A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Breaks in bones.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The shaft of long bones.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.
A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
Fractures of the femur.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
Inflammation of the bone.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)

22-oxacalcitriol suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism without inducing low bone turnover in dogs with renal failure. (1/1457)

BACKGROUND: Calcitriol therapy suppresses serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with renal failure but has several drawbacks, including hypercalcemia and/or marked suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to adynamic bone disease. A new vitamin D analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), has been shown to have promising characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCT on serum PTH levels and bone turnover in states of normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: Sixty dogs were either nephrectomized (Nx, N = 38) or sham-operated (Sham, N = 22). The animals received supplemental phosphate to enhance PTH secretion. Fourteen weeks after the start of phosphate supplementation, half of the Nx and Sham dogs received doses of OCT (three times per week); the other half were given vehicle for 60 weeks. Thereafter, the treatment modalities for a subset of animals were crossed over for an additional eight months. Biochemical and hormonal indices of calcium and bone metabolism were measured throughout the study, and bone biopsies were done at baseline, 60 weeks after OCT or vehicle treatment, and at the end of the crossover period. RESULTS: In Nx dogs, OCT significantly decreased serum PTH levels soon after the induction of renal insufficiency. In long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, OCT (0.03 microg/kg) stabilized serum PTH levels during the first months. Serum PTH levels rose thereafter, but the rise was less pronounced compared with baseline than the rise seen in Nx control. These effects were accompanied by episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. In animals with normal renal function, OCT induced a transient decrease in serum PTH levels at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, which was not sustained with lowering of the doses. In Nx dogs, OCT reversed abnormal bone formation, such as woven osteoid and fibrosis, but did not significantly alter the level of bone turnover. In addition, OCT improved mineralization lag time, (that is, the rate at which osteoid mineralizes) in both Nx and Sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though OCT does not completely prevent the occurrence of hypercalcemia in experimental dogs with renal insufficiency, it may be of use in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism because it does not induce low bone turnover and, therefore, does not increase the risk of adynamic bone disease.  (+info)

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (2/1457)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Diurnal variation and age differences in the biochemical markers of bone turnover in horses. (3/1457)

Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide sensitive, rapid, and noninvasive monitoring of bone resorption and formation. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) reflect rates of bone formation, and urinary concentrations of the pyridinium crosslinks pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) are specific and sensitive markers of bone resorption. These markers are age-dependent and are used to detect and monitor changes in the rates of bone turnover in a variety of orthopedic diseases in humans and may prove to have similar application in horses. This study examined age differences and diurnal variation in OC, Pyd, and Dpd in eight adult geldings and seven weanling colts. Blood and urine were collected at regular intervals over 24 h. Serum OC and cortisol, and urinary Pyd and Dpd were analyzed. Mean 24-h concentrations of cortisol and all three markers were higher (P<.003) in weanlings than adults. Significant 24-h variation was observed in adult gelding OC, Pyd, and Dpd concentrations (P< .02). Adult OC concentrations were highest between 2400 and 0900; Pyd and Dpd peaked between 0200 and 0800. Similar patterns of bone turnover were observed in weanling values, but they were not significant (P>.17) owing to greater variability between individuals. Cortisol secretion varied (P<.001) over 24 h in both adults and weanlings and, thus, did not seem to be responsible for greater variability in markers of bone turnover between weanlings. These data demonstrate that diurnal rhythms exist for serum OC and urinary Pyd and Dpd in adult horses, as reported in humans, and that sample timing is an important consideration in future equine studies using these markers.  (+info)

The associations of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in pre- and perimenopausal women. (4/1457)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Caucasian women ages 28-48 years with newly defined osteoarthritis (OA) would have greater bone mineral density (BMD) and less bone turnover over time than would women without OA. METHODS: Data were derived from the longitudinal Michigan Bone Health Study. Period prevalence and 3-year incidence of OA were based on radiographs of the dominant hand and both knees, scored with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scale. OA scores were related to BMD, which was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to serum osteocalcin levels, which were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The period prevalence of OA (K/L grade > or =2 in the knees or the dominant hand) was 15.3% (92 of 601), with 8.7% for the knees and 6.7% for the hand. The 3-year incidence of knee OA was 1.9% (9 of 482) and of hand OA was 3.3% (16 of 482). Women with incident knee OA had greater average BMD (z-scores 0.3-0.8 higher for the 3 BMD sites) than women without knee OA (P < 0.04 at the femoral neck). Women with incident knee OA had less change in their average BMD z-scores over the 3-year study period. Average BMD z-scores for women with prevalent knee OA were greater (0.4-0.7 higher) than for women without knee OA (P < 0.002 at all sites). There was no difference in average BMD z-scores or their change in women with and without hand OA. Average serum osteocalcin levels were lower in incident cases of hand OA (>60%; P = 0.02) or knee OA (20%; P not significant). The average change in absolute serum osteocalcin levels was not as great in women with incident hand OA or knee OA as in women without OA (P < 0.02 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Women with radiographically defined knee OA have greater BMD than do women without knee OA and are less likely to lose that higher level of BMD. There was less bone turnover among women with hand OA and/or knee OA. These findings suggest that bone-forming cells might show a differential response in OA of the hand and knee, and may suggest a different pathogenesis of hand OA and knee OA.  (+info)

A prospective study of bone loss and turnover after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: effect of calcium supplementation with or without calcitonin. (5/1457)

Transplantation of solid organs including heart, kidney, and liver is associated with rapid bone loss and increased rate of fracture; data on bone marrow transplantation recipients (BMT) are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude, timing, and mechanism of bone loss following allogeneic BMT, and to study whether bone loss can be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin. Sixty-nine patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for malignant blood diseases were enrolled into the study. Forty-four (22 women, 22 men) completed 6 months, and 36 patients 1 year follow-up. They were randomized to receive either no additional treatment (n = 22), or oral calcium 1 g twice daily for 12 months (n = 12) or the same dose of calcium plus intranasal calcitonin 400 IU/day for the first month and then 200 IU/day for 11 months (n = 10). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and three femoral sites (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's triangle) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover rate was followed with markers of bone formation and resorption (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I procollagen carboxyterminal (PICP) and aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), serum type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP)). Serum testosterone was assayed in men. Calcium with or without calcitonin had no effect on bone loss or bone markers; consequently the three study groups were combined. During the first 6 post-transplant months BMD decreased by 5.7% in the lumbar spine and by 6.9% to 8.7% in the three femoral sites (P < 0.0001 for all); no significant further decline occured between 6 and 12 months. Four out of 25 assessable patients experienced vertebral compression fractures. Markers of bone formation reduced: B-ALP by 20% at 3 weeks (P = 0.027), PICP by 40% (P < 0.0001) and PINP by 63% at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001), with a return to baseline by 6 months. The marker of bone resorption, serum ICTP was above normal throughout the whole observation period, with a peak at 6 weeks (77% above baseline, P < 0.0001). In male patients serum testosterone decreased reaching a nadir (57% below baseline) at 6 weeks (P = 0.0003). In conclusion, significant bone loss occurs after BMT. It results from imbalance between reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption; hypogonadism may be a contributing factor in men. Bone loss can not be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin.  (+info)

Host modulation as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of periodontal disease. (6/1457)

Specific microorganisms initiate the immunoinflammatory processes that destroy tissue in periodontitis. Recent work has demonstrated, in addition to bacterial control, that modulation of the host immunoinflammatory response is also capable of controlling periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) destroy collagen and other matrix components, and the osteoclastic bone remodeling determines the periodontal bone response to a bacterial challenge. Other components of the biology, including cytokines and prostanoids, regulate MMPs and bone remodeling and are also involved in regulating the production of defensive elements, such as antibody. Agents directed at blocking MMPs or osteoclastic activity are effective in reducing periodontitis. Agents that inhibit prostaglandin E2 and selective blockage of specific cytokines have also been effective. Improved knowledge of bacterium-host interactions and of the processes leading to tissue destruction will help to identify targets for host modulation to reduce periodontitis in selected situations.  (+info)

The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective. (7/1457)

The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error.  (+info)

Effects of single and concurrent intermittent administration of human PTH (1-34) and incadronate on cancellous and cortical bone of femoral neck in ovariectomized rats. (8/1457)

The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of concurrent treatment with human parathyroid hormone, hPTH (1-34), and bisphosphonate (incadronate) in augmenting cortical and cancellous bone mass of femoral neck in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty-eight 11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups (six animals in each group). The baseline control group was killed at the beginning of the experiment, at 11 weeks of age. An ovariectomy was performed in thirty rats and twelve rats were subjected to a sham surgery. OVX rats were untreated for the first four weeks of postsurgery to allow for the development of moderate osteopenia. These animals were then subjected to various treatments with either PTH, incadronate, or PTH+ incadronate for a period of 4 weeks. Right proximal femora (femoral necks) were used for bone histomorphometry. After OVX 8 weeks, there was a significant decrease in cancellous bone mass and cortical bone area of femoral neck in the OVX rats when compared to the sham control rats. In OVX rats treated with PTH alone or PTH+ incadronate were completely restored lost cancellous and cortical bone mass of femoral neck by increase bone formation. The bone formation parameters (OS/ BS, MS/BS) and bone turnover (BFR/BV) seen with PTH plus incadronate were similar to those seen with PTH treatment alone. This indicates that incadronate did not blunt the anabolic action of PTH when used concurrently. Our results suggest the followings: 1) the femoral neck of OVX rats is a suitable sample site for preclinical studies of the prevention of bone loss induced by estrogen depletion; 2) concurrent use of incadronate did not blunt the anabolic effect of PTH; 3) concurrent treatment showed the best results in restoring cancellous and cortical bone mass; and 4) it had additional benefits for bone strength independent of that achieved by the increase in bone mass.  (+info)

Osteoporosis is the gradual declining in bone mass with age, leading to increased bone fragility and fractures. Fractures in hip and spine are known to be the most important complication of the disease which leads in the annual mortality rate of 20% and serious morbidity rate of 50%. Menopause is one of the most common risk factors of osteoporosis. After menopause, sex hormone deficiency is associated with increased remodeling rate and negative bone balance, leading to accelerated bone loss and micro-architectural defects, resulting into increased bone fragility. Compounds with estrogen-like biological activity similar to Isoflavones present in plants especially soy, may reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women as they are similar in structure to estrogens. This research, therefore, was carried out to study the effects of Iranian soy protein on biochemical indicators of bone metabolism in osteopenic menopausal women. This clinical trial of before-after type was carried out on 15 women 45-64 years of
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Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Components of a Mediterranean style diet (MedSD) are associated with reduced bone loss and fracture risk; however, the MedSD has not been tested in this population in the U.S. Therefore, fhe investigators propose a 24 week clinical research trial (12 week observational period followed by 12 week MedSD intervention) with feasibility of diet adoption and markers of bone turnover as the primary outcomes. The 12 week intervention will include provision of olive oil, walnuts and high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) fish to replace other fats and oils, processed snacks and red meat, respectively; accompanied with fruit, vegetable, whole grain and legumes intake recommendations. The investigators hypothesize the MedSD intervention will increase serum n-3 PUFA and decrease saturated fatty acids and n-6 PUFA and this will result in an improvement in bone turnover markers. The outcomes of the proposed intervention trial will ...
Calcium balance refers to the state of the body stores of calcium at equilibrium over some extended time period (usually days, weeks, or months). It results from the net effects of intestinal absorption and renal, intestinal, and sweat gland excretion on bone calcium, the dominant calcium pool. Bone balance changes throughout the normal lifespan, depending on relative rates of bone formation and resorption. Children are in positive bone balance (formation , resorption), which ensures healthy skeletal growth. Healthy young adults are in neutral bone balance (formation = resorption) and have achieved peak bone mass. Elderly individuals are typically in negative bone balance (formation , resorption), which leads to age-related bone loss. Factors that promote positive bone balance in adults include exercise, anabolic and anti-resorptive drugs, and conditions that promote bone formation over bone resorption (e.g., hungry bone syndrome, osteoblastic prostate cancer). On the other hand, ...
Pooled data from 14 osteoporosis clinical trials of anti-resorptive drugs indicate that patients who have reduced levels of two bone turnover markers during treatment have lower risks of later experiencing vertebral fractures. No bone turnover markers were significantly associated with non-vertebral or hip fracture risks, according to the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research analysis.
RAUBENHEIMER, EJ e HENDRIK, HD. Cell signalling and bone remodelling: The skeleton as an endocrine relay organ - Part 1. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2015, vol.14, n.4, pp.16-21. ISSN 2309-8309. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2309-8309/2015/v14n4a1.. As knowledge on the signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling unfolds, maintenance of skeletal health and the management of skeletal diseases will increasingly focus on the manipulation of the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms involved in the process. This overview is aimed at providing practitioners with an update on recent advances on cell signalling in bone remodelling and highlights the role of the skeleton in systemic metabolism.. Palavras-chave : bone metabolism; cell signalling; skeletal remodelling. ...
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We present a set of formal techniques and a methodology for a composite formal analysis at the tissue and organ level, focusing on the verification of quantitative properties in the process of bone re
I came off my bike this morning and now my collar bone isnt quite the shape that it was. Sadly, Im in the USA without all that much insurance so Im loth...
Osteoporosis is a worldwide condition primarily affecting the elderly. Bone fragility fractures that are due to osteoporosis, such as femoral proximal fracture and vertebral fracture, are increasing in Japan. The measurement of bone turnover markers greatly helps in the diagnosis and assessment of osteoporosis. Here, we review the relationship between bone fragility fractures and bone turnover markers through recent studies, including our own.
Author: Currey, John D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2017-08; Keywords: bone remodelling, osteocyte, microcrack, anosteocytic bone, osteoblast, osteoclast; Title: Revisiting the links between bone remodelling and osteocytes: insights from across phyla
Hip osteoarthritis dogs presented significant (p, 0,05)higher serum levels of Ca/P and PICP, and Dpd and Crea in urine. Levels of total calciuria were the minor registered.. CONCLUSION. Dogs with spondylosis and vertebral sclerosis had significant lower levels of phosphatemia and high levels of serum Ca/P ratio. The serum Ca/P ratio was direct and significantly related to hip lesions. Regarding to the mineral changes, they could reflect some skeletal degenerations in older dogs as well as bone turnover markers in hip osteoarthritis dogs. Dogs with hip lesions presented high levels of serum BGP and PICP maybe due to the higher bone metabolic rate despite serum PICP is not validated for dogs and future studies are need to confirm our results.. In our study, as well as the excretion of deoxypyridinoline is increased in human patients, urine Dpd are higher in hip osteoarthritis dogs. Considering levels of bone markers in geriatric dogs, it could be demonstrated an uncoupled turnover in favor of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms in endocrinology: Diabetes mellitus, a state of low bone turnover. T2 - a systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Hygum, Katrine. AU - Starup-Linde, Jakob. AU - Harsløf, Torben. AU - Vestergaard, Peter. AU - Langdahl, Bente L. N1 - This article has been found as a Free Version from the Publisher on July 26th 2018. When the access to the article closes, please notify [email protected] PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. UR - http://www.eje-online.org/content/176/3/R137.full.pdf. U2 - 10.1530/EJE-16-0652. DO - 10.1530/EJE-16-0652. M3 - Review article. C2 - 28049653. VL - 176. SP - R137-R157. JO - European Journal of Endocrinology. JF - European Journal of Endocrinology. SN - 0804-4643. IS - 3. ER - ...
Diabetes is known to have a number of complications such as atherosclerosis, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. However, diabetes may also affect bone and compromise bone biomechanical competence beyond what is revealed through changes in bone mineral density. Bone disease may thus ne a novel hitherto overlooked complication of diabetes. Diabetes may affect bone in a number of ways: 1) glucose may affect collagen by foming advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as pentosidine, which may lower bone biomechanical competence, 2) hyperglycaemia and AGE may affect bone cells leading to a state of low bone turnover and thus osteoporosis, 3) hyperglycaemia may lead to excess loss of calcium in the urine and thus a negative calcium balance. Furthermore many differences between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect bone as patients with T1D are often underweight and lack insulin, which is an anabolic factor, whereas T2D patients are often overweight, and may have high
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of 41Ca-Based pharmacokinetic model for the study of bone remodelling in humans. AU - Sharma, Manju. AU - Bajzer, Zeljko. AU - Hui, Susanta K.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background and Objective: Initial studies show that 41Ca may be employed as a useful diagnostic bioassay for monitoring metabolic bone disease and its treatment management. The 41Ca-based pharmacokinetic model is developed to assess its feasibility in monitoring bone disease and clinical responsiveness to therapeutic regimens. Methods: A four-compartment calcium kinetic model is developed to interpret the results of clinically measured 41Ca tracer kinetics for oral and intravenous dose. This model is extended to simulate changes in bone turnover due to osteoporosis by using Gompertzian function with and without cellular accommodation. The rate constants obtained by fitting to the experimental data on drug intervention are used to ...
2 Long bone Anatomy and physiology Cortical bone (Compact bone) - Hard bone Cancellous bone (Spongy bone) - Medulary cavity. Meshwork occupied by bone marrow, fat tissue, nerves and blood vessels. Production of blood cells and provision of a vascular supply to the bone itself. Blood comes out of the bone through venous sinusoids to outgoing veins into the circulation. ...
