Bone and Bones
Bone Marrow Cells
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Alveolar Bone Loss
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7
Bone Marrow Neoplasms
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
Bone Demineralization Technique
Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal
Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6
Giant Cell Tumor of Bone
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Bone Marrow Purging
Collagen Type I
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Bone Demineralization, Pathologic
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I
Disease Models, Animal
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors
Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit
Bones of Upper Extremity
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1
Prostheses and Implants
Finite Element Analysis
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
Graft vs Host Disease
22-oxacalcitriol suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism without inducing low bone turnover in dogs with renal failure. (1/1457)BACKGROUND: Calcitriol therapy suppresses serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with renal failure but has several drawbacks, including hypercalcemia and/or marked suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to adynamic bone disease. A new vitamin D analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), has been shown to have promising characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCT on serum PTH levels and bone turnover in states of normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: Sixty dogs were either nephrectomized (Nx, N = 38) or sham-operated (Sham, N = 22). The animals received supplemental phosphate to enhance PTH secretion. Fourteen weeks after the start of phosphate supplementation, half of the Nx and Sham dogs received doses of OCT (three times per week); the other half were given vehicle for 60 weeks. Thereafter, the treatment modalities for a subset of animals were crossed over for an additional eight months. Biochemical and hormonal indices of calcium and bone metabolism were measured throughout the study, and bone biopsies were done at baseline, 60 weeks after OCT or vehicle treatment, and at the end of the crossover period. RESULTS: In Nx dogs, OCT significantly decreased serum PTH levels soon after the induction of renal insufficiency. In long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, OCT (0.03 microg/kg) stabilized serum PTH levels during the first months. Serum PTH levels rose thereafter, but the rise was less pronounced compared with baseline than the rise seen in Nx control. These effects were accompanied by episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. In animals with normal renal function, OCT induced a transient decrease in serum PTH levels at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, which was not sustained with lowering of the doses. In Nx dogs, OCT reversed abnormal bone formation, such as woven osteoid and fibrosis, but did not significantly alter the level of bone turnover. In addition, OCT improved mineralization lag time, (that is, the rate at which osteoid mineralizes) in both Nx and Sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though OCT does not completely prevent the occurrence of hypercalcemia in experimental dogs with renal insufficiency, it may be of use in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism because it does not induce low bone turnover and, therefore, does not increase the risk of adynamic bone disease. (+info)
Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (2/1457)Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer. (+info)
Diurnal variation and age differences in the biochemical markers of bone turnover in horses. (3/1457)Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide sensitive, rapid, and noninvasive monitoring of bone resorption and formation. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) reflect rates of bone formation, and urinary concentrations of the pyridinium crosslinks pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) are specific and sensitive markers of bone resorption. These markers are age-dependent and are used to detect and monitor changes in the rates of bone turnover in a variety of orthopedic diseases in humans and may prove to have similar application in horses. This study examined age differences and diurnal variation in OC, Pyd, and Dpd in eight adult geldings and seven weanling colts. Blood and urine were collected at regular intervals over 24 h. Serum OC and cortisol, and urinary Pyd and Dpd were analyzed. Mean 24-h concentrations of cortisol and all three markers were higher (P<.003) in weanlings than adults. Significant 24-h variation was observed in adult gelding OC, Pyd, and Dpd concentrations (P< .02). Adult OC concentrations were highest between 2400 and 0900; Pyd and Dpd peaked between 0200 and 0800. Similar patterns of bone turnover were observed in weanling values, but they were not significant (P>.17) owing to greater variability between individuals. Cortisol secretion varied (P<.001) over 24 h in both adults and weanlings and, thus, did not seem to be responsible for greater variability in markers of bone turnover between weanlings. These data demonstrate that diurnal rhythms exist for serum OC and urinary Pyd and Dpd in adult horses, as reported in humans, and that sample timing is an important consideration in future equine studies using these markers. (+info)
The associations of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in pre- and perimenopausal women. (4/1457)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Caucasian women ages 28-48 years with newly defined osteoarthritis (OA) would have greater bone mineral density (BMD) and less bone turnover over time than would women without OA. METHODS: Data were derived from the longitudinal Michigan Bone Health Study. Period prevalence and 3-year incidence of OA were based on radiographs of the dominant hand and both knees, scored with the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scale. OA scores were related to BMD, which was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to serum osteocalcin levels, which were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The period prevalence of OA (K/L grade > or =2 in the knees or the dominant hand) was 15.3% (92 of 601), with 8.7% for the knees and 6.7% for the hand. The 3-year incidence of knee OA was 1.9% (9 of 482) and of hand OA was 3.3% (16 of 482). Women with incident knee OA had greater average BMD (z-scores 0.3-0.8 higher for the 3 BMD sites) than women without knee OA (P < 0.04 at the femoral neck). Women with incident knee OA had less change in their average BMD z-scores over the 3-year study period. Average BMD z-scores for women with prevalent knee OA were greater (0.4-0.7 higher) than for women without knee OA (P < 0.002 at all sites). There was no difference in average BMD z-scores or their change in women with and without hand OA. Average serum osteocalcin levels were lower in incident cases of hand OA (>60%; P = 0.02) or knee OA (20%; P not significant). The average change in absolute serum osteocalcin levels was not as great in women with incident hand OA or knee OA as in women without OA (P < 0.02 and P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Women with radiographically defined knee OA have greater BMD than do women without knee OA and are less likely to lose that higher level of BMD. There was less bone turnover among women with hand OA and/or knee OA. These findings suggest that bone-forming cells might show a differential response in OA of the hand and knee, and may suggest a different pathogenesis of hand OA and knee OA. (+info)
A prospective study of bone loss and turnover after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: effect of calcium supplementation with or without calcitonin. (5/1457)Transplantation of solid organs including heart, kidney, and liver is associated with rapid bone loss and increased rate of fracture; data on bone marrow transplantation recipients (BMT) are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude, timing, and mechanism of bone loss following allogeneic BMT, and to study whether bone loss can be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin. Sixty-nine patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for malignant blood diseases were enrolled into the study. Forty-four (22 women, 22 men) completed 6 months, and 36 patients 1 year follow-up. They were randomized to receive either no additional treatment (n = 22), or oral calcium 1 g twice daily for 12 months (n = 12) or the same dose of calcium plus intranasal calcitonin 400 IU/day for the first month and then 200 IU/day for 11 months (n = 10). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and three femoral sites (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's triangle) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover rate was followed with markers of bone formation and resorption (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I procollagen carboxyterminal (PICP) and aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), serum type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP)). Serum testosterone was assayed in men. Calcium with or without calcitonin had no effect on bone loss or bone markers; consequently the three study groups were combined. During the first 6 post-transplant months BMD decreased by 5.7% in the lumbar spine and by 6.9% to 8.7% in the three femoral sites (P < 0.0001 for all); no significant further decline occured between 6 and 12 months. Four out of 25 assessable patients experienced vertebral compression fractures. Markers of bone formation reduced: B-ALP by 20% at 3 weeks (P = 0.027), PICP by 40% (P < 0.0001) and PINP by 63% at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001), with a return to baseline by 6 months. The marker of bone resorption, serum ICTP was above normal throughout the whole observation period, with a peak at 6 weeks (77% above baseline, P < 0.0001). In male patients serum testosterone decreased reaching a nadir (57% below baseline) at 6 weeks (P = 0.0003). In conclusion, significant bone loss occurs after BMT. It results from imbalance between reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption; hypogonadism may be a contributing factor in men. Bone loss can not be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin. (+info)
Host modulation as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of periodontal disease. (6/1457)Specific microorganisms initiate the immunoinflammatory processes that destroy tissue in periodontitis. Recent work has demonstrated, in addition to bacterial control, that modulation of the host immunoinflammatory response is also capable of controlling periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) destroy collagen and other matrix components, and the osteoclastic bone remodeling determines the periodontal bone response to a bacterial challenge. Other components of the biology, including cytokines and prostanoids, regulate MMPs and bone remodeling and are also involved in regulating the production of defensive elements, such as antibody. Agents directed at blocking MMPs or osteoclastic activity are effective in reducing periodontitis. Agents that inhibit prostaglandin E2 and selective blockage of specific cytokines have also been effective. Improved knowledge of bacterium-host interactions and of the processes leading to tissue destruction will help to identify targets for host modulation to reduce periodontitis in selected situations. (+info)
The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective. (7/1457)The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error. (+info)
Effects of single and concurrent intermittent administration of human PTH (1-34) and incadronate on cancellous and cortical bone of femoral neck in ovariectomized rats. (8/1457)The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of concurrent treatment with human parathyroid hormone, hPTH (1-34), and bisphosphonate (incadronate) in augmenting cortical and cancellous bone mass of femoral neck in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty-eight 11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups (six animals in each group). The baseline control group was killed at the beginning of the experiment, at 11 weeks of age. An ovariectomy was performed in thirty rats and twelve rats were subjected to a sham surgery. OVX rats were untreated for the first four weeks of postsurgery to allow for the development of moderate osteopenia. These animals were then subjected to various treatments with either PTH, incadronate, or PTH+ incadronate for a period of 4 weeks. Right proximal femora (femoral necks) were used for bone histomorphometry. After OVX 8 weeks, there was a significant decrease in cancellous bone mass and cortical bone area of femoral neck in the OVX rats when compared to the sham control rats. In OVX rats treated with PTH alone or PTH+ incadronate were completely restored lost cancellous and cortical bone mass of femoral neck by increase bone formation. The bone formation parameters (OS/ BS, MS/BS) and bone turnover (BFR/BV) seen with PTH plus incadronate were similar to those seen with PTH treatment alone. This indicates that incadronate did not blunt the anabolic action of PTH when used concurrently. Our results suggest the followings: 1) the femoral neck of OVX rats is a suitable sample site for preclinical studies of the prevention of bone loss induced by estrogen depletion; 2) concurrent use of incadronate did not blunt the anabolic effect of PTH; 3) concurrent treatment showed the best results in restoring cancellous and cortical bone mass; and 4) it had additional benefits for bone strength independent of that achieved by the increase in bone mass. (+info)
There are several factors that can contribute to bone resorption, including:
1. Hormonal changes: Hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin can regulate bone resorption. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to excessive bone resorption.
