Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Diseases of BONES.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Hemorrhage into a canal or cavity of the body, such as the space covered by the serous membrane (tunica vaginalis) around the TESTIS leading to testicular hematocele or scrotal hematocele.
The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Injuries to the lower jaw bone.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Intraoral OSTEOTOMY of the lower jaw usually performed in order to correct MALOCCLUSION.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Fractures of the lower jaw.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Breaks in bones.
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Fractures of the femur.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
An immature epithelial tumor of the JAW originating from the epithelial rests of Malassez or from other epithelial remnants of the ENAMEL from the developmental period. It is a slowly growing tumor, usually benign, but displays a marked propensity for invasive growth.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
"Regeneration of meniscal cartilage with use of a collagen scaffold. Analysis of preliminary data". The Journal of Bone and ... developed the first meniscus reconstruction device called a collagen regeneration template in 1986. The template or scaffold ... Its cross-linking preserved the scaffold in the knee joint long enough for new meniscus tissue to grow into it. (Patents ... A meniscus transplant or meniscal transplant is a transplant of the meniscus of the knee, which separates the thigh bone (femur ...
Also, ELPs may be able to function as polymeric scaffolds, which promote tissue regeneration. This capacity of ELPs has been ... Such an intervention may prove useful in the treatment of bone disease and rheumatoid arthritis. ELPs modified with certain ... The ability of these arrested ELP networks to promote cell growth may prove indispensable in the production of tissue scaffolds ... "Toughening of Thermoresponsive Arrested Networks of Elastin-Like Polypeptides To Engineer Cytocompatible Tissue Scaffolds". ...
Using silk scaffolds as a guide for growth for bone tissue regeneration, Kim et al. observed complete bone union after 8 weeks ... Nanofiber scaffolds are used in bone tissue engineering to mimic the natural extracellular matrix of the bones. The bone tissue ... "Novel 3D scaffold with enhanced physical and cell response properties for bone tissue regeneration, fabricated by patterned ... These scaffolds can be used to deliver bioactive agents that promote tissue regeneration. These bioactive materials should ...
... scaffolds are used in tissue regeneration, whether in sponges, thin sheets, gels, or fibers. Collagen has favorable ... Geiger, M (2003). "Collagen sponges for bone regeneration with rhBMP-2". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 55 (12): 1613-1629. ... "An improved collagen scaffold for skeletal regeneration". Journal of Biomedical Materials. 94 (2): 371-379. doi:10.1002/jbm.a. ... bone (main component of the organic part of bone) Type II: cartilage (main collagenous component of cartilage) Type III: ...
"In vivo study of anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold". Biomaterials. 29 (23 ... Long JH, Qi M, Huang XY, Lei SR, Ren LC (June 2005). "[Repair of rabbit tendon by autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ... Ligament reconstruction is possible using mesenchymal stem cells and a silk scaffold. These same stem cells have been shown to ... study proved that mechanical loading of the tendon callus during the remodelling phase leads to healing by regeneration. " ...
Oreffo combined stem cells and degradable plastic to create an artificial bone, which incorporated a honeycomb-like scaffold to ... with a focus on the mechanisms that underpin differentiation of skeletal stem cells and bone regeneration. His early work ... which results in the growth of new bone. Eventually, the plastic degrades, and the structure is replaced by newly formed bone. ... Here he worked with Gregory Mundy, an expert in bone and mineral research. He returned to the United Kingdom in 1989, where he ...
Bone regeneration[edit]. EGF plays an enhancer role on osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) because it ... EGF is used to modify synthetic scaffolds for manufacturing of bioengineered grafts by emulsion electrospinning or surface ... These data suggests that DPSCs in combination with EGF could be an effective stem cell-based therapy to bone tissue engineering ... "Fabrication and surface modification of poly lactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with epidermal growth factor for neural tissue ...
Quality of bone healing: Perspectives and assessment techniques. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 22(S1). Johnson Benjamin, ... In vitro characterization of scaffold-free three-dimensional aggregates for wound repair and regeneration. Wound Repair and ... Localized Low Dose rhBMP-2 Is Effective at Promoting Bone Regeneration in a Pre-Clinical Mandibular Segmental Defect Model. ... Biomask for skin regeneration. Regenerative Medicine. 9(3): 245-8. Guda Teja, Labella Carl, Chan Rodney, et al. 2014. ...
A new hydrogel scaffold has been developed for craniofacial bone tissue regeneration, which turns from a liquid to gel in the ... "Bone marrow 'frees men of HIV drugs'". BBC. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013. "Stem-Cell Transplants Erase HIV in Two Men". ... Ancient horse bones dating back 700,000 years are found to contain by far the oldest preserved DNA sequence yet discovered, ... Bone marrow transplants are found to remove all traces of HIV from two test patients, in conjunction with antiretroviral ...
October 2005). "Meniscal regeneration using tissue engineering with a scaffold derived from a rat meniscus and mesenchymal ... Osteoarthritis is a common condition of cartilage failure that can lead to limited range of motion, bone damage and invariably ... The procedure creates a blood clot scaffold on which injected PBPCs can be recruited and enhance chondrogenesis at the site of ... Meniscal cartilage replacement therapy Meniscus transplant "FDA approves first autologous cellularized scaffold for the repair ...
... bone marrow scaffolds, meniscus regeneration devices, ligament and tendon grafts, ocular cell implants, spinal fusion cages, ... including bone.lling augmentation material), adhesion barriers, stents, guided tissue repair/regeneration devices, articular ... bone plates and bone plating systems, surgical mesh, repair patches, slings, cardiovascular patches, orthopedic pins ( ... skin substitutes, dural substitutes, bone graft substitutes, bone dowels, wound dressings, and hemostats. Lu, Jingnan; Tappel, ...
These include anti-degradation, anti-inflammation, and cell and scaffold based cartilage regeneration. Many biological agents ... Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP) and Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF-5). Scaffolds are used in tissue engineering to ... Scaffolds must be biocompatible and have high compressive strength. Scaffolds can be created from hydrogels, polymers or other ... on top of chondrocyte-laden hydrogel scaffolds has shown cell-mediated regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage. However, one ...
Within four weeks of placing the scaffold, newly formed bone begins to integrate with the old bone and within 32 weeks, full ... "Autogenous injectable bone for regeneration with mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: tissue-engineered bone ... Kraus KH, Kirker-Head C (April 2006). "Mesenchymal stem cells and bone regeneration". Vet Surg. 35 (3): 232-42. doi:10.1111/j. ... The cells and scaffold secrete factors that counteract those secreted by scar forming cells and promote neural regeneration. ...
... are actively being explored in the regeneration of skin, liver, and bone. Alginate's ability to scaffold and makes it a novel ... Artificial bone refers to bone-like material created in a laboratory that can be used in bone grafts, to replace human bone ... "Creating Artificial Bones for Faster Bone Regeneration". Tokyo Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2018-04-20. Venkatesan, ... Human bones have the ability to regenerate themselves by cycle of bone resorption and bone formation. The cell responsible for ...
Tissue regenerationEdit. Collagen scaffolds are used in tissue regeneration, whether in sponges, thin sheets, or gels. Collagen ... Type I: skin, tendon, vasculature, organs, bone (main component of the organic part of bone) ... "An improved collagen scaffold for skeletal regeneration". Journal of Biomedical Materials. 94 (2): 371-379. doi:10.1002/jbm.a. ... doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.10.035. ISSN 8756-3282.. *^ Guillerminet, F.; Fabien-Soulé, V.; Even, P. C.; Tomé, D.; Benhamou, C.-L ...
2007 DPSC 1st animal studies begin for bone regeneration. 2007 DPSC 1st animal studies begin for dental end uses. 2008 DPSC 1st ... "Scaffold's surface geometry significantly affects human stem cell bone tissue engineering". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 214 ... Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a method of bone regeneration, commonly used in the surgical repair of large craniofacial ... 2008 DPSC 1st advanced animal study for bone grafting announced. Reconstruction of large size cranial bone defects in rats. ...
Recombinant PDGF is used to help heal chronic ulcers and in orthopedic surgery and periodontics to stimulate bone regeneration ... The addition of PDGF at specific time‐points has been shown to stabilise vasculature in collagen‐glycosaminoglycan scaffolds.[ ... In experiments, it new bone fully covered skull wounds in test animals and stimulated growth in human bone marrow stromal cells ... chronic ulcers and in orthopedic surgery and periodontics as an alternative to bone autograft to stimulate bone regeneration ...
In bone repair applications, i.e. scaffolds for bone regeneration, the solubility of bioceramics is an important parameter, and ... Such synthetic bone substitute or scaffold materials are typically porous, which provides an increased surface area that ... which are key for effective bone graft and bone transplant materials. This can be achieved by the inclusion of grain refining ... In 1969, L. L. Hench and others discovered that various kinds of glasses and ceramics could bond to living bone. Hench was ...
... regeneration protocol is that it is successful in patients with historically difficult-to-treat grade IV bipolar or bone-on- ... Khay Yong Saw and his team propose that the microdrilling surgery creates a blood clot scaffold on which injected PBPC's can be ... First, the damaged section of bone and cartilage is removed from the joint. Then a new healthy dowel of bone with its cartilage ... Firstly, damaged cartilage is drilled or punched until the underlying bone is exposed. By doing this, the subchondral bone is ...
... the scaffold is more likely to inhibit regeneration or mechanically fail. As with natural bone, the primary issue with bone ... Bone scaffolds must therefore be as stiff as natural bone, or the scaffold will fail through crack nucleation and propagation ... Damaged cells grip to the scaffold and begin to rebuild missing bone and tissue through tiny holes in the scaffold. As tissue ... Woodard Joseph R (2007). "The mechanical properties and osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds with multi-scale ...
For regeneration the salamander tissues form a blastema by de-differentiation of mesenchymal cells, and the blastema functions ... The first applications of this technology are to isolate stem cells from the bone marrow of patients having blood disease ... Implantation of stem cells from culture into an existing tissue structure Implantation of stem cells into a tissue scaffold ... Brockes, JP; Kumar, A (2005). "Appendage regeneration in adult vertebrates and implications for regenerative medicine". Science ...
... which can be of aesthetic concern Dentine hypersensitivity Require long term professional maintenance Fibrin scaffold ... Guided bone regeneration typically refers to ridge augmentation or bone regenerative procedures; guided tissue regeneration ... guided bone regeneration is a reliable and validated procedure. Use of barrier membranes to direct bone regeneration was first ... Guided bone regeneration is similar to guided tissue regeneration, but is focused on development of hard tissues in addition to ...
"Bone regeneration strategies: Engineered scaffolds, bioactive molecules and stem cells current stage and future perspectives". ... Bone regeneration takes place during fracture healing and bone remodeling that takes place throughout life. Bone healing also ... are important in inducing the differentiation of MSCs during bone regeneration. Bone regeneration in adults appears to mimic ... "In vitro response of macrophages to ceramic scaffolds used for bone regeneration". Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 13 ...
... of bone, for example, will require a much more rigid scaffold compared to a scaffold for skin regeneration.[ ... Cassidy JW (November 2014). "Nanotechnology in the Regeneration of Complex Tissues" (PDF). Bone and Tissue Regeneration ... "Bone in a bottle: Attempts to create artificial bone marrow have failed until now". The Economist. 7 January 2009. Amini AR, ... Artificial bone marrow: Bone marrow cultured in vitro to be transplanted serves as a "just cells" approach to tissue ...
2004). "Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to lung regeneration after elastase-induced pulmonary emphysemal". FEBS. 556: 249- ... a huge step towards personalised lung regeneration. A 2010 investigation took this one step further by using the ECM scaffold ... Therefore, developments in the lung's capacity for regeneration is in high demand. It has been shown that bone marrow-derived ... This type of regeneration is common in physiological situations. Examples of physiological regeneration are the continual ...
Regeneration of the tissue and the degradation of the scaffold should be balanced in terms of rate, surface area and ... In a study to evaluate if injectable fibrin scaffold is helpful for transplantation of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) when ... In biomedical research, fibrin scaffolds have been used to fill bone cavities, repair neurons, heart valves, vascular grafts ... Fibrin scaffold is an important element in tissue engineering approaches as a scaffold material. It is advantageous opposed to ...
Their potential and pitfalls for bone tissue regeneration and engineering". Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine ... all-carbon scaffolds using single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as building blocks.[5] These scaffolds possess macro-, ... doi:10.1016/j.bone.2008.04.013. PMID 18541467.. *^ Dalton, Aaron (15 August 2005). Nanotubes May Heal Broken Bones. Wired. ... Riverside have shown that carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites are suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue ...