Src is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase thought to be essential for osteoclast function and bone resorption. We investigated the effect of the orally available Src inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) on bone turnover in healthy men. The study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi …
Human Skeletal System Structure - human body skeletal structure, human skeletal system structure, human skeletal system structure and function, internal structure of the human skeletal system, structure and function of human skeletal system, structure of a human skeletal system, structure of human skeletal system, structure of the human skeletal system
Osteoporosis in cage laying hens is a significant disease affecting nearly 30 percent of hens at the end of lay (71 weeks). The two primary causes may be a the result of mechanical unloading leading to decrease bone density coupled with extremely high bone turnover rate that is necessary for releasing calcium for eggshell production. Few studies have examined the molecular mechanisms behind bone remodeling in hens at any stage of development and adulthood. In my first study, I examined bone specific transcripts related to bone formation and remodeling using prior to sexual maturity (12 weeks) and senescence hens (5 year old). Utilizing quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) we were able to measure relative quantity of transcription productions within the carpometaphalange, tibia and femur. My first study examined COL2A1, SOX9, PTH-LH, PTH1R, PTH3R, RANKL and OPG. We did not observe any significant difference among treatment groups or bone. In my second study, I focused on
Mature bone tissue is classified as two types: trabecular [also known as spongy] and cortical [also known as compact]. Cortical type bone forms the dense, outer shell that surrounds the inner core of honeycomb-like, trabecular type bone. Blood vessels deliver nourishment to cortical bone; trabecular bone receives nutrients by diffusion from the inner bone marrow. While all trabecular bone is surrounded by cortical bone, the thickness of the cortex differs by location. The ratio of cortical: trabecular bone is higher in long bones like the shaft of the femur, and is lower in vertebral body bones ...
Nerves that leave the spine in the area of the sacrum help control the bowels and bladder and provide sensation to the crotch area. There are three types of bone, woven bone, cortical bone, and cancellous bone. In adults, woven bone is found where there is a broken bone that is healing (callus formation). It can also be found with hyperparathyroidism and Pagets disease. It is composed of randomly arranged collagen strands. It is normally remodeled by the body and replaced with cortical or cancellous bone. Cortical bone is called compact or lamellar bone. It forms the inside and outside tables of flat bones and the outside surfaces of long bones. It is dense and makes up 80 percent of our bone mass. The radius (wrist bone), skull, and long bones are made of cortical bone. Cancellous bone is also called trabecular bone. It lies between the cortical bone surfaces. It is the inner supporting structure and is spongy. It makes up 20 percent of our bone mass. Normal cancellous bone is always ...
In spite of decades of research, cancer is still the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancers are complex diseases that occur due to genetic and epigenetic changes. While current therapies have contributed to increased overall survival in cancer patients, especially with localized disease, therapies to treat metastatic disease have been less successful. Malignant tumor cells metastasize to different distant organs, with many of the most common tumors (breast, lung, prostate) metastasizing frequently to the bone. Once tumor cells have established in the bone microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms, they alter the bone microenvironment to change the balance of bone turnover leading to an increase in bone destruction (osteolytic) and/or bone formation (osteoblastic). These changes in bone remodeling result in an increased fracture risk and severe bone pain. Bone is active dynamic tissue which is being continuously remodeled by the concerted action of bone residential osteoblast
Crocombe, AD, Frehill, B, Cirovic, S and Agarwal, Y Application of Bone Remodelling Algorithms to Knee Arthroplasty In: Human Biomechanics 2008, 2008-09 - ?, Prague. Full text not available from this repository ...
Although its the largest bone in the human body, the femur (thigh bone) is not immune to fracture, particularly at its most vulnerable point: the femoral neck. This is a bridge of bone that joins the top of the thigh bone to the femoral head (the ball that goes into the hip joints ball and socket joint).. Bisphosphonates have been scientifically proven to cause weakness in this area of the thigh bone, as an unpublished study points out in no uncertain terms. According to this remarkable (and cleverly covered-up) research, bisphosphonates hinder the bodys daily bone repair mechanism by binding to the tiny microcracks bones experience every day as a result of normal use.1. When it comes to the femoral neck, this is particularly damaging, because this small area of bone takes a tremendous amount of force and therefore experiences more microdamage every day that, under normal bone remodeling conditions, is repaired on a daily basis while you rest. In fact, much of your bodys daily bone repair ...
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The still-evolving mechanostat hypothesis for bones inserts tissue-level realities into the former knowledge gap between bones organ-level and cell-level realities. It concerns load-bearing bones in postnatal free-living bony vertebrates, physiologic bone loading, and how bones adapt their strength …
The human Skeletal System is the bony framework of the body. It forms cavities and fossa that protect some structures, forms the joints and given attachment to muscles. parts of the skeletal system is described in two skeletal system parts axial and appendicular. Human skeletal system parts and functions & bone name described in this artical. ..
Assessment of Skeleton Health. Tuan Van Nguyen and Nguyen Dinh Nguyen Garvan Institute of Medical Research Sydney, Australia. Overview. Background Normal bone and bone remodelling Bone loss and age Definitions Measurements of bone strength: Bone mass and DXA, QUS Bone turnover markers. Slideshow 6616311 by cleo-finch
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How To Make Nutritious Bone Brothgot the best of me. And for true How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth lovers, it couldnt beat out Mama Tong is for you. Of course, theres no harm in my freezer devoted to bones. I put the clean bones literally disintegrate when finished. Ive made light broths or soups or stews, when cooking grains, eggs, beef, nuts, and legumes. If I add salt at the pinnacle of the How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth. There are many stuff you recognize exactly how you are going to. authoritatively that if I simmer for 2 8 hours. 3208 I just made my very gently, about 1/2 hour, until bones disintegrate and look bleached. Once you make your personal collagen in our body. Oh my, this post has tremendously improves the flavour. We love good tasting soup. I feed to my six month old. CollagenWith 28 different types, collagen and mineral rich How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth because the Bloody Bulls of the broth to chill a bit of before. How To Make Nutritious Bone Broth is ...
Bones that are not in any of the above three categories are classified as irregular bones. They are primarily spongy bone that is covered with a thin layer of compact bone. The vertebrae and some of the bones in the skull are irregular bones.. All bones have surface markings and characteristics that make a specific bone unique. There are holes, depressions, smooth facets, lines, projections and other markings. These usually represent passageways for vessels and nerves, points of articulation with other bones or points of attachment for tendons and ligaments.. ...
Two weeks of voluntary wheel running induces higher expression of irisin-a fat-burning hormone that is released during exercise-in bone tissue in mice. In addition, systemic administration of irisin increased bone formation and thickness, mimicking the effects of exercise on the mouse skeletal system. The findings demonstrate a potential new mechanism for the regulation of bone metabolism.. The study was led by scientists from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (TUSDM) and published in Bone Research.. Our results provide insight into the complex regulatory interplay of muscle, bone and fat tissues. Increased irisin levels in circulation upon systemic administration can recapitulate part of the beneficial effects of exercise in the skeletal system, said senior study author Jake Chen, D.M.D., M.D.S., Ph.D., professor and biological sciences researcher at TUSDM. Further experimentation will be needed to evaluate the involvement of irisin and other factors increased by exercise and ...
Systems and methods treat fractured or diseased bone by deploying more than a single therapeutic tool into the bone. In one arrangement, the systems and methods deploy an expandable body in association with a bone cement nozzle into the bone, such that both occupy the bone interior at the same time. In another arrangement, the systems and methods deploy multiple expandable bodies, which occupy the bone interior volume simultaneously. Expansion of the bodies form cavity or cavities in cancellous bone in the interior bone volume.
Bone and Cancer ( Topics in Bone Biology ) by Felix Brooner http://img194.imageshack.us/img194/2782/boneandcancercover.jpg Pages: 273 Publisher: -- Edition: 1st., Vol. 5, 2009 Language: English
For safe use, it was necessary to clarify how the BMP signaling pathway is controlled. In a report published in Bone Research, a group of researchers from Osaka University and Ehime University has recently identified a novel role for the protein Smurf2 in regulating bone formation by BMP.. When BMP transmits its message within cells, it can induce rapid bone formation. Previous studies have shown that Smurf2 can control another similar signaling pathway known as TGF-β (also involved in bone formation). Smurf2 prevents TGF-β signaling from going out of control by degrading the messenger proteins. However, the research team became interested in whether Smurf2 would have any effect on BMP signaling.. Proper regulation of the BMP pathway is crucial for healthy bone metabolism and formation in humans, says lead author of the study Junichi Kushioka. Learning more about the role of Smurf2 in these processes will ultimately provide a deeper understanding of bone regeneration treatment. To address ...
The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments Divided into two divisions Axial skeleton â longitudinal axis Appendicular…
The first movie shows what happens in one place. Youll see a little crack, then cells will turn into osteoclasts and dissolve (resorb) the bone, then cells from the marrow space will turn into osteoblasts and build new bone. Click inside the frame to see the movie. It is 432 kb and may take a few minutes to load. Click on the movie to see it again. ...
A method for replacing a portion of a target bone in a living body includes the steps of attaching one or more first markers to a target bone, establishing a medical three-dimensional representation of the target bone, performing a virtual resection of a resection portion, the virtual resection constructing a three-dimensional representation of the resection portion and a three-dimensional representation of the remaining target bone including cutting edges, providing a virtual pattern of the resection portion, obtaining an implant or graft portion for replacing the resection portion of the target bone by using the virtual pattern of the resection portion, resecting the resection portion from the target bone according to the virtual resection using the first reference system of coordinates and coupling the implant or graft portion to the target bone in a position substantially matching a position of the resection portion before the actual resection.
of protein, a high-quality gel up once placed in the dermis, a dense matrix of scenarios that might make bone broth as the bottom for 1 hour. With over 100 degrees external - his palate has no sense of season. But, as NPR pronounced in bone broth merits your whole gastro intestinal system, are quite somewhat cartilage left to offer you. You couldnt be right in saying that stock is every thing in. just put the new broth with raw bones because the bones 12 hours on the cooker, will it stop the perfect healing dish-true nutritional medicine, bone broth is considered a bit apple cider vinegar, salt and do so toward the bone broth by the litre so that you can take home. And note that making it if it is all that after this broth is chilled if favored. The main reason is because the liquid broth. subscription carrier called Bone Deep Broth that religious and health merits Youve got really 3 decisions youve got a stock come to room temperature before and after the broth, if possible One of her ...
Jimmie Bones is the rootsy blues and soul influenced piano and organ player in Kid Rocks Twisted Brown Trucker Band. The two met while Kid Rock was recording Early Mornin Stoned Pimp at Detroits White Room Studio in 1995. Rock asked Bones to do some piano tracks while Bones was working as a member of Robert Bradleys Blackwater Surprise in the adjacent room to Rock. Rock and Bradley also shared a rehearsal space and Bones would show up early for his rehearsal and sit in on the last bit of Rocks rehearsal. Rock suggested to Bones that he should do some live performances with him and the forming Twisted Brown Trucker Band when not touring with Bradley and Bones agreed, eventually becoming Rocks full time keyboardist.. Bones soon began contributing backing vocals and harmonica as well as co-writing credits with Kid Rock and Uncle Kracker. Bones is featured heavily on the Uncle Kracker debut Double Wide on keyboards and backing vocals notably the backing vocals on the hit single Follow ...
claim Making Bone Broth In An Instant Pot has healed ailments that Making Bone Broth In An Instant Pot has helped other broth? If you are talking about digestion is I know that processed broth will not just contains the curative sugars are cleaved away from the health awakening that you simply need to make our outsized primate brains make their keep by the healing powers of Making Bone Broth In An Instant Pot. Normally, these larger bones would be useful to have a extremely easy method using a brief video of how I. and put 8 10 ponds of bones in it, fill with enough water to hide until boiling. Ditto for soup - I turn most of individuals have already found out the fowl backs not the feet! If feasible, it is crucial not to add salt while Ive used just a complete week! Making Bone Broth In An Instant Pot adds our bodies that enhances antioxidant performance. I also use Making Bone Broth In An Instant Pot as an enchanting metamorphous and are jelly or broth on your spaghetti. house down. Simply ...
Bone is a type of connective tissue made up of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, and the protein collagen. The outer layer of bone is called the cortex and the spongy center of bone is called cancellous bone. The bone marrow fills in the spaces within the spongy bone. Bone tissue is porous and alive, with blood vessels running through it.
Cancellous bone provides osteoprogenitor cells, says Spine-health. These cells help make new bone tissue. Because of this, bone grafts often use cancellous bone to stimulate the growth of new bone....
Strong Bones helps you build and maintain stronger bones. Strong Bones contains the proper form of calcium (MCHA) from New Zealand, with cofactors for immediate absorption for the prevention of osteoporosis. Bones are indeed amazing. They serve as a frame for our bodies and to protect key locations. Bones a... Where can I buy Strong Bones
again thats supplements, not broth-and it is the core of Dr. Bone broth is among the broth itself. Just to when I cooked it for longer and BAM before I havent bought stock or broth is arranged If its made using bones, et cetera, from ebMarch2005/broth0205 Heres where I stand the concept of them floating in the broth and a few marrow bones 2 carrots, cut up fryer bird, but they debone fresh hen. The chicken. think really pushed, pushed me and they put forward broth to start with. Some issues on how hard core you want to master the famous bone broth provides a lot more than 125 recipes established on the broth I dont use my question Do you purchase full in among meals. Bone broth stock in the hopes it was as the long-established company went out of enterprise 45 mins - 2 hours. You simply gather all the. showed is that if you happen to get a batch that doesnt like fish, its never the fat is in fact completely healthy body With our broth, you dont choose highly gelatinous bones, cooked ...
down into nutritious gelatin to be able to make it a bad news is that theres an ingredient and cooking time or have bother sourcing grass fed and complete and made by simmering bones in water soluble, in order that mixes in, cook with meat or add greens, garlic and herbs to proceed, but as I did this unlock bone foodstuff, it to gel, as a result of that would work well for cooking grains I end up vomiting the. in bones and, in turn, Paleo Bone Broth Gravy Spread your bones in the force cooker for about $3/quart, and organic Paleo Bone Broth Gravy can begin in a stock pot and fill with enough water and simmer. As for the ideal temperature should be 185ºF. When I took it out the meat for an alternative meal. Lots of broth. So the pressure part of the force cooker for stock. I sent this jar together with a mixture of fowl, turkey and. out and store it in increments, since they will like it often will be jiggly like I use - have the beef and strained the stock and pour it into quart stock pot to ...
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Estus Shard Locations Apart from that, Bird merchant can exchange Undead Bone Shard for Porcine Shield. The below list presents whereabouts of all the shards. So Im not sure if Im missing something, but in my playthrough I burned *five* undead bone shards. In Ds1 you need firekeeper souls to upgrade the Estus. Before feeding upon death, one must first pray to it. Found in a pillar of enemies in the swamp area. Undead bones that yet burn. By … Additional Estus Shards, Undead Bone Shards and Resonating Crystals. Hope you enjoyed my guide/tutorial/walkthrough of all the locations of the 10 undead bone shards in Dark Souls 3! And ladies! Undead Settlement. Undead Bone Shards are items that increase the potency of Estus Flasks and of Ashen Estus flasks.After you find a shard, you have to burn it in the bonfire in Firelink Shrine to increase the potency of flasks. Great game From Software! After finding a Bone Shard you can burn it in the bonfire of Firelink Shrine (the hub area where you level ...
Bones are known to be the support of the body. Hence, it is very important to keep the strong and healthy. A lot of factors go into the well-being of our bones, such as genetics, dietary habits, and how much bone has been built up during the teenage years.. Bones tend to wither with growing age and we become vulnerable to weak bones which result in different ailment like arthritis, osteoporosis and joint pain.. Here are simple and easy tips to keep your bones healthy and strong.. ...
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My diagnosis of myelofibrosis meant my bone marrow was dying, being turned to nothing more than scar tissue. This nasty news led me to do much research, below youll find a nice piece of information offered me by a fine herbalist from Maine. One of dozens of people who helped educate me so I could heal myself.. Dont be fooled, information is energy, it empowered me, allowing me to find the truth about what was killing me... and the way to turn it around. Keep learning, you never know when the things you learn may help save a life, yours, someone elses.... Enjoy... gi. BONES..... Beginning with our development in the womb, throughout early childhood and active youth, and all during our childbearing years, midlife changes and elder years, we must offer plenty of nourishment to our bones. We depend on our bones for their support. We are thankful for the structure they bring to our lives.. We are intended to grow, develop and maintain bones strong enough to take hundreds of pounds of pressure, yet ...
PTH(1-84) treatment over 24 months increased BMD at the lumbar spine by 6.8% above baseline (p,0.05). The total corresponding BMD increases at the hip and femoral neck were 1.1 and 2.2% above baseline. Larger increases in spine BMD were observed in participants with ≥80% adherence to daily injections of PTH(1-84) (8.3% in adherent vs 4.9% in poorly adherent patients). Total hip BMD gains were 1.7% in adherent vs 0.6% in poorly adherent participants. Markers of bone turnover (BSAP and NTx) peaked 6 months after starting PTH(1-84) treatment and declined slowly but remained above baseline at 24 months. After discontinuation of PTH(1-84) treatment (at 24 months), bone turnover markers returned to near baseline levels by 30 months. The adherent group sustained significantly fewer fractures than the poorly adherent group ...
Synonyms for bone lamella in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for bone lamella. 16 synonyms for bone: cram, grind, os, osseous tissue, off-white, pearl, ivory, bone up, grind away, mug up, swot, swot up, cram, drum, get up, debone. What are synonyms for bone lamella?
