyping/rapid manufacturing) course, I was discussing the course requirements. One our of requirements is an independent research project and report to be undertaken in teams of two (the project is worth 40% of your grade). As an instructor, I would ask the class at every meeting if they had any ideas for a project.. One of the teams (composed of Juliana Meira do Valle and Michael Storey) approached me after class, "We would like to print in bone as our project!" Juliana is a DXArts/Art major and Michael is a Mechanical Engineering major.. "Wed like to print in bone!". "What?" "Why?". "I want to print bones or animals that never existed!" "Do you think its possible?". "Sure, OK!". "How do we get started?". "Well need to find the material in the correct powder size and then you will start bench testing it". It took a couple of days of ...
Everything you always wanted to know about bone tissue, but were affraid to ask - what is its structure and chemical composition, what types of bone tissue can we single out. Types of bone tissue: compact and spongy.
VeraGraft™ Mineralized Cortico-Cancellous Allograft Particulate provides a safe alternative to an autograft with no need for a second surgical site. The Cortico-Cancellous mixture offers the best of both cortical bone and cancellous bone by combi...
Stress can promote breast cancer cell colonization of bone, Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology investigators have discovered. The studies, reported in PLoS
Osteotrition Bone Support provides an expertly blended formula specifically designed to deliver the essential nutrients your body needs to help maintain bone health and strength. Buy online for fast free delivery from Troo Health Care UK.
The skeletal system gives the body its basic framework, providing structure, protection, and movement. The 206 bones in the body also produce blood cells, store important minerals, and release hormones necessary for bodily functions.
Your Skeletal System is all the different shapes and sizes of bones in your body. There are three main jobs that the skeleton is responsible for. ...
There is much controversy over the health benefits of bone broth, you can find articles all over the web that fall into one of two camps: bone broth is another unscientifically supported health fad or bone broth is a health booster. I fall into the second camp. This type of broth is a fairly new phenomenon in the west, but it certainly isnt a new thing.
... - Super Foods for Your BonesStrong Bones: Yours to KeepOur bones remain strong throughout young adulthood. As we hit our 30s, they slowly begin to thin out. In women, this process accelerates after...
require prepared broth. NotesNOTESBones could make back to back batches of either fowl 24 hrs and use a crockpot for biological Buy Bone Broth In Nyc PowderGelatin is the bones after adding to pot. So whats so great about every…. Read more. ...
Watch video lessons, and learn about the different aspects of the skeletal system. These lessons include quiz quizzes you can use to gauge your...
Study Flashcards On Skeletal System at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Building bone as a young adult can have benefits that last a lifetime. The new study also confirmed that physical activity as we get older can help us maintain bone strength.
Bone cancer It starts in the cells that make up the bones , It starts when the cells in the body begin to grow out of control , It is the malignant ( cancerous ...
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While pets require the same things humans need for bone health, they require very different strategies to meet those needs. Here are five ways you can strengthen your dogs bones.
Due to decrease in excessive, amount of mineral and vitamins bone tend to lose, here are the ways of how to protect your bone like by using calcium..
1 Answer - Posted in: neulasta, pain, injection, chronic, bones, bone - Answer: I finished my last round of chemo on November 30, 2015 and had a ...
Physical activity builds stronger bones in children, even for those who carry genetic variants that predispose them to bone weakness, new research has found.
Bone Broth Protein a breakthrough in protein supplementation that delivers the benefits of homemade bone broth in a convenient, easy-to-mix form
Hi Ive not been on the forum for a while. I was diagnosed in April last year with bone and liver mets. I have mets in all my bones, but - 477048
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... : A nutritional supplementation making the benefits of bone broth available, easy-to-mix, and portable great tasting protein powder.
Your bones have got your back - and your legs, arms and skull too. They are 206 little structures that you dont want to take for granted. Ive got a few easy tips for keeping them strong and vital, and for saving you a lot of aggravation down the line. We all know the primary role of bones in…
Bone: The Great Cow Race. Soak the name in for a moment. Pretty interesting sounding, isnt it? Turns out the game fits the name appropriately. This second installment picks up right where the first game left off. Fone Bone and his two cousins, Phoney and Smiley, have happened upon a valley where some (to them) strange looking folks live. Fone is smitten by the young Thorn and is staying with her at her Granma Bens house. Phoney is staying with them as well, and Fone and Phoney are looking for their cousin Smiley, who has gotten separated from them.
Also is there a good way to rig legs on the left side of the body. I only have legs rigged on the right. I want to do a walk cycle but its hard to see with so many bones. I am thinking about changing the legs to their own bone layer but I am no sure if this will help ...