Unlike bone, cartilage regeneration remains elusive, Science, 338:917-921, DOI: 10.1126/science.1222454, 2012 "Athanasiou next ... He published one of the first papers on the use of biodegradable scaffolds as carriers of growth factors to heal cartilage ... on the development of acellular scaffolds for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions. This was the first ever implant for ... without the use of any scaffolds. Their group also demonstrated that hydrostatic pressure in conjunction with growth factors ...
Bone, Muscle and Nerve Regeneration and Bone Transplantation, Sea-Water, Epidemic Jaundice, Sterilization, and Typhus ... While on the gallows, Brandt remarked: "It is no shame to stand upon the scaffold. This is nothing but political revenge. I ...
Alibardi, Lorenzo (2010). Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards a model system with ... The new section will however contain cartilage rather than bone, and will never grow to the same length as the original tail. ... Lee, M.S.Y. (2013). "Turtle origins: Insights from phylogenetic retrofitting and molecular scaffolds". Journal of Evolutionary ... a jaw joint formed by the quadrate and articular bones, and certain characteristics of the vertebrae.[17] The animals singled ...
Autografts (employing bone or tissue harvested from the patient's body). *Allografts (using bone or tissue from another body, ... Mechanical properties of the scaffolds are further enhanced through braiding and twisting of the scaffold materials. ... Okahashi K, Sugimoto K, Iwai M, Oshima M, Samma M, Fujisawa Y, Takakura Y (June 2006). "Regeneration of the hamstring tendons ... Grafts are inserted through a tunnel that is drilled through the shin bone (tibia) and thigh bone (femur). The graft is then ...
"In vivo study of anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold". Biomaterials. 29 (23 ... Long JH, Qi M, Huang XY, Lei SR, Ren LC (June 2005). "[Repair of rabbit tendon by autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ... Ligament reconstruction is possible using mesenchymal stem cells and a silk scaffold.[5] These same stem cells have been shown ... study proved that mechanical loading of the tendon callus during the remodelling phase leads to healing by regeneration.[7] ...
WR is associated with abnormalities in bone maturation, and lipids and hormone metabolism.[93] Affected individuals exhibit ... regeneration, stem cells, and cancer. The most widely studied of the progeroid syndromes are Werner syndrome and Hutchinson- ... by acting as a scaffold protein that forms a filamentous meshwork underlying the inner nuclear envelope, the membrane that ... Dyskeratosis congenita, a rare progressive congenital disorder of the skin and bone marrow in some ways resembling progeria ...
All T cells originate from c-kit+Sca1+ haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which reside in the bone marrow. In some cases the ... DAG activates PKCθ, which then phosphorylates CARMA1, causing it to unfold and function as a scaffold. The cytosolic domains ... leaving peripheral T cell expansion and regeneration to play a greater role in protecting older people. ... These immune cells originate as precursor cells, derived from bone marrow,[1] and develop into several distinct types of T ...
... a regeneration closer to complete regeneration may be induced by the use of biodegradable (collagen-glycoaminoglycan) scaffolds ... bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and (2) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Bone marrow also harbors a progenitor ... There is a subtle distinction between 'repair' and 'regeneration'.[1][69][70] Repair means incomplete regeneration.[69] Repair ... This type of regeneration is common in physiological situations. Examples of physiological regeneration are the continual ...
April 1993). "The incidence and size of gap junctions between the bone cells in rat calvaria". Anat. Embryol. 187 (4): 343-52. ... Other findings show connexins associate with protein scaffolds used in another junction, the zonula occludens ZO1.[126] While ... "Differential regulation of multiple gap junction transcripts and proteins during rat liver regeneration". The Journal of Cell ... Since the 1970s even tissues that were traditionally considered to possibly have isolated cells such as bone showed that the ...
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... Sound Medicine - Heart Tissue Regeneration - July 19 interview discussing ECM and its uses in cardiac tissue repair (requires ... Hadjipanayi E, Mudera V, Brown RA (February 2009). "Close dependence of fibroblast proliferation on collagen scaffold matrix ... Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation. Physiology[edit]. Stiffness and elasticity[edit]. The ECM can exist in varying ...
"Meniscal Regeneration Using Co-Polymeric Collagen Scaffolds.". The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine ... a human clinical trial of a porcine bone-patellar tendon-bone graft for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of ... Xenograft ligament cartilage, bone, and tendon transplantation.. FDA-Approved ACL Replacement Study 2003 - PRESENT. CE Mark ... Stone's experience with collagen scaffolds sourced from bovine Achilles tendons led him to focus on other animal tissues that ...
regulation of axon regeneration. • lung morphogenesis. • regulation of early endosome to late endosome transport. • ... Kuboki, Y; Ito M; Takamatsu N; Yamamoto K I; Shiba T; Yoshioka K (Dec 2000). "A scaffold protein in the c-Jun NH2-terminal ... Tanaka S, Nakamura K, Takahasi N, Suda T (2006). "Role of RANKL in physiological and pathological bone resorption and ... "JSAP1, a Novel Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase (JNK)-Binding Protein That Functions as a Scaffold Factor in the JNK Signaling ...
"Bone muscle crosstalk targets muscle regeneration pathway regulated by core circadian transcriptional repressors DEC1 and DEC2" ... 4) β-Scaffold factors with minor groove contacts. (4.1) Rel homology region. *NF-κB *NFKB1 ... BHLHE41 knockout mice had increased post-natal regeneration of muscle after injury. However, these mice showed no deficits in ...
... membrane containing bone growth enhancing elements can be stitched over the wound or a graft material or scaffold is placed in ... Khiste, Sujeet Vinayak; Naik Tari, Ritam (2013). "Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a Biofuel for Tissue Regeneration". ISRN Biomaterials ... A joint that connects the roots of the teeth and the alveolus is called gomphosis (plural gomphoses). Alveolar bone is the bone ... Socket preservation or alveolar ridge preservation (ARP)[1] is a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction to ...
regulation of axon regeneration. • cellular response to peptide. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • positive ... the bone and teeth tissues where it regulates normal skeletal development;[51][52][53][54] epithelial cell of the mouse male ... 4) β-Scaffold factors with minor groove contacts. (4.1) Rel homology region. *NF-κB *NFKB1 ... and are the ones responsible for intestinal epithelium regeneration following radiation injury.[103] The study showed that in ...
Mesenchymal stem cell delivery scaffold with magnetic actuating system for articular cartilage regeneration. With size of 200~ ... Robotic Assistant Robot for Bone-Fracture Reposition Surgery, which replaces assistant surgeons who align the broken bone to ... An articulated robotic arm to carry a human & respiration synchronization method) Surgeon-Robot Interaction for Bone-Fracture ...
But a Pernida clone manages to kill Nemu and eats her body, only to end up dying from excess regeneration due to the ... This offshoot assumes the form of a silent, young kunoichi that sees battle as a game, named Kyōkotsu (狂骨, Madness Bone) and ... While his Fullbring power is Cross of Scaffold, turning his Saltire pendant into a large Claymore, Ginjō can use his Soul ... However, it fails to have any significant effect on Yamamoto, who easily burns Driscoll to his bones, killing him instantly. ...
"Why Humans Lost Their Penis Bone". Science. Dixson, A. F. (2009). Sexual selection and the origins of human mating systems. ... Some organizations which perform research into, or conduct regeneration procedures, include the Wake Forest Institute for ... "The development of a decellularized extracellular matrix-based biomaterial scaffold derived from human foreskin for the purpose ... or erectile bone) and instead relies entirely on engorgement with blood to reach its erect state. A distal ligament buttresses ...
Another problem lack of mobility can cause is loss of bone density and changes in bone structure. Loss of bone density (bone ... Geoff Raisman, chair of neural regeneration at University College London's Institute of Neurology, and his research team. The ... Another type of approach is tissue engineering, using biomaterials to help scaffold and rebuild damaged tissues. Biomaterials ... Spinal column injury is trauma that causes fracture of the bone or instability of the ligaments in the spine; this can coexist ...
"Scaffolds and cells for tissue regeneration: different scaffold pore sizes-different cell effects". Cytotechnology. 68 (3): 355 ... Bone marrow as a cell source for tissue engineering heart valves". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 75 (3): 761-7, discussion ... fibrous scaffolds have a very small pore size that prevents the pervasion of cells within the scaffold. Hydrogel scaffolds are ... Studies performed seeded scaffolds made of polymers with various cell lines in vitro, in which the scaffolds degraded over time ...
Wnt signaling drives NSCs to the formation of new neurons in the SGZ, whereas bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) promote NSC ... suggesting that the blood vessels may act as a scaffold. Other factors that contribute of the migration are slit proteins ( ... Endogenous regeneration in the brain is the ability of cells to engage in the repair and regeneration process. While the brain ... Brain damage itself can induce endogenous regeneration. Many studies have proven endogenous regeneration as a possible ...
For applications as a load-bearing bone scaffold, the mechanical properties of the scaffold must approximate native bone for ... Synthetic, resorbable scaffolds for bone regeneration have potential to transform the clinical standard of care. Here, we ... The ideal scaffold for stem cell-driven bone regeneration encourages stem cell retention and differentiation, is mechanically ... Phosphate graphene as an intrinsically osteoinductive scaffold for stem cell-driven bone regeneration. Anne M. Arnold, Brian D ...
Promising results were obtained with the implant of the scaffold in an experimental model of a New Zealand rabbit femur bone ... In vivo results allow us to consider this scaffold as a promising biomaterial to be applied in bone tissue engineering. ... This scaffold must be gradually degraded and replaced by tissue as similar as possible to the original one. In this work a ... The scaffold presented satisfactory pore size range and open interconnected pores, which are essential for tissue ingrowth. A ...
... ... Renal Osteodystrophy / Mineral Bone Disorder. Renal Osteodystrophy which is referred to as Mineral Bone Disorder is a result of ... A study describing the composition of the scaffold and comparing different delivery methods for recombinant human bone ... knee and engineered it to deliver a human bone-promoting protein over an extended period of time to improve bone regeneration. ...
A conceptually new type of bio-hybrid scaffold for bone regeneration.. [A Tampieri, E Landi, F Valentini, M Sandri, T ... The good potentiality of the material as a biomedical device, able to offer assistance to bone regeneration through scaffold ... Magnetic bio-hybrid porous scaffolds have been synthesized, nucleating nano-apatite in situ on self-assembling collagen, in the ... a chemico-physical-mechanical stabilization of the material and allowing us to control the porosity network of the scaffold. ...
Deepthy Menon, and Shantikumar V. Nair, "Porous Composite Fibrous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Regeneration", U.S. Patent 15/ ...
Radiographic Assessment of Bone Regeneration in Alveolar Sockets With PLGA Scaffold. The safety and scientific validity of this ... This study will determine firstly whether the scaffold allows for bone regeneration in human alveolar sockets in the normal ... Radiographic assessment will be done to assess bone regeneration at the prescribed pre-extraction stage, at the 2 months bone ... If it remains the same, it will suggest that the scaffold material had maintained the socket and prevented alveolar bone ...
In this study, fibrous scaffolds (PGFS) were fabricated using a facile binding method at room... ... have emerged as promising building blocks for constructing bone scaffolds. ... Preparation and characterization of fibrous chitosan-glued phosphate glass fiber scaffolds for bone regeneration. ... These results suggest that PGFS could be promising scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. ...
Study of Bioartificial Bone Tissue Poly-L-lactic Acid/Polycaprolactone and PLLA Scaffolds Applied in Bone Regeneration. Weizong ... Study of Bioartificial Bone Tissue Poly-L-lactic Acid/Polycaprolactone and PLLA Scaffolds Applied in Bone Regeneration," ...
One may provide a porous collagen scaffold and insert the scaffold into a perfusion chamber of a perfusion flow system. This ... may then be followed by continuously providing a mineralization perfusion fluid flow through the scaffold at a flow rate to ... The present disclosure is directed at a process to form bone grafting material. ... Fabrication of Bone Regeneration Scaffolds and Bone Filler Material Using a Perfusion Flow System. ...
In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from ... Enhancing Osteoconduction of PLLA-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Using Different Biomimetic Signals to ... Baldini, N.; Cenni, E.; Ciapetti, G.; Granchi, D.; Savarino, L. Bone Repair Biomaterials. In Bone Repair and Regeneration, 1st ... Haidar, Z.S.; Hamdy, R.C.; Tabrizian, M. Delivery of recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins for bone regeneration and repair. ...