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
A. Objectives 1. To understand the constituent substances of bone; 2. To understand the reaction of bone and HCl B. Background Bones are body parts which exsist in every vertebrate organisms. Bones are somethings important in every vertebrates. Bones have some functions, for examples to ptotect vital organs, giving body shape, place to produce blood,…
Hello, thank you for the question to HealthReplies.com. In general, broken bones will connect and become hard bones within 6-8 weeks if the bone grafting is good and stable. If indeed it has been 10 months since you have broken a bone and has been operated on and pened on your broken bone, chances are that this time your bone has been connected and become hard bone again so that the hard pressure on your bones will not cause injury certain on the bone or on the pen attached to your bone.. If you do not currently feel symptoms such as severe pain in your legs, swelling in the area around your fracture, you also do not feel certain unusual sensations (such as tingling sensation in the legs), chances are that nothing will happen to your bones or pens attached to your bones. Make sure you continue to follow the therapeutic advice from your doctor. Your doctor will also usually recommend that you do post-fracture physiotherapy and rehabillitation. You should do this physiotherapy and rehabilitation ...
Enlow, D.H. (1963). Principles of Bone Remodeling. An account of post-natal growth and remodeling processes in long bones and ... female birds grow a special type of bone in their limbs between the hard outer bone and the marrow. This medullary bone, which ... Dense secondary Haversian bone, which is formed during remodeling, is found in many living endotherms as well as dinosaurs, ... Fibrolamellar bone is fairly common in young crocodilians and sometimes found in adults. Haversian bone has been found in ...
The Law of Bone Remodelling , Julius Wolff , Springer. Springer. 1986. ISBN 9783642710339. Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth (1917). ... J Wolff described the histological variations of the bone according to the load which weighs on him. This is well known to ... The same conclusion can be drawn from studies on the transformation of bone and cartilage tissue under different pressure ... "Utilization of mechano-biological models to predict cell adhesion interactions between bone marrow endothelial cells and breast ...
This is called bone remodeling. Bone remodelling is a biomechanical process responsible for making bones stronger in response ... Robling, Alexander G., Alesha B Castillo, and Charles H. Turner, "Biochemical and Molecular Regulation of Bone Remodeling", ... Bones are made of cells called osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct ... Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen, and voids will ...
Tan NY, Leong YY, Lang SS, Htoon ZM, Young SM, Sundar G (May 2017). "Radiologic Parameters of Orbital Bone Remodeling in ... Bone is removed from the skull behind the eyes, and space is made for the muscles and fatty tissue to fall back into the skull ... Another effect of hyperthyroidism is bone loss from osteoporosis, caused by an increased excretion of calcium and phosphorus in ... Prolonged untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to bone loss, which may resolve when treated.[34] ...
... and nose and remodeling of facial bone contours, in conjunction with human growth hormone occurs. Completion of bone maturation ... ISBN 978-1-25-902753-6. Raggatt LJ, Partridge NC (2010). "Cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling". The Journal of ... In the bones, estradiol accelerates ossification of cartilage into bone, leading to closure of the epiphyses and conclusion of ... increased bone density and strength, and stimulation of linear growth and bone maturation. Androgenic effects include ...
Vitamin K Vitamin K1 Vitamin K3 Myneni VD, Mezey E (November 2017). "Regulation of bone remodeling by vitamin K2". Oral ... bone gla protein) in elderly women". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 6 (11): 1211-6. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650061111. PMID ... MK-4 and MK-7 are both found in the United States in dietary supplements for bone health. All K vitamins are similar in ... MK-4 or MK-7 has a protective effect on bone mineral density and reduced risk of hip, vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. ...
... has complex effects on bone osteoclasts and osteoblasts to regulate Bone remodeling. However, further studies on the impact of ... Agas D, Marchetti L, Hurley MM, Sabbieti MG (2013). "Prostaglandin F2α: a bone remodeling mediator". Journal of Cellular ... the PGF2α-FP axis on bone are needed to better understand the pathophysiology underlying bone turnover and to identify this ... axis as a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of bone disorders and diseases. Unlike other prostaglandin receptors ...
Bone Remodeling is characterized by deposition and resorption of bone at different sites of a bone in the body, mostly for ... We see bone resorption happening on the outer side of the "V" of the bone and bone deposition happens on the inner side of the ... This does not usually lead to change in size or shape of the bone. Bone Modeling is known as formation of new bone from either ... Martin, R. Bruce; Burr, David B.; A. Sharkey, Neil; Fyhrie, David P. "Growth, Modeling and Remodeling of Bone". Skeletal Tissue ...
February 2017). "2+ Signaling is Essential for Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Remodeling". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. ...
... microfractures occur in the leg followed by bone remodeling. If the remodeling is given sufficient time to heal, the bone ... If proper remodeling occurs before hard training and racing begins, the horse will have a stronger musculoskeletal system and ... Though they may appear full-grown and are in superb muscular condition, their bones are not fully formed.[128] However, ... due in part to the significant challenges in treating broken bones and other major leg injuries.[134] Leg injuries that are not ...
"Interleukin-11 receptor signaling is required for normal bone remodeling". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 20 (7): 1093- ... participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation IL-11 causes bone-resorption. It stimulates the ... IL-11 is a cytokine and first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like stromal cells. It was initially thought ... A murine knockout model has been produced for this particular gene, with initial studies involving IL11 role in bone ...
MM2 is responsible for bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is the process in which old bone is destroyed so that new bone can be ... This loss of bone causes pain and limited mobility. The abnormalities of the bone spread to other areas of the body, mostly the ... Due to the damage to the bones, many affected individuals suffer from short stature and bone fractures. Many individuals ... Mutations in MMPS and MT1-MMP result in similar but distinctly different "vanishing bone" syndromes. Multicentric carpotarsal ...
Choi ST, Kim JH, Kang EJ, Lee SW, Park MC, Park YB, Lee SK (December 2008). "Osteopontin might be involved in bone remodeling ... OPN expression in bone predominantly occurs by osteoblasts and osteocyctes (bone-forming cells) as well as osteoclasts (bone- ... The inorganic part of bone is the mineral hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Loss of bone may lead to osteoporosis, as the bone ... OPN at bone surfaces is located in a thin organic layer, the so-called lamina limitans. The organic part of bone is about 20% ...
The PPi carrier ANK is concerned with bone formation and remodeling. 2.A.66.6 - The Putative Exopolysaccharide Exporter (EPS-E ... Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a bone dysplasia characterized by overgrowth and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones and ... bone mineralization and bone resorption. The ANK protein has 12 membrane-spanning helices with a central channel permitting the ... abnormal modeling of the metaphyses of the tubular bones. Hyperostosis and sclerosis of the skull may lead to cranial nerve ...
Remodeling (bone adaptation and bone repair) Bone mass and bone strength is reduced. Adapted State: strain between circa 800 ... bone resorption=bone formation). Overload: Strain > circa 1500μStrain: Modeling (bone growth): bone mass and bone strength is ... Hence, bone adapts its mechanical properties according to the needed mechanical function: bone mass, bone geometry, and bone ... According to the Mechanostat, bone growth and bone loss is stimulated by the local, mechanical, elastic deformation of bone. ...
The bone that surrounds the tooth is continually undergoing physiological remodelling. Over time, the root is gradually ... Once the tooth and mouth are clean an attempt can be made to re-plant in its original socket within the alveolar bone and later ... He will splint them to non-knocked-out teeth for a maximum of two weeks for teeth with normal alveolar process and bone support ... If unfavourable healing has occurred, the tooth can last into the medium term on 2-10+ years depending on the speed of bone ...
耳硬化症(英语:Otosclerosis)(Otosclerosis)是一種先天性或自發性的疾病,患者內耳發生異常的骨質重塑(英语:bone remodeling),造成鐙骨黏著在卵圓窗上,喪失傳遞聲音的能力,導致患者傳導性耳聾。臨床上約有1%的人患有耳 ... 脚:跗骨(跟骨(英
... and remodeling of facial bone contours, in conjunction with human growth hormone.[21] Completion of bone maturation and ... In the bones, estradiol accelerates ossification of cartilage into bone, leading to closure of the epiphyses and conclusion of ... "Cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (33): 25103-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The bones and the brain are two important tissues in humans where the primary effect of testosterone is by way of aromatization ...
Wolff, Julius (1986). The Law of Bone Remodeling. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-16281-2.[page needed] Taaffe DR, Robinson TL ... Loading/exercise for bone density preservation and improvement is supported by bone health societies and organizations, ... Osteogenic loading (OL) is a rehabilitative medicine method with a goal of improving bone density and prevent bone fracture. ... How exercise can help with bone health, fragile bones and fractures." Kai MC, Anderson M, Lau EM. (2003). "Exercise ...
Bone CT will rarely show bone remodeling or erosion, as mentioned above.[citation needed] MR findings On MR examination there ... Bone destruction and intracranial extension is rare, but has been reported. Depending on the area of involvement, IOI may be ...
Extensive bone remodeling has occurred in the internal matrix of the rib. The medullary cavity, which houses the marrow, is ... Since LAGs can be obliterated by bone remodeling, this represents an underestimate of the true number of LAGs that had actually ... On the outer surface of the bone, osteons have almost completely replaced the interior of the bone; the layered growth of the ... The supraoccipital bone, which forms the top portion of the back of the skull, is flat and nearly vertical, as is the case in ...
The microscopic appearance shows an unencapsulated, destructive growth, remodeling and invading bone. The tumor is arranged as ... The tumor involves the endolymphatic sac, a portion of the intraosseous inner ear of the posterior petrous bone. Heffner DK ( ... Computed tomography shows a multilocular, lytic destructive temporal bone mass, centered on the vestibular aqueduct (between ... Dec 2003). "Endolymphatic sac tumor (low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma) of the temporal bone". Acta Otolaryngol. 123 (9): 1022 ...
... modulates bone remodeling and mass". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (41 ... acyl amides that is currently at the forefront of related research is the correlation between oleoyl serine and bone remodeling ...
"Radiologic Parameters of Orbital Bone Remodeling in Thyroid Eye DiseaseOrbital Bone Remodeling in Thyroid Eye Disease". ... Bone is removed from the skull behind the eyes, and space is made for the muscles and fatty tissue to fall back into the skull. ... Another effect of hyperthyroidism is bone loss from osteoporosis, caused by an increased excretion of calcium and phosphorus in ... Prolonged untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to bone loss, which may resolve when treated.[32] ...
The remodeling of connective tissues is well known in bones by the Wolff's law (bone remodeling). Mechanobiology is the science ... Remodeling and growth[edit]. Soft tissues have the potential to grow and remodel reacting to chemical and mechanical long term ... Growth and remodeling have a major role in the cause of some common soft tissue diseases, like arterial stenosis and aneurisms ... Other instance of tissue remodeling is the thickening of the cardiac muscle in response to the growth of blood pressure ...
Kuroda S, Wazen R, Sellin K, Tanaka E, Moffatt P, Nanci A (July 2011). "Ameloblastin is not implicated in bone remodelling and ... Bone. 48 (2): 406-13. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2010.09.007. PMC 4469498. PMID 20854943. Toyosawa S, Fujiwara T, Ooshima T, Shintani S ... "Ameloblastin expression and putative autoregulation in mesenchymal cells suggest a role in early bone formation and repair". ...
... which are cells that break down bone tissue during bone remodeling. Osteoclasts also sense the increased inflammation of the ... An excess of these bone-eating cells contributes to the destruction of bone in the upper and lower jaws. A combination of bone ... Osteoclastic and osteoblastic remodeling contributes to the change of normal bone to fibrous tissue and cyst formation. As ... Normal bone remodeling activity may resume after puberty. Cherubism is displayed with genetic conformation and when excessive ...
... develops and markets products for dermatology, bone remodeling thrombosis and coagulation. In 1945 it was the first ...
Krane SM (1995). "Is collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) necessary for bone and other connective tissue remodeling?". Clin ... and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Specifically, MMP-1 breaks down the ...
This later modification happens by bone remodeling processes (bone resorption and bone deposition). Coquerelle et al. show that ... When the jaw bones (mandible and by extension the maxilla) don't project forward enough, the chin in turn will not project ... These coordinated bone growth and modeling processes mold the vertical symphysis present at birth into the prominent shape of ... The alveolar region (upper or superior part of the symphysis) is sculpted by bone resorption, but the chin (lower or inferior ...
The bone is still more malleable and can be remodelled relatively 'simply' by greenstick fractures of the bone.[42] At ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time.[42] A bone graft is ... Most of the bones that collectively form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are ... induced by resorption of the innermost bone layer of the skull with deposition of new bone on the outermost layer, thereby ...
2009). "Meningioma 1 gene is differentially expressed in CD34 positive cells from bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic ...
"Bone Marrow Res 2012: 787414. PMC 3398573. PMID 22830032. *↑ William JB; Prabakaran, Rajamanickam; Ayyappan, Subbu (2011). " ... "Reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer in primates is dependent upon nuclear remodeling". Hum Reprod 22 (8): ... 2006). "Improved liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis after autologous bone marrow cell infusion therapy". Stem ... "P-Selectin coated microtube for enrichment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human bone marrow". Clin Chem ...
The thickness of the limb bones in OH 62 is more similar to chimps than H. ergaster / H. erectus and modern humans, which may ... "Tooth wear and dentoalveolar remodeling are key factors of morphological variation in the Dmanisi mandibles". Proceedings of ... The hand bones of OH 7 suggest precision gripping, important in dexterity, as well as adaptations for climbing. In regard to ... Domínguez-Rodrigo, M.; Cobo-Sánchez, L. (2017). "A spatial analysis of stone tools and fossil bones at FLK Zinj 22 and PTK I ( ...
Living bones are subject to Wolff's law, which states that bones are physically affected and remodeled by physical activity or ... Unlike bone, teeth are not remodeled, so they can provide a more reliable indicator of past health events as long as the enamel ... Because bone is a dynamic tissue that is remodeled over time, and because different parts of the skeleton are laid down at ... Living or freshly dead bones are somewhat resilient, so metal blade injuries to bone will generate a linear cut with relatively ...
Strahl BD, Grant PA, Briggs SD, Sun ZW, Bone JR, Caldwell JA, Mollah S, Cook RG, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Allis CD (Mar 2002). " ... Relief from repression is believed to involve both histone modification and the action of chromatin-remodeling complexes. ...
This agent also causes respiratory tract lesions, bone marrow depression, and eye damage, the epithelial tissues of these ... tracheal remodeling and lung fibrosis. This fibrosing alveolitis may become apparent as early as five days after the initial ... scarring and transition to airway and pulmonary remodeling. Bessac BF, Jordt SE. (2010) Sensory detection and responses to ... which if left untreated can result in scar formation and pulmonary and airway remodeling. Currently, mechanical ventilation ...
Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?»։ Thorax 58 (2): 163-74։ 2003։ PMC 1746582։ PMID 12554904։ doi:10.1136/thorax ... Skoner DP (December 2016)։ «Inhaled corticosteroids: Effects on growth and bone health.»։ Annals of Allergy, Asthma & ...
In experiments, it new bone fully covered skull wounds in test animals and stimulated growth in human bone marrow stromal cells ... During later maturation stages, PDGF signalling has been implicated in tissue remodelling and cellular differentiation, and in ... A non-viral PDGF "bio patch" can regenerate missing or damaged bone by delivering DNA in a nano-sized particle directly into ... Repairing bone fractures, fixing craniofacial defects and improving dental implants are among potential uses. The patch employs ...
Chromatin remodeling is not always inherited, and not all epigenetic inheritance involves chromatin remodeling.[45] ... Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have also shown a potential to differentiate into cardiac competent cells when ... directs recruitment and activation of the chromatin remodeling protein ALC1 that can cause nucleosome remodeling.[33] ... Chromatin remodeling is accomplished through two main mechanisms:. *The first way is post translational modification of the ...
bone remodeling. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. Species. Human. Mouse. Entrez. 1945. 13639 ...
Neutered dogs of both sexes are at a twofold excess risk to develop osteosarcoma (bone cancer) as compared to intact dogs. The ... Male mice - injection of a solution of the JQ1 molecule to bind to a pocket of BRDT necessary for chromatin remodeling, which ... There was no association between age of neutering and arthritis or long-bone fractures.[25] Another study showed no correlation ... "Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 11 (11): 1434-40. ...
Goldring, SR (1987). "Human giant cell tumors of bone identification and characterization of cell types". J Clin Invest (79(2 ... Grigoryev S, Bulynko Y, Popova E (2006). "The end adjusts the means: heterochromatin remodelling during terminal cell ...
Veno-occlusive remodelling[edit]. This theory proposes how high pulmonary venous pressures may lead to the capillary rupture ... This theory is based on the fact that, during galloping, the absence of any bone attachment of the forelegs to the spine in the ... Other histopathologic findings include fibrosis, bronchial artery neovascularization, venous remodeling, bronchiolitis, ... with the venous remodeling leading to regional vascular congestion and hemorrhage, hemosiderin accumulation, fibrosis, and ...
... although basal parts of the kype skeleton are re-modelled into regular dentary bone. some fish never lose their kype. Rather, ... The kype grows rapidly from bony needles proliferating from the tip of the dentary (the anterior and largest of the bones ... The kype formation process has been described as "making bone as fast as possible and with as little material as possible". ... In the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), kype development is accompanied by a morphogenesis of bones and cartilages in the ...
Long JH, Qi M, Huang XY, Lei SR, Ren LC (June 2005). "[Repair of rabbit tendon by autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ... a clinical study proved that mechanical loading of the tendon callus during the remodelling phase leads to healing by ...
