Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The body location or part from which tissue is taken for TRANSPLANTATION.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A dead body, usually a human body.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Breaks in bones.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The shaft of long bones.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Fractures of the femur.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.

Ankle arthrodesis using an anterior AO T plate. (1/716)

We describe a surgical technique for ankle arthrodesis using an anterior approach to the ankle and internal fixation with an anteriorly-placed AO T plate. A total of 33 patients who had ankle arthrodeses have been followed retrospectively. Thirty-one (94%) of the ankles fused although two patients developed tibial stress fractures. Four patients had a superficial infection which did not prevent union. The surgical technique is simple, easily reproducible and gives excellent clinical results with a high rate of union.  (+info)

Evaluation of the allograft-prosthesis composite technique for proximal femoral reconstruction after resection of a primary bone tumour. (2/716)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and functional outcomes resulting from the allograft-composite technique used for proximal femoral osteoarticular reconstruction in patients who had limb salvage surgery for primary bone tumours. DESIGN: A retrospective review of a prospectively gathered database to provide a descriptive study. SETTING: A tertiary care musculoskeletal oncology unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Patients treated between 1987 and 1993 were eligible for inclusion in this study if they met the following criteria: they were treated surgically for a primary malignant bone tumour; and a proximal femoral allograft-implant composite technique was used for the reconstruction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Major postoperative complications with emphasis on mechanical complications in the reconstructive composite implant. Functional outcome in a subset of patients using the 1987 and 1994 versions of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society instrument, the Short-Form-36 and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score. RESULTS: There were 5 mechanical and 2 infectious complications requiring surgical intervention. Functional scores were generally low. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the perceived benefits of the composite technique may accrue only to a few patients, partly owing to the risk of mechanical complications. Although these can be reduced by avoiding the use of cement in the host femur, the generally poor functional outcomes suggest that this technique needs to be studied further in this group of patients and compared with other reconstructive techniques, particularly the prosthetic implant.  (+info)

Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine. (3/716)

Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified.  (+info)

Reducing the cervical flexion tear-drop fracture with a posterior approach and plating technique: an original method. (4/716)

Flexion tear-drop fractures (FTDF) in the cervical spine constitute a highly unstable condition with a high incidence of neurological complications due to posterior displacement of the fractured vertebra in the spinal canal. The widely accepted surgical management for this condition includes complete excision and grafting of the vertebral body through an anterior approach. Thorough radiological and CT analysis of FTDF shows that the vertebral body is often separated into two parts by a sagittal plane fracture, but remains continuous through the pedicle and anterior arch of the vertebral foramen with the lateral mass and the articular processes. We therefore hypothesized that reduction would be possible by acting on the articular process through a posterior approach with a particular plating technique. Eight patients with FTDF were operated on with the technique we describe. Three had complete tetraplegia, four had incomplete tetraplegia and one was normal. A preoperative CT scan was made in all patients. Local kyphosis, posterior displacement of the vertebral body, and general lordosis in the cervical spine were recorded. In all cases, a satisfactory reduction was achieved on the postoperative radiographs and at the mean follow-up of 18.6+/-12.1 months, with residual posterior displacement being less than 1 mm. No complication occurred. Out of seven neurologically impaired patients, five showed some motor recovery at the latest follow-up. The posterior technique is described, and the rationale and pros and cons are discussed. The study showed that posterior reduction and fixation of flexion tear-drop fracture is not only possible, but permits an accurate restoration of the anatomy of the fractured cervical spine.  (+info)

Stage-related surgery for cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis. (5/716)

Thirty-six consecutive patients with cervical spine instability due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated surgically according to a stage-related therapeutic concept. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical results of these procedures. The initial change in RA of the cervical spine is atlanto-axial instability (AAI) due to incompetence of the cranio-cervical junction ligaments, followed by development of a peridontoid mass of granulation tissue. This results in inflammatory involvement of, and excessive dynamic forces on, the lateral masses of C1 and C2, leading to irreducible atlanto-axial kyphosis (AAK). Finally, cranial settling (CS) accompanied by subaxial subluxation (SAS) occurs. According to these three separate pathological and radiological lesions, the patients were divided into three therapeutic groups. Group I comprised 14 patients with isolated anterior AAI, who were treated by posterior wire fusion. Group II comprised 15 patients with irreducible AAK, who were treated by transoral odontoid resection. The fixation was done using anterior plating according to Harms in combination with posterior wire fusion according to Brooks. Group III comprised seven patients with CS and additional SAS, who were treated with occipito-cervical fusion. Pre- and postoperatively, evaluation was performed using the parameters pain (visual analog scale), range of motion (ROM), subjective improvement and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The neurologic deficit was defined according to the classification proposed by Ranawat. Radiographs including lateral flexion and extension views, and MRI scans were obtained. The average clinical and radiographic follow-up of all patients was 50.7 +/- 19.3 months (range 21-96 months). No perioperative fatality occurred. Postoperative pain was significantly relieved in all groups (P < 0.001). In group II a slight improvement in the HAQ was obtained. In groups I and II the ROM of all patients increased significantly (average gain of motion in group I: 11.3 degrees +/- 7. 8 degrees for rotation; 7.8 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees for bending; average gain of motion in group II: 21.5 degrees +/- 14.0 degrees for rotation; 17.2 degrees +/- 5.5 degrees for bending), while it decreased significantly in group III (10.7 degrees +/- 18.1 degrees for rotation; 6.7 degrees +/- 18.5 degrees for bending). Preoperatively 27 patients had a manifest neurologic deficit. At follow-up four patients remained unchanged, all others improved by at least one Ranawat class. All patients, except one, showed solid bony fusion. According to the significantly improved postoperative subjective self-assessment and the clinical and radiological parameters, transoral plate fixation combined with posterior wire fixation after transoral odontoid resection represents an effective reliable and safe procedure for the treatment of irreducible AAK in rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Evaluation of a new monocortical screw for anterior cervical fusion and plating by a combined biomechanical and clinical study. (6/716)