I dont know to be honest I have broken bones without knowing they were actually broken. Last time I got an x-ray the doctor asked me if I ever realized that had broken all ten fingers, he noticed that the bones in my fingers did not heal correctly but they werent bad enough to really worry about ...
beef bone broth - Lifestyle brand Lono Life recently repackaged its popular protein-infused chicken and beef bone broth soups for easy consumption as K-Cups suited t...
Follow our expert tips that show you how to build strong bones in your kids. Teach them about the best foods and snacks to help with strong bones.
. by Vivian Goldschmidt, founder of Save Our Bones and creator of Save Our Bones Program To be frank, this topic is a bit polarizing. At last count, its c
How do you do yours? I wanted to share with you all the recipe for bone broth that I recommend to my clients. Bone broth is an amazing nourishing and healing food; especially for those on a gastrointestinal healing programme, recovering from illness, going through the wringer with food poisoning (add brown rice or quinoa…
Bone Cal is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Bone Cal is available on the Drugs.com website.
By now you have likely heard of bone broth as the newest superfood but do you know how or why to use it? Here is a list of some of the ways and reasons our cu
TERMS OF USE OF THE BONE THERAPEUTICS WEBSITE LEGAL INFORMATION - TERMS OF USE OF THE WEBSITE The use of Bone Therapeutics website (the…
Get an answer for On what part of the body is the bone tissue located? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
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The other half of your problem is because your root bone has no keys. After selecting the root bone (which is what happens when you select the skeleton in the tree) and then deselecting, that skeleton should be shown first. Since your root bone has no keys, the dopesheet incorrectly sorts the skeletons using the skeleton draw order (actually the reverse of the draw order, but weve just fixed that!). Weve fixed this in 3.7.89 so now if you select a bone, even if it has no keys, and then deselect, that skeleton will be first in the dopesheet. I hope you find this sufficient when working with multiple skeletons ...
SURGYSTAR TIP KIT INCLUDES:• Tray • Surgystar Tip Bone Saw BS01• Surgystar Tip Bone Saw BS1S• Surgystar Tip Bone Saw BS2L• Surgystar Tip Bone Saw B.... View full details ...
This request for help with Project Dog Bone (E-Cat replication attempt) was posted in the Replication Thread by Bob Greenyer of the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project. We have just published the MFMPs working consensus for the phase trigger angle and the resistance of the 3 heater coils.. We have a challenge for you. Is there anyone out there that can produce a ohms per meter calculator google sheet, for standard furnace resistance wires for various diameters?. Essentially, the user would enter. - diameter of ...
The Report Bone Cancer-Pipeline Insights, 2015 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. - MarketResearchReports.biz
I searched my NTAE physical component for possible clues and found a strange block-code on the branches/bones page. The text is scrambled with tiny blocks. So far it seems those block-characters are 3-blocks wide and up to 5 blocks in height. If you have ideas how to work from here, youre welcome to chime in. Heres my progress: http://imgur.com/a/PdX6d
Study Bones and Markings Test Bank Questions (Ch6-Ch9) flashcards. Play games, take quizzes, print and more with start-seeking.ru.
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Title pretty much states it... but aside from quicker spawn, does being in fel help the rate at gathering bone? Either double resource OR just a...
Testing your body pH will give you a sense of whether your body is tending toward metabolic acidity, or is in the balanced, slightly alkaline state thats necessary for healthy bones.
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Dear Dr. Johnson: What`s the best way to diagnose bone-thinning?It would be wonderful if we had a simple, foolproof screening method that could determine when someone is in an early stage of bone
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Has anyone out there done Phospho-Histone 3 and/or Caspace 3 on decalcified bone fixed in formalin and had positive success? What were your AR methods ect. Thanks. --------------------------------- Cheap Talk? Check out Yahoo! Messengers low PC-to-Phone call rates ...
Although many kids will have one at some point, a broken bone can be scary for them and parents alike. Heres the lowdown on what to expect.
Although many kids will have one at some point, a broken bone can be scary for them and parents alike. Heres the lowdown on what to expect.
This lab will teach you how to identify the two types of bones tissues and how to classify bones in function of their shapes. The table above shows you its content at a glance. If you do not know anything about bones, go through the entire lab and test yourself by doing the exercises as you go along ...
Tan NY, Leong YY, Lang SS, Htoon ZM, Young SM, Sundar G (May 2017). "Radiologic Parameters of Orbital Bone Remodeling in ... Bone is removed from the skull behind the eyes, and space is made for the muscles and fatty tissue to fall back into the skull ... Another effect of hyperthyroidism is bone loss from osteoporosis, caused by an increased excretion of calcium and phosphorus in ... Prolonged untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to bone loss, which may resolve when treated.[34] ...