However, it is challenging to uniformly deposit GO on chemically inert Ti scaffolds, which have good biocompatibility and wide ... Thus, the GO/Ti scaffold has the dual functions of inducing bone regeneration and preventing bacterial infection. In summary, ... graphene oxide nanosheet-enwrapped Ti scaffolds with drug-encapsulated gelatin microspheres for bone regeneration L. Han, H. ... graphene oxide nanosheet-enwrapped Ti scaffolds with drug-encapsulated gelatin microspheres for bone regeneration ...
Alveolar Bone Loss, Animals, Bone regeneration, Dental Cementum, Hydrogels, Nanocomposites, periodontal ligament, Rabbits, ... Tri-Layered Nanocomposite Hydrogel Scaffold for the Concurrent Regeneration of Cementum, Periodontal Ligament, and Alveolar ... Jayakumar Rangasamy, "Tri-Layered Nanocomposite Hydrogel Scaffold for the Concurrent Regeneration of Cementum, Periodontal ... Tissue Scaffolds Abstract:. A tri-layered scaffolding approach is adopted for the complete and concurrent regeneration of hard ...
... as well as scaffold degradation time. In vivo, anisotropic scaffolds demonstrated better bone regeneration capabilities in a ... anisotropic cryostructured collagen scaffolds improve bone regeneration by increasing the efficiency of rhBMP-2 mediated bone ... Anisotropic Cryostructured Collagen Scaffolds for Efficient Delivery of RhBMP-2 and Enhanced Bone Regeneration. Sep 24, 2019 , ... In the treatment of bone non-unions, an alternative to bone autografts is the use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), e.g., ...
MBG scaffolds containing chitosan microspheres for binary delivery of IL-8 and BMP-2 for bone regeneration L. Cai, D. Lin, Y. ... MBG scaffolds containing chitosan microspheres for binary delivery of IL-8 and BMP-2 for bone regeneration† ... In this study, the effect of IL-8 action duration on bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced bone regeneration was studied ... In an in situ bone regeneration model of a rabbit radius large segmental defect, the system efficiently accelerated the whole ...
Research ArticleBone. Mechanobiologically optimized 3D titanium-mesh scaffolds enhance bone regeneration in critical segmental ... To investigate bone regeneration within the mechanobiologically optimized scaffolds, we used a critical size bone defect model ... For better bone, use softer scaffolds. Large segmental gaps in bone caused by trauma or disease are typically treated with bone ... as bone formation originating from the adjacent tibia was guided through the open porous scaffold channels. Bone regeneration ...
bone scaffold calcium phosphate. Abstract:. The increasing demand for bone repair solutions for the treatment of large and load ... In this work, we assess the influence of scaffold macro- (> 300 μm) and microporosity (< 50 μm) on bone regeneration in BCP ... Macro- and micro-structural features direct bone regeneration in patterned biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds. Welcome to the ... Macro- and micro-structural features direct bone regeneration in patterned biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds. Rustom, ...
... ... scaffolds for vascularized bone regeneration. The GO-Cu nanocomposites, containing crystallized CuO/Cu2O nanoparticles of ≈30 ... However, the in vivo bone repair effects of graphene-based scaffolds remain unknown. The aqueous soluble graphene oxide-copper ... In vitro, the GO-Cu coating enhances the adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). It is ...
Enhanced osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration using surface-modified porous bioactive glass scaffolds ... Download PDF Enhanced osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration using surface-modified porous bioactive glass scaffolds. ... In vivo results in a rabbit calvarial bone defect model showed enhanced bone formation with SBF pretreated scaffolds, compared ... In vivo results in a rabbit calvarial bone defect model showed enhanced bone formation with SBF pretreated scaffolds, compared ...
The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of porous silk scaffolds on rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) by lenti-GFP ... silk scaffolds provide a suitable niche to maintain long survival and function of the implanted cells for bone regeneration. ... The number of cells seeded within silk scaffolds in rat cranial bone defects increased from 2 days to 2 weeks after ... Silk fibroin, as a natural protein polymer, has unique properties for tissue regeneration. ...
... ... Currently available scaffolds are designed for bone growth only. Several different scaffold and cell combinations were studied ... Mandibular Jaw Bone Regeneration Using Human Dental Cell-Seeded Tyrosine-Derived Polycarbonate Scaffolds ... bone growth was observed together with the formation of tooth-like tissues. In scaffolds without dental pulp cells, only bone ...
Porous Silk Scaffolds for Delivery of Growth Factors and Stem Cells to Enhance Bone Regeneration. Kaplan, David, 1953- ... 2014) Porous Silk Scaffolds for Delivery of Growth Factors and Stem Cells to Enhance Bone Regeneration. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102371 ... Send Comment about Porous Silk Scaffolds for Delivery of Growth Factors and Stem Cells to Enhance Bone Regeneration.. ... The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of porous silk scaffolds on rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) by ... read ...
It can be safely and conveniently implanted into bone defects and induce bone regeneration, thus enhancing the recovery of bone ... Despite the regenerative capacity of bone, for large bone defects due to bone tumor resections or severe fractures, bone ... Home Knowledge Bank Research Insight PolyU develops novel self-fitting scaffold for bone regeneration ... Animal study on bone regeneration. "Our research team further examined the performance of the self-fitting scaffold in ...
... Retrieved ... TitleThe development and characterization of an osteoinductive pre-vascularized scaffold for bone tissue regeneration ... SubjectBiomedical Engineering, Tissue engineering, Bone regeneration, Bone-grafting. Extent1 online resource (xxiii, 127 p. : ... Most TE options for bone replacement seek to replace only the trabecular bone leading to low mechanical properties or lack the ...
Critical-sized rat calvarial defects were applied to investigate the effect of CSH/MBG scaffolds on bone regeneration in vivo. ... Three dimensional printing of calcium sulfate and mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for improving bone regeneration in vitro ... Three dimensional printing of calcium sulfate and mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for improving bone regeneration in vitro ... Thus 3D printed CSH/MBG scaffolds would be promising candidates for promoting bone regeneration. ...
Wagoner Johnson from the University of IL has developed a scaffold for the use in bone regeneration procedures. The scaffold ... This allows for predictability in how the bone will regenerate along the scaffold. These scaffolds have been shown to have ... The scaffold has a variety of macropores and micropores. These differing pores influence capillarity and directionality of bone ... Efficacy of the scaffolds have been shown in in vivo pig studies. ...
In vitro ligament-bone interface regeneration using a trilineage coculture system on a hybrid silk scaffold. ... In vitro ligament-bone interface regeneration using a trilineage coculture system on a hybrid silk scaffold. Biomacromolecules ... and bone. We hypothesize that mesenchymal stem cells cocultured in between ligament and bone cells, on a hybrid silk scaffold ... The section of scaffold for osteoblast seeding was coated with hydroxyapatite. A trilineage coculture system (osteoblasts-BMSCs ...
Based on the results, the 3D porous scaffold with microchannels was a promising candidate for bone defect repair. ... The 3D scaffold had an innovative structure, including macropores with diameters of 300−450 μm for cell ingrowth and ... For repairing rabbit radius defects in vivo, there was rapid healing in the defects treated with the 3D porous scaffold with ... For this situation, a 3D poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite porous scaffold, which was much favorable for transfer of ...
The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and ... Better maintenance of facial bone contour was noted in the test group; however, bone regeneration was seen only at areas ... The use of a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffold for bone regeneration of tooth socket facial wall defects and ... Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with ...
... and differentiation and then bone ingrowth and regeneration. So this scaffolds should have an interconnected porous structure. ... b-tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP) is one of the mostly used bioceramic for bone defect filling during surgery. In this research b- ... Results indicate that in the case of fabricated scaffold with macro pore size of about 340 micrometer, by increasing sintering ... The most important rule of this scaffolds is to act as a bioactive template for cell attachment, proliferation, ...
... have made it possible to accurately produce porous synthetic bone scaffolds to fit the defected bone shape. Porous scaffolds ... have made it possible to accurately produce porous synthetic bone scaffolds to fit the defected bone shape. Porous scaffolds ... have made it possible to accurately produce porous synthetic bone scaffolds to fit the defected bone shape. Porous scaffolds ... have made it possible to accurately produce porous synthetic bone scaffolds to fit the defected bone shape. Porous scaffolds ...
  • In vivo, tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with/without growth factors is implanted into rabbit maxillary periodontal defects and compared with the controls at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. (
  • Large segmental gaps in bone caused by trauma or disease are typically treated with bone grafts and stiff scaffolds to hold the fractured bone in place, but sometimes these defects fail to heal. (
  • In sheep with critical-sized segmental defects, scaffolds that reduced stress shielding around tibial fractures enhanced bone bridging compared to stiffer scaffolds and shielding plates. (
  • Scaffolds can be tuned to evoke specific mechanical and biological responses within bone defects, which could help guide regeneration. (
  • Three-dimensional (3D) titanium-mesh scaffolds offer many advantages over autologous bone grafting for the regeneration of challenging large segmental bone defects. (
  • The increasing demand for bone repair solutions for the treatment of large and load-bearing bone defects calls for the development of efficacious bone scaffolds. (
  • Our results show that microporosity enhances bone regeneration through microporeinduced capillarity by improving the homogeneity of bone distribution in BCP scaffolds, suggesting that the explicit design and use of capillarity in bone scaffolds may lead to more effective treatments of large and complex bone defects. (
  • This holds promise for the customization of scaffold designs for more effective treatment of large and load-bearing bone defects. (
  • When transplanted into rat with critical-sized calvarial defects, the GO-Cu-coated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds (CPC/GO-Cu) significantly promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis. (
  • In vivo results in a rabbit calvarial bone defect model showed enhanced bone formation with SBF pretreated scaffolds, compared with untreated ones, commercially available Perioglass particles and empty defects. (
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of porous silk scaffolds on rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) by lenti-GFP tracking both in vitro and in vivo in cranial bone defects. (
  • The number of cells seeded within silk scaffolds in rat cranial bone defects increased from 2 days to 2 weeks after implantation, followed by a decrease at eight weeks. (
  • Tissue-engineered bone is a relatively new strategy to treat massive bone defects, instead of the use of autologous bone grafts which present drawbacks [1] - [2] . (
  • Several different scaffold and cell combinations were studied in groups of rats with jaw bone defects for 6 weeks. (
  • lenti-GFP tracking both in vitro and in vivo in cranial bone defects. (
  • It can be safely and conveniently implanted into bone defects and induce bone regeneration, thus enhancing the recovery of bone injuries and fractures. (
  • Despite the regenerative capacity of bone, for large bone defects due to bone tumor resections or severe fractures, bone grafting surgeries (autografts or allografts) are always required for orchestrating bone regeneration. (
  • As a shape memory material, the scaffold can be compacted at 0°C, implanted with compact shape at room temperature, and recovered to its original shape completely at 40°C. The scaffold thus can fill up the irregular bone defects perfectly. (
  • In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. (
  • In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. (
  • Critical-sized rat calvarial defects were applied to investigate the effect of CSH/MBG scaffolds on bone regeneration in vivo. (
  • In vivo results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds could significantly enhance new bone formation in calvarial defects compared to CSH scaffolds. (
  • For repairing rabbit radius defects in vivo , there was rapid healing in the defects treated with the 3D porous scaffold with microchannels, where the bridging by a large bony callus was observed at 12 weeks post-surgery. (
  • Bone regeneration and aesthetic outcomes may be compromised when immediate implants are placed at extraction sites with dehiscence defects. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare, in a monkey model, peri-implant bone regeneration and implant stability after immediate implant placement into tooth sockets with facial wall defects in two treatment groups. (
  • Epiphyseal bone healing improved in all the osteochondral defects regardless of treatment, although PEMFs alone did not significantly improve the reconstruction of subchondral bone in comparison to treatment with scaffold alone. (
  • We have developed an electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) poly-caprolactone (PCL)- triphasic bioceramic(HAB) scaffold to biomimic native tissue and we tested its ability to support osteogenic differentiation of stromal stem cells ( MSC) and its suitability for regeneration of craniofa- cial defects. (
  • Bi-phasic osteochondral scaffolds were prepared using coralline aragonite with different modifications, including 1- to 2-mm-deep drilled channels in the cartilage phase (Group 1, n = 7) or in the bone phase (Group 2, n = 8), and compared with unmodified coral cylinders (Group 3, n = 8) as well as empty control defects (Group 4, n = 4). (
  • Osteochondral defects (6 mm diameter, 8 mm depth) were made in medial and lateral femoral condyles of 14 goats, and the scaffolds were implanted according to a randomization chart. (
  • Our new nanodelivery method has potential clinical application for the repair of large bone defects. (
  • Exosomes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPS-MSC-Exos) were combined with tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to repair critical-sized calvarial bone defects, and the efficacy was assessed by histological examination. (