The purpose of this combined study was to evaluate the stability and safety of a new monocortical screw-plate system for anterior cervical fusion and plating (ACFP) according to Caspar in comparison with classical bicortical fixation. In the biomechanical part of the study two groups, each comprising six fresh human cadaveric spines (C4-C7), matched for bone mineral density, additionally resulting in almost the same mean age, were used. Range of motion and neutral zone were analyzed in flexion-extension, rotation (left, right) and lateral bending (left, right) using pure moments of +/- 2.5 Nm for each specimen in the intact state, after discectomy at C5/6 and after discectomy at C 5/6 followed by bone grafting plus plating (Caspar plates), with either monocortical or bicortical screws. For all three motion planes, no significant difference could be found between the new monocortical and the bicortical fixation techniques. The clinical part of the study was performed as a prospective study on 30 patients suffering from symptomatic degenerative cervical disc disease in one segment. At the latest follow-up, no hardware- or graft-related complications were seen in any of the patients. Following these findings monocortical screw fixation can be recommended for the majority of anterior cervical fusion and plating procedures in degenerative disease, making the procedure quicker, easier, and safer. Bicortical screw fixation still has specific indications for multilevel stabilization, poor bone quality (osteoporosis, rheumatoid disease - as bicortical oversized rescue screw), unstable spines (trauma, tumour) and in particular for the realignment of kyphotic deformities (restoration of the normal lordotic curve). Due to the design of the study the results apply only to surgical treatment of monosegmental degenerative disc disease at the time.  (+info)

Tricortical cervical inter-body screw fixation. (7/716)

A new tricortical method of screw implantation for anterior cervical interbody plate fixation is described. The screws are placed obliquely such that they engage the anterior cortex of the body and traverse through the cortices adjoining the disc space. By this method the screws not only hold the plate firmly with a tricortical purchase, but by virtue of their course stabilize the two adjoining vertebral bodies by themselves. Sixteen patients were treated by this method. In three of these cases only tricortical screws without the metal plate were used for fixation. The advantages of the technique are discussed.  (+info)

Atlantoaxial dislocation associated with stenosis of canal at atlas. (8/716)

Three rare cases of stenosis of spinal canal at the level of atlas associated with atlantoaxial dislocation are presented. An atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation with plate and screws after posterior midline bony decompression was successfully performed in these cases.  (+info)