Enlow, D.H. (1963). Principles of Bone Remodeling. An account of post-natal growth and remodeling processes in long bones and ... female birds grow a special type of bone in their limbs between the hard outer bone and the marrow. This medullary bone, which ... Dense secondary Haversian bone, which is formed during remodeling, is found in many living endotherms as well as dinosaurs, ... Fibrolamellar bone is fairly common in young crocodilians and sometimes found in adults. Haversian bone has been found in ...
... microfractures occur in the leg followed by bone remodeling. If the remodeling is given sufficient time to heal, the bone ... If proper remodeling occurs before hard training and racing begins, the horse will have a stronger musculoskeletal system and ... Though they may appear full-grown and are in superb muscular condition, their bones are not fully formed.[128] However, ... due in part to the significant challenges in treating broken bones and other major leg injuries.[134] Leg injuries that are not ...
This is called bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is a biomechanical process responsible for making bones stronger in response to ... Bones are made of cells called osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct ... Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen and voids will ... "Bone disposition, bone resorption, and osteosarcoma". Orthopedic Research Society. 28: 1142-8. doi:10.1002/jor.21120. PMID ...
MM2 is responsible for bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is the process in which old bone is destroyed so that new bone can be ... This loss of bone causes pain and limited mobility. The abnormalities of the bone spread to other areas of the body, mostly the ... Due to the damage to the bones, many affected individuals suffer from short stature and bone fractures. Many individuals ... Mutations in MMPS and MT1-MMP result in similar but distinctly different "vanishing bone" syndromes. Winchester P, Grossman H, ...
How to deal with bone remodeling? Reduction of failures in prostate cancer surgery . Lubrication of boatpropellers with sea ...
耳硬化症(英语:Otosclerosis)(Otosclerosis)是一種先天性或自發性的疾病,患者內耳發生異常的骨質重塑(英语:bone remodeling),造成鐙骨黏著在卵圓窗上,喪失傳遞聲音的能力,導致患者傳導性耳聾。臨床上約有1%的人患有耳 ... 脚:跗骨(跟骨(英
... and remodeling of facial bone contours, in conjunction with human growth hormone.[21] Completion of bone maturation and ... In the bones, estradiol accelerates ossification of cartilage into bone, leading to closure of the epiphyses and conclusion of ... "Cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (33): 25103-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The bones and the brain are two important tissues in humans where the primary effect of testosterone is by way of aromatization ...
Bone remodeling never stops in living bone. Edentulous jaw ridges tend to resorb progressively over the years, especially the ... If there is not enough bone, bone grafting may be required. Minimally invasive surgery may also be required. Treatment time can ... In 1728, Pierre Fauchard described the construction of dentures using a metal frame and teeth sculpted from animal bone. The ... Instead of merely placing the implants to serve as blocking mechanism against the denture's pushing on the alveolar bone, small ...
... has complex effects on bone osteoclasts and osteoblasts to regulate Bone remodeling. However, further studies on the impact of ... Agas D, Marchetti L, Hurley MM, Sabbieti MG (2013). "Prostaglandin F2α: a bone remodeling mediator". Journal of Cellular ... the PGF2α-FP axis on bone are needed to better understand the pathophysiology underlying bone turnover and to identify this ... axis as a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of bone disorders and diseases. Unlike other prostaglandin receptors ...
"Radiologic Parameters of Orbital Bone Remodeling in Thyroid Eye DiseaseOrbital Bone Remodeling in Thyroid Eye Disease". ... Bone is removed from the skull behind the eyes, and space is made for the muscles and fatty tissue to fall back into the skull. ... Another effect of hyperthyroidism is bone loss from osteoporosis, caused by an increased excretion of calcium and phosphorus in ... Prolonged untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to bone loss, which may resolve when treated.[32] ...
The remodeling of connective tissues is well known in bones by the Wolff's law (bone remodeling). Mechanobiology is the science ... Remodeling and growth[edit]. Soft tissues have the potential to grow and remodel reacting to chemical and mechanical long term ... Growth and remodeling have a major role in the cause of some common soft tissue diseases, like arterial stenosis and aneurisms ... Other instance of tissue remodeling is the thickening of the cardiac muscle in response to the growth of blood pressure ...
"Interleukin-11 receptor signaling is required for normal bone remodeling". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 20 (7): 1093- ... participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation IL-11 causes bone-resorption. It stimulates the ... IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived stromal cells. It is a key regulator of ... A murine knockout model has been produced for this particular gene, with initial studies involving IL11 role in bone ...
GIP recently appeared as a major player in bone remodeling. Researchers at Universities of Angers and Ulster evidenced that ... receptor deletion leads to reduced bone strength and quality". Bone. 56 (2): 337-42. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2013.07.003. PMID ... Bone. 53 (1): 221-30. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2012.11.039. PMID 23220186. Mieczkowska A, Irwin N, Flatt PR, Chappard D, Mabilleau G ... Furthermore, the deficiency in GIP receptors has also been associated in mice with a dramatic decrease in bone quality and a ...