  • These results indicate that naturally secreted nanocarriers-exosomes can be used as a bioactive material to improve the bioactivity of the biomaterials, and that hiPS-MSC-Exos combined with β-TCP scaffolds can be potentially used for repairing bone defects. (
  • The effective reconstruction of bone defects is a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery. (
  • Bioactive materials provide an alternative solution for the repair and regeneration of bone defects. (
  • It was hypothesized that melatonin and/or PRP would enhance the osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of calcium aluminate (CA) scaffolds to promote bone regeneration in a model of calvarial defects. (
  • Implantation of CA-Mel scaffolds into critical size calvarial defects in female, ovariectomized rats showed that the CA-Mel scaffolds were biocompatible, allowed for tissue infiltration and showed evidence of scaffold biodegradation by 3 and 6 months. (
  • Critical-size bone defects - due to tumor removals, gun shot wounds and other traumatic injuries - cannot heal on their own, so scientists are searching for the perfect combination of material and mechanism that will guide the growth of new tissue. (
  • Then the nCS was sterilized by glow discharge treatment (GDT) to make it available for use as a sterilized synthetic graft material for the treatment of bone defects or periodontal defects to induce bone and periodontal tissue regeneration. (
  • The present thesis was focused on the design and development of novel porous bioactive ceramic materials and scaffolds addressed to the regeneration of large and load-bearing bone defects. (
  • An alginate-based hybrid system for growth factor delivery in the functional repair of large bone defects. (
  • Biological aspects of segmental bone defects management. (
  • A total of 60 full thickness radial bone defects with a length of 5 mm were created in 60 male Wistar rats. (
  • Healing of the bone defects were evaluated clinically and radiologically on days 0, 28, 42 and 56 after operation while the biomechanical testing and histopathological examination were performed on the 56th day after surgery. (
  • Comparative study on the healing potential of chitosan, polymethylmethacrylate, and demineralized bone matrix in radial bone defects of rat. (
  • The management of bone defects in periarticular knee injuries: a review article. (
  • CNTps have the potential not only as artificial bones for the treatment of bone defects, but also as scaffolds for regenerative medicine using tissue engineering approaches. (
  • observed a higher amount of mineralized tissue (MT) with functionalized scaffolds within 12 weeks of in vivo implantation in a larger group of rats with 8.5 mm critical cranial defects. (
  • The results supported the BTE strategies developed in the study to form an osteo-promotive multifunctional scaffold that could be implanted in vivo to repair critical defects. (
  • As a result, healing critical size defects in flat bones, such as the cranium is a challenge requiring optimized BTE strategies. (
  • In conclusion, as a graft material for bone defects, low-oxygen simulated cobalt-doped bioactive glass scaffold is promising. (
  • Bone defects and non-unions caused by trauma, tumor resection, pathological degeneration, or congenital deformity have been traditionally repaired by using autografts and allografts. (
  • More than 1.5 million people undergo bone graft procedures annually in the US to repair defects that will not heal spontaneously. (
  • Researchers report initial experiments with hyperelastic bone in rats with surgically created defects of the top of the skull. (
  • Minimally invasive outpatient intervention addresses the defects associated with subchondral bone marrow lesions. (
  • At 24 weeks in vivo, DIPY-3DPBC scaffolds demonstrated volumetrically significant osteogenic regeneration of calvarial and alveolar defects comparable to autogenous bone graft with favorable biodegradation of the bioactive ceramic component in vivo. (
  • Scaffolds were implanted into 3-mm-diameter critical-size defects prepared using a biopsy punch through the center of the xiphoid. (
  • 0.05), which was distributed homogeneously throughout the defects in comparison to scaffolds containing only the FGF2-variant. (
  • These results demonstrate that endogenous repair of chondral defects can be achieved in the absence of exogenous cells or bone marrow, suggesting that a similar approach may be successful for treating chondral lesions clinically. (
  • A leader in the exciting and emerging field of tissue engineering , Chen's interdisciplinary research team is working with the 3-D-Bioplotter (printer) in the University of Saskatchewan's Bio-fabrication Laboratory to develop new ways to help restore bone function in individuals who have suffered serious trauma, infection, disease or defects. (
  • Previous efforts in this pioneering field of research haven't been successful in providing long-term or permanent stable solutions to restoring bone function, particularly for large bone defects and damage, since bone tissue has a limited capacity to repair itself. (
  • Reconstructive bone surgery techniques commonly utilize two sources of material for repairing bone defects caused by congenital anomaly, disease, or trauma. (
  • Experimental defects in animal calvaria were recovered by implantation of bio-absorbable scaffold materials (acidic gelatins) having slow-release growth factors. (
  • Since delivery systems for multiple cytokines have been in great demand due to the requirement of complicated biological processes, we believe that this new binary delivery system could be customized to design other dual delivery systems for improving bone-repairing biomaterials with higher regenerative efficiency. (
  • The rhCol-PLA scaffolds were assessed for their relative performance in simulated synovial fluids of 1 and 4 mg/mL sodium hyaluronate with application of model-free analysis with Biomaterials Enhanced Simulation Test (BEST). (
  • In their mission to design new biomaterials that promote tissue regeneration, Drexel University researchers have identified how inflammation, when precisely controlled, is crucial to bone repair . (
  • Spiller's collaborators at the University of Sydney in Australia recently designed new ceramic scaffolds that promoted bone regeneration in animals, although the researchers did not know why these particular biomaterials thrived. (
  • Printing and prototyping technologies are finding wide application in making biomaterials and material scaffolds. (
  • The future of tissue regeneration lies in "regenerative engineering," with biomaterials playing a key role. (
  • We discussed with Prof. Hutmacher collaboration in the field of biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. (
  • The novel biomaterials can be further functionalized with bioactive molecules for biocompatibility by enhancing osteoinductivity (induce osteogenesis to initiate bone healing). (
  • [ 5 ][ 6 ] In order to improve in vivo the performance of synthetic biomaterials, the development of 3D scaffolds with enhanced angiogenic and osteogenic capacity is receiving considerable attention. (
  • Scaffold biomaterials for tissue engineering can be produced in many different ways depending on the applications and the materials used. (
  • First we review the approach used in tissue engineering in the development of scaffolds and the interactions existing between biomaterials, cells and mechanical stimuli. (
  • Other aspect of particular importance is that has been increasing interest in the use of pharmacological agents to promote tissue regeneration around implanted biomaterials. (
  • This projects involves the development of novel scaffolds and biomaterials for bone and cartilage regeneration. (
  • Her research focuses on biomaterials and biomechanics, including soft tissues and synthetic polymers, and microstructural cues in CaP-based materials for bone regeneration. (
  • The composite phase is combination of biomaterials to provide cells with the optimal environment for tissue regeneration. (
  • This may then be followed by continuously providing a mineralization perfusion fluid flow through the scaffold at a flow rate to provide dynamic intrafibrillar mineralization of the scaffold and form a collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold. (
  • One may optionally provide the scaffold with bone tissue forming cells and then deliver a perfusion fluid including oxygen and one or more nutrients through the collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold and to the bone tissue forming cells at a flow rate such that the bone tissue forming cells remodel the collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold and form a bone tissue extracellular matrix. (
  • In this study, three-dimensional porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds have been mixed with different components, including single walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), micro-hydroxyapatite particles (HA), and BMP2, and treated with plasma (PT), to obtain four different nanocomposites: PLLA + CNT, PLLA + CNTHA, PLLA + CNT + HA + BMP2 and PLLA + CNT + HA + PT. (
  • In order to increase the efficiency of the delivered BMPs, we designed cryostructured collagen scaffolds functionalized with hydroxyapatite, mimicking the structure of cortical bone (aligned porosity, anisotropic) or trabecular bone (random distributed porosity, isotropic). (
  • A calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCA) layer was present on both SBF-treated scaffolds, with higher number and larger bone-like apatite nodule formation in the 2x SBF case. (
  • Researchers from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) have designed and fabricated a high performing self-fitting bone scaffold by combining a shape memory foam and hydroxyapatite (the principal mineral component of bone tissue). (
  • The novel scaffold[2] made of shape memory polyurethane foam (a type of plastic material) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-particles is characterized by its remarkable self-fitting effect. (
  • We hypothesize the joining of a porous trabecular scaffold with the addition of hydroxyapatite (HAp), pre-vascularized cortical bone scaffold and HAp columns will promote the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) along the osteoblastic and angiogenic lineage for improved mechanics and graft viability in vivo. (
  • For this situation, a 3D poly(lactide- co -glycolide)/hydroxyapatite porous scaffold, which was much favorable for transfer of nutrients to and waste products from the cells in the pores, was developed in this study. (
  • Whereas hydroxyapatite scaffolds fabricated by SFF had connective macropores, those by PRM formed a closed pore external surface with internally interconnected pores. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of scaffolds of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) with hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/βTCP) incorporating simvastatin to verify if this association could be promising for future clinic application. (
  • Collagen (COL) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are the major components of bone, therefore, COL-HAp composites have been widely used as bone substitutes to promote bone regeneration. (
  • Tsai S-W, Huang S-S, Yu W-X, Hsu Y-W, Hsu F-Y. Collagen Scaffolds Containing Hydroxyapatite-CaO Fiber Fragments for Bone Tissue Engineering. (
  • Highly porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were developed as bone graft substitutes using a template coating process, characterized, and seeded with bone marrow- derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). (
  • Lima PAL, Resende CX, Soares GD de Almeida, Anselme K, Almeida LE (2013) Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. (
  • We synthetized dentin-like scaffolds using gelatin biomineralized with magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite and blended it with alginate. (
  • The current use of calcium phosphate (Ca/P) materials (e.g., hydroxyapatite and β-tricalciumphosphate) similar to the mineral phase of the tooth (and bone) is a promising solution used in dental reconstructive surgery. (
  • The mechanical properties and osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds with multi-scale porosity. (
  • To accomplish this, they generated a bilayered scaffold architecture that integrated a resorbable biphasic nano-hydroxyapatite-calcium sulphate ceramic nano-cement (NC) in the upper layer and silk-bioglass-hydroxyapatite composite porous cryogel (CG) as an underlying layer. (
  • The scaffolds can control release Co 2+ ions and convert into hydroxyapatite soaking in simulative body fluids (SBF). (
  • Many investigators have reported hydroxyapatite (Hap) coating on various implants, and it is know that hydroxyapatite coating stimulates bone formation 6 . (
  • Calcium phosphate graphene (CaPG) intrinsically induces osteogenesis in vitro and in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), can induce ectopic bone formation in vivo. (
  • In vivo results allow us to consider this scaffold as a promising biomaterial to be applied in bone tissue engineering. (
  • In vivo, anisotropic scaffolds demonstrated better bone regeneration capabilities in a rat femoral critical-size defect model by increasing the defect bridging. (
  • We evaluate capillarity induced by micropores as a mechanism that affects bone growth in vivo. (
  • However, the in vivo bone repair effects of graphene-based scaffolds remain unknown. (
  • Our findings demonstrate that the formation of a rough HCA layer on bioactive glass porous scaffolds enhanced preosteoblast maturation in vitro, as well as bone formation in vivo. (
  • Importantly, the implanted cells survived for 8 weeks in vivo and some of the cells might differentiate into endothelial cells and osteoblasts induced by the presence of VEGF and BMP-2 in the scaffolds to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis. (
  • Therefore, the survival time and fate of the seeded cells in vivo plays an important role in influencing the effectiveness of tissue regeneration. (
  • The average pore size of the scaffold is 670 μm (diameter of a human hair is around 100 μm), which is close to that of trabecular bone (the inner layer of bone) and thus mimics the actual in vivo microenvironment. (
  • Most TE options for bone replacement seek to replace only the trabecular bone leading to low mechanical properties or lack the ability to promote early vascularization in vivo. (
  • Efficacy of the scaffolds have been shown in in vivo pig studies. (
  • A great effort has been pursued to develop suitable scaffolds for the restoration of a variety of tissues and a huge number of protocols ranging from in vitro to in vivo studies, the latter further differentiating into several procedures depending on the type of implantation (i.e., subcutaneous or orthotopic) and the model adopted (i.e., animal or human), have been developed. (
  • In this regard, the present paper aims to review the results of in vivo tissue engineering experimentations, focusing on the role of the scaffold and its specificity with respect to the tissue to be regenerated, in order to verify whether an extracellular matrix-like device, as usually stated, could promote an expected positive outcome. (
  • In addition, the bone regeneration ability of the COL-HANF scaffold was examined by using a rabbit condylar defect model in vivo. (