Background: Comminuted fractures happen frequently due to traumas. Fixation without opening the fracture site,known as minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), has recently become prevalent. This study has beendesigned to assess the outcomes of this treatment for tibial and femoral comminuted fractures.Methods: A total of 60 patients with comminuted femoral or tibial fractures were operated with MIPO method in thiscross-sectional study at Alzahra university hospital in 2015. Eleven patients were excluded due to lack of adequatefollow-ups. Patientsdata including union time; infection in the fractured site; hip and knee range of motion; and anymalunion or deformities like limb length discrepancy were collected after the surgery in every session.Results: Among 32 femoral and 17 tibial fractures, union was completed in48 patients, while only one patient withfemoral fracture had nonunion. The mean union time was 18.57±2.42 weeks. Femur fractures healed faster than tibia(17.76±2.36 compared to 19±2
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a bone plate system extender plate emphasizing a top surface.. FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a bone plate system extender plate emphasizing a bottom surface.. FIG. 3 is a top view of a bone plate system extender plate.. FIG. 4 is a left end view of an extender plate.. FIG. 5 is a right end view of an extender plate.. FIG. 6 is a right side view of a bone plate system extender plate.. FIG. 7 is a left side view of a bone plate system extender plate.. FIG. 8 is a bottom view of a bone plate system extender plate; and,. FIG. 9 is an alternate embodiment of a perspective view of a bone plate system extender plate emphasizing a top surface.. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Surface properties of Indonesian-made narrow dynamic compression plates. AU - Dewo, P.. AU - Sharma, P.K.. AU - van der Tas, H.F.. AU - van der Houwen, E.B.. AU - Timmer, M.. AU - Magetsari, R.. AU - Busscher, H.J.. AU - van Horn, J.R.. AU - Verkerke, G.J.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Conference contribution. SN - 978-1-61567-080-2. VL - 4. SP - 2182. EP - 2182. BT - 8th World Biomaterials Congress 2008. PB - Curran Associates Inc.. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term follow-up of forearm bone diaphyseal plating. AU - Mih, A. D.. AU - Cooney, W. P.. AU - Idler, R. S.. AU - Lewallen, D. G.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - A retrospective review of 175 patients treated with forearm bone plating for acute diaphyseal fractures, nonunions, and malunions was undertaken to identify problems related to plate removal as opposed to plate retention. One hundred thirteen patients retained their forearm plates, of which five patients experienced complications related to the plate, including infection, bone failure, plate failure, and loosening. Patients retaining forearm bone plates reported minimal discomfort or functional limitation. Sixty-two patients had plate removal at an average of 19 months after insertion. Ten patients suffered major complications, including seven refractures through screw holes, osteotomy, or original fracture sites. Fractures occurred at an average of six months after plate removal. The difference in complication rates ...
Introduction: The aim of this study was to report the surgical management and to discuss the options for fracture fixation in an adult patient with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) who sustained a trochanteric femoral fracture after a simple fall from standing position. Case Report: As a result of multiple fractures during childhood, this adult patient with OI presented with a short stature. The radiographs revealed a displaced, intertrochanteric fracture with subtrochanteric extension of the left femur. The intramedullary canal was narrow, the femur presented with a severe bowing deformity, and the bone quality was poor. The implant of choice was plating using the reversed less invasive stabilisation system-distal femur (LISS-DF) technique. This technique was introduced for the management of subtrochanteric fractures in the elderly with poor bone stock. In addition, a locking plate attached to the LISS-DF allowed for additional screw placement at the apex of the curvature of the femur although the plate
we made a longitudinal incision 1 cm lateral to the tibial crest, expose the fracture, and retract the muscles laterally. After determining the length of plate, we used bending instruments to contour the plate to the anatomy then threaded plate holders used to position the plate on the bone. After that we placed the drill guide at the edge of the dynamic compression unit (DCU) portion of the plate hole without applying pressure and tightening of the cortex screws results in dynamic compression. We verified the screw position with a guide wire before insertion and then inserted the locking screw ...
Broad LCD Compression Plates Manufacturer exporter Supplier Delhi India - Best Orthopaedic is a famous Manufacturer exporter & Supplier of Small LCD Compression Plates in Delhi India.
Background: Diaphyseal humeral injuries account for 3 5% of all injuries. Treatment option varies from conservative cast and brace to internal fixation with plate and screws and intramedullary nailing. Among all options, plate osteosynthesis remains the gold standard for the operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures. In present series we have studied operative result of two different techniques in terms of operative difficulties, functional outcome and complications. Methods: Study was conducted over a period of three years on thirty patients with closed acute humeral shaft fracture requiring operative interventions. In all patients, an AO 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate or Locking Compression Plate was used through anterior approach in 15 patients and posterior approach in 15 patients. Post-operatively regular follow up done and during each follow up radiological and functional outcome evaluated. Result: In all patients fracture united in mean weeks of 13.5. Mean shoulder flexion 1590 , ...