2. Aging: As we age, our bones undergo remodeling more frequently, leading to increased bone resorption.
3. Nutrient deficiencies: Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients can impair bone health and lead to excessive bone resorption.
4. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can increase bone resorption, leading to bone loss and weakening.
5. Genetics: Some genetic disorders can affect bone metabolism and lead to abnormal bone resorption.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants, can increase bone resorption.
7. Diseases: Conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and bone cancer can lead to abnormal bone resorption.
Bone resorption can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:
1. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing: This test measures the density of bone in specific areas of the body. Low BMD can indicate bone loss and excessive bone resorption.
2. X-rays and imaging studies: These tests can help identify abnormal bone growth or other signs of bone resorption.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can measure levels of certain hormones and nutrients that are involved in bone metabolism.
4. Bone biopsy: A bone biopsy can provide a direct view of the bone tissue and help diagnose conditions such as Paget's disease or bone cancer.
Treatment for bone resorption depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Medications: Bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, and other medications can help slow or stop bone resorption.
2. Diet and exercise: A healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, along with regular exercise, can help maintain strong bones.
3. Physical therapy: In some cases, physical therapy may be recommended to improve bone strength and mobility.
4. Surgery: In severe cases of bone resorption, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.
Some common types of bone neoplasms include:
* Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that grow on the surface of a bone.
* Giant cell tumors: These are benign tumors that can occur in any bone of the body.
* Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that develop in the cartilage of a bone.
* Ewing's sarcoma: This is a malignant tumor that usually occurs in the long bones of the arms and legs.
* Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
Symptoms of bone neoplasms can include pain, swelling, or deformity of the affected bone, as well as weakness or fatigue. Treatment options depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the symptoms. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
Some common types of bone diseases include:
1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle, porous bones that are prone to fracture.
2. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that causes pain and stiffness in the joints.
3. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
4. Bone cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the bones.
5. Paget's disease of bone: A condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and deformity.
6. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone and can cause brittle bones and other skeletal deformities.
7. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare condition characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone tissue.
8. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
9. Bone cysts: Fluid-filled cavities that can form in the bones and cause pain, weakness, and deformity.
10. Bone spurs: Abnormal growths of bone that can form along the edges of joints and cause pain and stiffness.
Bone diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and bone biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.
* Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone tissue, leading to fragile bones and an increased risk of fractures.
* Rickets: A vitamin D-deficient disease that causes softening of the bones in children.
* Osteomalacia: A condition similar to rickets, but affecting adults and caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium.
* Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to an imbalance in bone metabolism and an increase in bone resorption.
* Hypoparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too little PTH, leading to low levels of calcium and vitamin D and an increased risk of osteoporosis.
Bone diseases, metabolic are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to evaluate bone metabolism. Treatment depends on the specific underlying cause of the disease and may include medications, dietary changes, or surgery.
Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.
Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.
Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.
Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.
Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.
Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.
Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.
The alveolar bone is a specialized type of bone that forms the socket in which the tooth roots are embedded. It provides support and stability to the teeth and helps maintain the proper position of the teeth in their sockets. When the alveolar bone is lost, the teeth may become loose or even fall out completely.
Alveolar bone loss can be detected through various diagnostic methods such as dental X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for alveolar bone loss depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, bone grafting, or tooth extraction.
In the context of dentistry, alveolar bone loss is a common complication of periodontal disease, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums and bone. The bacteria that cause periodontal disease can lead to the destruction of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss.
In addition to periodontal disease, other factors that can contribute to alveolar bone loss include:
* Trauma or injury to the teeth or jaw
* Poorly fitting dentures or other prosthetic devices
* Infections or abscesses in the mouth
* Certain systemic diseases such as osteoporosis or cancer
Overall, alveolar bone loss is a significant issue in dentistry and can have a major impact on the health and function of the teeth and jaw. It is essential to seek professional dental care if symptoms of alveolar bone loss are present to prevent further damage and restore oral health.
There are several types of bone cysts, including:
1. Simple bone cysts: These are the most common type of bone cyst and typically occur in children and young adults. They are filled with air or fluid and do not contain any cancerous cells.
2. Angiomatous cysts: These are smaller than simple bone cysts and are usually found near the ends of long bones. They are also filled with blood vessels and do not contain any cancerous cells.
3. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts: These are similar to simple bone cysts but are larger and may be more complex in shape.
4. Multicameral bone cysts: These are larger than unicameral bone cysts and may contain multiple chambers filled with air or fluid.
5. Enchondromas: These are benign tumors that occur within the cartilage of a bone. They are usually found in the long bones of the arms and legs.
6. Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that occur in the cartilage of a bone. They are typically found in the long bones of the arms and legs.
7. Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the cartilage and bone of a joint. They are usually found near the ends of long bones.
8. Malignant bone cysts: These are rare and can be cancerous. They may occur in any bone of the body and can be aggressive, spreading quickly to other areas of the body.
The symptoms of bone cysts can vary depending on their size and location. They may cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. In some cases, they may also lead to fractures or deformities.
Diagnosis of bone cysts usually involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible conditions.
Treatment for bone cysts depends on their size, location, and severity. Small, asymptomatic cysts may not require any treatment, while larger cysts may need to be drained or surgically removed. In some cases, medication such as bisphosphonates may be used to help reduce the risk of fractures.
In conclusion, bone cysts are abnormalities that can occur in any bone of the body. They can be benign or malignant and can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size and location. Diagnosis is usually made through imaging tests, and treatment may involve observation, draining, or surgical removal.
There are several types of osteoporosis, including:
1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.
The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:
1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test
The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.
Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:
1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.
1. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the immune system, often involving the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
3. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): A group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
5. Osteopetrosis: A rare genetic disorder that causes an overgrowth of bone, leading to a thickened bone marrow.
6. Bone marrow failure: A condition where the bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and other complications.
7. Myelofibrosis: A condition characterized by the scarring of the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
8. Polycythemia vera: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
9. Essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of platelets, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
10. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of rare blood disorders that are characterized by the overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
These are just a few examples of bone marrow diseases. There are many other conditions that can affect the bone marrow, and each one can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a bone marrow disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform tests and provide a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.
These tumors can cause a variety of symptoms such as pain, swelling, and weakness in the affected area. Treatment options for bone marrow neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.
Here are some examples of bone marrow neoplasms:
1. Osteosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the bone-forming cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in children and young adults.
2. Chondrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the cartilage-forming cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in older adults.
3. Myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow. These cells produce antibodies to fight infections, but with myeloma, the abnormal plasma cells produce excessive amounts of antibodies that can cause a variety of symptoms.
4. Ewing's sarcoma: A rare malignant tumor that arises from immature nerve cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in children and young adults.
5. Askin's tumor: A rare malignant tumor that arises from the fat cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in older adults.
These are just a few examples of the many types of bone marrow neoplasms that can occur. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms that may indicate a bone marrow neoplasm, such as pain or swelling in the affected area, fatigue, fever, or weight loss. A healthcare professional can perform diagnostic tests to determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Surgery is often necessary to treat bone cysts, aneurysmal, and the type of surgery will depend on the size and location of the cyst. The goal of surgery is to remove the cyst and any associated damage to the bone. In some cases, the bone may need to be repaired or replaced with a prosthetic.
Bone cysts, aneurysmal are relatively rare and account for only about 1% of all bone tumors. They can occur in people of any age but are most commonly seen in children and young adults. Treatment is usually successful, but there is a risk of complications such as infection or nerve damage.
Bone cysts, aneurysmal are also known as bone aneurysmal cysts or BACs. They are different from other types of bone cysts, such as simple bone cysts or fibrous dysplasia, which have a different cause and may require different treatment.
Overall, the prognosis for bone cysts, aneurysmal is generally good if they are treated promptly and effectively. However, there is always a risk of complications, and ongoing follow-up with a healthcare provider is important to monitor for any signs of recurrence or further problems.
The hallmark of GCTB is its large size, with tumors often measuring several centimeters in diameter. The tumor cells are giant cells, which are larger than normal osteoblasts, and they have a distinctive "salt and pepper" appearance under the microscope due to the mixture of light and dark-staining cytoplasmic granules.
The clinical presentation of GCTB varies depending on the location and size of the tumor. Large tumors can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. Smaller tumors may not cause any symptoms and may be incidentally discovered on imaging studies performed for other reasons.
GCTB is a slow-growing tumor, and the exact cause of its development is unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in some cases, but the exact mechanisms underlying GCTB remain unclear. Treatment options for GCTB include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and the patient's overall health.
In conclusion, giant cell tumor of bone is a rare and benign bone tumor that can occur in any bone of the body. It is characterized by its large size and distinctive histopathological features. Treatment options vary depending on the size and location of the tumor and the patient's overall health.
Osteolysis can be caused by several factors, including:
1. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infections can cause osteolysis by secreting enzymes that break down bone tissue.
2. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can lead to the destruction of bone tissue, causing osteolysis.
3. Tumors: Malignant tumors like multiple myeloma or osteosarcoma can cause osteolysis by producing enzymes that destroy bone tissue.
4. Degenerative conditions: Conditions like osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Paget's disease can lead to osteolysis due to the gradual breakdown of bone tissue.
Symptoms of osteolysis may include:
1. Bone pain or tenderness
2. Fractures or fracture risk
3. Limited mobility or stiffness in affected joints
4. Swelling or redness in the affected area
5. Difficulty healing from injuries or infections
Treatment for osteolysis depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Antibiotics to treat infections
2. Pain management with medication or physical therapy
3. Surgery to repair or replace damaged bone tissue
4. Orthotics or assistive devices to support affected joints
5. Medications to slow down or stop bone loss, such as bisphosphonates or denosumab
In conclusion, osteolysis is a condition where there is a gradual loss or destruction of bone tissue, leading to a decrease in bone density and structural integrity. It can be caused by various factors, including infection, inflammation, tumors, and degenerative conditions. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain management, surgery, orthotics, and medications to slow down or stop bone loss.
During menopause, the levels of estrogen in the body decrease significantly, which can lead to a loss of bone density and an increased risk of developing osteoporosis. Other risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis include:
* Family history of osteoporosis
* Early menopause (before age 45)
* Poor diet or inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake
* Sedentary lifestyle or lack of exercise
* Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants
* Other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver or kidney disease.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, which can determine the density of bones and detect any loss of bone mass. Treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis typically involve a combination of medications and lifestyle changes, such as:
* Bisphosphonates, which help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can help to replace the estrogen that is lost during menopause and improve bone density
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which mimic the effects of estrogen on bone density but have fewer risks than HRT
* RANK ligand inhibitors, which can help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues, which can help to increase bone density and improve bone quality.
It is important for women to discuss their individual risks and benefits with their healthcare provider when determining the best course of treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding substances that can harm bone health (such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption) can also help to manage the condition.
Examples of infectious bone diseases include:
1. Osteomyelitis: This is a bacterial infection of the bone that can cause pain, swelling, and fever. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Bacterial arthritis: This is an infection of the joints that can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness. It is often caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes.
3. Tuberculosis: This is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect the bones.
4. Pyogenic infections: These are infections caused by Pus-forming bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause osteomyelitis and other bone infections.
5. Fungal infections: These are infections caused by fungi such as Aspergillus or Candida that can infect the bones and cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
6. Viral infections: Some viral infections such as HIV, HTLV-1, and HTLV-2 can cause bone infections like osteomyelitis.
7. Mycobacterial infections: These are infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect the bones.
8. Lyme disease: This is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi that can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
9. Endometriosis: This is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus and can cause pain, inflammation, and bone damage.
10. Bone cancer: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the bones and can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
These are just some of the possible causes of bone pain, and it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The exact cause of Osteitis Deformans is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition typically affects people over the age of 50, and is more common in men than women.
The symptoms of Osteitis Deformans can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Pain in the affected bone, which can be aching or sharp
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the affected joint
* Deformity of the bone, such as curvature or thickening
* Fatigue and tiredness
* Increased risk of fractures
The diagnosis of Osteitis Deformans is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and blood tests to rule out other conditions.
There is no cure for Osteitis Deformans, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. Treatment options may include:
* Pain medication
* Physical therapy to maintain mobility and strength
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected bone
* Surgery to correct deformities or repair fractures
* Medications to prevent or treat complications such as osteoporosis.
It is important for individuals with Osteitis Deformans to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and maintain a good quality of life. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with Osteitis Deformans are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
In the medical field, pathologic bone demineralization is often diagnosed through tests such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which measure bone mineral density (BMD), and bone biopsy, which examines bone tissue samples for signs of mineral loss. Treatment options may include addressing underlying causes, hormone replacement therapy, medications to increase bone density, and lifestyle modifications such as exercise and a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.
In summary, pathologic bone demineralization is a condition where there is an abnormal loss of minerals from the bones, leading to weakened bones and an increased risk of fractures. It can occur due to various underlying causes, and is diagnosed through tests such as DXA scans and bone biopsy. Treatment options include addressing underlying causes, hormone replacement therapy, medications to increase bone density, and lifestyle modifications.
The term "osteomyelitis" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "myelitis," meaning inflammation of the spinal cord. The condition is caused by an infection that spreads to the bone from another part of the body, such as a skin wound or a urinary tract infection.
There are several different types of osteomyelitis, including:
1. Acute osteomyelitis: This type of infection occurs suddenly and can be caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Chronic osteomyelitis: This type of infection develops slowly over time and is often caused by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
3. Pyogenic osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by bacteria that enter the body through a skin wound or other opening.