  • Results indicate that the lyophilized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibrous scaffold/AdCMVhBMP2 can efficiently release and transduce cells in vitro and in vivo , and secrete functional hBMP-2 to promote osteogenic differentiation in vitro , and new bone generation in vivo . (
  • Importantly, the amount of newly formed bone covered >80% of the bone defect area 8 weeks post-implantation in vivo , in which the defect could not be repaired without any treatment in general. (
  • Our data demonstrate that the lyophilized PLGA nanofibrous scaffold/AdCMV-hBMP2 created herein stably and efficiently release functional viral vector to transduce local cells, resulting in secretion of hBMP-2 and promote new bone formation in vivo . (
  • The biocompatibility of CA and CA-Mel scaffolds were tested in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Porosity of bone substitutes is prerequisite, in order to allow high density of seeded cells and to support neovascularization when being implanted in vivo. (
  • The critical animal in vivo models were used to evaluate the de novo nCS and nCA+PGA composite effects on the bone and periodontal tissue regeneration. (
  • Here, we tested the hypothesis that in vivo loading would enhance bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-mediated bone regeneration in the presence of a load-bearing PLDL scaffold, whose pores and central core were filled with BMP-2-releasing alginate hydrogel. (
  • First, we evaluated the effects of in vivo mechanical loading on bone regeneration in the structural scaffolds. (
  • Second, we compared scaffold-mediated bone regeneration, independent of mechanical loading, with alginate hydrogel constructs, without the structural scaffold, that have been shown previously to facilitate in vivo mechanical stimulation of bone formation. (
  • Effects of in vivo mechanical loading on large bone defect regeneration. (
  • Mechanical regulation of vascular growth and tissue regeneration in vivo. (
  • In vivo model for evaluating the effects of mechanical stimulation on tissue-engineered bone repair. (
  • 3D printed tricalcium phosphate bone tissue engineering scaffolds: effect of SrO and MgO doping on in vivo osteogenesis in a rat distal femoral defect model. (
  • Systemic administration of omeprazole interferes with bone healing and implant osseointegration: an in vivo study on rat tibiae. (
  • Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo biological results suggested that the 3D-printed P-PUU scaffolds possessed excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity to facilitate new bone formation. (
  • Here, we present a degradable, graphene-based material that mimics the chemical and mechanical composition of bone, promotes differentiation of stem cells, and leads to the formation of new bone in an animal model. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that functional graphenic materials (FGMs) could serve as an osteoinductive scaffold: recruiting native cells to the site of injury and promoting differentiation into bone cells. (
  • Synthetic three-dimensional scaffolds for application to the regeneration of bone tissue should present an architecture similar to bone extracellular matrix and provide a suitable microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, ensuring tissue growth [1][2]. (
  • Iron-phosphate glass fiber scaffolds for the hard-soft interface regeneration: the effect of fiber diameter and flow culture condition on cell survival and differentiation. (
  • In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic "extracellular matrix"-like scaffolds. (
  • Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the femur of orthopaedic patients, seeded on the scaffolds and cultured under osteogenic induction up to differentiation and mineralization. (
  • The modification of a polymeric scaffold with reinforcing components which also work as biomimetic cues for cells can effectively direct osteoprogenitor cells differentiation, so as to shorten the time required for mineralization. (
  • The tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold is cytocompatible and favored cementogenic, fibrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle stem cells. (
  • In vitro, the GO-Cu coating enhances the adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). (
  • Stem cell-based tissue engineering shows promise for bone regeneration and requires artificial microenvironments to enhance the survival, proliferation and differentiation of the seeded cells. (
  • The porous trabecular scaffold with HAp promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. (
  • The typical structure was more beneficial for the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). (
  • The most important rule of this scaffolds is to act as a bioactive template for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation and then bone ingrowth and regeneration. (
  • The main requirements for an effective bone engineering strategy include sufficient number of bone-forming cells, scaffold capable of conducting these cells and providing adequate blood supply, and growth factors able to induce cell differentiation. (
  • The technical approach to address this issue is summarized into the well-known tissue engineering paradigm [ 3 ], and one of its key points specifically focuses on the definition of a viable and instructive scaffold for cell seeding, proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the case of stem cells. (
  • Culturing human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and human bone marrow derived MSC seeded on PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold showed enhanced cell proliferation and in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. (
  • The alkaline phosphatase activity and the protein expression levels of OCN and BSP showed that compared with COL alone, the COL-HANF scaffold promoted the differentiation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can induce osteoblast differentiation and promote new bone formation. (
  • We evaluated the in vitro effects of hiPSC-MSC-Exos on the proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) by cell-counting, scratch assays, and qRT-PCR, respectively. (
  • An ideal scaffold should address multiple physicochemical and biological requirements (e.g. biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity) and serve as a 3D porous matrix, with interconnected open porosity, for cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation and subsequent extra-cellular matrix (ECM) development. (
  • Results indicated the distinct effect of scaffold architecture and the mode of growth factor delivery on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, enabling us to design multifunctional scaffolds capable of controlling bone healing. (
  • Importantly, hMSCs cultured with scaffolds releasing the PDGF to BMP-2 schedule showed similar amounts of ALP staining to hMSCs cultured with BMP-2 alone, suggesting that the sequential schedule of PDGF to BMP-2 presentation promotes differentiation of hMSCs toward an osteoblast phenotype while also increasing cellular infiltration of the scaffold. (
  • Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. (
  • A one-step TE procedure, based on the use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) transplantation, has gained popularity because it overcomes the limits and risks of the in vitro MSC expansion procedures (long times, costs, cell transformation, contamination and unnatural differentiation), usually performed to obtain a useful amount of cells for scaffold colonization. (
  • The inflammatory joint microenvironment, produced by the lesion itself or subsequent to the surgical procedure, should be considered as an important variable that causes MSC differentiation towards a fibroblastic phenotype and might also affect scaffold degradation [ 8 ]. (
  • Efforts to induce vascular growth into tissue-engineered scaffolds have recently been dedicated to developing novel strategies to deliver specific biological factors that direct the recruitment of endothelial cell (EC) progenitors and their differentiation. (
  • This creates a need for more advanced studies that include aspects of mechanobiology in tissue engineering in order to be able to predict over time the growth and differentiation of tissues within scaffolds. (
  • Traditionally, tissue engineering consists of harvesting cells from a patient, expanding them in vitro and culturing them into a biomaterial (also called a scaffold) that serves as a structural framework to allow cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation into a controlled phenotype ( Langer & Vacanti 1993 ). (
  • The brush-supported GFs significantly influenced hMSCs osteochondral differentiation when the scaffolds were homogenously modified, yet no effect was observed in the gradient scaffolds. (
  • Apatite layer formed by immersion in artificial body fluid contained carbonate, resembled natural bone, and significantly accelerated osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. (
  • Results: Regarding cartilage, the addition of BMC to the scaffold improved cell parameters and the PEMF stimulation improved both cell and matrix parameters compared with scaffold alone. (
  • The combination of BMC and PEMFs further improved osteochondral regeneration: there was an improvement in macroscopic, cartilage cellularity and matrix parameters and a reduction in the percentage of cartilage under the tidemark. (
  • The objective of this study was to examine whether different mechanical modifications and/or impregnation of hyaluronic acid (HA) might enhance aragonite-based scaffold properties for the regeneration of cartilage and bone in an animal model. (
  • After 6 months, cartilage and bone regeneration were evaluated macroscopically and histologically by an external laboratory. (
  • Group 1 implants were replaced by newly formed hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone (combined histological evaluation according to the ICRS II-2010 and O'Driscoll et al. (
  • Although native coral is an excellent material for bone repair, as a stand-alone material implant, it does not regenerate hyaline cartilage. (
  • The modified implant shows young hyaline cartilage regeneration. (
  • Scaffolds for articular cartilage repair have to be optimally biodegradable with simultaneous promotion of hyaline cartilage formation under rather complex biomechanical and physiological conditions. (
  • It has been generally accepted that scaffold structure and composition would be the best when it mimics the structure of native cartilage. (
  • Collectively the data indicated that a successful articular cartilage repair require lower stiffness of the scaffold compared to surrounding cartilage yet matching the strain compliance both in static and dynamic conditions. (
  • The results encourage further development of intelligent scaffold structures for optimal articular cartilage repair rather than simply trying to imitate the respective original tissue. (
  • One of the most challenging applications of biomedical scaffolds is the articular cartilage (AC) repair. (
  • It has proven much easier to regenerate bone than cartilage, despite the greater simplicity of cartilage. (
  • Tissue engineering of bone and cartilage has progressed from simple to sophisticated materials with defined porosity, surface features, and the ability to deliver biological factors. (
  • Scaffolds for tissue engineering bone and cartilage provide promising solutions that increase healing and decrease need for complicated surgical procedures. (
  • Regenerative therapy for osteochondral lesions aims to produce a durable cartilage-like and bone tissues with the same structure and function as the native cartilage and well integrated with the surrounding tissues [ 1 ]. (
  • Natural bone formation occurs either via endochondral ossification within tubular bones (e.g. phalanges, femur) or during cartilage deposition, followed by ossification. (
  • In a third process, intramembranous direct ossification can occur in flat bones (skull, pelvis) without cartilage formation. (
  • Drug-eluting scaffolds for bone and cartilage regeneration. (
  • Applies the process of tissue engineering to grow cells on scaffolds using the patient's own healthy knee cartilage tissue. (
  • This study used a critical-size chondral defect model in immunocompromised rat xiphoid cartilage to test whether endogenous chondrogenesis could be achieved using human bone matrix scaffolds to deliver human cartilage particles and/or a variant isoform of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2-variant). (
  • Decellularized and demineralized human bone matrix scaffolds loaded with human articular cartilage particles or heat-inactivated cartilage particles were combined with different doses of the FGF2-variant. (
  • These effects were less pronounced when scaffolds with heat-inactivated cartilage particles were used. (
  • Engineering the osteochondral tissue presents some challenges mainly relying in its function of transition from the subchondral bone to articular cartilage and the gradual variation in several biological, mechanical, and structural features. (
  • The template or scaffold was composed of glycosaminoglycan (sugar/proteins that make up cartilage tissue) and was designed to have pores into which cells could grow. (
  • A tri-layered scaffolding approach is adopted for the complete and concurrent regeneration of hard tissues-cementum and alveolar bone-and soft tissue-the periodontal ligament (PDL)-at a periodontal defect site. (
  • The tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with growth factors demonstrates complete defect closure and healing with new cancellous-like tissue formation on microcomputed tomography analysis. (
  • In an in situ bone regeneration model of a rabbit radius large segmental defect, the system efficiently accelerated the whole regenerative process, with the highest bone formation amount from an early stage and the highest degree of regenerative completion. (
  • Our study supports the hypothesis that endogenous bone defect regeneration can be promoted by mechanobiologically optimized Ti-mesh scaffolds. (
  • Our research team further examined the performance of the self-fitting scaffold in facilitating bone regeneration through a rabbit femoral defect study. (
  • Based on the results, the 3D porous scaffold with microchannels was a promising candidate for bone defect repair. (
  • In eight control monkeys, the bony defect was reconstructed with autogenous particulate bone, whereas in 10 test monkeys a polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffold was used. (
  • however, bone regeneration was seen only at areas adjacent to a bony wall of the defect. (
  • It was concluded that although the use of a PCL-TCP scaffold showed better maintenance of the alveolar contour as compared to autogenous particulate bone at 6 months, there was minimal bone regeneration within the defect. (
  • b-tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP) is one of the mostly used bioceramic for bone defect filling during surgery. (
  • Background: The study aimed to evaluate the combined effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) biophysical stimulation and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) in osteochondral defect healing in comparison to the treatment with scaffold alone. (