February 7, 2008 - A new internally dynamized anterior cervical plating system, the Kinetic-SL, by Life Spine received 510(k) marketing clearance by the FDA, according to the company. The plate, with a thin profile and a narrow plate width (16mm), was created from the clinical need to address small stature patients, according to Life Spine. Like the original Kinetic, Kinetic-SL features 0-2mm of fully adjustable internal dynamization per level and an ultra slim pre- lordosed profile. Plate sizes range from 21mm to 111mm, in levels one to five. The Kinetic design allows for generous screw angulation, as well as a large graft window. Like the companys Neo-SL plate, an integrated lock allows bone screws to be securely fixated without any additional locking components. The self-retaining screw capture mechanism prevents screw backout, while still allowing screw angulation.. For more information: ...
Laser Spine Institute offers minimally invasive stabilization surgery to treat the source of instability-related pain and symptoms.
Listings in C-Arms, Anterior Cervical Plating System, Software, Bone Cement, Implants, Surgery Equipment / Accessories, Body Belts and Caspar Cervical...
Listings in C-Arms, Anterior Cervical Plating System, Exercise Equipment, Bone Cement and Caspar Cervical Retractor (CCR) in Chanhassen and Eagan
Best Orthopaedic is a well-known Manufacturer Exporter & Supplier of Broad Self Compression Plates in Delhi, Broad Self Compression Plates Exporter , Broad Self Compression Plates Supplier Delhi, Broad Self Compression Plates Manufacturing & Export company in India.
Global Anatomical Locking Compression Plate Market Professional Survey Report 2017 Purchase This Report by calling at +1-888-631-6977.. This market report is a thorough analysis of the existing situation and the anticipated condition for Anatomical Locking Compression Plate market. Investigation for gathering the content for this report is done in depth and meticulously. Present scenarios, past progress, global recognition and future prospects of the global market is offered in this report. Main strategies, market shares, products of the companies and investments in this market is also mentioned in detail.. Compressive outline of global Anatomical Locking Compression Plate market depending on key factors and segmentations such as end users, applications, regions and products is elaborated. Estimated revenue and volume growth of the market over the mentioned forecast period of 2017 to 2022 is also explained in detail. Former and current state of shares of the major key ...
China Proximal Tibial Lateral Locking Compression Plate LCP, Find details about China Orthopedic Locking Plate, LCP Plate from Proximal Tibial Lateral Locking Compression Plate LCP - Suzhou Gemmed Medical Instrument Co., Ltd.
China One Third Tubular Locking Compression Plate LCP, Find details about China Orthopedic Locking Plate, LCP Plate from One Third Tubular Locking Compression Plate LCP - Suzhou Gemmed Medical Instrument Co., Ltd.
Comparative study of functional outcome of dynamic compression plating with intramedullary interlocking nailing in close fracture shaft of humerus in adults
This procurement specification covers inserts made from A286 alloy of the type identified under the Unified Numbering System as UNS S66286 which have non-locking internal threads and integrated locking keys to positively secure the insert against rotation when properly installed in threaded hole
MecArmy EK3RT Titanium Non-locking EDC Pocket Folding Knife 1096510966 *After a long time test and human touch design, total length control at 164.7mm, a good size for carry, get recognized and affirm for everyday carry. *Unique handle made, exquisite and compact, lightweight grip, available for DIY. *Uses M390 powder steel for Blade, hardness 50~60HRC. *The whole knife assembly by 14 parts, each parts completed by multiple procedure. *Water-drop hollowed-out design for Blade for
DePuy Synthes Spine* announced it is expanding its collaboration with Brainlab through the worldwide launch of navigation-ready instrumentation for its leading spine systems, and an exclusive global agreement to co-market Airo® Mobile Intraoperative CT by Brainlab.
100% Export Oriented Unit of Locking Plate System - Lateral Tibial Locking Plate 6.5 Left And Right, LCP Reconstruction Plate (Dynamic Hole), Lateral Tibial Locking Plate Left And Right and Proximal Humerus Locking Plate (Type 1) offered by Consopharma Plus, New Delhi, Delhi.
Detailed step by step desription of ORIF - Compression plating for Wedge fracture, intact wedge located in our module on Tibial shaft
Improve your fracture case economics with competitively priced, state-of-the-art fracture fixation implants from Acumed. Your Acumed rep doesnt just pr
The SKYLINE® Hybrid Anterior Cervical Plate System optimized visualization while instilling the confidence afforded through a proven locking technology.
A two-and-half-year-old cow was presented with a defect nonunion of the right metatarsal III/IV bone following a severely comminuted open fracture two months previously. The animal underwent open fixation using a 4.5 mm, broad, 10-hole, dynamic compression plate and autogenous cancellous bone graft collected from the contralateral iliac shaft. The animal started partial weight bearing after the third postoperative day and resumed complete weight bearing after the 10th day. Fracture healing was complete and the implants were removed after the 120th postoperative day. ...