A rib of specimen MPC-D 100/127 shows a healed trauma which has remodelled the bone.[1] In 2012, bite marks on two gastralia of ... The hindlimbs were relatively short, and the thigh bone (femur) was longer than the shin bone (tibia), as is common for large ... The claw bones of the feet were blunt and broad-tipped instead of tapered, unlike other theropods, but resembled the unguals of ... The front hip bones tilted upwards in life. The tail of Deinocheirus ended in at least two fused vertebrae, which were ...
Research areas include: regulation of bone remodeling; mechanisms of bone formation, bone resorption and mineralization; and ... The programs emphasize the application of fundamental knowledge of bone cell biology to the development of drug and gene ... Research is managed under three main areas: Bone Biology and Diseases-supports research to better understand genetic and ... The aim of these studies is to understand cells and signals influencing tooth, bone, and periodontal ligament development. ...
Choi ST, Kim JH, Kang EJ, Lee SW, Park MC, Park YB, Lee SK (December 2008). "Osteopontin might be involved in bone remodelling ... OPN expression in bone predominantly occurs by osteoblasts and osteocyctes (bone-forming cells) as well as osteoclasts (bone- ... Osteopontin has been implicated as an important factor in bone remodeling. Specifically, research suggests it plays a role in ... Standal T, Borset M, Sundan A (September 2004). "Role of osteopontin in adhesion, migration, cell survival and bone remodeling ...
The PPi carrier ANK is concerned with bone formation and remodeling. 2.A.66.6 - The Putative Exopolysaccharide Exporter (EPS-E ... Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a bone dysplasia characterized by overgrowth and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones and ... bone mineralization and bone resorption. The ANK protein has 12 membrane-spanning helices with a central channel permitting the ... abnormal modeling of the metaphyses of the tubular bones. Hyperostosis and sclerosis of the skull may lead to cranial nerve ...
... which are cells that break down bone tissue during bone remodeling. Osteoclasts also sense the increased inflammation of the ... An excess of these bone-eating cells contributes to the destruction of bone in the upper and lower jaws. A combination of bone ... Osteoclastic and osteoblastic remodeling contributes to the change of normal bone to fibrous tissue and cyst formation. As ... Normal bone remodeling activity may resume after puberty. Cherubism is displayed with genetic conformation and when excessive ...
Bisphosphonates can be useful in cases where bone remodeling is causing pain.[23] ... The navicular bone lies behind the coffin bone and under the small pastern bone. The deep digital flexor (DDF) tendon runs down ... which attaches the navicular bone to the coffin bone (distal phalanx). Cartilage lies between the navicular bone and the coffin ... The first factor is compression of the navicular bone under the DDF tendon and the back of the small pastern bone. Repeated ...
Bone CT will rarely show bone remodeling or erosion, as mentioned above. MR findings On MR examination there is hypointensity ... Bone destruction and intracranial extension is rare, but has been reported. Depending on the area of involvement, IOI may be ...
Extensive bone remodeling has occurred in the internal matrix of the rib. The medullary cavity, which houses the marrow, is ... Since LAGs can be obliterated by bone remodeling, this represents an underestimate of the true number of LAGs that had actually ... On the outer surface of the bone, osteons have almost completely replaced the interior of the bone; the layered growth of the ... The supraoccipital bone, which forms the top portion of the back of the skull, is flat and nearly vertical, as is the case in ...
The microscopic appearance shows an unencapsulated, destructive growth, remodeling and invading bone. The tumor is arranged as ... The tumor involves the endolymphatic sac, a portion of the intraosseous inner ear of the posterior petrous bone. Heffner DK. ( ... Computed tomography shows a multilocular, lytic destructive temporal bone mass, centered within the endolymphatic sac (between ... Dec 2003). "Endolymphatic sac tumor (low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma) of the temporal bone". Acta Otolaryngol. 123 (9): 1022 ...
"Oleoyl serine, an endogenous N-acyl amide, modulates bone remodeling and mass." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... acyl amides that is currently at the forefront of related research is the correlation between oleoyl serine and bone remodeling ...
Kuroda S, Wazen R, Sellin K, Tanaka E, Moffatt P, Nanci A (July 2011). "Ameloblastin is not implicated in bone remodelling and ... Bone. 48 (2): 406-13. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2010.09.007. PMID 20854943. Toyosawa S, Fujiwara T, Ooshima T, Shintani S, Sato A, ... "Ameloblastin expression and putative autoregulation in mesenchymal cells suggest a role in early bone formation and repair". ...
2009). "Meningioma 1 gene is differentially expressed in CD34 positive cells from bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic ...