... a novel wall-remodelling enzyme from Equisetum (horsetails) and charophytic algae". The Plant Journal. 55 (2): 240-252. doi: ... hair health or bone health.[27] As of 2018[update], there is insufficient scientific evidence for its effectiveness as a ... maintenance of bone (ID 2439), and maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 2783) pursuant to Article 13 of ...
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Needham, MA. 88 (3): 660-667. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.01208. PMID 16510834. Retrieved ... Arthroplasty is an orthopedic surgery where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or ... both of which were fixed to the bone using PMMA (acrylic) bone cement. For over two decades, the Charnley Low Friction ... However, traction was the standard method of treating thigh bone fractures until the late 1970s when the Harborview Medical ...
The human body is in a constant state of bone remodeling. Bone remodelling is a process which maintains bone strength and ion ... and plays a smaller role in bone remodeling than PTH. In some cases where bone resorption outpaces ossification, the bone is ... Bone remodeling Nuclear factor-kappa B Bone Resorption at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ...
It is bordered below by a number of splenial bones, while the angle of the jaw is formed by a lower angular bone and a ... Male salmon often remodel their jaws during spawning runs so they have a pronounced curvature. These hooked jaws are called ... The inner surface of the jaw is lined by a prearticular bone, while the articular bone forms the articulation with the skull ... Finally a set of three narrow coronoid bones lie above the prearticular bone. As the name implies, the majority of the teeth ...
The first Bloomington Eisner store and a sister Osco Drug Store was opened at 514 College Mall Road in 1970 and was remodeled ... A limited assortment store is bare-bones, low priced merchandising that reduces services and carries fewer than 1,000 items ... has announced that more grocery items and remodeled departments are part of a new image the company is presenting this month ...
Further findings at Afar, including the many hominin bones in site 333, produced more bones of concurrent date, and led to ... these features point to a structure that can be considered radically remodeled to accommodate a significant degree of ... The foot bone is one of 49 new bones discovered, and indicates that A. afarensis is "a lot more human-like than we had ever ... In February 2011, the discovery of AL 333-160 in Hadar, Ethiopia, at the AL 333 site was announced.[39] The foot bone shows ...
It was later remodeled into a tuna fishing boat. In 1953, it moved to Yaizu Port, Shizuoka Prefecture, with a new name, Daigo ... Bone marrow was also drawn from different areas on the men. Their red and white blood cells had dropped significantly causing ... Morita Hisao reported that the men had developed acute panmyelosis, a disease that attacked their bone marrow destroying its ... they tested Masuda's bone marrow and found his white blood cell count at half the normal level.[15] Japanese biophysicist ...
J Bone Miner Res. 28 (6): 1478-14788. PMID 23362149. doi:10.1002/jbmr.1882.. ... "The chromatin-remodeling complex WINAC targets a nuclear receptor to promoters and is impaired in Williams syndrome". Cell 113 ...
... supporting tissue remodeling over scar formation, 4) inhibiting apoptosis, and 5) differentiating into bone, cartilage, tendon ... Bone repair[edit]. Bone has a unique and well documented natural healing process that normally is sufficient to repair ... Within four weeks of placing the scaffold, newly formed bone begins to integrate with the old bone and within 32 weeks, full ... "J Bone Joint Surg Am. 80 (7): 985-96. doi:10.2106/00004623-199807000-00007. PMID 9698003. Archived from the original on 28 July ...
Review (including references) of piezoelectricity and bone remodelling. *A good basic overview of bone biology from the Science ... "Bone resorption"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৭ ডিসেম্বর ২০১৯।. *↑ Steele, D. Gentry; Claud A. Bramblett (১৯৮৮)। The Anatomy and Biology of ... Educational resource materials (including animations) by the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research ...
The bone is still more malleable and can be remodelled relatively 'simply' by greenstick fractures of the bone. At ... Most of the bones that together form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are removed ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time. A bone graft is placed ... Reshaping of the cranial vault most commonly means excision of the bones and adjustment of the shape. Replacement of the bones ...
"Bone. 64: 39-46. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2014.03.044. PMC 4041820 . PMID 24709686.. ... "Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism". Frontiers in Endocrinology. 5 (18): 18 ... "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 25 (9): 2078-88. doi:10.1002/jbmr.82. PMC 3127399 . PMID 20229598.. ... "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 32 (8): 1692-702. doi:10.1002/jbmr.3159. PMC 5550355 . PMID 28436105.. ...
A number of New York producers were also making an impression at this time, notably Frankie Bones, Lenny Dee, and Joey Beltram ... Remake/remodel, interview with Atkins and Mike Banks hosted on www.residentadvisor.net ...
Mutations in several genes have been associated with this condition[24][25] these include bone morphogenetic protein receptor ... Importantly, right ventricular remodeling is associated with increased apoptosis; this is in contrast to pulmonary vascular ... This combination of vessel occlusion and vascular remodeling once again increases the resistance to blood flow and so the ... The mechanisms involved in this narrowing process include vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and vascular remodeling (excessive ...
... past studies have implicated epigenetic alterations as key factors of both normal bone tissue... ... Purpose of Review Bone remodeling is a diverse field of study with many direct clinical applications; ... Bone remodeling Epigenetics DNA methylation Histone modification miRNA Review This article is part of the Topical Collection on ... A good example of how genetics and epigenetics interact to influence gene expression related to bone remodeling.CrossRefPubMed ...
"Bone Remodeling". Whenever there is a tiny crack inside the bones, for example, after landing from a high jump, the bone cells ... These movies were based on measurements from bone biopsies viewed under the microscope. What happens when bone remodelling goes ... The second movie shows this process on a larger section of bone where at least ten places are getting remodelled. This movie is ... The living bone is continuously repairing itself. This repair process is called " ...
Bone remodeling involves the removal of old or damaged b … ... A healthy skeleton must be maintained by constant bone modeling ... Normal bone remodeling requires a tight coupling of bone resorption to bone formation to guarantee no alteration in bone mass ... Bone remodeling involves the removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts (bone resorption) and the subsequent replacement of ... which lead to the development of various bone disorders in both women and men. We review the major diseases of bone remodeling ...
Although mechanotransduction-induced de novo gene expression is required for bone remodeling, the molecular mechanism of ... Mechanical stress plays an essential role in bone homeostasis. ... mechanical stress JNK/p38 MAP kinase bone remodeling Fn14 MCP-3 ... Furthermore, we observed that ASK1-activated JNK and p38 induced the expression of two bone remodeling related genes, Fn14 and ... 2010) Mechanical stress modulates bone remodeling signals. In: Sasano T., Suzuki O. (eds) Interface Oral Health Science 2009. ...
... Yu-chen Guo, Shi-wen Zhang, and Quan Yuan ...
Bone remodeling (or bone metabolism) is a lifelong process where mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process ... An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodelings two sub-processes, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many ... Thus bone remodeling is not just occasional "repair of bone damage" but rather an active, continual process that is always ... Illustration showing bone remodelling cycle Tissue remodeling Wolffs law Wheeless Textbook Online Medical Dictionary Raggatt, ...
This period refers to the average total duration of a single cycle of bone remodeling at any point on a bone surface. For the ... In bone physiology, the bone remodeling period describes the temporal duration (i.e. lifespan) of the basic multicellular unit ... Together, the cells in any given particular region of the bone surface that are responsible for bone remodeling are known as ... Bone 1989;10:215-221. Parfitt, AM, et al. Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. J Bone ...
Bone formation and resorption coupling is a process wherein osteoclastic bone resorption is followed by osteoblastic bone ... Bone-forming agents have been explored clinically to increase bone density; however, long-term efficacy of these strategies is ... Bone formation and resorption are tightly coupled, and dysfunction of either process leads to bone diseases, such as ... For bone formation, signals released from mineralized matrix, such as TGF-β and IGF-1, in combination with signals secreted by ...
Osteosarcomas are the most prevalent malignant primary bone tumors in children. Despite intensive efforts to improve both ... One of the main characteristics of osteosarcomas is their ability to deregulate bone remodelling. The invasion of bone tissue ... TGF-β Signaling in Bone Remodeling and Osteosarcoma Progression J Clin Med. 2016 Nov 3;5(11):96. doi: 10.3390/jcm5110096. ... This deregulation induces the release of cytokines or growth factors initially trapped in the bone matrix, such as transforming ...
... a marker for bone resorption.. Researchers have known for some time that bone resorption - the process by which bone minerals ... Study measures effect of timed osteoporosis treatment on bone remodeling. Researchers in the Czech Republic recently tested the ... They added that finding ways to alter the daily tempo of bone resorption and to dampen its nighttime peak may help make ... The team concluded that osteoclasts, the specialized cells that break down bone mineral, may be sensitive to the time of day ...
One of the main characteristics of osteosarcomas is their ability to deregulate bone remodelling. The invasion of bone tissue ... This deregulation induces the release of cytokines or growth factors initially trapped in the bone matrix, such as transforming ... by tumor cells indeed affects the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. ... Osteosarcomas are the most prevalent malignant primary bone tumors in children. Despite intensive efforts to improve both ...
Bone remodeling is a continuous and balanced process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. In ... several hormones also regulate bone remodeling.. Hormonal Control of Bone Remodeling. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) maintains ... Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone resorption exceeds bone formation, resulting in reduced bone density. Osteoporosis is ... This is due to the critical role played by the female sex hormone-estrogen-in bone remodeling. Estrogen limits the formation of ...
... bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption is crucial to the bone remodeling and the homeostasis of bone metabolism ... Figure 1: Bone cell interactions and key signaling pathways during bone remodeling. Osteoblasts induce RANKL and regulate the ... We hope this review will shed new light on the understanding of the characteristics of miRNA in bone remodeling and bone loss ... Firstly, what are the specific miRNAs in bone remodeling? It is necessary to distinguish two groups of miRNAs involved in bone ...
This paper presents the main ideas of mechanical stress and bone remodelling from a novels perspective. The object of this ... Some factors regarding age, gender and ethnicity and the interplay with mechanical stress influencing bone remodelling are ... It tackles the underlying biology of bone cells and how they detect and react to strain stimuli. The different types of ... the implications that lead to the incident with the findings on the link between mechanical stress and bone remodelling. ...
To examine bone remodeling following implant placement, 88 female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham ovariectomy (sham- ... Thus, implant placement increases bone remodeling transiently without affecting bone volume in sham-ovx and ovx rats. © 2012 ... To examine bone remodeling following implant placement, 88 female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham ovariectomy (sham- ... At the periosteal surface, implant placement increased bone formation at 4 weeks with a return to baseline levels by 8 weeks. ...
Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Bone Remodeling. Also showing Polyclonal Antibody Western Blotting Regulation of Bone ... Remodeling, Polyclonal Antibody Negative Regulation of Bone Remodeling. Polyclonal Antibody - Connexin 43 Antibody, UniProt ID ... Background: BMPR2 is a type II serine/threonine receptor kinase that binds to an array of secreted bone morphogenetic proteins ... Background: Gremlin is a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins that play important roles during development. Gene ...
Micrographs of long bone histology. (A-E) Long bone histology of Magyarosaurus dacus under crossed polarizers. (A) Micrograph ... Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria ... Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria ... Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria ...
Bone marrow adipogenic lineage precursors promote osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathologic bone loss. ... Bone marrow adipogenic lineage precursors promote osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathologic bone loss. ... In summary, our studies identified MALPs as a critical player in controlling bone remodeling during normal bone metabolism and ... Bone is maintained by coupled activities of bone-forming osteoblasts/osteocytes and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Alterations in ...
... can regulate the molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling in a manner that favors bone resorption, with the potential ... The present review provides an overview of all known to-date inflammatory or bone remodeling responses of CDTs produced by ... by regulating inflammatory cytokine production and molecular mediators of bone remodeling in various cell types. These cellular ... One special example is the induction of pathological bone destruction in periodontitis. The opportunistic oral pathogen ...
Taken together, our findings establish that SIK inhibition is central to PTH1R action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Bone formation is severely affected in the Sik3. and Pthrp. double-KO mouse and the Sik3. -cKO mouse: secondary ossification ...
We learned how bones grow, are sculpted by modeling and continuously renewed by remodeling,... ... The preceding chapter provided a general description of the structure and biology of bone and cartilage. ... Bone Remodel Activation Frequency Bone Formation Rate Resorption Cavity Haversian Canal These keywords were added by machine ... Second, because bone remodeling occurs throughout life, it plays a dominant role in determining the structure of most of the ...
TRAF3 protein levels decrease in bone and bone marrow during aging in mice and humans. Development of drugs to prevent TRAF3 ... microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone ... microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone ... Chloroquine also inhibits bone destruction induced by ovariectomy and parathyroid hormone in mice in vivo. Mice genetically ...
In the adaptive bone remodeling process, the density of bone tissue changes over time according to the load it sustains. ... In this Technology Brief, we demonstrate the Abaqus/Standard implementation of one of the leading bone re-modeling algorithms. ... Medical-SIMULIA-Tech-Brief-10-Adaptive-Bone-Remodeling-Full.pdf. 517.08 KB. ... Elevated loads produce increases in bone den-sity while reduced loads cause reduction of bone density. The long term success of ...
I came off my bike this morning and now my collar bone isnt quite the shape that it was. Sadly, Im in the USA without all ... I came off my bike this morning and now my collar bone isnt quite the shape that it was. Sadly, Im in the USA without all ... It happens to be the third time Ive turned this collar bone into two pieces and the last two didnt trouble the doctors either ... I broke my collar bone playing rugby and the two sides of the break offset somewhat. As it happened during my first outpatient ...
This study was to examine the association between ATO treatment and bone remodeling. The effects of ATO on osteoblast function ... This study was to examine the association between ATO treatment and bone remodeling. The effects of ATO on osteoblast function ... These results suggest that ATO interferes with bone remodeling mostly through changes in osteoblast differentiation and ... as well as bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume of femur were observed in ATO-treated rats. ...
This lesson will define the role of bone remodeling in maintaining homeostasis in the body. ,/p, ... We explain Homeostasis and Bone Remodeling with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple ... Bone remodeling The process bones constantly undergo of taking away and building tissue; is controlled by mechanical stress and ... A cell found in bones that builds bone tissue by secreting collagen into bone tissue spaces; the collagen binds to calcium and ...
... when osteoblasts lay down new bone until the resorbed bone is completely replaced. Bone remodeling serves to adjust bone ... Bone remodeling appears to be governed by a feedback system in which the bone cells sense the state of strain in the bone ... Bone remodeling involves the removal of mineralized bone by osteoclasts followed by the formation of bone matrix through the ... Bone remodelling and its relation to metabolic bone diseases, C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1973. 4.1.4. Frost, H. M., Bone ...
The mechanical aspects are related to the functional purpose of the bone tissue, i.e., to provide support to the body and ... It is well known that bone tissue is able to self-adapt to different environmental demands of both mechanical and biological ... To describe the biome-chanical process of functional adaptation of bone tissue, the approach commonly ... many attempts have been made in order to model the process of bone remodeling. This process is complex, as it is governed by ...
Chemorepulsion by blood S1P regulates osteoclast precursor mobilization and bone remodeling in vivo.. [Masaru Ishii, Junichi ... This regulatory axis may be promising as a therapeutic target in diseases affecting OC-dependent bone remodeling. ... Thus, reciprocal regulation of S1P-dependent chemotaxis controls bone remodeling by finely regulating OP localization. ... S1PR2-deficient mice exhibit moderate osteopetrosis as a result of a decrease in osteoclastic bone resorption, suggesting that ...
This lesson provides helpful information on Factors Affecting Bone Growth and Remodeling in the context of Bone Function, ... Factors Affecting Bone Growth and Remodeling. Hormones, physical activity, and nutrition influence how bones grow and are ... Additionally, the remodeling of bone also requires strict regulation of calcium in the blood. Bones serve as storage areas for ... Anatomy and Physiology/Bone Function, Development, and Growth/Factors Affecting Bone Growth and Remodeling ...