Patients who qualified the inclusion criteria wereallocated in two groups. The group allocation wasdone on the basis of computerized simple random sampling. All the patientsincluded in this study was treated by operative intervention.. The proceduredone was open reduction and fixation of the fracture by two 3.5 mm anatomicallocking plates. The construct of the plate was either parallel orperpendicular. Patients in Group A were treated by parallel plate construct andof Group B by perpendicular plate construct. The 3.5-mm pre-contouredanatomical plate made up of stainless steel was used in this study.. For allpatients, computed tomography (CT) with 3D reconstruction was donepreoperatively to identify comminution and to locate fracture fragmentsaccurately to be fixed. Preoperative conventional radiograph of elbow in twoorthogonal plain was also done.Surgical technique: All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with brachialor axillary block for postoperative pain relief. After ...
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Looking for bone plate? Find out information about bone plate. see electron tube electron tube, device consisting of a sealed enclosure in which electrons flow between electrodes separated either by a vacuum or by an... Explanation of bone plate
ACE ORTHO CARE PVT. LTD. based in New Delhi, India is a manufacturer, supplier and exporter of Angle Blade Plates at the best price.
Learn more on the 1.5 mm LCP® Modular Mini Fragment System by DePuy Synthes, with a variety of plate styles to address a range of small bone fractures.
GPC Medical - Indias largest manufacturer and supplier of non-locking large fragment plating system including angle blade plates, condylar plates, buttress plates, DHS plates, DCS plates, dynamic self compression plates etc. Get a free catalog now.
Like my testicle dessert plate? Created using real human tissues, these bone china histology dessert plates are available in 4 different human tissue designs: Testicle, Liver, Thyroid, and Esophagus. nice! #51571 problem! ...
Detailed step by step desription of Open reduction; plate fixation for 32-D/4.1 Complete transverse, simple located in our module on Femoral shaft
Welcome to the DePuy Synthes companies eModel App. It allows you to interactively view 3D bone models. Freely rotate and zoom the model via simple touch control, navigate between different pre-set vie
Johnson & Johnsontapped its war chest andagreed to buy the Swiss-American orthopedic device maker Synthes for $21.3 billion in cash and stock. The deal, which
|b||/b||br||div|DePuy Synthes Companies of Johnson & Johnson is recruiting for an Extremity Sales Specialist in the South Region. States that the individual can be
SAMAY SURGICAL - Manufacturer & Supplier of Locking Plate Orthopedic Implants,DHS Plate,Locking Plates,Locking Compression Plate,Surgical Locking Plates,locking attachment plate,Orthopedic Locking Plates,Reconstruction plates orthopedics,Locking T Buttress Plate, India
Manufacturer of Maxillofacial Implants - 3 Dimensional Bone Plates Square Segments, 3 Dimensional Bone Plates Rectangular Segments, Mini Bone Plates Continuous Holes 2.5mm and T Shape Plates With Bar 2.0mm offered by Apothecaries Sundries Mfg. Co., New Delhi, Delhi.
A spinal disc prosthesis comprises an upper flat rigid plate, a lower flat rigid plate, and a flat elastomeric core interposed between said plates and adhered to the plates. A plurality of spaced-apar
A storage rack entry vehicle for transporting loads of substantial weight in a warehousing system includes a plurality of wheels spaced from each other in the direction of both the length and the width of the vehicle and which support the vehicle for movement upon rails. The vehicle also includes an elevatable platform which supports the loads on the vehicle and distributes the load weight to locations adjacent each of the wheels. A rigid plate connects both the wheels and the load supports. However, this rigid plate is sufficiently flexible such that the plate flexes to maintain all of the wheels in continuous contact with the rails where one of the rails may vary in elevation such that at least one of the wheels might otherwise move out of contact with the rail surface.
A hand held tool for crimping a stent onto a balloon of a catheter is disclosed. The stent crimping tool is operated in one hand by squeezing two plates together while simultaneously displacing the plates linearly to crimp and roll the stent held between the plates. Specifically, the crimping tool includes a base plate with two bosses through which respective pins pass linking the base plate to a compression plate. The compression plate has elongated diameter openings at opposite sides thereof to receive the pins. With the elongated diameter openings, the compression plate can pivot at the pins and translate linearly relative to those pins thus enabling the rolling action during the crimping process. A compression profile pad and a tapered profile pad are attached to the crimping areas of the plates to grip and together apply pressure to the uncrimped stent held therebetween. The pads may include specific contours in order to impart a desired profile to the crimped stent.
My small 8 1/2 pound Pomeranian ate olive pits when a guest put their plate on the ground. I am worried if this will - Answered by a verified Veterinarian
Care guide for Hardware Removal. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Laser Spine Institutes Scottsdale facility offers both minimally invasive stabilizations and minimally invasive procedures to treat a variety of the most common and devastating conditions.
LB(Luria-Bertani Medium) plates contain 1% Trypton, 0.5% yeast extract, 1.0% NaCl and 1.5% agar with a final pH of 7.0 unless otherwise specified. All plates are made of the highest quality ingredients available and tested for solubility, clarity, color, pH and the growth or inability to grow of appropriate recombinant strains of E. coli to demonstrate the efficacy of the antibiotics and indicator dyes. The plates are dated and guaranteed for 8 weeks from the date of shipment although many antibiotic plates can be stored at 4oC for longer. ...