  • Half of the animals were stimulated by PEMFs (75 Hz, 1.5 mT, 4 h/day) and at 40 d, macroscopic, histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed to evaluate osteochondral defect regeneration. (
  • To test the hypothesis that cell-seeded HA scaffolds improve bone regeneration, HA scaffolds without cell seeding (HA-empty), HA scaffolds with 1.5 X 10(exp4) BMSCs (HA-low), and HA scaffolds with 1.5 X 10(exp6) BMSCs (HA-high) were implanted in a 10-mm rabbit radius segmental defect model for 4 and 8 weeks. (
  • Treatment of bone defect, especially large bone defect, is still a challenge for physicians clinically. (
  • However, application of exosomes in bone defect repair and regeneration has been rarely reported, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms. (
  • Autologous and allogenic bone grafting are the most widely used treatments for bone defect repair. (
  • After using the non-sintered creos xenogain bone substitute, I appreciated its handling properties and I see its high hydrophilicity as a biological advantage in peri-implant defect regeneration and sinus grafting. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of honey bee venom (BV) and royal jelly (RJ) alongside chitosan scaffold (CS) in improving radius bone defect in rats. (
  • Defect healing in a rodent model is observed after 12 weeks of scaffold implantation at the site of defect with cell proliferation, radiography, micro-CT and histology analyses. (
  • mol%) glass scaffolds for bone tissues repairing and blood vessel formation in the critical-sized cranial defect site of rats and their effects on the hBMSCs in vitro were researched. (
  • Bioactive foam can be molded to skull bone lost to injury, surgery, or birth defect. (
  • Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on scaffolds to evaluate hBMSC attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis-related gene expression. (
  • The in vitro results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds stimulated the adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenesis-related gene expression of hBMSCs. (
  • A porous bioactive scaffold promoting osteogenesis and angio- genesis is required for clinical applications. (
  • We found that the exosome/β-TCP combination scaffolds could enhance osteogenesis as compared to pure β-TCP scaffolds. (
  • We propose that the exosomes can enhance the osteoinductivity of β-TCP through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of hBMSCs, which means that the exosome/β-TCP combination scaffolds possess better osteogenesis activity than pure β-TCP scaffolds. (
  • The MT values recorded in the study during bone regeneration were significantly higher than osteogenesis rates on the non-functionalized CG or BCS scaffolds alone (without bioactive molecules). (
  • 10. The method of claim 1 wherein the periosteal cells are cultured in a matrix in media comprising inducers of osteogenesis selected from the group consisting of factors inducing bone formation, enzymes enhancing calcification, enzymes enhancing phosphorus deposition, vitamins, and prostaglandins. (
  • Synthetic biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with uniformly interconnected pore structure, appropriate mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, and even enhanced osteogenesis ability are urgently required for in situ bone regeneration. (
  • The small molecular PP itself was confirmed for the first time to regulate osteogenesis of osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner and the optimum concentration for osteoconductivity was about ∼0.5 mM, which suggests that PP molecules, together with the mechanical behavior, nitrogen-contents, and hydrophilicity of P-PUUs, play an important role in enhancing the osteoconductive ability of P-PUU scaffolds. (
  • Characterization of regenerated bone reveals osteogenesis of organized, vascularized bone with histologic and mechanical characteristics comparable to native bone. (
  • The long-term survival of seeded cells after transplantation along with biomaterial scaffolds is a prerequisite for the cells to promote tissue regeneration by directly participating in the process or by secreting key growth factors. (
  • The goal of these studies was to develop and evaluate biocompatible nano scale calcium sulfate (nCS) and propylene glycol alginate (PGA) based composite scaffolds as a third generation biomaterial device to deliver growth factors for bone and periodontal tissue regeneration. (
  • These committed cells can form an extracellular matrix to produce the desired tissue within the biomaterial scaffold. (
  • The magnetic phase acted as a sort of cross-linking agent for the collagen, inducing a chemico-physical-mechanical stabilization of the material and allowing us to control the porosity network of the scaffold. (
  • In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability. (
  • Furthermore, by varying pore parameters, the biodegradation rate of the scaffolds is affected, since higher porosity increases surface area per unit volume. (
  • In detail, the chemical-physical features of the scaffolds, mimicking those of natural tissue, facilitate the cell adhesion, and the porosity is suitable for long-term cell colonization and fine cell-material interactions. (
  • A rationale design and optimization of the different processes involved in the development of the new scaffolds allowed to obtain bioceramics exhibiting adequate bioactivity, porosity and promising mechanical performance, as assessed by robust physicochemical, morphological, mechanical and biological characterizations. (
  • A 3-dimensional, PCL (polycaprolactone)-based bone substitute was fabricated by a bio-plotting system, which enables us to control the shape and porosity. (
  • The appropriate porosity and bioactivity allows the in-growth of bone tissue to achieve full integration with the living bones and the factors that affect the osteoconduction in the porous materials are the pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and bioactivity 2 . (
  • The 3D-printed P-PUU scaffolds exhibited an interconnected porous structure of about 450 μm in macropore size and about 75% in porosity. (
  • The research could help to develop the next generation of hydrogel systems with high porosity and improve bone graft materials. (
  • Micro-computed tomography (µCT) confirmed that the PLLA-BBG scaffolds containing ≈ 25% of BBGs (w/w) exhibited randomly interconnected porous (58 to 62% of interconnectivity and 53 to 67% of porosity) with mean pore diameters higher that 100 µm. (
  • Novel preparation of controlled porosity particle/fibre loaded scaffolds using a hybrid micro-fluidic and electrohydrodynamic technique. (
  • Data are from the 'Porous silk scaffolds for delivery of growth factors and stem cells to enhance bone regeneration' study whose authors may be contacted at [email protected] . (
  • Eight weeks after implantation, the bioactive glass scaffolds with 3wt % CoO remarkablely enhance bone regeneration and blood vascularized network at the defective site. (
  • Material characterization of the scaffold confirmed pore ranges necessary for neovascularization and osteoblast infiltration and mechanical properties comparable to native bone. (
  • Fabrication and Characterization of Porous beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffold for Bone Regeneration', نشریه علمی پژوهشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی , 2(2), pp. 1-4. (
  • This work emphasizes the structural, physio-chemical characterization and cell biological efficiency analysis of novel inorganic calcium (only calcium phosphate and in combination of calcium phosphate & CaCO 3 ) filled bacterial cellulose (BC) based hydrogel scaffolds. (
  • This review provides perspective on porous scaffold manufacturing, characterization and application, and can be used to inform future scaffold design. (
  • Then, scaffold fabrication through CAD is presented and characterization of existing scaffolds through computed images is reviewed. (
  • Fabrication and characterization of porous poly(L-lactide) scaffolds using solid-liquid phase separation. (
  • In the article entitled "Three-Dimension-Printed Porous Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds with Delayed rhBMP-2 Release for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Fixation," the researchers compared the use of four approaches, including microspheres, to reduce the initial burst release of rhBMP-2 from the scaffold and extend its release over time. (
  • This technology is transformative because it will be the first synthetic bone graft to contain both trabecular and cortical bone structures and be designed for vascularized bone growth and load-bearing applications. (
  • Hence, we concluded that the COL-HANF scaffold has potential as a bone graft for bone tissue engineering. (
  • Over 500,000 bone graft or bio-implant procedures are performed annually in the United States. (
  • For quick and easy application of the graft, creos xenogain bone substitutes are delivered sterile and come either in a vial, in a syringe or in a bowl ready for mixing. (
  • 4 The graft integrates with the newly formed bone, building a basis for successful implant placement. (
  • Selection of animal models for pre-clinical strategies in evaluating the fracture healing, bone graft substitutes and bone tissue regeneration and engineering. (
  • A method by which immune responses to cortical bone grafts and other substrates (e.g., cement, IPN, etc.) can be minimized and at the same time graft osteoinductive potential can be improved, and improved graft substrate materials are disclosed. (
  • Bioceramics have a long history of being used as a bone graft substitute in orthopedic, dental and sports medicine applications. (
  • The efficacy of this construct was compared to autologous bone graft, the clinical standard of care in pediatric craniofacial reconstruction, with attention paid to volume of regenerated bone by 3D reconstruction, histologic and mechanical properties of regenerated bone, and long-term safety regarding potential craniofacial growth restriction. (
  • An ideal treatment consists of a scaffold that promotes regeneration, matches the chemical and mechanical properties of bone, and degrades with a timeline matching the healing process. (
  • In summary, this mussel-inspired GO/Ti hybrid scaffold combined the good mechanical properties of Ti scaffolds and the advantages of GO nanosheets. (
  • In vitro, both scaffolds presented similar mechanical properties, rhBMP-2 retention and delivery capacity, as well as scaffold degradation time. (
  • In addition, for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, essential characteristics, such as a highly porous structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, slow degradation and suitable surface chemistry are key [13] . (
  • Porous scaffolds were fabricated by SFF and PRM for a comparison of physical and mechanical properties of scaffold. (
  • Recently, nanoindentation techniques have gained significant attention in the area of soft biological tissues and are being rapidly adopted to investigate mechanical properties of scaffolds, mimicking soft tissues, and elucidate the effect of degradation process in a wet environment. (
  • A common design constraint in functional tissue engineering is that scaffolds intended for use in load-bearing sites possess similar mechanical properties to the replaced tissue. (
  • By regulating the contents of PP in P-PUU scaffolds, their mechanical properties could be moderated, and P-PUU1.4 scaffolds with the highest PP contents exhibited the highest compressive modulus (155.9 ± 5.7 MPa) and strength (14.8 ± 1.1 MPa). (
  • Therefore, the 3D-printed P-PUU scaffolds, with suitable interconnected pore structure, appropriate mechanical properties, and intrinsically osteoconductive ability, should provide a promising alternative for bone regeneration. (
  • The researchers told Medical News Today that no clinical studies have yet taken place, as the team is still working on improving the mechanical properties of scaffolds. (
  • Conventional methods of incorporation of various growth factors, proteins, and/or peptides on or in scaffold materials via different crosslinking and conjugation techniques are often tedious and may affect scaffold's physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. (
  • Renal Osteodystrophy which is referred to as Mineral Bone Disorder is a result of imbalance in calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone and Vitamin D levels. (
  • Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with both macropores and micropores (MP) show enhanced bone healing compared to those with macropores and no micropores (NMP), but the role of micropores is unclear. (
  • The aqueous soluble graphene oxide-copper nanocomposites (GO-Cu) are fabricated, which are used to coat porous calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds for vascularized bone regeneration. (
  • Ion release profile studies using ICP-OES of the scaffold showed release of calcium and silica ions, required for initiation of bioactivity. (
  • FTIR and TG analysis indicates the presence of BC and inorganic calcium within the hydrogel scaffolds. (
  • Swelling study indicates significant swelling ability in both calcium phosphate filled and calcium phosphate & CaCO 3 filled hydrogel scaffolds. (
  • Compressive strength (0.24-0.60 MPa) of the calcium filled hydrogel scaffolds are similar like trabecular bone. (
  • Initial SEM micrographs after 12 hours show that HPDL and HOB cells do attach to nano calcium sulfate scaffolds. (
  • The MTT assay revealed that CAPSET® and nano calcium sulfate scaffolds exhibited similar levels of cell proliferation. (
  • Nano sized calcium sulfate and PGA composite scaffolds may provide a more efficient scaffold than nano sized calcium sulfate alone or standard sized calcium sulfate (CAPSET®) scaffolds for bone and periodontal tissue engineering. (
  • 1 , 2 With a calcium phosphate ratio that reflects the composition in human bone and a low crystalline structure, creos xenogain is accepted by the body as a suitable framework for bone formation. (
  • PDGF and BMP-2 were sequentially released from this hybrid calcium phosphate/alginate scaffold with the desired 3-day overlap in PDGF to BMP-2 delivery. (
  • To address this problem of the interface between alumina and bone, we have developed a novel calcium phosphate with Zn 2+ (CaP-Zn) coating onto porous alumina ceramic scaffold by impregnating with calcium phosphate/poly(vinyl alcohol) slurry. (
  • Of the many trace elements, zinc is reported to be involved in bone metabolism 7-10 , showing that Zn 2+ increases bone protein, calcium content, and alkaline phosphatase activity in rat calvaria 11 . (
  • This project will modify calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds with divalent cations to improve their mechanical, osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties for bone regeneration. (
  • Our approach is to use capillary action to impregnate biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds that have macro and microporosity, with cells at the time of implantation. (
  • The PLLA-BBG scaffolds presented a faster degradation rate with a constant release of inorganic species, which are capable to produce calcium phosphate structures at the surface of the material after 7 days of immersion in SBF (Ca/P ratio of ~1.7). (
  • Strong, biodegradable, and intrinsically osteoinductive implants have the capacity to revolutionize the treatment of severe bone injuries. (