4. Tubercular osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is often associated with tuberculosis.
Symptoms of osteomyelitis can include fever, chills, fatigue, swelling, redness, and pain in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to fight the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone.
Preventing osteomyelitis involves taking steps to avoid infections altogether, such as practicing good hygiene, getting vaccinated against certain diseases, and seeking medical attention promptly if an infection is suspected.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
The word "osteomalacia" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "malakos," meaning soft. It was first used in the medical literature in the early 20th century to describe a condition that was previously known as "rachitic osteomalacia."
The symptoms of osteomalacia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include bone pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, and an increased risk of fractures. Diagnosis is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or bone scans.
Treatment of osteomalacia depends on the underlying cause, but may include vitamin D and calcium supplements, avoidance of aluminum-containing antacids, and management of any underlying disorders that are contributing to the condition. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.
Preventing osteomalacia involves maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D and calcium in the body, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and managing any underlying medical conditions that can contribute to the condition. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications such as fractures and improve quality of life for individuals with osteomalacia.
There are several types of osteosclerosis, including:
1. Juvenile osteosclerosis: A rare condition that affects children and adolescents, characterized by abnormal bone growth and development.
2. Paget's disease of bone: A chronic disorder that causes enlarged and deformed bones due to excessive bone resorption and formation.
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder characterized by brittle bones, blue sclerae, and other physical abnormalities.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, leading to an overgrowth of bone tissue.
5. Chronic kidney disease: A condition in which the kidneys do not function properly, leading to an imbalance of minerals in the body that can cause bone abnormalities.
The symptoms of osteosclerosis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Limited mobility or stiffness in the joints
* Weakness or fatigue
* Fractures or breaks in the affected bone
* Abnormal bone growth or deformity
Treatment for osteosclerosis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Medications such as bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, or surgery may be recommended to manage symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. In some cases, physicians may recommend lifestyle modifications such as a balanced diet, regular exercise, and avoiding substances that can harm the bones, such as tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption.
In conclusion, osteosclerosis is a condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and hardening of the bones, which can lead to a range of symptoms and complications. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent further damage to the bones.
ROD can lead to a range of symptoms, including:
* Weakened bones and increased risk of fractures
* Tooth decay and gum disease
* Rickets-like symptoms in children
* Difficulty healing from injuries or surgery
The condition is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood and urine tests), and imaging studies (such as X-rays or bone density scans).
Treatment for ROD typically involves managing the underlying kidney disease, correcting any nutritional imbalances, and implementing measures to strengthen bones. This may include:
* Medications to lower phosphate levels and increase calcium absorption
* Dietary modifications to reduce phosphate intake and increase calcium intake
* Vitamin D and calcium supplements
* Regular exercise and weight-bearing activities to promote bone strength
In severe cases of ROD, surgical interventions may be necessary, such as bone transplantation or the use of bone-forming medications.
ROD is a serious complication of CKD that can significantly impact quality of life and increase the risk of mortality. Early detection and management are essential to prevent or delay the progression of this condition.
Heterotopic ossification can cause a range of symptoms depending on its location and severity, including pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and difficulty moving the affected limb or joint. Treatment options for heterotopic ossification include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to maintain range of motion, and in severe cases, surgical removal of the abnormal bone growth.
In medical imaging, heterotopic ossification is often diagnosed using X-rays or other imaging techniques such as CT or MRI scans. These tests can help identify the presence of bone growth in an abnormal location and determine the extent of the condition.
Overall, heterotopic ossification is a relatively rare condition that can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life if left untreated. Prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent long-term complications.
Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:
1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.
The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:
1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.
It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.
There are several types of osteosarcomas, including:
1. High-grade osteosarcoma: This is the most common type of osteosarcoma and tends to grow quickly.
2. Low-grade osteosarcoma: This type of osteosarcoma grows more slowly than high-grade osteosarcoma.
3. Chondrosarcoma: This is a type of osteosarcoma that arises in the cartilage cells of the bone.
4. Ewing's family of tumors: These are rare types of osteosarcoma that can occur in any bone of the body.
The exact cause of osteosarcoma is not known, but certain risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing the disease. These include:
1. Previous radiation exposure
2. Paget's disease of bone
3. Li-Fraumeni syndrome (a genetic disorder that increases the risk of certain types of cancer)
4. Familial retinoblastoma (a rare inherited condition)
5. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as herbicides and industrial chemicals.
Symptoms of osteosarcoma may include:
1. Pain in the affected bone, which may be worse at night or with activity
2. Swelling and redness around the affected area
3. Limited mobility or stiffness in the affected limb
4. A visible lump or mass on the affected bone
5. Fractures or breaks in the affected bone
If osteosarcoma is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the disease. These may include:
1. Imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans
2. Biopsy, in which a sample of tissue is removed from the affected bone and examined under a microscope for cancer cells
3. Blood tests to check for elevated levels of certain enzymes that are produced by osteosarcoma cells
4. Bone scans to look for areas of increased activity or metabolism in the bones.
Examples of spontaneous fractures include:
1. Pathological fractures: Fractures that occur in the presence of a bone-weakening condition such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, or bone cancer.
2. Stress fractures: Small cracks in the bone that occur due to repetitive stress or overuse, often seen in athletes or individuals engaged in high-impact activities.
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Osteoporotic fractures: Fractures that occur due to bone loss and weakening associated with osteoporosis.
5. Frailty fractures: Fractures that occur in individuals who are frail or have a low bone mineral density, often seen in older adults.
Symptoms of spontaneous fractures may include pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for these fractures depends on the underlying cause and may involve immobilization, medication, or surgery.
The word "osteopetrosis" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "petros," meaning rock or stone. This name reflects the dense and hard nature of the bones affected by the disorder.
Osteopetrosis can be caused by mutations in several genes that are involved in bone development and growth. The condition is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disorder. However, some cases may be caused by spontaneous mutations or other factors.
Symptoms of osteopetrosis can vary depending on the severity of the disorder and the specific affected bones. Common symptoms include bone pain, limited mobility, and an increased risk of fractures. Other symptoms may include fatigue, fever, and difficulty swallowing or breathing.
Treatment for osteopetrosis usually involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications such as bisphosphonates and denintuzumab mafodotin can help reduce bone pain and the risk of fractures, while surgery may be necessary to correct deformities or repair broken bones. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended to replace damaged bone marrow with healthy cells.
Overall, osteopetrosis is a rare and debilitating disorder that can have a significant impact on quality of life. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important for managing symptoms and preventing complications.
The symptoms of a femoral fracture may include:
* Severe pain in the thigh or groin area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected area
* Difficulty moving or straightening the leg
* A visible deformity or bone protrusion
Femoral fractures are typically diagnosed through X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment for these types of fractures may involve immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or in some cases, surgical plate and screws or rods may be used to hold the bone in place as it heals.
In addition to surgical intervention, patients may also require physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg after a femoral fracture.
Tibial fractures can range in severity from minor cracks or hairline breaks to more severe breaks that extend into the bone's shaft or even the joint. Treatment for these injuries often involves immobilization of the affected leg with a cast, brace, or walking boot, as well as pain management with medication and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments.
There are different types of osteitis, including:
1. Osteitis fibrosa: A benign condition characterized by the formation of fibrous tissue in the bone, which can cause pain and stiffness.
2. Osteitis multiformis: A chronic condition that causes multiple areas of bone inflammation, often seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.
3. Osteitis pseudogout: A condition characterized by the deposition of crystals in the bone, which can cause episodes of sudden and severe joint pain.
4. Osteitis suppurativa: A chronic condition characterized by recurring abscesses or pockets of pus in the bone, often seen in patients with a history of skin infections.
Symptoms of osteitis can include pain, swelling, redness and warmth over the affected area. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for infection, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgical intervention to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.