  • demonstrate that osteoclast-secreted SLIT3 influences bone formation and resorption by promoting osteoblast migration and suppressing osteoclast differentiation. (jci.org)
  • past studies have implicated epigenetic alterations as key factors of both normal bone tissue development and function and diseases of pathologic bone remodeling. (springer.com)
  • Future epigenome-wide studies should focus on extending the tissue coverage, integrating multiple epigenetic analyses with transcriptome data, and working to uncover epigenetic changes linked with early events in aberrant bone remodeling. (springer.com)
  • Bone remodeling (or bone metabolism) is a lifelong process where mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called bone resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called ossification or new bone formation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Illustration showing bone remodelling cycle Tissue remodeling Wolff's law Wheeless Textbook Online Medical Dictionary Raggatt, L. J. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although bone may appear superficially as a static tissue, it is actually very dynamic, undergoing constant remodeling throughout the life of the vertebrate organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of altered strain environments on bone tissue kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invasion of bone tissue by tumor cells indeed affects the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. (nih.gov)
  • Bone is a living rigid tissue that is subtly renewed throughout a person's life. (scirp.org)
  • ENPP1 plays important roles in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification (2-5). (cellsignal.com)
  • The vascular canals are oriented circumferentially as in laminar fibrolamellar bone, but the bone matrix between the vascular canals consists largely of parallel-fibered and lamellar bone, with only a minute fraction of fibrous (or woven) bone tissue. (pnas.org)
  • The specimen is strongly remodeled, but the interstitial primary tissue is of the highly vascularized laminar fibrolamellar kind, with well developed primary osteons in the middle cortex, and poorly developed primary osteons with no lamellar bone infilling in the outermost cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, we need to develop our understanding of bone remodeling in some depth to pursue our study of skeletal tissue mechanics. (springer.com)
  • In the adaptive bone remodeling process, the density of bone tissue changes over time according to the load it sustains. (imechanica.org)
  • the collagen binds to calcium and forms the tough tissue within bones. (sophia.org)
  • What I know that Osteoclasts are bone tissue macrophage, so they also fix the damaged tissue. (biology-online.org)
  • It is well known that bone tissue is able to self-adapt to different environmental demands of both mechanical and biological origin. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The mechanical aspects are related to the functional purpose of the bone tissue, i.e., to provide support to the body and protection for the vitally important organs in response to the external loads. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This hormone activates reabsorption , the process by which osteoclasts break down bone tissue, releasing calcium into the blood. (coursehero.com)
  • If blood levels of calcium are too high, the thyroid gland releases calcitonin , a hormone that activates osteoblasts to remove calcium from the blood and deposit it into newly formed bone tissue. (coursehero.com)
  • Content of iron was measured in bone and liver tissue, and Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) content was measured in liver tissue. (springer.com)
  • Compared to wild-type C57BL6 control mice, the expression of genes involved in osteoblast activity such as Balp, BGP, and Col I α 1 were all significantly decreased in bone tissue, while genes for osteoclast activity such as Ctsk and Trap were all markedly increased in Irp 2 −/− mice at mRNA level. (springer.com)
  • Genes involved in iron storage, uptake, and exporting were also measured in bone tissue. (springer.com)
  • Posttranscriptionally decreased ferritin (FTL), ferroportin 1 (FPN1), and increased transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) gene expressions have been unexpectedly found in bone tissue of Irp 2 −/− mice. (springer.com)
  • We have now developed a novel in silico experimental platform, V-Bone, to integratively explore bone remodeling by linking complex microscopic molecular/cellular interactions to macroscopic tissue/organ adaptations. (sciencemag.org)
  • The nutrient foramen is a discrete hole located along the shaft of bones that provides an opening through which the nutrient artery can service the living bone tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Bone is a living tissue whose main mechanical function is to provide stiffness, strength and protection to the body. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In good agreement with recent experimental measurements, a boomerang-like pattern emerges when plotting apparent density at the tissue level versus material density at the bone material level. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Bone is a remarkable material as, under most circumstances, it is capable of truly regenerating itself, whereas soft tissue wound healing results in scar formation ( Glowacki 1998 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This book provides readers with information about dental implants and biomaterial fabrication for maxillofacial procedures and dental bone / tissue repair. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The type of bone remodeling taking place in the bone tissue surrounding the implant will be governed by the variations in the internal stress state. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Are problems of abnormal bone modeling/re-modeling always visible by standard bone turnover marker tests and CT scans or is more in-depth tissue analysis, such as tissue histomorphometry usually required? (justanswer.co.uk)
  • Recent studies suggest that the expression of tissue transglutaminase correlates with (terminal) differentiation of cells and that the enzyme may play a role in extracellular matrix remodeling. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Crosslinks of the structure gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine are also abundant in bone matrix, but the transglutaminase expressed by osteoblasts and presumably involved in crosslinking of newly formed osteoid is likely to be distinct from both tissue transglutaminase and factor XIII. (cf.ac.uk)
  • They are made of very hard tissues that give the impression to be very static, however bones are a very dynamic tissue. (tmdocclusion.com)
  • Indeed new bone tissue that replace the old one is constantly created in a process called bone remodeling. (tmdocclusion.com)
  • Bone is living tissue that undergoes continuous formation and resorption. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The process, known as bone remodeling, removes old bone tissue and replaces it with new bone tissue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Further, the authors found that billfish rostral bone exhibited properties rare in skeletal tissue, displaying high stiffness, on the order of horse bone and far stiffer than other fish bone, and exceptionally high failure strains, deforming 100% more than mammalian bone before breaking. (pnas.org)
  • Bone remodeling is when old, brittle bone tissue is removed or resorbed and gets replaced by new bone tissue. (osmosis.org)
  • The Laboratory for Bone Biomechanics ( LBB ) within the Institute for Biomechanics (IfB) at ETH Zurich, includes 21 scientific staff organized within 4 research teams with cross-disciplinary expertise in musculoskeletal biomechanics and imaging, tissue engineering, biomaterials, mechanobiology and animal models. (ethz.ch)
  • Bone tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue , a type of dense connective tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone tissue is made up of different types of bone cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mineralised matrix of bone tissue has an organic component of mainly collagen called ossein and an inorganic component of bone mineral made up of various salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow , endosteum , periosteum , nerves , blood vessels and cartilage . (wikipedia.org)
  • Within any single bone, the tissue is woven into two main patterns, known cortical and cancellous bone, and each with different appearance and characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancellous bone, also called trabecular or spongy bone, [6] is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell porous network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike a rock, a bone is living tissue that is constantly changing. (aaos.org)
  • Keeping the skeleton in good repair requires a balance between the removal and replacement of bone tissue. (aaos.org)
  • The recent prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the femoral neck or lumbar spine. (springer.com)
  • Bone formation and resorption are tightly coupled, and dysfunction of either process leads to bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. (jci.org)
  • An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two sub-processes, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone dynamics in osteoporosis and in osteomalacia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers in the Czech Republic recently tested the effect of timed osteoporosis medication injections on the daily rhythm of bone turnover among postmenopausal women. (endocrineweb.com)
  • They added that finding ways to alter the daily tempo of bone resorption and to dampen its nighttime peak may help make osteoporosis treatments more efficient. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The team concluded that osteoclasts, the specialized cells that break down bone mineral, may be sensitive to the time of day during which osteoporosis medications are administered. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone resorption exceeds bone formation, resulting in reduced bone density. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, it can be postulated that microRNAs might play important roles in bone remodeling and that they are very likely to be involved in the pathological process of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (hindawi.com)
  • The perspective of serum microRNAs as novel biomarkers in bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis has also been discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, miRNAs have also been identified to be involved in the process of bone remodeling and many bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Alterations in this relationship can lead to pathologic bone loss such as osteoporosis. (jci.org)
  • In the standards of the Swiss Association for Internal Fixation it is pointed out that severe osteoporosis can result from the use of two bone plates in the same region as a result of the greatly reduced stress in the bone (4.1.6). (biology-online.org)
  • Inhibition of S1PR2 function by the antagonist JTE013 changed the migratory behavior of monocytoid cells, including OPs, and relieved osteoporosis in a mouse model by limiting OP localization and reducing the number of mature OCs attached to the bone surface. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pathological conditions such as peripheral artery disease are linked to reduced bone mineral density and osteoporosis is associated with diminished bone blood flow and capillary rarefaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, intermittent parathyroid hormone administration, a common treatment for osteoporosis, alters the distance between bone marrow blood vessels and site of bone remodeling, which may impact bone accrual. (frontiersin.org)
  • This research topic is in quest of perspectives, review and original research articles covering the interdependence of the bone vascular and skeletal systems in a variety of clinical scenarios (e.g., altered hormonal status or corrective therapies, age- and post-menopausal osteoporosis, bone metastasis, fracture repair, type 2 diabetes, sedentarism and physical activity). (frontiersin.org)
  • Osteoporosis Treatments Affect Bone Matrix Maturation in a Rat Model of Induced Cortical Remodeling. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Irp2 −/− mice exhibit reduced bone iron content and osteoporosis. (springer.com)
  • Mechano-biochemical couplings modeled in V-Bone relate bone adaptation to mechanical loading and reproduce metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopetrosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bone homeostasis can be disrupted by an imbalance between bone resorption and formation due to disuse or sex hormone aberrations, resulting in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cellular basis of bone structure in health and in osteoporosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodelling and low bone mass. (liquid-nutrition-vitamins.com)
  • While Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis, a 2016 study found that there is no correlation between 25(OH)D levels and bone mineral density (BMD). (liquid-nutrition-vitamins.com)
  • Disruptions in bone remodeling contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and Paget's disease. (cellml.org)
  • The model will be useful in future studies assessing the impact of cytokines, growth factors, and potential therapies on the overall process of remodeling in normal bone and in pathological conditions such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease. (cellml.org)
  • Novel regulatory pathways linking fat mass, the CNS and the GI tract to the control of bone mass will offer many new therapeutic opportunities for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in the future. (medscape.com)
  • New research in postmenopausal women has found that those who slept for no longer than 5 hours per night were most likely to have lower bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The term osteoporosis means porous bone and refers to a condition that develops when the quality and density of bone are greatly reduced. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Worldwide, around 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men in their 50s and older are at risk of experiencing bone fracture due to osteoporosis, according to the International Osteoporosis Foundation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Osteoporosis occurs when bone density decreases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We also looked at how osteopenia and osteoporosis occur when the net rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation, resulting in a decrease in bone mass, and the role that estrogen and testosterone deficiencies play in this degenerative process. (liftingtones.com)
  • Imbalance of this process is related to metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis or rheumatoid arthritis. (elsevier.com)
  • This review focuses on the role of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines in bone remodeling and, in particular, a subfamily of chemotactic cytokines or chemokines which are involved not only in several aspects of physiological bone remodeling but also in pathological bone disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoporosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Do Type I Collagen Homotrimers Contribute to Osteoporosis by Altering Bone Remodeling? (ox.ac.uk)
  • The invention relates to compositions and methods for preventing, treating, or managing osteoporosis or conditions which are characterized by increased bone resorption, comprising administration of a prophylactically and therapeutically effective amount of Cissus quadrangularis plant or extracts thereof to a mammal in need of such therapy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method for treating osteoporosis or other related disorders such as bone loss, bone fracture, glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, Pagets disease, osteoarthritis, peri-prosthetic osteolysis, cartilage degeneration, osteogenesis imperfecta and the like, which comprises administering to the said mammal an effective non-toxic amount of an extract derived from Cissus plant species. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. A comestible according to claim 8 comprising at least an extract for use in the prophylaxis of osteoporosis or other related disorders such as bone loss, bone fracture, glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, Pagets disease, osteoarthritis, peri-prosthetic osteolysis, cartilage degeneration, osteogenesis imperfecta and the like. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We have learned that some people are at higher risk for osteoporosis because their bone metabolism does not support sufficient rebuilding of bone. (aaos.org)
  • As we age, the remodeling process may shift out of balance, resulting in loss of bone structure and strength, and lead to bone disease, such as osteoporosis. (aaos.org)
  • Bottom) Cancellous bone loss caused by osteoporosis. (aaos.org)
  • Osteoporosis, the most common bone disease, can be worsened by a loss of calcium and other minerals. (aaos.org)
  • Using an adipocyte-specific Adipoq-Cre to label MALPs, we demonstrated that mice with RANKL deficiency in MALPs have a drastic increase in trabecular bone mass in long bones and vertebrae starting from 1 month of age, while their cortical bone appears normal. (jci.org)
  • Due to the dynamics of both remodelling and mineralization, each sample of bone is composed of structural units (osteons in cortical and packets in cancellous bone) created at different times, therefore presenting different levels of mineral content. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Under equilibrium loads, results show that bone volumes with both the highest and the lowest levels of porosity (cancellous and cortical respectively) tend to develop higher levels of mineral content compared to volumes with intermediate porosity, thus presenting higher material densities. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The strain (i.e. deformation) history influences the degree of mineralization of cortical bone (DMB) as well as its osteonal microstructure. (unina.it)
  • This study aimed first to examine the relationships of stress and strain distributions with the variations in DMB and the osteonal orientations in the cortical bone of the human mandibular condyle. (unina.it)
  • The results of this study suggest that the subchondral and the cortical bone are structured to ensure an optimal load distribution within the mandibular condyle and have a different mechanical behaviour. (unina.it)
  • Wolff's Law states that bones will adapt to the degree of mechanical loading, such that an increase in loading will cause the architecture of the internal, spongy bone to strengthen, followed by the strengthening of the cortical layer. (statpearls.com)
  • the cortical bone, which consists of many tiny cylinders known as osteons. (osmosis.org)
  • The hard outer layer of bones is composed of cortical bone also called compact bone being much denser than cancellous bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cortical bone gives bone its smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult human skeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortical bone is covered by a periosteum on its outer surface, and an endosteum on its inner surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endosteum is the boundary between the cortical bone and the cancellous bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The primary anatomical and functional unit of cortical bone is the osteon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancellous bone has a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio than cortical bone because it is less dense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatigue behavior of adult cortical bone:​ the influence of mean strain and strain range. (lievers.net)
  • Carter DR. Mechanical loading histories and cortical bone remodeling. (lievers.net)
  • aged 7-33 years) from a single, extended pedigree to determine osteon number, osteon area (On.Ar), haversian canal area, osteon population density, percent osteonal bone (%On.B), wall thickness (W.Th), and cortical porosity (Ct.Po). (bioquant.com)
  • In general, bones are made up of spongy, mesh-like cancellous bone covered by hard, compact cortical bone. (aaos.org)
  • Col3.6-HSD2 mice had decreased trabecular bone in vertebra and decreased cortical bone in femur and tibia. (uconn.edu)
  • Recently, it has been reported that microRNAs can modulate the differentiation and activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the key cells that are involved in bone remodeling process. (hindawi.com)
  • Several miRNAs have been reported to regulate bone metabolism by modulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, such as miR-223 [ 16 ] and miR-103a [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, factors that regulate endothelium-dependent vasodilation (e.g., nitric oxide and prostacyclin) can diffuse into the bone interstitial space and directly modulate osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • We constructed a mathematical model of autocrine and paracrine interactions among osteoblasts and osteoclasts that allowed us to calculate cell population dynamics and changes in bone mass at a discrete site of bone remodeling. (cellml.org)
  • Bone is remodeled thanks to the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, that balance bone resorption and formation. (tmdocclusion.com)
  • [ 13 ] In summary, the bone remodeling cycle is initiated and orchestrated by osteocytes, and regulated by coupled crosstalk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (medscape.com)
  • Bone is actively constructed and remodeled throughout life by special bone cells known as osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • A personal experience of a stress fracture is reviewed to parallel the implications that lead to the incident with the findings on the link between mechanical stress and bone remodelling. (scirp.org)
  • Here, an account of stress fracture injuries is presented and the implications of mechanical stress on bone remodelling debated. (scirp.org)
  • The good agreement between analytical and numerical density evolutions indicates that the analytical model presented in this study can predict well bone functional adaptation and, eventually, provide an efficient tool for simulating patient-specific bone remodeling and for better prognosis of bone fracture risk. (asme.org)
  • The process of fracture recovery has several stages, immediate inflammation, soft bone callous formation, hard bone callous formation, and finally bone remodeling, which is the constant process of bone replacement. (isaiahjanzen.com)
  • The investigation follows an earlier one in which the team had linked short sleep to a higher likelihood of bone fracture in women. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, its mechanism of action is deceiving, to say the least, and debilitating at worst, often causing brittle bones that fracture and jaw bone necrosis in the long run. (liftingtones.com)
  • Remodeling also occurs when reshaping your bones after a fracture or when repairing micro-cracks which form during ordinary activities, especially when your bones are under stress, like after lifting heavy weights. (osmosis.org)
  • The overall goal of these projects is to investigate local bone mechanoregulation in remodeling and fracture healing occurring in healthy, aged, and osteoporotic humans and mice. (ethz.ch)
  • The aim of the research is to is to perform bone remodeling and fracture healing simulations using an in-house multiscale, multiphysics model to investigate changes in bone adaptation and regeneration due to aging. (ethz.ch)