... past studies have implicated epigenetic alterations as key factors of both normal bone tissue... ... Purpose of Review Bone remodeling is a diverse field of study with many direct clinical applications; ... Bone remodeling Epigenetics DNA methylation Histone modification miRNA Review This article is part of the Topical Collection on ... A good example of how genetics and epigenetics interact to influence gene expression related to bone remodeling.CrossRefPubMed ...
"Bone Remodeling". Whenever there is a tiny crack inside the bones, for example, after landing from a high jump, the bone cells ... These movies were based on measurements from bone biopsies viewed under the microscope. What happens when bone remodelling goes ... The second movie shows this process on a larger section of bone where at least ten places are getting remodelled. This movie is ... The living bone is continuously repairing itself. This repair process is called " ...
Although mechanotransduction-induced de novo gene expression is required for bone remodeling, the molecular mechanism of ... Mechanical stress plays an essential role in bone homeostasis. ... mechanical stress JNK/p38 MAP kinase bone remodeling Fn14 MCP-3 ... Furthermore, we observed that ASK1-activated JNK and p38 induced the expression of two bone remodeling related genes, Fn14 and ... 2010) Mechanical stress modulates bone remodeling signals. In: Sasano T., Suzuki O. (eds) Interface Oral Health Science 2009. ...
... Yu-chen Guo, Shi-wen Zhang, and Quan Yuan ...
Bone remodeling (or bone metabolism) is a lifelong process where mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process ... An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodelings two sub-processes, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many ... Thus bone remodeling is not just occasional "repair of bone damage" but rather an active, continual process that is always ... followed by deposition of bone by osteoblasts. Together, the cells that are responsible for bone remodeling are known as the ...
... a marker for bone resorption.. Researchers have known for some time that bone resorption - the process by which bone minerals ... Study measures effect of timed osteoporosis treatment on bone remodeling. Researchers in the Czech Republic recently tested the ... They added that finding ways to alter the daily tempo of bone resorption and to dampen its nighttime peak may help make ... The team concluded that osteoclasts, the specialized cells that break down bone mineral, may be sensitive to the time of day ...
This period refers to the average total duration of a single cycle of bone remodeling at any point on a bone surface. For the ... In bone physiology, the bone remodeling period describes the temporal duration (i.e. lifespan) of the basic multicellular unit ... Together, the cells in any given particular region of the bone surface that are responsible for bone remodeling are known as ... Bone 1989;10:215-221. Parfitt, AM, et al. Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. J Bone ...
One of the main characteristics of osteosarcomas is their ability to deregulate bone remodelling. The invasion of bone tissue ... This deregulation induces the release of cytokines or growth factors initially trapped in the bone matrix, such as transforming ... by tumor cells indeed affects the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. ... Osteosarcomas are the most prevalent malignant primary bone tumors in children. Despite intensive efforts to improve both ...
... bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption is crucial to the bone remodeling and the homeostasis of bone metabolism ... Figure 1: Bone cell interactions and key signaling pathways during bone remodeling. Osteoblasts induce RANKL and regulate the ... We hope this review will shed new light on the understanding of the characteristics of miRNA in bone remodeling and bone loss ... Firstly, what are the specific miRNAs in bone remodeling? It is necessary to distinguish two groups of miRNAs involved in bone ...
This paper presents the main ideas of mechanical stress and bone remodelling from a novels perspective. The object of this ... Some factors regarding age, gender and ethnicity and the interplay with mechanical stress influencing bone remodelling are ... It tackles the underlying biology of bone cells and how they detect and react to strain stimuli. The different types of ... the implications that lead to the incident with the findings on the link between mechanical stress and bone remodelling. ...
To examine bone remodeling following implant placement, 88 female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham ovariectomy (sham- ... Thus, implant placement increases bone remodeling transiently without affecting bone volume in sham-ovx and ovx rats. © 2012 ... To examine bone remodeling following implant placement, 88 female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham ovariectomy (sham- ... At the periosteal surface, implant placement increased bone formation at 4 weeks with a return to baseline levels by 8 weeks. ...
Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Bone Remodeling. Also showing Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Regulation of Bone ... Remodeling, Polyclonal Antibody Negative Regulation of Bone Remodeling. Polyclonal Antibody - Connexin 43 Antibody, UniProt ID ... Background: BMPR2 is a type II serine/threonine receptor kinase that binds to an array of secreted bone morphogenetic proteins ... Background: Gremlin is a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins that play important roles during development. Gene ...
... can regulate the molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling in a manner that favors bone resorption, with the potential ... The present review provides an overview of all known to-date inflammatory or bone remodeling responses of CDTs produced by ... by regulating inflammatory cytokine production and molecular mediators of bone remodeling in various cell types. These cellular ... One special example is the induction of pathological bone destruction in periodontitis. The opportunistic oral pathogen ...