Femoral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the femur, which is the longest bone in the human body and runs from the hip joint to the knee joint. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their impact on the affected individual can range from minimal to severe.
Types of Femoral Neoplasms:
There are several types of femoral neoplasms, including:
1. Osteosarcoma: This is a type of primary bone cancer that originates in the femur. It is rare and tends to affect children and young adults.
2. Chondrosarcoma: This is another type of primary bone cancer that arises in the cartilage cells of the femur. It is more common than osteosarcoma and affects mostly older adults.
3. Ewing's Sarcoma: This is a rare type of bone cancer that can occur in any bone, including the femur. It typically affects children and young adults.
4. Giant Cell Tumor: This is a benign tumor that occurs in the bones, including the femur. While it is not cancerous, it can cause significant symptoms and may require surgical treatment.
Symptoms of Femoral Neoplasms:
The symptoms of femoral neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. Common symptoms include:
1. Pain: Patients with femoral neoplasms may experience pain in the affected leg, which can be worse with activity or weight-bearing.
2. Swelling: The affected limb may become swollen due to fluid accumulation or the growth of the tumor.
3. Limited mobility: Patients may experience limited mobility or stiffness in the affected joint due to pain or swelling.
4. Fracture: In some cases, femoral neoplasms can cause a fracture or weakening of the bone, which can lead to further complications.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Femoral Neoplasms:
The diagnosis of femoral neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies and biopsy. Imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, can help identify the location and extent of the tumor. A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor.
Treatment for femoral neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include:
1. Observation: Small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular imaging studies to ensure that they do not grow or change over time.
2. Surgery: Many femoral neoplasms can be treated with surgery to remove the tumor and any affected bone tissue. In some cases, this may involve removing a portion of the femur or replacing it with a prosthetic implant.
3. Radiation therapy: This may be used in combination with surgery to treat more aggressive tumors or those that have spread to other areas of the body.
4. Chemotherapy: This may also be used in combination with surgery and radiation therapy to treat more aggressive tumors or those that have spread to other areas of the body.
5. Targeted therapy: This is a type of chemotherapy that targets specific molecules involved in the growth and progression of the tumor. Examples include denintuzumab mafodotin, which targets a protein called B-cell CD19, and olaratumab, which targets a protein called platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-alpha).
6. Immunotherapy: This is a type of treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer. Examples include pembrolizumab and nivolumab, which are checkpoint inhibitors that work by blocking proteins on T cells that prevent them from attacking cancer cells.
The prognosis for patients with femoral neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with benign tumors than those with malignant ones. However, even for patients with malignant tumors, there are many treatment options available, and the prognosis can vary depending on the specifics of the case.
It's important to note that these are general treatment options and the best course of treatment will depend on the specifics of each individual case. Patients should discuss their diagnosis and treatment options with their healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate course of action for their specific situation.
Also known as nonunion or malunion.
Note: This term is not intended to be used as a substitute for proper medical advice. Do you have a specific question about your condition? Please ask your healthcare provider for more information.
Some common types of mandibular diseases include:
1. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the mandible to the skull, causing pain and limited mobility in the jaw.
2. Osteomyelitis: This is a bone infection that can occur in the mandible, often as a result of trauma or infection.
3. Bone cancer: This is a malignant tumor that can develop in the mandible, often affecting the jawbone and surrounding tissues.
4. Osteogenic sarcoma: This is a type of bone cancer that typically occurs in the mandible of young adults.
5. Fibrous dysplasia: This is a developmental disorder where abnormal fibrous tissue develops in the mandible, leading to bone deformity and pain.
6. Non-odontogenic mandibular keratocyst: This is a benign cyst that can occur in the mandible, often causing pain and swelling.
7. Mandibular fracture: This is a break in the mandible that can be caused by trauma, such as a fall or a blow to the face.
8. Ameloblastoma: This is a rare benign tumor that develops in the mandible, often causing pain and swelling.
9. Pyogenic granuloma: This is a type of bacterial infection that can occur in the mandible, often causing pain and swelling.
10. Osteochondroma: This is a benign cartilage-capped bone tumor that can occur in the mandible, often causing pain and limited mobility in the jaw.
These are just a few examples of mandibular diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the mandible as well. If you are experiencing any symptoms or pain in your jaw, it is important to see a dentist or oral surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Osteonecrosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Trauma or injury to the bone
* Blood vessel disorders, such as blood clots or inflammation
* Certain medications, such as corticosteroids
* Alcohol consumption
* Avascular necrosis can also be a complication of other conditions, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and sickle cell disease.
There are several risk factors for developing osteonecrosis, including:
* Previous joint surgery or injury
* Family history of osteonecrosis
* Age, as the risk increases with age
* Gender, as women are more likely to be affected than men
* Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes and alcoholism.
Symptoms of osteonecrosis can include:
* Pain in the affected joint, which may worsen over time
* Limited mobility or stiffness in the joint
* Swelling or redness in the affected area
* A grinding or cracking sensation in the joint.
To diagnose osteonecrosis, a doctor may use a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans to evaluate the bone and joint. Treatment options for osteonecrosis depend on the severity of the condition and can include:
* Conservative management with pain medication and physical therapy
* Bone grafting or surgical intervention to repair or replace the damaged bone and joint.
The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.
Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
There are different types of hyperostosis, including:
1. Hyperostosis fibrosa: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the thickening of the cortical bone, leading to a hard and firm consistency. It can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skull, spine, or long bones.
2. Hyperostosis iritis: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the iris of the eye, leading to symptoms such as vision loss, pain, and light sensitivity.
3. Hyperostosis mediastinitis: This is a rare condition where there is excessive bone growth in the mediastinum, a region between the lungs and the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
4. Hyperostosis of the sacrum: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the sacrum, a triangular bone at the base of the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as lower back pain, sciatica, and difficulty walking.
Hyperostosis can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy, or surgery to remove excess bone growth.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
There are several different types of leukemia, including:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.
Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Stress fractures can occur in any bone, but are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities (such as the femur, tibia, and fibula). They can also occur in the bones of the upper extremities (such as the humerus, ulna, and radius) and in the spine.
Symptoms of stress fractures may include pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness over the affected area. In some cases, a individual may experience a snapping or popping sensation when bending or twisting. If left untreated, stress fractures can progress to more severe fractures and lead to chronic pain, limited mobility, and other complications.
Treatment for stress fractures typically involves rest, physical therapy, and medication to manage pain and inflammation. In some cases, a brace or cast may be used to immobilize the affected area and allow it to heal. Surgery may be necessary in more severe cases or if the fracture does not heal properly with conservative treatment.
Preventing stress fractures involves taking steps to reduce the amount of repetitive stress placed on bones, such as increasing training intensity gradually, wearing proper footwear and protective gear, and incorporating strengthening exercises into one's workout routine. Proper nutrition and hydration can also help support bone health and reduce the risk of fractures.
Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.
Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.
In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.
1. Bone fractures: The most common symptom of OI is an increased risk of fractures, which can occur with minimal trauma or even without any apparent cause.
2. Dental problems: People with OI may have poorly formed teeth, tooth decay, and gum disease.
3. Short stature: Many individuals with OI are short in stature, due to the effects of chronic fractures and pain on growth and development.
4. Muscle weakness: Some people with OI may experience muscle weakness, particularly in the limbs.
5. Joint problems: OI can cause issues with joint mobility and stability, leading to arthritis and other degenerative conditions.
6. Scoliosis: Curvature of the spine is common in people with OI, which can lead to back pain and respiratory problems.
7. Blue sclerae: A distinctive feature of OI is the presence of blue-colored sclerae (the white part of the eye).
8. Other symptoms: Some people with OI may experience hearing loss, vision problems, and delayed development.
There are several types of OI, each caused by a mutation in a specific gene. The most common forms of OI are type I, type II, and type III. Type I is the mildest form and type III is the most severe. There is no cure for OI, but treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include:
1. Bracing and orthotics: To support weakened bones and improve posture.
2. Physical therapy: To maintain muscle strength and flexibility.
3. Pain management: To reduce the risk of chronic pain and improve quality of life.
4. Dental care: Regular dental check-ups and appropriate treatment to prevent tooth decay and gum disease.
5. Respiratory care: To manage breathing problems and prevent respiratory infections.
6. Monitoring for hearing loss: Regular hearing tests to detect any hearing loss and provide appropriate intervention.
7. Early intervention: To help children with OI develop skills and abilities to their full potential.
8. Genetic counseling: For families with a history of OI, to understand the risks and implications for future pregnancies.