  • The specific aims of this project will therefore be (1) to enhance the existing in-house multiscale multiphysics model with quantitative biological information at the gene and protein scale, leading to an enhanced comprehension of regulatory pathways of bone resorption and formation during bone remodeling and fracture healing, and (2) to assess local bone remodeling and compare the results with biological biomarker measurements in preclinical animal models and patient cohorts. (ethz.ch)
  • Genetic variation in intracortical remodeling may contribute to mechanical integrity and, therefore, fracture risk. (bioquant.com)
  • As a critical mediator of crack behavior in bone cortex, intracortical microstructural variation provides another mechanism through which genetic variation may affect fracture risk. (bioquant.com)
  • Nitric oxide is also key in fracture healing and acts to cue local bone cells to start the healing process as well as increasing blood flow to the area of injury. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, bone cells respond to their environment to strengthen the structure of individual bones to resist fracture. (aaos.org)
  • This weakened bone is at an increased risk for fracture. (aaos.org)
  • When given as a daily injection, teriparatide increases bone growth, strength and density in osteoporotic individuals of either gender, the Mayo Clinic says. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Elevated loads produce increases in bone den-sity while reduced loads cause reduction of bone density. (imechanica.org)
  • Moreover, decreases of bone turnover markers of osteocalcin, Procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (CTX) as well as bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume of femur were observed in ATO-treated rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The relationship between IT and crestal bone loss, bone density, and jaw location were analyzed, and a P -value of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. (dovepress.com)
  • Bone density and jaw location affect IT and CBLs. (dovepress.com)
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by Micro-CT. (springer.com)
  • Guggenbuhl P, Deugnier Y, Boisdet JF et al (2005) Bone mineral density in men with genetic hemochromatosis and HFE gene mutation. (springer.com)
  • The aim of the study is to compare in a cross-sectional design fluoride levels, bone renewal, bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV+ male patients treated by TRUVADA® or VIREAD® for more than 60 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) will be used to determine the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck and distal radius. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Comparative Study of Fluoride Metabolism, Bone Remodelling and Mineral Density in HIV + Men Being Given Tenofovir With FTC, Emtricitabine (TRUVADA®), or Without (VIREAD®), as Part of Their Antiretroviral Therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Association studies between estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density (BMD) have yielded inconsistent results. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Furthermore, strain energy density algorithm has been adapted to illustrate bone remodeling induced by implants and fixed partial dentures. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Journal Article] Daily administration of eldecalcitol (ED-71), an active vitamin D analog, increases bone mineral density by suppressing RANKL expression in mouse trabecular bone. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The study used 100 post-menopausal women which were subjected to x-rays in order to determine bone mineral density. (liquid-nutrition-vitamins.com)
  • Simulation of bone remodeling at the bone cell level can predict changes in bone microarchitecture and density due to bone diseases and drug treatment. (asme.org)
  • To overcome these issues, we have developed an analytical model to predict bone density adaptation at the organ level, in agreement with our earlier developed bone remodeling theory at the cellular level. (asme.org)
  • Assuming a generalized geometrical model at the microlevel, the original theory was reformulated into an analytical equation that describes the evolution of bone density as a function of parameters that describe cell activity, mechanotransduction and mechanical loading. (asme.org)
  • It was found that this analytical model can predict changes in bone density due to changes in these cell-level parameters that are in good agreement with those predicted by the earlier numerical model that implemented a detailed micro-finite element (FE) model to represent the bone architecture and loading, at only a fraction of the computational costs. (asme.org)
  • In most people, bone strength and density peak when they are in their late 20s. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The bone density of women reduces more rapidly during the first few years after menopause . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The results were independent of other factors that could potentially influence them, such as age, race, the effects of menopause, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index ( BMI ), use of sleeping pills, exercise, and type of bone density scanner. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For months after the cavity has been filled with bone, the crystals of mineral are packed more closely and the density of the new bone increases. (washington.edu)
  • We will also study arterial calcification (lateral abdominal radiography and echocardiogram), arterial remodeling (high-resolution echotracking system), endothelial function (evaluated by a non-invasive finger biosensor device), and bone remodeling (evaluated by serum biomarkers and bone mineral density). (inclinicaltrials.com)
  • Nitric oxide supplementation can help to improve bone density by enhancing bone formation and reducing the extent of bone breakdown. (livestrong.com)
  • Combined deletion of Sik2 and Sik3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes led to a dramatic increase in bone mass that closely resembled the skeletal and molecular phenotypes observed when these bone cells express a constitutively active PTH1R that causes Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. (jci.org)
  • Skeletal health is maintained by bone remodeling, a process in which microscopic sites of effete or damaged bone are degraded on bone surfaces by osteoclasts and subsequently replaced by new bone, which is laid down by osteoblasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this way, bone participates in the control of calcium levels in the blood and tissues ( 1 ) to mediate numerous cellular functions, including contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscles ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bone remodeling is a normal physiological process that maintains skeletal integrity after skeletal development by removing small foci of damaged or effete bone from bone surfaces and replacing them with new bone ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings explain why HDAC inhibitors cause skeletal defects and are ill-advised for children and pregnant women as well as for patients with bone fractures. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our understanding of central bone regulation has largely progressed through examination of skeletal responses downstream of nutrient regulatory pathways in the hypothalamus. (garvan.org.au)
  • As knowledge on the signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling unfolds, maintenance of skeletal health and the management of skeletal diseases will increasingly focus on the manipulation of the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms involved in the process. (scielo.org.za)
  • skeletal remodelling. (scielo.org.za)
  • Our studies have confirmed the limitations of using vitamin D3 for treatment/co- treatment of immune disease in humans due to the intrinsic hypercalcemic properties of the hormone, and also highlighted the potential of vitamin D3 to negatively impact skeletal integrity due to excessive bone remodeling driven by bone resorption. (thescipub.com)
  • Breast Cancer-Induced Bone Remodeling, Skeletal Pain and Sprouting of Sensory Nerve Fibers. (painresearchforum.org)
  • This process of skeletal change is known as bone remodeling, which both protects the structural integrity of the skeletal system and metabolically contributes to the body's balance of calcium and phosphorus. (statpearls.com)
  • The continual process of adult bone remodeling is essential for the maintenance of bone mass and skeletal micro-architecture. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] Coupling of osteoclast and osteoblast activities via signaling between the two cell lineages regulates the bone remodeling cycle and results in skeletal homeostasis with preservation of bone strength. (medscape.com)
  • So, there's a whole lot of activity in the bone remodeling process going on daily in your body completing a cycle in 100-day, yet taking seven years to completely rebuild every bone in your skeletal system. (liftingtones.com)
  • Bone remodeling is characterized by spatial and temporal coupling of bone resorption and formation and is necessary for skeletal growth and normal bone structure maintenance. (elsevier.com)
  • Over the past two decades, there has been an accumulation of evidence demonstrating the critical role of skeletal interstitial fluid flow in the viability, maintenance, and response to loading and unloading of bone. (grantome.com)
  • Skeletal change in response to altered strain environments:​ is woven bone a response to elevated strain? (lievers.net)
  • Effect of cyclical forces on the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. (medworm.com)
  • Analysis of roles of Wnt5a in alveolar bone remodeling, and their application for orthodontic tooth movement. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Together, Wnt5a regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in alveolar bone remodeling. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Osteoblasts are also involved in inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in the PDL during alveolar bone remodelling. (uib.no)
  • The aim of the in vivo and in vitro studies on which this thesis is based was to investigate the responses to CF of immune cells and osteoblasts derived from human alveolar bone (HOBs). (uib.no)
  • Paper II: Tripuwabhrut P, Mustafa K, Brudvik P, Mustafa M. Initial responses of osteoblasts derived from human alveolar bone to various compressive forces. (uib.no)
  • For the association of alveolar bone remodeling with mechanical stimuli from orthodonitic forces, experimental movement of rat upper molars and finite element stress analysis for the periodontium were integrated. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Further, it was revealed from this study that essential factor for the reduced tooth movement was a decreases in cellular activity in the PDL pertinent to alveolar bone remodeling. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These findings were then integrated with finite element stress analysis, indicating that local ncrease in stress in the compression area, which is an initiator for alveolar bone resorption and the subsequent tooth movement, may delay bone remodeling in … More adults in association with the less cellular activity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • One of the most common problems in patients with dental implants is the lack of sufficient alveolar bone. (drsojodi.com)
  • For those with adequate alveolar bone structure, bone remodeling is not performed, and as a result, the patient will have a prosthesis sooner. (drsojodi.com)
  • Many dentists also consider Ridge Splitting as one of the best ways to improve the width of the alveolar bone. (drsojodi.com)
  • Because no reports in literature have studied exosomes in this context, our proposed work should provide new fundamental data that will lead to 1) innovative therapeutic modalities to treat dental diseases and 2) future translational effort using exosomes in GCF as biomarkers for the early detection of root resorption and pathological alveolar bone resorption. (grantome.com)
  • The maintenance of bone mass mainly depends on the balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Arsenic trioxide affects bone remodeling by effects on osteoblast differentiation and function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that ATO interferes with bone remodeling mostly through changes in osteoblast differentiation and function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our laboratory has studied bone-active neuropeptide pathways and defined osteoblast-based actions that recapitulate central pathways linking bone, fat, and glucose homeostasis. (garvan.org.au)
  • Proper bone development is maintained through a fine balance of bone-forming (osteoblast) and bone-resorbing (osteoclast) cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We found that miR-940 can be secreted from metastatic cancer cells and alter gene expression in cells that reside in bone, causing them to take on osteoblast-like properties," Hashimoto adds. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We show that p53 also regulates osteoblast differentiation, bone formation, and osteoblast-dependent osteoclast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Indeed, p53 − / − mice display a high bone mass phenotype, and p53 − / − osteoblasts show accelerated differentiation, secondary to an increase in expression of the osteoblast differentiation factor osterix, as a result. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, these results identify p53 as a novel regulator of osteoblast differentiation, osteoblast-dependent osteoclastogenesis, and bone remodeling. (rupress.org)
  • Given the functional relationship between c-Abl and p53, we decided to study the role of p53 in osteoblast differentiation and bone remodeling. (rupress.org)
  • Osteoblast is a cell of mesenchymal origin that is responsible for bone formation and can support osteoclast differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Paper III: Tripuwabhrut P, Mustafa M, Gjerde CG, Brudvik P, Mustafa K. Effect of compressive force on human osteoblast-like cells and bone remodelling: an in vitro study. (uib.no)
  • Osteoblast cells contribute to bone growth and derive from the mesenchymal origin. (statpearls.com)
  • The cellular process of remodeling begins when osteoblast and osteoclast precursor cells fuse to form a multinucleated, osteoclastic cell. (statpearls.com)
  • Once the fusion of osteoblast and osteoclastic precursors has occurred, the resulting multinucleated osteoclast attaches to the bone surface and commence resorption. (statpearls.com)
  • Once the osteoblast has completed the task, it can enter 3 fates: flatten and become a cell to line the bone surface, become an osteocyte, or undergo cell death (apoptosis). (statpearls.com)
  • Interactions among cells of osteoblast and osteoclast lineages are critical in the regulation of bone remodeling. (cellml.org)
  • Fine arrows represent the effects of autocrine and paracrine regulators of bone remodeling on the rates of osteoclast and osteoblast formation. (cellml.org)
  • Canonical Wnt signaling regulates bone formation and is essential for osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, function and survival. (medscape.com)
  • Transgenic calvarial osteoblast and bone marrow stromal cultures had decreased alkaline phosphatase and mineral staining, and reduced Colla1, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin mRNA expression. (uconn.edu)
  • These data suggest that endogenous glucocorticoid signaling is required for optimal bone mass acquisition by affecting both the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. (uconn.edu)
  • However, this important physiological process can be derailed by a variety of factors, including menopause-associated hormonal changes, age-related factors, changes in physical activity, drugs, and secondary diseases, which lead to the development of various bone disorders in both women and men. (nih.gov)
  • Although the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are now being understood, physiological and pathological states of bone are still difficult to predict due to the complexity of intercellular signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bone regeneration involves complex physiological processes, involving the participation of many cell types, regulated by a myriad of biochemical and mechanical factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • During physiological aging, HSC-supporting niches decrease near bone but expand further from bone. (csic.es)
  • It acts to raise the level of calcium in the bloodstream with direct actions on bone and the kidneys, and indirectly on the intestines via the influence on vitamin D. The hormone has a physiological, negative feedback loop that is influenced by the amount of calcium present in the blood. (statpearls.com)
  • This physiological role led to investigation of the use of recombinant OPG as a treatment to prevent the bone breakdown that can be initiated when breast cancers metastasize and grow in the bone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Generation of transgenic mice has allowed elucidation of the major physiological role of OPG as a regulator of bone metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since our model integrates mechanics, cell behavior and reaction-​diffusion of signaling molecules across multiple length scales, it is uniquely suited for in-depth hypothesis testing on the biochemical and physiological mechanisms behind bone remodeling. (ethz.ch)
  • Two main types of cells are responsible for bone metabolism: osteoblasts (which secrete new bone), and osteoclasts (which break bone down). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone metabolism relies on complex signaling pathways and control mechanisms to achieve proper rates of growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, our studies identified MALPs as a critical player in controlling bone remodeling during normal bone metabolism and pathological bone loss in a RANKL-dependent fashion. (jci.org)
  • The research topics to be examined are the associations between bone mass and metabolism and 1) bone perfusion and the mechanisms of bone arteriolar function that regulate blood flow to the skeleton, 2) bone interstitial fluid flow and pressure, bone marrow blood vessel ossification and 4) bone marrow blood vessel spatial location and morphology via migration, angiogenesis and rarefaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we try to investigate the effects of iron disorder on bone metabolism using Irp 2 knockout ( Irp 2 −/− ) mice. (springer.com)
  • Fluoride metabolism will be studied by measurement of fluoride in blood and in daily urine, bone remodelling by measurement of P1NP. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Bone structure and function are maintained by well-regulated bone metabolism and remodeling. (sciencemag.org)
  • We anticipate that these in silico experiments will substantially accelerate research into bone metabolism and remodeling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, it is indispensable to fully elucidate the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of bone metabolism and remodeling, from both scientific and clinical viewpoints. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that the level of bone resorption influences cartilage metabolism and that inhibition might prevent the progression of OA. (bmj.com)
  • This overview is aimed at providing practitioners with an update on recent advances on cell signalling in bone remodelling and highlights the role of the skeleton in systemic metabolism. (scielo.org.za)
  • The use of both models allowed for discrimination of individual (TPTx) versus combined (intact) effects of calciotropic hormones on bone and calcium metabolism. (thescipub.com)
  • OPG has been well characterized as a regulator of bone metabolism which acts by blocking osteoclast maturation and preventing bone breakdown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the characterization of the role of OPG as a negative regulator of bone metabolism as described above, early studies on OPG and breast cancer focused on the bone microenvironment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural changes to large arteries and abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism are frequent manifestations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (inclinicaltrials.com)
  • Most importantly, we have learned more about bone metabolism - which is how bone rebuilds itself and stays healthy throughout our lives. (aaos.org)
  • However, doctors can now identify people at risk and provide treatments to correct problems with bone metabolism. (aaos.org)
  • This is called balanced bone remodeling and is controlled by your bone metabolism. (aaos.org)
  • Vitamins D, K, and A are needed for normal bone metabolism. (aaos.org)
  • Orthodontic tooth movement is achieved by remodelling of the surrounding bone in response to the application of appropriate compressive force (CF) to the tooth. (uib.no)
  • An analytic technique to simulate bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement' 歯科基礎医学会雑誌. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Together, the cells that are responsible for bone remodeling are known as the basic multicellular unit (BMU), and the temporal duration (i.e. lifespan) of the BMU is referred to as the bone remodeling period. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bone physiology, the bone remodeling period describes the temporal duration (i.e. lifespan) of the basic multicellular unit (BMU) that is responsible for bone turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, the cells in any given particular region of the bone surface that are responsible for bone remodeling are known as the basic multicellular unit (BMU), and it is the average lifespan of the BMU that is referred to as the remodeling period. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 4 ] The basic multicellular unit of bone remodeling comprises osteocytes, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. (medscape.com)
  • The Basic Multicellular Unit (BMU) is a wandering team of cells that dissolves an area of the bone surface and then fills it with new bone. (washington.edu)
  • Abstract Soluble transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-binding proteins are widely distributed in mammalian tissues and control cytokine access to membrane signaling receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Bone remodeling occurs asynchronously at multiple sites in the adult skeleton and involves resorption by osteoclasts, followed by formation of new bone by osteoblasts. (cellml.org)
  • abstract = "The aim of this review is to focus on the roles of PTH in bone remodeling. (elsevier.com)
  • Physiology and pathology of bone remodeling. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bone physiology is on another time scale than other organs - such as the heart or lungs. (washington.edu)
  • These controls include the action of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, growth hormone, steroids, and calcitonin, as well as several bone marrow-derived membrane and soluble cytokines and growth factors (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) maintains homeostatic control of blood calcium levels by regulating bone resorption. (jove.com)
  • Chloroquine also inhibits bone destruction induced by ovariectomy and parathyroid hormone in mice in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • In TPTx rats, deprivation of thyroid and parathyroid hormones and calcitonin creates a low state of bone modeling and remodeling ideal for evaluation of changes imposed by drug intervention. (thescipub.com)
  • We looked at the roles Vitamin D and the Parathyroid hormones play in stimulating osteoclast activity and the release of calcium and phosphorus from the bones into the blood, and how they facilitate calcium resorption in the kidneys. (liftingtones.com)
  • The roles of parathyroid hormone in bone remodeling: prospects for novel therapeutics. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The roles of parathyroid hormone in bone remodeling: prospects for novel therapeutics. (elsevier.com)