  • Comprehensive solution of design, material selection and additive manufacturing process of biodegradable scaffold for long bone regeneration. (
  • The COL-HANF scaffold was biodegradable and promoted bone regeneration eight weeks after the operation. (
  • In this study, for the first time, a series of biodegradable piperazine (PP)-based polyurethane-urea (P-PUU) scaffolds with a gradient of PP contents were developed by air-driven extrusion 3D printing technology. (
  • Porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds prepared by thermally induced phase separation. (
  • Among other properties, these scaffolds should exhibit biocompatibility with the damaged tissue, interconnected pore network, pore size ranging from 100 to 300 µm, mechanical strength similar to bone tissue, and biodegradability at the rate at which tissue regenerates [3][4]. (
  • However, it is challenging to uniformly deposit GO on chemically inert Ti scaffolds, which have good biocompatibility and wide applications in bone engineering. (
  • Although scaffolds of PLGA+HA/βTCP with simvastatin presented good structural properties as verified on micrographs, the utilized concentration of simvastatin affected the biocompatibility. (
  • The in vitro biocompatibility of different nanofibrous scaffolds was determined by culturing human foetal osteoblasts and investigating the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization of cells. (
  • However, the biocompatibility of ceramics based on Al 2 O 3 requires further improvement so that it could have strong bonding to natural bone tissue. (
  • Presently, commercially available porous bone substitutes are manufactured by the sacrificial template method, direct foaming method, and polymer replication method (PRM). (
  • The creos xenogain portfolio comprises an extensive range of non-sintered xenogenic bone substitutes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedures. (
  • The osteogenic capacity of synthetic bone substitutes is will be highly stimulated by a well-established functional vascularized network. (
  • Chen's team is bioengineering bone substitutes (known as scaffolds) and employing the world-class imaging technology of Canada's only synchrotron in the Canadian Light Source facility on the U of S campus to track the effectiveness of their new bone regeneration strategies. (
  • Synthetic bone substitutes can be used to replace the lost material, but making these tough enough for the job can be a challenge. (
  • Recent developments in medical imaging technology, computer-aided design, and solid freeform fabrication (SFF), have made it possible to accurately produce porous synthetic bone scaffolds to fit the defected bone shape. (
  • Many fabrication methods have been investigated in attempts to achieve HA/TCP scaffolds with microporous structure enabling cell growth and nutrient transport. (
  • However, current 3D printing methods can only achieve the fabrication of HA/TCP scaffolds with certain range of microporous structure. (
  • Moreover, in bone tissue engineering, 3D printing appears as a versatile tool for the direct fabrication of personalized implants, by exploiting computer aided design (CAD) programs. (
  • The P-PUU ink of 60 wt % concentration was demonstrated to have appropriate viscosity for scaffold fabrication. (
  • A possible solution for osteochondral regeneration might be the design and fabrication of scaffolds presenting a gradient able to mimic this transition. (
  • However, the development of rapid prototyping techniques since the 1980s has enabled fabrication of fine-scale internal porous structures with the desired complexity, allowing a true engineering of the scaffold ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The research demonstrates the concept of combining 3D printing with other conventional scaffold fabrication techniques (freezing in this case) to obtain very fine micro-structural features. (
  • In conclusion, the tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with growth factors can serve as an alternative regenerative approach to achieve simultaneous and complete periodontal regeneration. (
  • We hypothesize that an anisotropic structure would enhance the osteoconductive properties of the scaffolds by increasing the regenerative performance of the provided rhBMP-2. (
  • Their findings, published this week in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface , show that a new type of ceramic scaffold causes inflammatory cells to behave in a way that is more regenerative than scaffolds that are currently used clinically. (
  • Bone tissue engineering requires the upregulation of several regenerative stages, including a critical early phase of angiogenesis. (
  • CNTp) for bone regenerative medicine. (
  • Synthetic, resorbable scaffolds for bone regeneration have potential to transform the clinical standard of care. (
  • Despite their potential, decades of research have failed to generate a synthetic material that incorporates all of the necessary characteristics of an ideal bone scaffold and cultivates an optimal environment for bone regeneration. (
  • For in vitro tissue engineering, synthetic scaffolds serve as the carrier and the living microenvironment for the transplanted stem cells [1] , [10] . (
  • Their 3D structure consists mainly of chemically or physically cross-linked hydrophilic polymers (natural or synthetic), whose ability to swell in aqueous medium lead to the entrapment of cells inside the scaffold and to high permeability of oxygen, nutrients and cellular metabolites [4]. (
  • So, the synthetic implants drew many attentions recently, for providing the requisite three-dimensional (3D) architecture to serve as a scaffold, a microenvironment for cell phenotype maintenance, and the indispensable osteogenic capacity for bone regeneration. (
  • When properly designed, bioceramics provide an ideal synthetic osteoconductive scaffold for bone regeneration. (
  • Data also showed that human adult mesenchymal stem cells grown on CA or CA-Mel scaffolds showed a time-dependent induction into osteoblasts over 14 days revealed through scanning electron microscopy and by alkaline phosphatase analyses. (
  • but affected proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. (
  • 3D cell culture with mesenchymal stem cells showed the promising properties of the new scaffolds for tooth regeneration. (
  • Previous studies have suggested that a sequential delivery of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could promote angiogenic tubule formation when delivered to in vitro cocultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) from a New Zealand white rabbits were seeded to the bone substitute. (
  • Regeneration is a slow process in flat bones (skull, pelvis) due to limited mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), requiring major cell recruitment from the periosteum or dura . (
  • Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on collagen scaffolds for the functional regeneration of injured rat uterus. (
  • Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have shown great promise in clinical applications. (
  • Bone marrow stromal cells and mesenchymal stem cells were better cultured with ME medium for cell proliferation, and were efficiently differentiated into osteoblasts with DME medium supplemented with vitamin C, Dex and beta-glycerol phosphate. (
  • A second x-ray will be taken following the same technique after two months (for assessment of bone healing as is practiced normally) and a final x-ray will be taken after 3 months of the first x-ray (normally done in clinics for assessment of socket prior to implantation. (
  • Three different fluorochromes were administered at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after implantation to identify differences in temporal bone growth patterns. (
  • It was observed from fluorescence histomorphometry analyses that an increased rate of bone infiltration occurred from 0 to 2 weeks (p less than 0.05) of implantation for the HA-high group (2.9 + or - 0.5 mm) as compared with HA-empty (1.8 + or - 0.8 mm) and HA-low (1.3 + or - 0.2 mm) groups. (
  • Nowadays, it is well established that effective tissue regeneration requires the implantation of scaffolds exhibiting tissue-mimicking compositional, morphological and mechanical features to promote the formation and maturation of new healthy tissue. (
  • Collectively, these data question the necessity of scaffold similarity to mature tissue at the time of implantation and emphasize development of an environment conducive to cellular activation of matrix production and ultimate functional regeneration. (
  • BM cells can be harvested easily from the patient's iliac crest, concentrated directly in the operating theatre and implanted arthroscopically once seeded onto a scaffold, thus avoiding the need for two surgical stages (one for cell harvesting and another for implantation) [ 4 ]. (
  • However, the associated grafting strategies introduced complications during material resorption post-implantation and repair, alongside other clinical complications at the contact site between the implant and original bone. (
  • The allograft is prepared by treating a section of cadaver bone to remove all soft tissue, then texturing the bone surface to produce a pattern of holes of selected size, density, and depth, and finally demineralizing the bone section to leave a rigid, insoluble collagen scaffold suitable for osteoinduction upon implantation. (
  • and then demineralizing said section by immersing the same in a demineralizing bath containing a protease inhibitor for retaining the bioactivity of the extracellular matrix proteins bound thereto and providing a rigid collagen scaffold for reconstructive allogenic implantation in a living subject. (
  • In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. (
  • De novo nCS or nCS and PGA composite with growth factors may enhance bone and periodontal tissue regeneration within the normal healing period of tissue and prohibit the retardation of regeneration of tissue due to slow degradation of remnants of grafted materials. (
  • Additionally, long-term degradation of scaffold constructs was evaluated. (
  • Bioactivity and degradation studies were performed by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and ultrapure water, respectively. (
  • In vitro performance of 13-93 bioactive glass fiber and trabecular scaffolds with MLO-A5 osteogenic cells. (
  • We also assess the influence on bone volume, bone distribution and trabecular thickness of scaffold macro- and microporosity, as well as the ability of scaffold structure to direct bone growth in scaffolds combining domains with different architectures at the millimeter scale. (
  • Microporosity increases trabecular thickness throughout the scaffold, while macropore size affects it only at the scaffold periphery. (
  • The compressive strength of the PolyU developed self-fitting scaffold is designed at 13.6MPa (Megapascal), which is comparable to that of trabecular bone. (
  • In summary, the aim was to verify the safety and efficacy of the scaffolds by biomechanical and biological tests with the hope that this research could promote the feasibility of using the scaffolds as a bone substitute. (
  • However, because this is the first explorative study on the combination of a biological and a biophysical treatment for osteochondral regeneration, future preclinical and clinical research should be focused on this topic to explore mechanisms of action and the correct clinical translation. (
  • Bone regeneration is a complex biological process, including the recruitment of osteoprogenitor cells in the injured tissue and the utilization of a porous scaffold along with growth factors to induce tissue formation. (
  • This new paradigm requires scaffolds that balance temporary mechanical function with mass transport to aid biological delivery and tissue regeneration ( Hollister, 2005 ). (
  • This project will investigate the use of biological agents in stimulating bone growth and inhibiting bone resorption. (
  • Overall, we showed that the proposed scaffolds present a tailored kinetics on the release of inorganic species and controlled biological response under conditions that mimic the bone physiological environment. (
  • Therefore, this technique seems promising to maintain the biological activity of growth factors covalently linked to 3D scaffolds, but needs to be further optimized in case biological gradients are desired. (
  • The hard phase is a bi-material ceramic part intended to mimic the biological and mechanical performance of bone tissue. (
  • The manufactured implant will not only provide patient-specific dimensional fitting but also fulfill the required mechanical and biological properties to promote regeneration of the targeted tissue," according to INKplant. (
  • In this work a hybrid porous scaffold containing chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol and bioactive glass was successfully obtained and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy. (
  • Herein, a mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-based scaffold with BMP-2 entrapment and IL-8-loaded chitosan microspheres (CMs) was developed. (
  • This study was performed to examine the capacity of a resorbable implant made from polylactide-co-glycolide acid (PGLA)-fleece combined with autologous bone marrow cells fixed with a fibrin/thrombin-clot in the weight-bearing area of the femoral condyle of mature sheep. (
  • This research was carried out to meet the increasing demand for bioactive scaffolds enabling bone regeneration, due to the several drawbacks affecting the use of autologous bone, especially for large bone reconstruction. (
  • Although the allogenetic and autologous bone implants are widely used, they suffer many limitations such as donor site morbidity, risk of disease transmission and high cost. (
  • They are autologous bone grafts harvested from the same patients in which they are then implanted, and foreign material (alloplastic) grafts. (
  • Autologous bone grafts are usually harvested from the calvarium, ribs, ilicac crests, and tibia. (
  • In addition, autologous grafts are limited in their size and shape, the quantity of bone obtainable, and often have unpredictable resorption rates. (
  • The effect of erythropoietin on autologous stem cell-mediated bone regeneration. (
  • Current treatments rely on surgical fixation of bone grafts or devices to impart structural stability at the site of injury. (
  • Thereafter, scientists developed vascularized calvarium bone grafts as a preferred choice for cranial reconstruction in additional studies. (
  • To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has evolved as a means to develop viable bone grafts. (
  • The method of the invention provides new types of bone grafts that incorporate into host bone more thoroughly and more rapidly, eliminating long-term complications, such as fracture, non-union, infection, and rejection. (
  • In the method of the invention, bone grafts or other substrates are modified to have an osteoinductive surface modification that the recipient's body will accept as its own tissue type and therefore will not reject or otherwise cause to fail. (
  • Cell proliferation on random scaffolds was significantly higher compared to the oriented ones. (
  • The results of cell proliferation, ALP activity and FESEM studies revealed that the combination of electrospinning of gelatin and electrospraying of HA yielded biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds with enhanced performances in terms of better cell proliferation, increased ALP activity and enhanced mineralization, making them potential substrates for bone tissue regeneration. (