It's important for people with OI to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper care and support, many people with OI can lead active and fulfilling lives.
In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:
1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.
In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.
The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:
* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting
There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:
* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.
Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.
Bone remodeling period
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Metabolic Imbalances and Bone Remodeling Agents in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Study in Postmenarcheal Girls - PubMed
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SH3BP2 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
Spring 2023 | National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
New Mediator of Bone Breakdown Discovered | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
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- The researchers demonstrated that this effect is mediated by the osteocytes rather than osteoclasts, the "bone-eating" cells. (nih.gov)
- Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have determined that a protein interacting with RNA molecules in cell nuclei plays a role in forming osteoclasts-cells that break down old or damaged bone tissue so it can be replaced with new bone. (nih.gov)
- Osteoclasts are a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue. (nih.gov)
- They work in balance with osteoblasts-cells that form new bone tissue to replace old tissue that osteoclasts have broken down. (nih.gov)
- The more fusions they complete, the larger osteoclasts become and the greater their ability to dissolve bone. (nih.gov)
- The number and size of osteoclasts are altered in many bone diseases and with the aging process. (nih.gov)
- The authors believe that targeting La at the surface of osteoclasts may lead to treatments for bone disorders and age-related changes in osteoclast size and number, including osteoporosis and fibrous dysplasia. (nih.gov)
- As cells called osteoclasts break down old bone, other cells called osteoblasts build new, strong bone. (arthritis.org)
- The protein is also involved in the production of osteoclasts, which are specialized cells that break down bone tissue when it is no longer needed. (medlineplus.gov)
- Osteoclasts play a central role in bone remodeling. (medlineplus.gov)
- Too much SH3BP2 protein likely increases signaling in certain cells, causing an immune reaction (inflammation) in the bones of the jaw and also triggering the production of an increased number of osteoclasts. (medlineplus.gov)
- There is a delicate balance between bone-forming cells called osteoblasts and bone-absorbing cells called osteoclasts. (nih.gov)
- Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated, but as we age, osteoclasts begin to outnumber osteoblasts and cause osteoporosis, which affects 44 million people nationwide, 68% of whom are women. (nih.gov)
- Osteoclasts are large cells uniquely designed to reabsorb bone. (nih.gov)
- Immature osteoclasts migrate to the surface of the bones, where they can be activated to become mature osteoclasts. (nih.gov)
- Only mature osteoclasts can degrade bone. (nih.gov)
- A team led by immunologist Dr. Ronald Germain at NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Dr. Masaru Ishii, a visiting fellow from Osaka University in Japan, examined the relationship between the immune system and the recruitment of osteoclasts to the bone surface. (nih.gov)
- Adding drugs into blood that activate the S1P receptor, they found, caused immature osteoclasts to migrate away from bone. (nih.gov)
- To verify whether S1P is involved in bone metabolism, the scientists compared the bone density of mice with osteoclasts lacking the S1P receptor to normal mice. (nih.gov)
- Mice missing the receptor had an increased number of osteoclasts on bone surfaces and an overall decreased bone density. (nih.gov)
- Supporting this idea, they found that activating the S1P receptor in a postmenopausal osteoporosis mouse model caused an increased number of immature osteoclasts in the blood and an increase in bone density. (nih.gov)
- Most current therapies for bone-degrading diseases target mature osteoclasts," says NIAID Director Dr. Anthony S. Fauci. (nih.gov)
- The process of remodeling involves a delicate balance between bone resorption (mediated by osteoclasts) and bone formation (mediated by osteoblasts). (vitamindwiki.com)
Balance between bone resorption1
- The central hypothesis is that sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, circadian shifts) negatively impacts bone health by altering the balance between bone resorption and bone formation and is particularly detrimental during skeletally vulnerable periods such as during and after the menopausal transition. (nih.gov)
- Aim: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), are responsible for the controlled degradation of collagen and other matrix substrates in bone and other tissues. (edu.au)
- Those receptors are present on the surface of osteocytes, the most common cell type found in mature bone tissue. (nih.gov)
- Bone tissue is continuously broken down into minerals , such as calcium , that can be reabsorbed into the blood . (bvsalud.org)
- In 2013, a group of researchers found that the tissue in the layer of bone below the cartilage - known as the subchondral bone - is reabsorbed and replaced incorrectly in patients with osteoarthritis . (bvsalud.org)
- Predicting bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in reduced bone width. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
- Predicting bone remodeling around tissue. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
- The SH3BP2 protein plays a role in transmitting chemical signals, particularly in certain immune system cells and cells involved in the replacement of old bone tissue with new bone (bone remodeling). (medlineplus.gov)
- An excess of these bone-destroying cells contributes to the abnormal breakdown of bone tissue in the upper and lower jaws. (medlineplus.gov)
- When a prosthetic implant is placed into bone tissue, a series of molecular and cellular events coordinate the formation of a structural and functional bond between the implant and the surrounding tissue-osseointegration 2 , 3 . (nature.com)
- In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) migrate to the implant surface, attach to a fibronectin framework, differentiate into osteoblasts, and produce an organic matrix that eventually mineralizes as woven bone at the tissue-implant interface via a process referred as intramembranous ossification. (nature.com)
- The researchers next used an imaging technique called 2-photon excitation microscopy to image bone tissue in a live mouse. (nih.gov)
- Bone, as a tissue comprises of 30% organic substances and 70% inorganic mineral. (vitamindwiki.com)
- The precise definition of bone density is mass of bone per unit volume of bone - exclusive of marrow and other non-bone tissue. (vitamindwiki.com)
- The bone mass thus measured seems to be "apparent" and not "true" as it measures marrow and non-bone tissue underestimating the true bone mass value. (vitamindwiki.com)
- In this study we investigated the damping capacity of bone, joint tissue, muscle, and skin using a mouse hindlimb model of enhanced loading in conjunction with finite element modeling to model bone curvature. (cdc.gov)
- Our hypothesis was that loads were primarily absorbed by the joints and muscle tissue, but that bone also contributed to damping through its compression and natural bending. (cdc.gov)
- The fat in the bone marrow is different from the subcutaneous and visceral fat and exists in two distinct populations: constitutive marrow adipose tissue (cMAT) and regulated marrow adipose tissue (rMAT). (frontiersin.org)
- Pregnancy is characterized by high bone remodeling and might be a window of susceptibility to the toxic effects of metals on bone tissue. (nih.gov)
- They are formed when several progenitor cells that originate in the bone marrow fuse together to form a large cell with multiple nuclei. (nih.gov)
- Also, when the implant inclined so that half was totally in the cortical plate and half in the marrow (in trabecular patterns), osteonal bone appeared to remodel in both areas. (elsevierpure.com)
- Actual fracture injuries to the bone include insult to the bone marrow, periosteum, and local soft tissues. (medscape.com)
- Bone marrow houses stem cells important for replenishing the immune system. (nih.gov)
- Bone marrow fat cells comprise the largest population of cells in the bone marrow cavity, a characteristic that has attracted the attention of scholars from different disciplines. (frontiersin.org)
- The perception that bone marrow adipocytes are "inert space fillers" has been broken, and currently, bone marrow fat is unanimously considered to be the third largest fat depot, after subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. (frontiersin.org)
- Bone marrow fat (BMF) acts as a metabolically active organ and plays an active role in energy storage, endocrine function, bone metabolism, and the bone metastasis of tumors. (frontiersin.org)
- Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs), as a component of the bone marrow microenvironment, influence hematopoiesis through direct contact with cells and the secretion of adipocyte-derived factors. (frontiersin.org)
- Bone marrow fat (BMF) is located in the bone marrow cavity and accounts for 70% of adult bone marrow volume. (frontiersin.org)
- Although bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs) are derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), the origin of BMAs might be heterogeneous ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Bone cavities are predominantly filled with active hematopoietic red bone marrow, the volume of which gradually decreases with age and is subsequently replaced with fat (yellow bone marrow) which gradually fills the entire marrow cavity through dynamic and reversible processes ( 10 , 15 , 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Therefore, the decrease of hematopoietic activity in bone marrow with age may be related to the accumulation of BMF. (frontiersin.org)
- 2. Determine the association between sleep loss and bone turnover and bone mineral density in older men and peri- and post-menopausal women using cross-sectional analyses of observational cohort studies. (nih.gov)
- For example, delivering low doses of irisin-sometimes called "the exercise hormone"-increase bone density and strength in mice. (nih.gov)
- Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (nih.gov)
- For example, 13 of 21 studies included in a 2016 review published in Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism identified low bone mineral density as a significant problem among people with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). (arthritis.org)
- When bones lose density they become weaker and more prone to fracture. (arthritis.org)
- Low bone density in people with inflammatory arthritis is not surprising to Stanley Cohen, MD, a practicing rheumatologist and clinical associate professor in the department of internal medicine at Southwestern Medical School in Dallas. (arthritis.org)
- It is defined as a difference between measured bone density (BMD) and the expected normal young value (YN) divided by the population standard deviation (SD). (vitamindwiki.com)
- Typically, clinical assessment of skeletal health is based on measures of bone mineral density (BMD), usually obtained using dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA), a two-dimensional, projection-based radiographic technique that measures integral BMD of both cortical and trabecular bone (areal BMD). (springer.com)
- To determine the effect of high level fluoride in drinking water on bone mineral density (BMD), thereby finding a method for screening endemic fluorosis. (fluoridealert.org)
- 2003). Bone mineral density of forearm of female residents in endemic fluorosis area. (fluoridealert.org)
- Resistance to fracture requires healthy bone mass and quality. (osti.gov)
- The new work-which may lead to new approaches for treating osteoporosis, a disease that increases the risk of bone fracture-centers on a hormone called irisin that is secreted by muscles during exercise. (nih.gov)
- Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, impaired bone quality, and a propensity to fracture. (vitamindwiki.com)
- A low bone mass therefore provides the strongest association of future risk of fracture. (vitamindwiki.com)
- With the assumption that a healthy premenopausal Caucasian woman around her twenties will have optimal bone mass, standard deviations from this reference point were created to define reduced bone mass and subsequently increased risk of fracture. (vitamindwiki.com)
- Although far from ideal, it provides the strongest association between reduced bone mass and relative future risk of fracture. (vitamindwiki.com)
- In 1994, significance of the T-score was firmly established by a landmark report by the WHO  that classified bone health as poor and at increased risk of fracture if it had a T-score 1 SD below normal (T-score -1 and lower). (vitamindwiki.com)
- The risk of fracture described by DEXA represents a "relative risk" rather than a definitive risk as it compares the bone mass of patient in question with a healthy young Caucasian woman assumed to be in the peak of her health. (vitamindwiki.com)
- Although loading can activate anabolic genes and induce bone remodeling, damping is essential for preventing traumatic bone injury and fracture. (cdc.gov)
- The techniques may provide clinically relevant information by enhancing our understanding of fracture risk and establishing the efficacy of antifracture for osteoporosis and other bone metabolic disorders. (springer.com)
- The skeleton is composed of cortical and trabecular bone, both contributing to bone strength and the resistance of bone to fracture. (springer.com)
- The strength of bone and risk of fracture are important outcomes in the study of growth and peak bone accrual, aging, postmenopausal bone loss, cancer-related bone loss, and for conditions such as diabetes, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and others. (springer.com)
- X-rays of 28 skeletal fluorosis patients revealed: "17 cases with main quantitative increase in bones, 11 cases with main quantitative decrease in bones, 5 cases with blurred bone structure, 9 cases with osteoporosis of cortical bones, 19 cases with osteosclerosis of cancellous bones, 7 cases with concave shaped vertebral bodies at both ends, 6 cases with pelvic malformation, 4 cases with false fracture, 7 cases with dysplastic bones. (fluoridealert.org)
- 24-Hour profile of serum sclerostin and its association with bone biomarkers in men. (cdc.gov)
- The purpose of this study was to determine if serum sclerostin displays rhythmicity over a 24-h interval, similar to that of other bone biomarkers. (cdc.gov)
- The only significant association identified between these four bone biomarkers was for CTX and P1NP mean 24-h metabolite levels (r = 0.65, p = 0.04). (cdc.gov)
- Studies showing that osteocytes directly remodel their perilacunar/canalicular matrix led us to hypothesize that TGF-β controls bone quality through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR). (osti.gov)
- Altogether, this study emphasizes that osteocytes are key in executing the biological control of bone quality through PLR, thereby highlighting the fundamental role of osteocyte-mediated PLR in bone homeostasis and fragility. (osti.gov)
- Thus, osteocytes mediate perilacunar/canalicular remodeling and osteoclast-directed remodeling to cooperatively maintain bone quality and mass and prevent fragility. (osti.gov)
- That action increased the survival of osteocytes, the "command and control" cells involved in bone remodeling. (nih.gov)
- In mice, osteocytes undergo a process of programmed cell death called apoptosis as they age, which can lead to osteoporosis, an age-related bone disease. (nih.gov)
- From these findings, they concluded that irisin protects osteocytes against cell death in culture and, through the induction of sclerostin production, might promote bone formation in animals. (nih.gov)
- Our results do not support the hypothesis that osteocytes direct the rhythmicity of other bone turnover markers (CTX), at least not via a sclerostinmediated mechanism. (cdc.gov)
- Using inhibitors and mice with an osteocyte-intrinsic defect in TGF-β signaling (TβRII ocy-/- ), we show that TGF-β regulates PLR in a cell-intrinsic manner to control bone quality. (osti.gov)
- Remodeling is initiated by damage producing osteocyte apoptosis, which signals the location of damage via the osteocyte-canalicular system to endosteal lining cells that form the canopy of a bone remodeling compartment (BRC). (nih.gov)
- Introduction: The osteocyte exerts important effects on bone remodeling, but its rhythmicity and effect on the rhythms of other bone cells are not fully characterized. (cdc.gov)
- Control root-form implants were apposed by woven bone, with homogenous compact bone in the cortical plate distant to the implant. (elsevierpure.com)
- Bone is recognized as a dynamic organ that is in a constant state of remodeling (approximately 10% per year). (vitamindwiki.com)
- 1. Examine the physiological mechanisms that control rhythms in bone remodeling and investigate how circadian shifts and accumulating sleep loss affect bone turnover in otherwise healthy men. (nih.gov)
- Our data suggest that the WBV can prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. (nih.gov)
- 1. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss and treatment of osteoporosis. (nih.gov)
- 11. Estrogen-dependent increase in bone turnover and bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer treated with anastrozole. (nih.gov)
- Bone remodeling is a process initiated by the osteoclast, and thus, its understanding is prerequisite to regulation of bone turnover. (wustl.edu)
- The last decade has witnessed major advances in our understanding of osteoclast biology, specifically as relates to the ontogeny of the cell and the mechanisms by which it degrades bone. (wustl.edu)
- Using these models, a number of laboratories have shown that ion transport by the osteoclast plays a major role in its ability to resorb bone. (wustl.edu)
- Furthermore, osteoclast-bone matrix attachment, mediated at least in part by integrins, is pivotal to the resorptive process. (wustl.edu)
- Teitelbaum, SL 1993, ' Bone remodeling and the osteoclast ', Journal of Bone and Mineral Research , vol. 8, no. 2 S, pp. (wustl.edu)
- An osteoclast (outlined in pink) degrading bone (green and yellow). (nih.gov)