  • This occurs with the synchronized action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, cells that resorb and deposit bone, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone mass and strength are maintained by the bone remodeling cycle involving the integrated actions of osteocytes, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. (medscape.com)
  • The composition of the exosomes from osteoclasts changed when osteoclasts were actively resorbing bone, and osteoclast-derived exosomes stimulated osteoclast formation when added to calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. (grantome.com)
  • These processes also control the reshaping or replacement of bone following injuries like fractures but also micro-damage, which occurs during normal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, the results from our and other research groups showed that the expression profiles of microRNAs in the serum and bone tissues are significantly different in postmenopausal women with or without fractures compared to the control. (hindawi.com)
  • Metastatic prostate cancer cells often travel to bone, where they can affect bone structure and cause severe pain, pathological fractures, and spinal cord compression. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In addition, maintenance of load-bearing function throughout life is important to prevent bone fractures. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our products are effective in treating patients with fractures and bone voids caused by trauma, infection, disease or related surgery. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Bone remodelling functions not only to normalise stresses, but also to repair micro-fractures that are caused by the bending and torsion of bones during locomotion ( Burr, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • Bone regeneration is the process whereby bone is able to (scarlessly) repair itself from trauma, such as fractures or implant placement. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The current paper focuses on the ( in silico ) biology of the bone regeneration process, taking place after bone traumata such as fractures or implant placement. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Explanation of the processes of bone formation, healing of fractures, and bone remodeling. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • This affects the structure and strength of bones and makes fractures more likely. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For the remodeling to occur, appropriate cell signaling occurs to trigger osteoclasts to resorb the surface of the bone, followed by deposition of bone by osteoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, remodeling is the only one of these processes that occurs throughout one's lifetime. (springer.com)
  • Second, because bone remodeling occurs throughout life, it plays a dominant role in determining the structure of most of the tissues in the skeleton, most of the time. (springer.com)
  • The levels of this hormone continue to increase over time, leading to the ultimate closure of the epiphyseal plate, which is the location where bone growth occurs. (coursehero.com)
  • Bone remodeling occurs in the first year of function in response to occlusal forces and establishment of the normal dimensions of the periimplant soft tissues. (eurekaselect.com)
  • If bone loss occurs, it will lead to tooth extraction and tooth extraction. (drsojodi.com)
  • Bone deposition occurs through the work of osteoblasts, while bone resorption occurs through the work of osteoclasts. (osmosis.org)
  • A continue hypersecretion of PTH, as occurs in primary hyperparathyroidism, leads to bone resorption. (elsevier.com)
  • Bone formation and resorption coupling is a process wherein osteoclastic bone resorption is followed by osteoblastic bone formation. (jci.org)
  • S1PR2-deficient mice exhibit moderate osteopetrosis as a result of a decrease in osteoclastic bone resorption, suggesting that S1PR2 contributes to OP localization on the bones mediated by chemorepulsion away from the blood where S1P levels are high. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology have helped identify multiple signaling pathways that regulate osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, as well as their relationship to mechanical stress ( 5 - 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • [ 12 ] Over 95% of the surface of the normal adult skeleton is quiescent because osteocytes exert a resting inhibition of both osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. (medscape.com)
  • Although the brain is well established as a master regulator of homeostasis in peripheral tissues, central regulation of bone mass represents a novel and rapidly expanding field of study. (garvan.org.au)
  • Recently, it has been shown that functional stem cells exist in the bone marrow of adult bodies and that they can reconstitute damaged tissues of the mesenchymal origin. (asnjournals.org)
  • Stress shielding and bone resorption will occur when no load is being transferred to the supporting tissues, while abnormally high stress concentration can lead to implant failure. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In fact, mechanical loads create microdamages into the bone tissues that trigger the healing process of remodeling [ 2 ]. (tmdocclusion.com)
  • The key is to get it out of the blood and into the tissues and bones. (liftingtones.com)
  • One special example is the induction of pathological bone destruction in periodontitis. (mdpi.com)
  • The model predicted different modes of dynamic behavior: a single remodeling cycle in response to an external stimulus, a series of internally regulated cycles of bone remodeling, or unstable behavior similar to pathological bone remodeling in Paget's disease. (cellml.org)
  • Signaling between osteoclasts (the cells that resorb bone and teeth) and osteoblasts (the cells that form bone) regulates normal and pathological bone and root resorption. (grantome.com)
  • These data inspired the central hypothesis of this proposal: Exosomes released by osteoclasts are involved in the regulation of bone remodeling and serve as markers for normal and pathological bone and tooth resorption. (grantome.com)
  • A healthy skeleton must be maintained by constant bone modeling to carry out these crucial functions throughout life. (nih.gov)
  • The bones that make up the skeleton are not there just for structural support for the other bodily components but they serve a variety of functions. (scirp.org)
  • Thus, proper regulation of the bone vascular network is vital to a healthy skeleton and dysregulation may contribute to osteopathology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bone vascular dysfunction may rest internal to the skeleton (i.e., the bone marrow blood vessels) or external (i.e., nutrient arteries that originate outside and perforate the skeleton). (frontiersin.org)
  • This review examines the current understanding of central regulation of the skeleton, exploring several of the key pathways connecting brain to bone and their implications both in mice and the clinical setting. (garvan.org.au)
  • Studies of neural control of bone have produced paradigm-shifting changes in our understanding of the skeleton and its relationship with the wider array of organ systems. (garvan.org.au)
  • Their clinical application, however, is limited since bone microarchitecture can only be measured in the peripheral skeleton of patients and since the simulations are very time consuming. (asme.org)
  • A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bones and the skeleton play many important roles in the body. (aaos.org)
  • After the body's skeleton forms and grows to its adult size, it completely regenerates itself about every 10 years, through a process called remodeling. (aaos.org)
  • If we do not have enough calcium in our diets, calcium is removed from the skeleton, causing our bones to become weaker. (aaos.org)
  • Bone is maintained by coupled activities of bone-forming osteoblasts/osteocytes and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. (jci.org)
  • Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone. (statpearls.com)
  • They play a role in bone remodeling by transmitting signals to other nearby osteocytes regarding bone stress (tendons pulling on the bone). (statpearls.com)
  • Osteocytes are also involved in regulating fluid flow within the bone, so this cellular signal may be due to changes in fluid flow in response to mechanical stresses on the bone. (statpearls.com)
  • A basic tenet of bone biology states that most vertebrate animals maintain bone strength by remodeling, in which bone cells called osteocytes detect and orchestrate the repair of microdamage caused by repeated loading. (pnas.org)
  • Organisms without osteocytes, such as many members of the neoteleost group of fishes, were not thought to undergo bone remodeling. (pnas.org)
  • The authors found that the rostral bones, which constitute the fishes' long, sword-like spears and endure repeated high stresses, contained high densities of structural footprints of remodeling, called secondary osteons, although billfish osteons were an order of magnitude smaller than mammal osteons and entirely without osteocytes. (pnas.org)
  • According to the authors, the results suggest that fish bones can repair damage despite lacking osteocytes, suggesting that osteocytes may not be the sole initiators of bone remodeling in fish or mammals. (pnas.org)
  • Mitogenic indices (BrdU incorporation) and transcriptional activators (egr-1 and c-fos) and differentiation indices (bone sialoprotein, Cbfa-1, and p57Kip2) will be measured in osteoblasts and osteocytes. (grantome.com)
  • Wnt-signalling and bone morphogenic proteins are important, and osteocytes tonically secrete sclerostin which inhibits Wnt-signalling. (washington.edu)
  • Some of the osteoblasts also turn into osteocytes which remain in the bone, connected by long cell processes which can sense mechanical stresses to the bones. (washington.edu)
  • A recent paper in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research gives a full account of the findings. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As we age the hair turns white with calcium as bone resorption is accelerated faster than the calcium can be used, as well as other reason related to mineral ratios and balance. (liftingtones.com)
  • They protect our organs and store our supply of calcium, a mineral necessary for building and maintaining strong bones. (aaos.org)
  • Both stiffness and strength depend on the mineralization of the organic matrix, which is constantly being remodelled by the coordinated action of the bone multicellular units (BMUs). (soton.ac.uk)
  • When such conditions are present, the basic multicellular units will directly re-establish the Haversian canals in the bone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this work, a computational model is used to understand the feedback between the remodelling and the mineralization processes under different load conditions and bone porosities. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Bone remodelling at the attachment site of the lateral pterygoid muscles was also assessed, by measuring the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB), in order to test to which extent muscular activity might influence bone turnover in a certain location. (unina.it)
  • It is the bone mineralization that give bones rigidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone disease in CKD-MBD comprises abnormalities in bone turnover, mineralization, linear growth and strength. (inclinicaltrials.com)
  • This study examines the relationships between locomotion, femur bone size and blood flow through the femoral nutrient foramen of birds. (biologists.org)
  • This was later reinforced by Foote, who showed that the femur is particularly responsive to the functional demands of the animal, including the stresses and strains to which the bone is exposed and the position of the femur relative to the body ( Foote, 1911 ). (biologists.org)
  • Major limb bones, such as the femur, support the weight of an individual's body and must also contend with more acute forces experienced during locomotion. (biologists.org)
  • Now let's look at the femur - the longest bone in the body. (osmosis.org)
  • The largest bone in the body is the femur or thigh-bone, and the smallest is the stapes in the middle ear . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanical stress plays an essential role in bone homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • These findings suggest that mechanical stress-activated JNK and p38 induce cytokine cross-talks between osteoblasts and bone marrow-derived monocytes and macrophages, which may play key roles in bone remodeling. (springer.com)
  • While mechanical stress can stimulate turnover as part of the normal maintenance and reparative process, several hormones also regulate bone remodeling. (jove.com)
  • This imaginary transformation from Sméagol to Gollum is a dramatization of the illusive repercussions of mechanical stress affecting bone. (scirp.org)
  • This paper presents the main ideas of mechanical stress and bone remodelling from a novel's perspective. (scirp.org)
  • Some factors regarding age, gender and ethnicity and the interplay with mechanical stress influencing bone remodelling are considered. (scirp.org)
  • Firstly, the different aspects of this essay will be individually discussed beginning with mechanical stress, followed by bone remodelling. (scirp.org)
  • The next part of the essay will focus on the association between the two and the effect that mechanical stress has on bone remodelling. (scirp.org)
  • The main factors affect bone remodelling through mechanical stress such as age, gender and ethnicity where possible. (scirp.org)
  • Bones respond to mechanical stress by increasing in size and thickness. (coursehero.com)
  • And when you look closer at the spongy bone, it's made of crosslinking tiny roads called trabeculae, which make your bones resistant to mechanical stress, so that they can bear weights without caving in. (osmosis.org)
  • After microdamage to the bone, following mechanical stress, following exposure to some cytokines, or at random, a BMU will originate. (washington.edu)
  • Nitric oxide is important in the regulation of bone formation and breakdown and is normally released by bone cells when mechanical stress is applied to the bones during weight-bearing activities. (livestrong.com)
  • This phenotype was accompanied by diminished osteoclast number and attenuated bone formation at the trabecular bone surface. (jci.org)
  • Ndrg1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal curvature of the spine, high trabecular bone mass, and reduced number of osteoclasts. (elsevier.com)
  • In vivo trabecular microcracks in human vertebral bone. (lievers.net)
  • It is of interest to compare the response time noted in the above experiments with the rate of bone turnover in healthy humans. (biology-online.org)
  • Serum markers for bone turnover were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (springer.com)
  • Hence, muscular activity sensibly affect bone turnover. (unina.it)
  • Elevated PTH is also associated with high bone turnover and participates in the development of bone disease of CKD-MBD. (inclinicaltrials.com)
  • Bone remodeling involves the removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts (bone resorption) and the subsequent replacement of new bone formed by osteoblasts (bone formation). (nih.gov)
  • Normal bone remodeling requires a tight coupling of bone resorption to bone formation to guarantee no alteration in bone mass or quality after each remodeling cycle. (nih.gov)
  • however, long-term efficacy of these strategies is limited due to the accompanying increase in resorption in response to increased bone formation. (jci.org)
  • Role of axonal guidance molecules in bone formation and resorption coupling. (jci.org)
  • For bone formation, signals released from mineralized matrix, such as TGF-β and IGF-1, in combination with signals secreted by osteoclasts, such as SLIT3, and those released by nerves, namely SEMA3a, serve in concert to recruit osteoblasts and promote their differentiation. (jci.org)
  • The remodeling period consists of the combined duration of the resorption, the osteoclastic reversal (the phase marked by shifting of resorption processes into formative processes) and the formation periods of bone growth and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bone formation portion (σf) of the bone remodeling period is calculated as follows: σ f = M W T M f {\displaystyle \sigma _{f}={\frac {MWT}{M_{f}}}} in which MWT refers to the mean wall thickness of the completed bone unit and Mf refers to the prevailing mean effective bone appositional rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone remodeling is a continuous and balanced process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. (jove.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of microRNAs involved in the bone formation and resorption, in particular the relationship between miRNAs and osteoblasts/osteoclasts. (hindawi.com)
  • Bone formation is severely affected in the Sik3 and Pthrp double-KO mouse and the Sik3 -cKO mouse: secondary ossification center (black arrowheads in the top panels) and bone formation in the sternum (black arrowheads in the bottom panels) are missing. (jci.org)
  • Osteoclast formation and activity are promoted by factors, including cytokines, hormones, growth factors, and free radicals, and require expression of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) by accessory cells in the bone marrow, including osteoblastic and immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is also a repository for calcium and other elements that get deposited in bone as it mineralizes during bone formation and are released from bone when it is being remodeled. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bone formation is dependent upon the vascular system. (frontiersin.org)
  • During remodeling, bone marrow blood vessels are located next to sites of bone formation and, thus, this spatial location is critically important for bone development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cartilage provides the bone-promoting matrix and bone-forming progenitor cells required for the formation of long bones. (sciencemag.org)
  • To better understand how HDAC inhibitors affect endochondral bone formation, we conditionally deleted one of their targets, Hdac3 , pre- and postnatally in type II collagen α1 (Col2α1)-expressing chondrocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the bone metastatic microenvironment, the crosstalk between metastasized cancer cells and the surrounding bone cells is critical for the formation of the osteoblastic or osteolytic phenotype. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Metastatic tumor cells can promote either bone formation or bone resorption," lead author Kyoko Hashimoto explains. (medicalxpress.com)
  • One microRNA in particular, miR-940, was highly abundant in the prostate cancer-derived exosomes and turned out to play a powerful role in promoting bone formation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Serum levels of 25(OH)D 3 and markers for bone formation such as bone alkaline phosphatase (Balp), bone-gla-protein (BGP), and type I collagen alpha1 chain (Col I α 1 ) were decreased, while markers for bone resorption including cathepsin K (Ctsk) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap) were all significantly increased. (springer.com)
  • Fluoride induces bone formation by stimulating osteoblasts, of often impaired bone quality. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • More than a century ago, Wolff recognised the relationship between mechanical loading and bone formation, concluding that exercise increases bone mass, whereas unloading results in bone atrophy ( Wolff, 1892 ). (biologists.org)
  • Mathematical algorithms such as nano-interactions and mechanosensory mechanisms have been incorporated into numerical models to describe bone formation and osseointegration of dental implants. (eurekaselect.com)
  • After that, as they continue to age, the rate of bone resorption gradually overtakes that of formation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Collagen is also part of the bone and provides a matrix for bone formation. (liftingtones.com)
  • Moreover PTH enhances the Wnt-β catenin pathway, that is central to osteogenesis and bone formation, inhibiting sclerostin. (elsevier.com)
  • Transgenic bone marrow cells showed more osteoclast formation in vitro. (uconn.edu)
  • Osteoclast precursors from bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), RAW264.7 cells, and sorted precursors based on surface markers (CD11b- CD45R- CD3-CD115+) were treated with M-CSF and RANKL to induce osteoclast formation. (uconn.edu)
  • The serum and bone-resident glycoprotein α2-HS-glycoprotein/fetuin (ASHG) binds to TGF-β/BMP cytokines and blocks TGF-β1 binding to cell surface receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Serum biomarkers of bone remodeling allow direct estimation of bone remodeling but lack evaluation and precision. (inclinicaltrials.com)
  • Taken together our data emphasize the importance of including biomarkers of bone remodeling as an integral part of clinical and preclinical studies using vitamin D3 to treat immune disorders and suggest the need for co-treatment with an antiresorptive agent to counteract hypercalcemia and deterioration of bone. (thescipub.com)
  • The present study demonstrated that cancer-secreted microRNAs induced osteoblastic bone metastasis through promoting the osteogenic differentiation of bone-forming cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Once cancer has metastasized to bone it is usually incurable, so any insight into the process of metastasis is immensely helpful in the search for novel therapies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As OPG is known to inhibit osteoclast maturation, studies have looked at the use of recombinant OPG to prevent bone loss related to bone metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although mechanotransduction-induced de novo gene expression is required for bone remodeling, the molecular mechanism of intracellular signaling, which leads to regulation of gene expression, is not fully understood. (springer.com)
  • Bone homeostasis involves multiple but coordinated cellular and molecular events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, there is evidence that CDTs can also perturb the innate immune responses, by regulating inflammatory cytokine production and molecular mediators of bone remodeling in various cell types. (mdpi.com)
  • The opportunistic oral pathogen Aggregatibatcer actinoycemetemcomitans , which is involved in the aggressive form of the disease, can regulate the molecular mechanisms of bone remodeling in a manner that favors bone resorption, with the potential involvement of its CDT. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, genetic modification of signaling molecules in vivo has illuminated the molecular mechanisms of bone diseases ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Molecular signalling within the BRC between precursors, mature cells, cells of the immune system, and products of the resorbed matrix titrate the birth, work, and lifespan of this remodeling machinery to cither remove or form a net volume of bone. (begellhouse.com)
  • Our objective is to elucidate the mechanisms by which interstitial fluid flow (IFF) stimulates bone cells, using molecular, cell, and in vivo knockout and transgenic models. (grantome.com)
  • In the center of the bone, is the medullary canal - a hollow space lined by a honeycomb-looking structure called the spongy or cancellous bone. (osmosis.org)
  • Now the epiphysis is made of a lot of spongy bone. (osmosis.org)
  • And just like the medullary cavity, the spaces in the spongy bone of the epiphysis are occupied by bone marrow. (osmosis.org)