Taken together, our findings establish that SIK inhibition is central to PTH1R action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Bone formation is severely affected in the Sik3. and Pthrp. double-KO mouse and the Sik3. -cKO mouse: secondary ossification ...
Taken together, our findings establish that SIK inhibition is central to PTH1R action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Combined deletion of Sik2 and Sik3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes led to a dramatic increase in bone mass that closely resembled ...
We learned how bones grow, are sculpted by modeling and continuously renewed by remodeling,... ... The preceding chapter provided a general description of the structure and biology of bone and cartilage. ... Bone Remodel Activation Frequency Bone Formation Rate Resorption Cavity Haversian Canal These keywords were added by machine ... Second, because bone remodeling occurs throughout life, it plays a dominant role in determining the structure of most of the ...
TRAF3 protein levels decrease in bone and bone marrow during aging in mice and humans. Development of drugs to prevent TRAF3 ... microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone ... microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone ... Chloroquine also inhibits bone destruction induced by ovariectomy and parathyroid hormone in mice in vivo. Mice genetically ...
I came off my bike this morning and now my collar bone isnt quite the shape that it was. Sadly, Im in the USA without all ... I came off my bike this morning and now my collar bone isnt quite the shape that it was. Sadly, Im in the USA without all ... It happens to be the third time Ive turned this collar bone into two pieces and the last two didnt trouble the doctors either ... I broke my collar bone playing rugby and the two sides of the break offset somewhat. As it happened during my first outpatient ...
This study was to examine the association between ATO treatment and bone remodeling. The effects of ATO on osteoblast function ... This study was to examine the association between ATO treatment and bone remodeling. The effects of ATO on osteoblast function ... These results suggest that ATO interferes with bone remodeling mostly through changes in osteoblast differentiation and ... as well as bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume of femur were observed in ATO-treated rats. ...
This lesson will define the role of bone remodeling in maintaining homeostasis in the body. ,/p, ... We explain Homeostasis and Bone Remodeling with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple ... Bone remodeling The process bones constantly undergo of taking away and building tissue; is controlled by mechanical stress and ... A cell found in bones that builds bone tissue by secreting collagen into bone tissue spaces; the collagen binds to calcium and ...
... ... a novel mediator of cell-matrix interactions in bone?" Bone, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 297-303, 1999. View at Publisher · View at ... H. Eimar, I. Tamimi, M. Murshed, and F. Tamimi, "Cholinergic regulation of bone," Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal ... J. Guo, L. Wang, H. Xu, and X. Che, "Effect of heterologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation on midpalatal ...
... when osteoblasts lay down new bone until the resorbed bone is completely replaced. Bone remodeling serves to adjust bone ... Bone remodeling appears to be governed by a feedback system in which the bone cells sense the state of strain in the bone ... Bone remodeling involves the removal of mineralized bone by osteoclasts followed by the formation of bone matrix through the ... Bone remodelling and its relation to metabolic bone diseases, C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1973. 4.1.4. Frost, H. M., Bone ...
In addition to surgical bone remodeling, several materials have been used for remodeling and refinement of the frontal bone. ... The newly formed bone appeared to be effectively remodeled over time, producing lamellar bone nearly indistinguishable from ... Frontal Bone Remodeling for Gender Reassignment of the Male Forehead: A Gender-Reassignment Surgery. ... This study aimed to analyze the clinical outcome after frontal bone remodeling with HAC for gender male-to-female reassignment ...
Chemorepulsion by blood S1P regulates osteoclast precursor mobilization and bone remodeling in vivo.. [Masaru Ishii, Junichi ... This regulatory axis may be promising as a therapeutic target in diseases affecting OC-dependent bone remodeling. ... Thus, reciprocal regulation of S1P-dependent chemotaxis controls bone remodeling by finely regulating OP localization. ... S1PR2-deficient mice exhibit moderate osteopetrosis as a result of a decrease in osteoclastic bone resorption, suggesting that ...
... focusing on the verification of quantitative properties in the process of bone re ... Abnormal bone remodeling in patients with spontaneous painful vertebral fracture. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 26(3), ... Mathematical model predicts a critical role for osteoclast autocrine regulation in the control of bone remodeling. Bone 33(2), ... Tovar, A.: Bone remodeling as a hybrid cellular automaton optimization process. PhD thesis, University of Notre Dame (2004) ...
  • Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone. (statpearls.com)
  • They play a role in bone remodeling by transmitting signals to other nearby osteocytes regarding bone stress (tendons pulling on the bone). (statpearls.com)
  • A basic tenet of bone biology states that most vertebrate animals maintain bone strength by remodeling, in which bone cells called osteocytes detect and orchestrate the repair of microdamage caused by repeated loading. (pnas.org)
  • Organisms without osteocytes, such as many members of the neoteleost group of fishes, were not thought to undergo bone remodeling. (pnas.org)
  • The authors found that the rostral bones, which constitute the fishes' long, sword-like spears and endure repeated high stresses, contained high densities of structural footprints of remodeling, called secondary osteons, although billfish osteons were an order of magnitude smaller than mammal osteons and entirely without osteocytes. (pnas.org)
  • According to the authors, the results suggest that fish bones can repair damage despite lacking osteocytes, suggesting that osteocytes may not be the sole initiators of bone remodeling in fish or mammals. (pnas.org)
  • Although osteoblasts are polarized towards the bone, the release of the osteoid matrix proteins is not limited to the basal pole, but many of them are being involved in such a matrix, becoming osteocytes included in the gaps that form in it. (hindawi.com)
  • Already formed in the bone, the osteocytes included in the gaps or osteoplasmas in the mineralized matrix, are star-shaped with numerous thin extensions, and are connected by a network of canals or ducts calcoforos, bathed by the so-called bone fluid. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitogenic indices (BrdU incorporation) and transcriptional activators (egr-1 and c-fos) and differentiation indices (bone sialoprotein, Cbfa-1, and p57Kip2) will be measured in osteoblasts and osteocytes. (grantome.com)
  • Wnt-signalling and bone morphogenic proteins are important, and osteocytes tonically secrete sclerostin which inhibits Wnt-signalling. (washington.edu)
  • Upon sensing a load, osteocytes regulate bone remodeling by signaling to other cells with signaling molecules or direct contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • This physiological role led to investigation of the use of recombinant OPG as a treatment to prevent the bone breakdown that can be initiated when breast cancers metastasize and grow in the bone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to this control loop, there is a linear relationship in the healthy body between muscle cross sectional area (as a surrogate for typical maximum forces the muscle is able to produce under physiological conditions) and the bone cross sectional area (as a surrogate for bone strength). (wikipedia.org)
  • This book introduces the use of the Magnetic Mallet, an alternative to a manual surgical hammer, in a wide range of oral surgery applications, including tooth extraction, bone condensing and expansion, and sinus elevation. (dentalbooks.bg)
  • The oxygen is incorporated into the hydroxylcarbonic apatite of bone and tooth enamel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sponge-like bone formations lead to early tooth loss and permanent tooth eruption problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition is thought to be due to trauma or possibly a delay in tooth eruption relative to bone remodeling gradients during the period in which tooth is forming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lamina dura is compact bone that lies adjacent to the periodontal ligament, in the tooth socket. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continued Bone Formation Theory advocated that a tooth is pushed upward by the growth of the bone around the tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dentary (tooth-bearing lower jaw bone) was squared off at the front edge, as in Giganotosaurus, and shallow, while the rest of the jaw behind it became very deep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since both can atrophy after tooth extraction, pre-prosthetic procedures such as sinus lifts or gingival grafts are sometimes required to recreate ideal bone and gingiva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoblastic lesions are bone-forming sites that are commonly found in prostate cancer . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Kyoko Hashimoto et al, Cancer-secreted hsa-miR-940 induces an osteoblastic phenotype in the bone metastatic microenvironment via targeting ARHGAP1 and FAM134A, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). (medicalxpress.com)
  • In humans and other animals, they are responsible for senescence and apoptosis (programmed cell death), MHC class II immune responses, prohormone processing, and extracellular matrix remodeling important to bone development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to wild-type mice, Irp 2 −/− mice exhibited reduced BMD, bone iron deficiency, and hepatic iron overload. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we examined bone growth and remodeling phenotypes in ASHG-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To elucidate the role of endogenous glucocorticoid signaling in bone, we previously developed Col2.3-HSD2 and Col3.6-HSD2 transgenic mice in which a 2.3-kb or 3.6-kb Colla1 promoter fragment drives expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) in mature and early osteoblasts, respectively. (uconn.edu)
  • In the first study, we first characterized the bone phenotype of Col3.6-HSD2 mice. (uconn.edu)
  • Bone loss after RSG treatment has also been documented in mice and rats ( 9 , 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Researchers at Universities of Angers and Ulster evidenced that genetic ablation of the GIP receptor in mice resulted in profound alterations of bone microarchitecture through modification of the adipokine network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Authors of the publication stated, 'There is a clear need for bone substitutes that can safely and effectively replace autograft via a combination of bone growth and remodeling. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • This study demonstrated an important role of biomechanical responses of the sutures, which are also determined by the varying directions of forces, in growth and remodeling of the complex. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, we observed that ASK1-activated JNK and p38 induced the expression of two bone remodeling related genes, Fn14 and MCP-3 , respectively. (springer.com)