LB(Luria-Bertani Medium) plates contain 1% Trypton, 0.5% yeast extract, 1.0% NaCl and 1.5% agar with a final pH of 7.0 unless otherwise specified. All plates are made of the highest quality ingredients available and tested for solubility, clarity, color, pH and the growth or inability to grow of appropriate recombinant strains of E. coli to demonstrate the efficacy of the antibiotics and indicator dyes. The plates are dated and guaranteed for 8 weeks from the date of shipment although many antibiotic plates can be stored at 4oC for longer. ...
Objective: This study aims to discuss the clinical effects of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPPO) technology in patients with..
PURPOSE: Locking plate osteosynthesis has become the preferred method for operative treatment of clavicle fractures. The method offers stable fixation, and would theoretically be associated with a low rate of fracture-related complications and reoperations. However, this remains to be explored in a large cohort, and our purpose was to assess the overall rates of complications and reoperations following locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures. METHODS: We identified all locking plate osteosynthesis of mid-shaft clavicle fractures operated upon in our department from January 2008 to November 2010 (n = 114). Nine patients did not attend the follow-up at our institution. The study group of 105 fractures (104 patients, 86 males) had a median age of 36 years (14-75 years). Follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 years. No patients were allowed to load the upper extremity for six weeks. By studying patient files and radiographic material, we assessed complications and reoperations. ...
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PURPOSE: Patients with neuro-orthopaedic disorders often develop hip flexion contractures or rotational hip deformities. Increasing deformities impair the already diminished walking abilities and proximal femoral osteotomies are often performed to maintain/improve walking abilities. Fixation of the osteotomies with condylar plates has been successfully used but does often not allow immediate postoperative full weight bearing. To avoid a substantial postoperative rehabilitation deficit and additional bone loss due to inactivity, a postoperative treatment with full weight bearing is, therefore, wishful. Newer fixed-angled implants with stronger anchoring in osteopenic bone might fit these demands. The objective of this study was to evaluate bone healing and the complication rate after proximal extending and/or derotational femoral osteotomy fixed with 3.5/4.5 Locking Compression Plate (LCP; Synthes(®)) and postoperative full weight bearing in ambulatory neuro-orthopaedic patients ...
A brief history of veterinary locking plates applications -- Section I : Principles of locking plate application. Pitfalls of locking plate applications -- The biology of locking plate applications -- Dynamic compression vs. Locking plating: is one better? A review of biomechanical principles and in vitro testing -- Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis -- Section II : Principles of locking plate applications in large animals. Principles of locking plate applications in large animals -- Section III : Current veterinary locking plate instrumentation and implants. The advanced locking plate system (ALPS) -- The Fixin implant system -- The liberty lock system -- The Polyaxial (PAX) Advanced Locking System -- The string of pearls (SOP) system -- The Synthes locking compression plate (LCP) system -- Section IV : Trauma applications. Appendicular skeletal fractures. Humerus fractures -- Radius/ulna fractures -- Femur fractures -- Axial skeletal fractures. Tibia fractures -- Pelvic fractures -- ...
Spine Surgery - C6-7 Anterior Cervical Discectomy (Diskectomy) and Spinal Fusion with Synthes Plate. Shows a posteriorly herniated C6-7 intervertebral (vertebral) disc. Surgical steps: 1. Surgeon makes an incision in the neck; 2. Removing the damaged disc tissue using pituitary rongeurs; 3. Harvesting a bone graft from the right iliac crest; 4 Placing the bone graft between the endplates of C6 and C7; and 5. Securing the synthes plate between the vertebrae using four screws.
We Offer a wide range of Bone Plates, Bone screw plates, Spinal Implants, Orthopedic Implants, Orthopedic Instrument, Trauma Implant, Spine Implant, Trauma Bone Screw in Kolkata
The patient is a 24-year-old male from Vandavasi in Tamil Nadu, India. He had developed a left lower jaw swelling around two years ago and visited a local hospital. Tests had been performed by an oral surgeon at the hospital. The patient had then been diagnosed with ameloblastoma of the left mandible. A left partial mandibulectomy had been performed followed by reconstruction with a rib graft and reconstruction plate. The patient had been left with a severe facial asymmetry with the right side of the mandible being longer than the left. This had depressed the patient to a degree that he refused to go outside. His career had suffered as a result and this alarmed his worried parents.. They had consulted with the oral surgeon again who realized the severity of the problem. The parents and the patient were informed that this could be addressed only at a specialist oral and maxillofacial surgery hospital. He had then referred them to our hospital for management of the patients facial ...
Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF) involves the implementation of implants to guide the healing process of a bone, as well as the open reduction, or setting, of the bone. Open reduction refers to open surgery to set bones, as is necessary for some fractures. Internal fixation refers to fixation of screws and/or plates, intramedullary bone nails (femur, tibia, humerus) to enable or facilitate healing. Rigid fixation prevents micro-motion across lines of fracture to enable healing and prevent infection, which happens when implants such as plates (e.g. dynamic compression plate) are used. Open Reduction Internal Fixation techniques often are used in cases involving serious fractures such as comminuted or displaced fractures or, in cases where the bone otherwise would not heal correctly with casting or splinting alone. Risks and complications may include bacterial colonization of the bone, infection, stiffness and loss of range of motion, non-union, mal-union, damage to the muscles, nerve ...