- The researchers believe that S1P signals osteoclast precursors to leave the bone and move into the blood before they fully mature. (nih.gov)
- Controlling the migration of osteoclast precursors to restore the balance of bone homeostasis is a potential new approach to treating and preventing joint and bone diseases. (nih.gov)
- It also leads the bone cells to begin secreting a protein called sclerostin, known for its role in preparing bones for remodeling and rebuilding by first breaking them down. (nih.gov)
- It is a quantitative measure of about 80% of the total bone strength. (vitamindwiki.com)
- CT currently provides quantitative measures of bone structure and may be used for estimating bone strength mathematically. (springer.com)
- We measured concentrations of metals in blood and obtained measures of bone remodeling by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the radius in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- Poor bone quality contributes to bone fragility in diabetes, aging, and osteogenesis imperfecta. (osti.gov)
- A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for structural decay is likely to reveal new approaches to the prevention and reversal of bone fragility. (nih.gov)
- Bone remodelling: its local regulation and the emergence of bone fragility. (nih.gov)
- Molecular signalling within the BRC between precursors, mature cells, cells of the immune system, and products of the resorbed matrix titrate the birth, work, and lifespan of this remodeling machinery to either remove or form a net volume of bone. (nih.gov)
- The histologic development of mature lamellar cortical bone was similar to undistracted controls by 9 months following distraction. (edu.au)
- Conversely, immune cells release signaling molecules that affect bone structure. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest that in addition to bone's compressive damping capacity, surrounding tissues, as well as naturally-occurring bone curvature, also contribute to mechanical damping, which may ultimately affect bone remodeling and bone quality. (cdc.gov)
- Surprisingly, compact bone formed internal to the cortical plate, an area where trabecular bone is expected. (elsevierpure.com)
- Here, we show that intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) attenuates osteoarthritis pain by inhibiting subchondral sensory innervation , subchondral bone deterioration, and articular cartilage degeneration in a destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) mouse model. (bvsalud.org)
- Interplay between several molecules (cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and inflammatory mediators) culminates in causing damage to the articular cartilage and bones. (hindawi.com)
- Parathyroid hormone attenuates osteoarthritis pain by remodeling subchondral bone in mice. (bvsalud.org)
- Over time the cartilage between our bones gets worn down, and this can lead to a painful joint disorder known as osteoarthritis . (bvsalud.org)
- A drug containing PTH is used to treat patients with another bone condition called osteoporosis , and could potentially work as a treatment for osteoarthritis pain . (bvsalud.org)
- 6 Donell S. Subchondral bone remodelling in osteoarthritis. (thieme-connect.de)
- And Spiegelman notes that there's precedent for such a phenomenon in bone remodeling-treatment for osteoporosis, parathyroid hormone, also works by thinning bones before they are rebuilt. (nih.gov)
- A protein called parathyroid hormone , or PTH for short, plays an important role in the loss and formation of bone . (bvsalud.org)
- Andrew's research focuses on computational materials science and biomedical engineering, examining the biomechanics of growth and remodeling of biological tissues, multi-scale modeling of materials, and chemo-mechanical behavior materials. (nih.gov)
- In the new study, Spiegelman's team confirms that this effect on fat also depends on the very same integrin receptors present in bone. (nih.gov)
- A recent study in mice found that irisin, a hormone-like molecule secreted by muscle cells, increases in response to exercise and leads to biochemical events that benefit bones and fat. (nih.gov)
- The Speigelman lab found, for example, that mice prone to osteoporosis following the removal of their ovaries were paradoxically protected from weakening bones by the inability to produce irisin. (nih.gov)
- In parallel, deterioration of subchondral bone microarchitecture in DMM mice was attenuated by iPTH treatment . (bvsalud.org)
- Increased level of prostaglandin E2 in subchondral bone of DMM mice was reduced by iPTH treatment . (bvsalud.org)
- Notably, iPTH improved subchondral bone microarchitecture and decreased level of prostaglandin E2 and sensory innervation of subchondral bone in DMM mice by acting specifically through PTH type 1 receptor in Nestin + mesenchymal stromal cells. (bvsalud.org)
- Histologic observations of bone remodeling adjacent to endosteal dental implants. (elsevierpure.com)
- Bone modeling adapts structure to loading by changing bone size and shape and removes damage and so maintains bone strength. (nih.gov)
- However, this chain of molecular events ultimately takes a turn for the better and reverses bone loss. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, rMAT is composed of interspersed single adipocytes, and is more closely situated in areas of high bone turnover and is better positioned to actively influence hematopoiesis and/or skeletal remodeling ( 18 ). (frontiersin.org)
- To better understand the biological pathways involved in bone loss, the researchers first performed a study in cell culture. (nih.gov)
- Next, the researchers investigated irisin's role in normal bone loss and growth. (nih.gov)
- In a series of mouse experiments, the researchers found that irisin works directly on a common type of bone cell, stimulating the cells to produce a protein that encourages bones to thin. (nih.gov)
- The remaining 20% of bone strength is represented by other qualitative factors such as trabecular connectivity, microarchitecture, etc. (vitamindwiki.com)
- We reviewed use of high-resolution CT for evaluating trabecular microarchitecture and cortical ultrastructure of bone specimens ex vivo, extension of these techniques to in vivo human imaging studies, and recent studies involving application of high-resolution CT to characterize bone structure in the context of skeletal disease. (springer.com)
- Targeting this mediator may prove useful for treating bone degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. (nih.gov)
Evaluating bone structure1
- The application of high-resolution imaging in evaluating bone structure has evolved from an in vitro technology for small specimens to an emerging clinical research tool for in vivo studies in humans. (springer.com)
- To examine bone morphology associated with endosteal dental implants at various time intervals, we inserted 20 one-stage and 20 two-stage titanium blade implants and 20 one-stage and 20 two-stage titanium root-form implants into 30 dog mandibles. (elsevierpure.com)
- The entire area of the mandible containing the implants was examined by routine light and Nomarski differential interference microscopy (NM) for bone morphology (including osteon orientation) at the implant surface and at regions away from the implant. (elsevierpure.com)
- From these data, remodeling activities to blade implants may involve the development of a lamina-dura-like bone morphology after longer periods of load. (elsevierpure.com)
- Exercise is thought to help prevent age-related bone loss, but exactly how this happens in the body has been unclear. (nih.gov)
- Identification of its mechanism of action explains how exercise helps prevent bone loss and could open the way to new therapeutic targets to combat osteoporosis, the authors wrote. (nih.gov)
- There's also been intriguing evidence that exercise may help build strong bones. (nih.gov)
Regulating bone quality1
- However, the cellular mechanisms regulating bone quality are unclear. (osti.gov)
Treatment of osteoporosis1
- This research fills a knowledge gap in the fields of sleep and bone research that could impact the clinical evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis. (nih.gov)
- Our bones are continuously being remodeled. (nih.gov)
- This study evaluated the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in bony remodelling in a bilateral sheep mandible model up to 12 months following lengthening by distraction osteogenesis. (edu.au)
- MMPs and TIMPS may, in part, reflect the state of bony remodelling following mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis. (edu.au)
- [ 5 ] This type of healing involves the formation of a bony callus and then subsequent external remodeling to bridge the gap. (medscape.com)
Effect on bone1
- In premenopausal adult women, COC use has little to no effect on bone health while appearing to preserve bone mass in perimenopausal women ( 26,42--90 ). (cdc.gov)
Breakdown of bone1
- Scientists have discovered a lipid mediator in blood that plays a key role in maintaining the balance between the build-up and breakdown of bone. (nih.gov)
- Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial mechanism known to regulate the material quality of bone, but its cellular target in this regulation is unknown. (osti.gov)
- Computational results showed that normal bone curvature enhanced the damping capacity of the bone by approximately 40%, and the damping effect grew at an accelerated pace as curvature was increased. (cdc.gov)