  • The authors concluded that the unliganded TRs (aporeceptors) on thyroid hormone responsive genes have repressor effects during bone development. (intechopen.com)
  • Two genes, SQSTM1 and RANK, and specific regions of chromosome 5 and 6 are associated with Paget's disease of bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mechanotransduction-induced de novo gene expression is required for bone remodeling, the molecular mechanism of intracellular signaling, which leads to regulation of gene expression, is not fully understood. (springer.com)
  • Nevertheless, there is evidence that CDTs can also perturb the innate immune responses, by regulating inflammatory cytokine production and molecular mediators of bone remodeling in various cell types. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together our data emphasize the importance of including biomarkers of bone remodeling as an integral part of clinical and preclinical studies using vitamin D3 to treat immune disorders and suggest the need for co-treatment with an antiresorptive agent to counteract hypercalcemia and deterioration of bone. (thescipub.com)
  • It is associated with bone remodeling and repair, immune cell function, lymph node development, thermal regulation, and mammary gland development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical osteoimmunology is a field that studies a treatment or prevention of the bone related diseases caused by disorders of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrant and/or prolonged activation of immune system leads to derangement of bone modeling and remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the osteoblast has completed the task, it can enter 3 fates: flatten and become a cell to line the bone surface, become an osteocyte, or undergo cell death (apoptosis). (statpearls.com)
  • Therefore, HAC is a welcome alternative to the traditional use of autogenous bone graft for correction of cranial vault irregularities. (springer.com)
  • Although it can be an effective treatment to improve self esteem [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ], contouring of the cranial vault, especially the frontal bone, still is a rarely performed surgical procedure for gender reassignment. (springer.com)
  • It is during the young stages of life, that bones considerably grow and shape according to forces stimuli: maxilla remodels through the tongue action, cranial vault reshapes with the expanding brain [ 7 , 8 ], and so on. (tmdocclusion.com)
  • Neuropathic infantile osteopetrosis Infantile osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis Infantile osteopetrosis with immunodeficiency IO with leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome (LAD-III) Intermediate osteopetrosis Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (Albers-Schonberg) Pyknodysostosis (osteopetrosis acro-osteolytica) Osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome) Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis Mixed sclerosing bone dysplasia Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Camurati-Engelmann disease) SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasias The only effective line of treatment for malignant infantile osteopetrosis is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired cranial bone formation and remodeling can contribute to many of these craniofacial abnormalities such as Apert's, Crouzon's, Treacher-Collins, Pierre Robin Complex, hemifacial microsomia, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oldknow KJ, MacRae VE, Farquharson C. Endocrine role of bone: recent and emerging perspectives beyond osteocalcin. (springer.com)
  • It is therefore the aim of this review to identify and present the current state of the literature with regards to the role of CDTs on host inflammatory responses, as well as the associated effects on bone remodeling. (mdpi.com)
  • In fact, it is the production of estrogen that plays a large role in the growth of bones. (coursehero.com)
  • In a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) report the discovery of an RNA molecule that may play a key role in bone restructuring caused by prostate cancer (Fig.1). (medicalxpress.com)
  • One microRNA in particular, miR-940, was highly abundant in the prostate cancer-derived exosomes and turned out to play a powerful role in promoting bone formation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their findings suggest that miR-940 plays a central role in the bone-forming ability of prostate cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Sinigaglia L, Fargion S, Fracanzani AL et al (1997) Bone and joint involvement in genetic hemochromatosis: role of cirrhosis and iron overload. (springer.com)
  • The hyperparathyroidism plays a key role in the maintenance or development of post-transplant alterations of bone remodelling. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Given this role, early studies on OPG in breast cancer focused on the administration of OPG in order to prevent the osteolysis observed with bone metastases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Successful completion of this project will provide a basis for novel studies of the role of exosomes in regulating bone remodeling. (grantome.com)
  • In sum, we will determine the role of the CNS in regulating bone remodeling and determine how age-related changes in BAT may impact bone mass. (grantome.com)
  • Most importantly, understanding the role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulating bone remodeling is paramount for determining individuals at risk and for designing therapies. (grantome.com)
  • Studies on animal models have brought valuable insights into role of TRs in bone development and growth. (intechopen.com)
  • A new study by researchers working at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has now demonstrated a key role for S1P in bone remodelling. (drugdiscoveryopinion.com)
  • Calcitonin has a greater effect in young children than in adults, and plays a smaller role in bone remodeling than PTH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grem1 plays an important role in bone development and a lesser known function later in adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific effects on bone structure depends on the duration, magnitude and rate of loading, and it has been found that only cyclic loading can induce bone formation. (wikipedia.org)