  • Cell proliferation rate was found to be highest for the 95:5 scaffolds. (
  • Compared with IP-CHAs, CNTps showed significantly higher cell proliferation, better osteoconduction, and more bone generation with rhBMP-2. (
  • In the current study, nanofibrous scaffolds of gelatin (Gel), Gel/HA (4:1 blend), Gel/HA (2:1 blend) and Gel/HA (electrospin-electrospray) were fabricated for this purpose. (
  • In this study, gelatin, thermally denatured collagen, was used as a promising low-cost material to develop scaffolds for hard tissue engineering. (
  • Ceramic scaffolds are only osteoconductive, limiting their clinical use. (
  • Overall, results from this study show that CA-Mel scaffolds were osteoconductive and osteoinductive. (
  • Precious metals, ivory, or even other human teeth or piece of bone were used in their implants. (
  • Until now, the regeneration of the subchondral bone remains a critical aspect, dooming most patients to prosthetic implants. (
  • In general, vascularization and new bone ingrowth are often limited to the periphery of the implants. (
  • Mr. Papastavrou adds that metal orthopedic implants could be replaced with bone scaffolds in materials that can be broken down by the body. (
  • Improved cellularization and angiogenesis using collagen scaffolds chemically conjugated with vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • Collagen-binding human epidermal growth factor promotes cellularization of collagen scaffolds. (
  • The decellularized cortical scaffolds had a maintained collageneous pre-vascularized matrix, which promoted hMSCs to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an early angiogenesis marker. (
  • Use of heparinized bacterial cellulose based scaffold for improving angiogenesis in tissue regeneration. (
  • One was treated with a collagen scaffold alone and the other with scaffold seeded with BMC. (
  • Also, ELPs may be able to function as polymeric scaffolds, which promote tissue regeneration. (
  • Data show that CA-Mel scaffolds, in comparison to CA scaffolds, enhanced the adhesion, viability and proliferation of normal human osteoblasts (NHost) cells but not that of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. (
  • Proliferation rate was suppressed the most by the sequential delivery of the two growth factors from the random scaffold on which the ALP activity was the highest. (
  • The scientists proposed that the composite scaffolds would support the proliferation of osteoblast progenitor cells, alongside the controlled release of loaded bioactive molecules to induce bone regeneration . (
  • PGFS exhibited the typical compressive stress-strain behaviour of highly porous, low-density, open-cell scaffolds. (
  • The self-fitting scaffold possesses a highly porous structure with interconnected pores to allow cells migration and formation of new tissues. (
  • An important concept in tissue engineering is the scaffold, a three-dimensional (3D), highly porous substrate. (
  • Similarly, within a tissue scaffold, all cells must be supplied with the means to maintain life, and this is achieved initially by providing a highly porous open structure to allow the uninterrupted flow and access of culture media in a bioreactor. (
  • Joshua Alan Parry, Sanjeev Kakar and coauthors from Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, demonstrated the strength of the scaffold in a rabbit ACL reconstruction model. (
  • A textured, demineralized, and unitary mammalian bone section for providing a rigid, foraminous, collagen scaffold for allogenic skeletal reconstruction. (
  • Recognizing from experiments performed by R.J. Webber, PhD that meniscus cells have the ability to grow in tissue culture, K.R. Stone, M.D. developed the first meniscus reconstruction device called a collagen regeneration template in 1986. (
  • then, using a lyophilization process to allow nanofibrous scaffold to adsorb hBMP-2 adenoviral vector, AdCMV-hBMP2. (
  • The simultaneous electrospraying of nanohydroxyapatite (HA) on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds might be more promising for bone tissue regeneration. (
  • Conclusions: Results show that BMC and PEMFs might have a separate effect on osteochondral regeneration, but it seems that they have a greater effect when used together. (
  • This project aims to revolutionize osteochondral regeneration by developing new nano-strategies to trigger and sustain subchondral bone regeneration. (
  • Results show that BMC and PEMFs might have a separate effect on osteochondral regeneration, but it seems that they have a greater effect when used together. (
  • Hyaluronic acid and collagen have been used for osteochondral regeneration in combination with BMC for the regeneration of osteochondral lesions in patients. (
  • One of the most promising technologies includes 3D printing and more specifically Direct Ink Writing of hydrogel scaffolds [8]. (
  • The porous tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold is composed of chitin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/nanobioactive glass ceramic (nBGC)/cementum protein 1 as the cementum layer, chitin-PLGA/fibroblast growth factor 2 as the PDL layer, and chitin-PLGA/nBGC/platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors as the alveolar bone layer. (
  • The researchers found the new ceramic scaffolds caused macrophages to transform into an M2c phenotype, meaning they express genes associated with remodeling. (
  • Next the researchers will try to uncover what about the ceramic scaffolds in particular - whether their composition, texture or something else - promotes the appropriate macrophage behavior and subsequent bone regeneration. (
  • We review advancements in the surface and structural properties of typical polymeric, ceramic, and metallic scaffolds for orthopedic use. (
  • We have developed porous ceramic alumina scaffold with compressive strength that achieves 3.3 MPa by replication method by using the network structure of cellular polymer foam. (
  • The scaffold presented satisfactory pore size range and open interconnected pores, which are essential for tissue ingrowth. (
  • Results indicate that in the case of fabricated scaffold with macro pore size of about 340 micrometer, by increasing sintering temperature from 1000 to 1100 ◦ C, the compression strength of scaffold increased by 15% without any phase transformation. (
  • However, current manufacturing methods provide only the simplest form of the bone scaffold and cannot easily control pore size. (
  • Additionally, most of these methods fail in producing scaffolds with tailored pore size and shape. (
  • Multidimensional physical properties of scaffolds, including three-dimensional macrostructure, pore design, and two-dimensional hierarchical surface roughness, allow tissue regeneration at different spatial and temporal scales. (
  • Major side effects of this strategy are derived from the supraphysiological doses of BMPs needed, which may induce ectopic bone formation, chronic inflammation, and excessive bone resorption. (
  • With bone fracture becoming a rising worldwide health concern, especially for ageing societies, how to improve grafting process or induce bone regeneration effectively, thus help relieve suffering and reduce society's medical expenses, have become a rising challenge for scientists. (
  • The most exciting outcome of this early research was that in scaffolds with dental pulp cells, bone growth was observed together with the formation of tooth-like tissues. (
  • Recently, nanomaterials have been widely used as a carrier to hold and deliver biomolecules, like human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene (hBMP-2) in target cells/tissues. (
  • Nanostructured hydrogel-based scaffolds have been studied intensively in the field of tissue engineering, since they provide a highly waterswollen polymeric network, resembling structure complexity of natural connective soft tissues. (
  • These nanostructures are capable of mimicking natural extracellular matrix with effective mineralization for successful regeneration of damaged tissues. (
  • Advances in tissue engineering technologies will enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs. (
  • The total market for the regeneration and repair of tissues and organs was estimated to be $25 billion worldwide in 2001 and is expected to rise steadily ( D&MD 2001 ). (
  • The bone tissue extracellular matrix may then be decellularized to form an acellular bone repair scaffold. (
  • Using an "extracellular matrix" (ECM)-like resorbable scaffold that cells can attach to, proliferate into, and migrate across, the damaged tissue may be replaced by the construct, which in turn is slowly resorbed and substituted by new functional tissue [ 3 ]. (
  • Mimicking the extracellular matrix with functionalized, metal-assembled collagen peptide scaffolds. (
  • All such steps are performed with minimal denaturing of the extracellular matrix proteins which remain bound to the collagen scaffold and which are necessary to complete the process of new bone formation. (
  • The scaffold provides a surface on which cells adhere, thrive, multiply, and generate the extracellular matrix (ECM) of structural and functional proteins and saccharides that make up living tissue. (
  • Therefore, bioactive glass-based scaffolds are immersed in a zein solution. (
  • Additionally, an FGM can be made by noncovalently loading GO with the growth factor recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), producing a scaffold that induces ectopic bone formation with or without BMSCs. (
  • A study describing the composition of the scaffold and comparing different delivery methods for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) is published in Tissue Engineering, Part A, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. (
  • In this study, the effect of IL-8 action duration on bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced bone regeneration was studied to achieve an optimal synergism of these two proteins. (
  • Attenuated human bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated bone regeneration in a rat model of composite bone and muscle injury. (
  • To functionalize the scaffolds, the materials scientists added recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (BMP) and zoledronic acid (ZA). (
  • The osteogenic effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the collagen scaffold conjugated with antibodies. (
  • Here, we used polymer brushes as selective linkers of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) on the surface of 3D scaffolds fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM) and subsequent controlled radical polymerization. (
  • Once the bone substitute is applied, the resorbable creos xenoprotect membrane can be used to hold it in place and act as a barrier to soft tissue ingrowth. (
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the substrate is selected from the group consisting of a donor bone segment, a resorbable precured bone cement, a molecularly reinforced interpenetrating network and a molded bioerodible polymer. (
  • Heikkilä JT, Kukkonen J, Aho AJ, Moisander S, Kyyrönen T, Mattila K. Bioactive glass granules: a suitable bone substitute material in the operative treatment of depressed lateral tibial plateau fractures: A prospective, randomized 1 year follow-up study. (
  • GO nanosheets with their unique nanostructure and functional groups, together with GelMS on Ti scaffolds, are suitable carriers for drug delivery and provide adhesive sites for cell adhesion and create nanostructured environments for bone regeneration. (
  • The results demonstrate that porous silk scaffolds provide a suitable niche to maintain long survival and function of the implanted cells for bone regeneration. (
  • With a controlled freeze-drying process and alginate cross-linking, it is possible to obtain scaffolds with microscopic aligned channels suitable for tissue engineering. (
  • 1 , 2 It offers a suitable environment for new bone formation. (
  • Hutmacher ( 1 ) gave an early analysis of the topological requirements of a suitable scaffold material and reviewed the manufacturing routes that could be used to achieve the desired structure. (
  • Dr. Manitha B. Nair, Dr. Deepthy Menon, and Shantikumar V. Nair, "Porous Composite Fibrous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Regeneration", U.S. Patent 15/341,866 2016. (
  • COL-HANF composite scaffolds in which the average diameter of HANFs was approximately 461 ± 186 nm were fabricated by a freeze-drying process. (
  • Results showed that nCS or nCS composite with BMP-2 has the best effect on bone formation within short healing period without delay of regeneration of bone tissue. (
  • The combined bilayered composite scaffolds (BCS) functionalized with zoledronic acid (ZA) (to form BCS+ZA) contained the highest MT deposition (13.9 mm 3 ). (
  • Followed by the macroporous composite scaffold (CG) functionalized with BMP and ZA (CG+BMP+ZA) at 9.2 mm 3 and BCS+ZA+BMP with 7.6 mm 3 of MT deposition. (
  • Resorb-able bioceramic scaffolds are often used for bone regeneration purposes. (
  • Our diverse design and manufacturing capabilities allow for bioceramic medical devices to be provided as powders, granules, porous shapes, settable pastes, settable putties and anorganic bone. (
  • This study investigates a comprehensive model of bone regeneration capacity of dypiridamole-loaded 3D-printed bioceramic (DIPY-3DPBC) scaffolds composed of 100% beta-tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) in an immature rabbit model through the time of facial maturity. (
  • A Comparative Study of Bioartificial Bone Tissue Poly-L-lactic Acid/Polycaprolactone and PLLA Scaffolds Applied in Bone Regeneration," Journal of Nanomaterials , vol. 2014, Article ID 935149, 7 pages, 2014. (
  • A set of nanoparticles providing the release of BMP-2 initially followed by the release of BMP-7 were incorporated in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds with different 3-D architectures produced by 3-D plotting and wet spinning. (
  • The utility of this approach was evaluated by using 3D poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) sintered microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. (
  • We developed a porous Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) scaffold compounded with borosilicate bioactive glasses (BBGs) endowing it with bioactive properties. (
  • BMP-2 and TGF-β3 were covalently bound both homogeneously within a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based brush-functionalized scaffolds, and following a gradient composition by varying their concentration along the axial section of the 3D constructs. (
  • This is attributable to a combination of stress shielding by the scaffold and inhibition of cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. (
  • Regeneration and cell infiltration into a calvaria flap largely depends on progenitor cells that can migrate from the underlying dura or the overlying pericranial layers, to differentiate into active osteogenic cells for healing. (
  • The success of tissue engineering strategies, however, critically depends on the extent of blood vessel infiltration into the scaffolds ( 4 ). (
  • Method to analyze three-dimensional cell distribution and infiltration in degradable scaffolds. (