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Internal, extramedullary osteosynthesis of distal femoral fractures which are focussed on in this study has been influenced by interesting developments in recent years. Driven by unsatisfying complication rates new fracture treatments have been looked for. Osteosynthesis materials, reduction techniques, techniques of implant placement and implants themselves - where development went to angular stable systems - have changed decisively. This study analyzes in a retrospective setting distal femoral fractures which were treated between 1.1.1995 and 31.9.2000 either with an internal fixator (LISS) or with conventional plate osteosynthesis. In this study 51 patients with 54 distal femoral fractures could be included. The Infection rate was non significantly lower in the LISS group (0% versus 11,1%), the rate of delayed union was non significantly higher. The only delayed union in the LISS group which needed secondary surgical intervention was seen in a patient with considerate bone loss which was not ...
Orthopaedic Instruments for Bone Screws & Plates for Vet surgeries. DLC is your Australian vet supply specialist. Browse online today.
Slow cooker - The present invention is a slow cooker. It has a housing, a container disposed in a hollow body of the housing, a lid and a sealing ring which sealingly engage the lid and the container. The container has a rim which is securely disposed with an engaging means for engaging with the lid. The engaging means comprises a movable member and an upper stationary member securely disposed on the rim of the container. The upper stationary member has an upper surface which is disposed with a sliding plate for the movable member to move thereon. The sliding plate has a limiting end surface atop for limiting movement of the movable member. A space is formed between the limiting end surface and the sliding plate for a tongue of the movable member to pass through. The movable member is disposed on the sliding plate of the upper stationary member. The tongue of the movable member passes through the space of the upper stationary member to press onto the lid, and the movable member is secured onto ...
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (PCCP) Associate Editor Professor Seong Keun Kim, an expert in the field of biophysics and biophysical chemistry, has picked some of his favourite articles recently published in this area in PCCP.. You can read these articles for free for a limited period by clicking on the links below.. Publishing work of the highest quality in the broad fields of physical chemistry, chemical physics and biophysical chemistry, PCCP is the ideal place to publish your research.. Be among the first to hear about the newest articles being published in PCCP - sign up to receive our free table of contents e-alerts.. Read Professor Kims Editors choice selection for free today:. Perspectives. Mitochondrial biofuel cells: expanding fuel diversity to amino acids ...
Plates are used in arthrodesis, which is the surgical or artificially-induced method of ossifying two or more fragments of bone together. There are various sizes and shapes for plate devices, as they are manufactured to adapt to different anatomies. Once fracture healing is complete, a follow-up surgery may be required to remove the device from the patients body. Some countries have very high plate removal rates, yet in other countries such as the U.K., plates are only removed when a patient complains of irritation or pain. ...
Inquire Cranio-maxillofacail Osteosynthesis system: Mandible titanium plate: 1) 1.0mm thickness; 2) 22.1mm length; 3) 14.6mm width; 4) 4 holes; 5)... ,,, Ningbo Cibei Medical Treatment Appliance Co.,Ltd (Zhejiang ...
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: The authors present their initial multicenter experience in the surgical management of 1-level degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine with anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDF) u
Recently Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices Companies, through the DePuy Synthes franchise, announced the U.S. launch of DYNACORD Suture on HEALIX ADVANCE Anchors to repair soft tissue, such as the rotator cuff (shoulder). The new announcement prompted Medical Device News Magazine to interview Rodrigo Diaz, MD Medical Director for DePuy Synthes. Dr. Diaz elaborated on the innovation of DYNACORD Suture.
According to the present invention, spinal stabilization systems are supplemented with a diagnostically opaque material to enable the diagnostic recognition of the components of these systems. These spinal stabilization systems may comprise one or more flexible spacers, and one or more elastic cords, either or both of which may comprise a diagnostically opaque material. Additional spinal stabilization systems are contemplated.
KOMAL HEALTH CARE PVT. LTD.- Leading manufacturer,supplier,exporter of Reconstruction Plates (Mandible) from Maharashtra, India. BuyReconstruction Plates (Mandible) at best affordable price.
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System, including apparatus and methods, for fixing bone with a bone plate supported temporarily at a slant on bone by a leg member before the bone plate is used as a lever to reposition a region of the bone. In some embodiments, the leg member may be a post member that attaches to the bone plate by threaded engagement with an aperture of the bone plate. In some embodiments, the bone plate and the leg member may be used near the end of a long bone, such as on a distal portion of a radial bone.