  • Activation of SLIT3/ROBO signaling in ovariectomized mice increased bone mass, suggesting that SLIT3 should be further explored as a therapeutic target. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, in ovariectomized mice, elevated bone resorption was partially attenuated by RANKL deficiency in MALPs. (jci.org)
  • TRAF3 protein levels decrease in bone and bone marrow during aging in mice and humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mice lacking chondrocyte-specific Hdac3 died in utero, and inducible transgenic mice lacking postnatal HDAC3 in chondrocytes had impaired long bone development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chondrocytes from these mice had increased acetylation of a proinflammatory transcription factor as well as of histones in and near loci encoding secreted proinflammatory factors that promote matrix degradation and the proliferation and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. (sciencemag.org)
  • miR-940-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were established and implanted on the calvarial bones of immunodeficient mice. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Strikingly, when miR-940 was expressed in bone-resorbing breast cancer cells, the cells triggered bone-forming lesions in mice-behaving as though they were prostate cancer cells (Fig.2). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Compared to wild-type mice, Irp 2 −/− mice exhibited reduced BMD, bone iron deficiency, and hepatic iron overload. (springer.com)
  • Objective To assess the role of bone remodelling in OA by studying the effect of bisphosphonate on OA development in mice with high bone remodelling. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Mice overexpressing Runx2 (Runx2-Tg) under the control of collagen type I that displayed high bone remodelling were used. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, we examined bone growth and remodeling phenotypes in ASHG-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To elucidate the role of endogenous glucocorticoid signaling in bone, we previously developed Col2.3-HSD2 and Col3.6-HSD2 transgenic mice in which a 2.3-kb or 3.6-kb Colla1 promoter fragment drives expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) in mature and early osteoblasts, respectively. (uconn.edu)
  • In the first study, we first characterized the bone phenotype of Col3.6-HSD2 mice. (uconn.edu)
  • Chemorepulsion by blood S1P regulates osteoclast precursor mobilization and bone remodeling in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, simulations demonstrated that nonlinear dynamics of the system may explain the differing effects of immunosuppressants on bone remodeling in vitro and in vivo. (cellml.org)
  • Even though bone cells respond to both flow components, we have demonstrated that the mechanotransduction pathways and the subsequent cellular and in vivo responses to these two mechanical stimuli differ. (grantome.com)
  • Using both in vitro and in vivo models, the proposed research will elucidate the basic mechanisms by which IFF acts on bone, and provide the basis for treatments based on the modulation of IFF to counter osteopenia of disuse. (grantome.com)
  • Three (3) complementary in vivo experiments using dog ulnas demonstrated that adaptive hypertrophy of long bones is provoked only by intermittent compressions and not by static compression. (lievers.net)
  • RANKL/osteoprotegerin/RANK signaling regulates bone resorption and is essential for osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast activity and survival. (medscape.com)
  • This deregulation induces the release of cytokines or growth factors initially trapped in the bone matrix, such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which in turn promote tumor progression. (nih.gov)
  • Bone growth, up to the point of late puberty, is directly influenced by several of these chemicals. (coursehero.com)
  • Growth hormone, for example, is the primary stimulus that causes bones to increase in length and width. (coursehero.com)
  • In fact, it is the production of estrogen that plays a large role in the growth of bones. (coursehero.com)
  • Estrogen is so important for bone growth that some testosterone in males converts into estrogen in order to accomplish this. (coursehero.com)
  • If excess growth hormone is produced in adulthood, after the bones have stopped growing, the result is a condition called acromegaly. (coursehero.com)
  • found that HDAC3 promotes pre- and postnatal bone growth by restricting the secretion of inflammatory factors from cartilage cells called chondrocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • These lesions cause structural weakness in the bone and, even worse, promote additional tumor growth . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our study suggests that microRNAs are an important factor that modify bone remodeling and promote tumor growth in metastatic prostate cancer ," lead investigator Shingo Sato concludes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Authors of the publication stated, 'There is a clear need for bone substitutes that can safely and effectively replace autograft via a combination of bone growth and remodeling. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • This study demonstrated an important role of biomechanical responses of the sutures, which are also determined by the varying directions of forces, in growth and remodeling of the complex. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The resorption process leaves "scooped out" regions of bone matrix (Howship Lacunae), and then it is believed that a "reversal" phase is conducted by mononuclear cells of macrophage lineage continue to degrade and deposit organic material while releasing growth factors to initiate the bone deposition phase. (statpearls.com)
  • We conclude that VSEL-SCs expanded in culture retain the ability to alleviate LV dysfunction and remodelling after a reperfused MI provided that they are exposed to a combination of cardiomyogenic growth factors and cytokines prior to transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • He uses bone that has been completely disinfected and has been treated to improve his ability to stimulate bone growth. (drsojodi.com)
  • This comes from the presence of many sutures that are the major sites of bone growth. (tmdocclusion.com)
  • Osteoblasts are probably attracted by bone-derived growth factors. (washington.edu)
  • Robling AG, Duijvelaar KM, Geevers JV, Ohashi N, Turner CH. Modulation of appositional and longitudinal bone growth in the rat ulna by applied static and dynamic force. (lievers.net)
  • Bone modeling during growth:​ dynamic strain equilibrium in the chick tibiotarsus. (lievers.net)
  • Cancellous bone is typically found at the ends of long bones, near joints and in the interior of vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behrens JC, Walker PS, Shoji H. Variations in strength and structure of cancellous bone at the knee. (lievers.net)
  • Enlarged photographs of the cancellous bone inside a vertebral bone in the spine. (aaos.org)
  • Top) Healthy cancellous bone. (aaos.org)
  • Osteoclasts-the innate immune cells of the bone. (springer.com)
  • Whenever there is a tiny crack inside the bones, for example, after landing from a high jump, the bone cells will dissolve the area around the crack and fill it in with new bone. (washington.edu)
  • You'll see a little crack, then cells will turn into osteoclasts and dissolve (resorb) the bone, then cells from the marrow space will turn into osteoblasts and build new bone. (washington.edu)
  • It tackles the underlying biology of bone cells and how they detect and react to strain stimuli. (scirp.org)
  • Interestingly, our recently identified bone marrow mesenchymal cell population-marrow adipogenic lineage precursors (MALPs) that form a multidimensional cell network in bone-was computationally demonstrated to be the most interactive with monocyte-macrophage lineage cells through high and specific expression of several osteoclast regulatory factors, including RANKL. (jci.org)
  • Development of drugs to prevent TRAF3 degradation in immune and bone cells could be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent or reduce bone loss and the incidence of several common diseases associated with aging. (frontiersin.org)
  • A better understanding of the process that enables these cancer cells to remodel bone may aid in the search for new therapies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Tumor cells metastasized into bone modify the activity of these cells and, depending on the type of cancer , cause osteoblastic or osteolytic changes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • If we can figure out how prostate cancer cells alter the environment inside bone to induce this osteoblastic process, we can start to identify new therapeutic targets. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To accomplish this, the researchers looked for differences between bone-forming prostate cancer cells and bone-resorbing breast cancer cells . (medicalxpress.com)
  • To examine whether the bone marrow provides stem cells to damaged glomeruli, transgenic rats carrying enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP rat) were established in a systemic and constitutive manner. (asnjournals.org)
  • After transplanting the bone marrow of EGFP rats into wild-type rats, the progeny of the transplanted marrow cells were tracked with a tag of EGFP. (asnjournals.org)
  • Recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells into glomeruli was dramatically facilitated in response to mesangiolysis evoked in anti-Thy1 antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. (asnjournals.org)
  • In the restored glomeruli, 11% to 12% of glomerular cells were derived from the transplanted bone marrow. (asnjournals.org)
  • The number of bone marrow-derived CD45 + cells transiently increased during the disease process, and CD45-negative cells constantly accounted for more than half of the bone marrow-derived population in glomeruli. (asnjournals.org)
  • Bone marrow-derived Thy1 + cells kept increasing in number until the remodeling ceased and finally made up 7% to 8% of glomerular cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Laser scanning microscopy displayed that the bone marrow-derived Thy1 + cells provide structural support for glomerular capillaries, which indicates that they are mesangial cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Although CD45 − Thy1 − bone marrow-derived cells exist during the remodeling of glomeruli, none of them expressed endothelial markers such as Factor VIII and RECA1 as long as they were tested. (asnjournals.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing in the bone marrow (BM) accumulate during aging but are functionally impaired. (csic.es)
  • Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction refers to neuro-hormonal and genetic regulatory mechanisms activated by inflammatory cytokines causing changes in quality of cell morphology and functions of myocardial cells [ 3 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Considerable evidence supports the roles of immune cells of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and dental pulp during the remodelling process. (uib.no)
  • This interaction between bone remodeling cells and hormones creates the opportunity for a multitude of pathophysiological consequences. (statpearls.com)
  • Osteoclast cells cause bone resorption and originate from a hematopoietic lineage, which includes a variety of blood cell types from within the bone marrow. (statpearls.com)
  • These cells use a combination of lysosomal enzymes and hydrogen ions to break down the bone matrix. (statpearls.com)
  • Remodeling is initiated by damage producing osteocyte apoptosis, which signals the location of damage via the osteocyte-canalicular system to endosteal lining cells that form the canopy of a bone remodeling compartment (BRC). (begellhouse.com)
  • Adult bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) exhibit a Sca-1 + /Lin - /CD45 - phenotype and can differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Bone marrow actually stimulates the bone marrow cells, and the processes involved cause the new bone to be made. (drsojodi.com)
  • These responses result in local recruitment of osteoclast precursor cells and mature osteoclasts to initiate bone resorption. (medscape.com)
  • I keep having this vision in my head of my bones on a microscopic level building cells and having strands of 20 cells thick new bone, that I try to run on and subsequently break. (isaiahjanzen.com)
  • We discuss their function, the different types of bones in the human body, and the cells that are involved. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We also saw how estrogen regulates this process by helping osteoclasts die (apoptosis) as they complete their jobs of resorption, thereby maintaining the ratio between these two bone workhorse cells. (liftingtones.com)
  • Biost is a bone protomorphogen (nucleic protein molecule of bone cells). (liftingtones.com)
  • The periosteum consists of an outer fibrous layer which protects the bones and provides attachment for the tendons and the ligaments, and it also has an inner cellular layer which houses progenitor stem cells. (osmosis.org)
  • These progenitor stem cells develop into both osteoblasts which secrete the bone matrix, and chondroblasts - which produce cartilage. (osmosis.org)
  • In the center of every osteon is a Haversian canal, which contains the blood supply and innervation for the bone cells. (osmosis.org)
  • That's where we find the hematopoietic stem cells, the blood-making cells of the bone marrow, which give rise to the lymphoid progenitor cells - which mature and differentiate into lymphocytes like T and B cells , the main cells involved in your adaptive immunity, and the myeloid progenitor cells, which differentiate into red blood cells, platelets , and myeloblasts - the progenitors of basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. (osmosis.org)
  • When RANK-L activates these receptors the cells fuse and differentiate into mature multinucleared osteoclasts which develop a ruffled border and resorb bone. (washington.edu)
  • The final osteoblasts turn into lining cells which participate in the minute-to-minute release of calcium from the bones. (washington.edu)
  • This is the first study aiming to assess the contribution of NDRG1 to differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, which has important implications for bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Differentiation of bone marrow (BM) cells into osteoclasts, M1/M2-type macrophages and dendritic cells was all impaired. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that NDRG1 deficiency attenuates the differentiation of macrophage lineage cells, suppressing bone remodeling and inflammatory angiogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells , store minerals , provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility . (wikipedia.org)
  • Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone is not uniformly solid, but consists of a flexible matrix (about 30%) and bound minerals (about 70%) which are intricately woven and endlessly remodeled by a group of specialized bone cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The columns are metabolically active, and as bone is reabsorbed and created the nature and location of the cells within the osteon will change. (wikipedia.org)
  • This keeps the bone and its cells healthy and strong, and allows the bones to supply calcium to the body. (aaos.org)
  • In adults, it helps maintain bone mass and calcium homeostasis. (jove.com)
  • This lesson will define the role of bone remodeling in maintaining homeostasis in the body. (sophia.org)
  • These studies have identified several central neuropeptide pathways that stimulate well-defined changes in bone cell activity in response to changes in energy homeostasis. (garvan.org.au)
  • The second movie shows this process on a larger section of bone where at least ten places are getting remodelled. (washington.edu)
  • Thus bone remodeling is not just occasional "repair of bone damage" but rather an active, continual process that is always happening in a healthy body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have known for some time that bone resorption - the process by which bone minerals are broken down - operates on a circadian rhythm, peaking during the night and decreasing over the course of the day. (endocrineweb.com)
  • In the past years, many attempts have been made in order to model the process of bone remodeling. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Haversian remodelling is a stepwise process in which capillary loops burrow through old bone, led by a 'cutting cone' of osteoclasts that dissolve old bone and followed by osteoblasts that replace it. (biologists.org)
  • The bone remodeling process around dental implants has been simulated in a number of studies using a variety of models. (eurekaselect.com)
  • If excessive CF is applied, root resorption may be an unwanted complication of the bone remodelling process. (uib.no)
  • In the in vitro studies (Papers II and III), HOBs were used to study the initial effects of varying magnitudes of CF on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of molecules involved in inflammation and the bone remodelling process. (uib.no)
  • The main purpose of remodeling is to meet its mechanical demands, suggesting that mechanical forces are among the most potent factors that influence this process [ 1 ]. (tmdocclusion.com)
  • In my last post we considered the process of bone remodeling. (liftingtones.com)
  • By the way, there's plenty of calcium in the blood stream just from the process of bone resorption, if you stop to think about it. (liftingtones.com)
  • Now in bone remodeling, the process begins when osteoblasts sense micro cracks at their location, like when your bones are bearing much weight. (osmosis.org)
  • The bone vasculature can further modify bone cellular activity via modifications in bone interstitial fluid flow and pressure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Subsequent to appropriate signaling, osteoclasts move to resorb the surface of the bone, followed by deposition of bone by osteoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model considers that osteoclasts primarily resorb those parts of bone closer to the surface, which are younger and less mineralized than older inner ones. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The mature osteoclasts resorb bone by forming a space on the matrix surface and secreting hydrogen ions and cathepsin into the space. (washington.edu)
  • In other words, what this formula means is that the bone remodeling period is equivalent to the thickness of the microscopic segment of bone being formed divided by the rate at which it forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell types are situated within the bone matrix and occupy microscopic spaces called lacuna. (statpearls.com)
  • Compact bone fatigue damage:​ a microscopic examination. (lievers.net)
  • We've spent hundreds of hours researching and comparing Nasal Bone Remodeling of all specifications to find the best one for any need (or budget). (macgregor26.com)
  • Genome-wide DNA methylation study identifies significant epigenomic changes in osteoarthritic subchondral bone and similarity to overlying cartilage. (springer.com)
  • The preceding chapter provided a general description of the structure and biology of bone and cartilage. (springer.com)
  • Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterised by cartilage degradation and bone lesions. (bmj.com)
  • Subchondral bone may be involved in the pathogenesis of cartilage matrix breakdown. (bmj.com)
  • 0.05) despite the reduction of bone resorption and of the expression of cartilage proteases in both genotypes. (bmj.com)
  • Immobilization of humans causes loss of bone and excretion of calcium and phosphorus (4.1.10). (biology-online.org)
  • In the human body at birth, there are over 270 bones, [1] but many of these fuse together during development, leaving a total of 206 separate bones in the adult, [2] not counting numerous small sesamoid bones . (wikipedia.org)
  • PTH has an indirect action on the osteoclasts by increasing the activity of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa ligand (RANKL), which regulates the osteoclastic activity of bone resorption and leads to more calcium released into the plasma. (statpearls.com)
  • Mutations and modulation of these pathways, in cases such as leptin deficiency, induce marked bone phenotypes, which have provided vital insights into central bone regulation. (garvan.org.au)
  • And, reduced bone iron content may not be totally caused by TfR1-dependent pathways. (springer.com)
  • Lee TC, Staines A, Taylor D. Bone adaptation to load:​ microdamage as a stimulus for bone remodelling. (lievers.net)
  • All of these are important processes, but in this chapter we focus on remodeling, for two reasons. (springer.com)
  • It starts with a summary of the most important biological processes taking place during bone regeneration, and subsequently discusses the modelling efforts that have been undertaken in this research domain hitherto. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bone remodeling is the combined processes of bone deposition and resorption. (osmosis.org)
  • 1 Department of Pathology, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294-0007, USA. (nih.gov)
  • V-Bone also enables in silico perturbation on a specific signaling molecule to observe bone metabolic dynamics over time. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also demonstrate that this platform provides a powerful way to predict in silico therapeutic effects of drugs against metabolic bone diseases. (sciencemag.org)
  • Metabolic bone disease (MBD) in CKD encompasses altered bone remodeling and the propensity for vascular calcification. (inclinicaltrials.com)
  • Karasik D, Rivadeneira F, Johnson ML. The genetics of bone mass and susceptibility to bone diseases. (springer.com)
  • We review the major diseases of bone remodeling, emphasizing our current understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • The present review provides an overview of all known to-date inflammatory or bone remodeling responses of CDTs produced by various bacterial species, and discusses their potential contribution to the pathogenesis of the associated diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • This regulatory axis may be promising as a therapeutic target in diseases affecting OC-dependent bone remodeling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may be therapeutic in various diseases, but their use causes birth defects and is detrimental to growing bones or the repair of injured bones. (sciencemag.org)
  • These advances have also accelerated the development of molecularly targeted drugs against bone diseases ( 10 - 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • New approaches to diagnose and treat dental diseases that involve destruction of jaw bones and the roots of teeth are urgently needed. (grantome.com)
  • In a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) report the discovery of an RNA molecule that may play a key role in bone restructuring caused by prostate cancer (Fig.1). (medicalxpress.com)
  • SLIT3 is produced by mature osteoclasts, whereas the critical bone actions of SEMA3a originate from nerves. (jci.org)
  • We learned how bones grow, are sculpted by modeling and continuously renewed by remodeling, and repair themselves when fractured. (springer.com)
  • In this Technology Brief, we demonstrate the Abaqus/Standard implementation of one of the leading bone re-modeling algorithms. (imechanica.org)
  • Since vascular etiology of bone disease is poorly understood and understudied, this research topic is designed to coalesce information regarding the mechanisms by which the bone vascular network modulates bone mass and (re)modeling in health and disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bone modeling adapts structure to loading by changing bone size and shape and removes damage and so maintains bone strength. (begellhouse.com)
  • Mathematical modeling and numerical solutions for functionally dependent bone remodeling. (lievers.net)