AccessGUDID - Piccolo Composite Plate System (07290109334523)- Non-locking screw for use with distal fibula and 1/3 tubular plates
Principle of Screw and Plate Fixation & Mechanical Behavior of Implant Materials. Roles of Implants. Add stability Fracture fixation A plate used after osteotomy Replace damaged or diseased part Total joint replacement Healing stimulants. Advantages of Internal Fixation. No...
A set of plates designed specifically for the left and right sides is available. There are 4 types of the plates for the left side and 4 for the right side in total. The individual plates differ from each other by the number of holes and by their design. The design of the plate and the modified mechanical properties of the material allow its shaping. The plates are made of the implant steel according to ISO 5832-1, the thickness of the plates is about 3 mm. Reductions are made between the holes for easier bending when shaping them. The plates are provided with holes with countersunk for the bone screw heads allowing the fixation of the plate to the bone. The fixtures are also provided with holes and they allow the plate to be secured in the second plane after their shaping. The plates are available in the basic, ILIAC, LONG and MAXI versions. All of these types are in the left and right designs. The oval-shaped holes with the special design for an easy insertion of the screw with up to 45 ° ...
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S. K. Surgicals are leading Manufacturer & Supplier of 1.5 MM SS L Shape 120* Mini Bone Plate in Pune Maharashtra India, 1.5 MM SS L Shape 120* Mini Bone Plate Manufacturer in Pune , Wholesale 1.5 MM SS L Shape 120* Mini Bone Plate Supplier, 1.5 MM SS L Shape 120* Mini Bone Plate Wholesaler Trader
Problem statement: Youngs modulus and interfragmentary strain (εIF) are the important parameters in bone-plate testing and design. But Youngs modulus is not suitable when we use with εIF in the bone-plate testing. Approach: This research proposed a study on the Interfragmentary Modulus (IM) as the new parameter for the bone-plate testing. Results: The results from the FEM show that the relations of the interfragmentary stress (σIF) and interfragmentary strain are linear for all cases with the condition of the DCP and the screws material properties are linear and isotropic materials. Conclusion: IM are the constant values and we can use IM in the bone-plate testing.. ...
Today, DePuy Synthes*, in collaboration with LifeNet Health , launches ViviGen Formable Cellular Bone Matrix**, a second generation cellular allograft used to assist in the formation
The software PreOPlan allows the surgeon to precisely analyze a bone fracture using a digital X-ray image of the patient: The surgeon can segment the fracture on the screen, measure it and then reassemble the fracture point in the anatomically correct position. All suitable implants for the respective anatomical region are suggested automatically by a database with bone implants from Synthes. The surgeon can call up information about the implants (length, inclination, size, or material) directly on the X-ray image. Once the surgeon has decided for an implant, PreOPlan automatically presents a selection of implants that are required additionally, such as screws for fixing. The surgeon then can make his selection. Overall, the planning of a routine surgery with PreOPlan only takes a few minutes.. Subsequently, the planning documents are summarized in a final report. This contains the planning images that the surgeon can use for orientation during surgery, as well as a material list for the ...
DePuy Synthes Inc - Product Pipeline Analysis, 2017 Update Size and Share Published in 2017-08-04 Available for US$ 750 at
what kinds of ahces and pains can a stroke suffer expect sfter undergoing a craniolplasty involving the insertion of a titanium plate?
New Custom Photo Etched Titanium Plates from PEI Offer Exact Channel Repetition - Jan 16, 2019 - PEI - Photofabrication Engineering Inc.
Implants for fracture and/or osteotomy fixation are often tested according to basic mechanical test models such as open gap tests or 4-point-bending tests. These may be suitable to test and compare different implants for safety and clinical approval, but are not always representative of the post-operative situation, which is decisive when it comes to bone healing. In the current study the Knee Expert Group of the Association for the Study of Internal Fixation has compared the available open gap test results of the latest version of the TomoFix Medial Distal Femoral Plate and the antecedent plate design, with the test results of a more physiological and life-like test model. In the open gap test model the antecedent plate design was found to have superior stiffness and fatigue strength. In the current study simulated postoperative conditions for medial closing wedge supracondylar osteotomies were used. The constructs were subjected to cyclical axial and torsional loading and were subsequently tested to
An anterior spinal fixation device which provides an anterior lumbar and cervical fusion fixation system which has numerous advantages over existing anterior, posterior and lateral implant systems. An
40 year old. male with history of falling off a truck while doing some work had complained of low back pain, muscle spasm, hand and feet numbness, and neck pain since the time of the action. Patient underwent C5-6 and C6-7 anterior cervical discectomy with fusion using anterior plating.. ...
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GPC narrow animal orthopedic bone plate implant for veterinary surgery. Made of strong stainless steel. Bone plates are FDA approved. Size 3-12 holes.
Alphatec Spine Trestle Anterior Cervical Plate System This is a Set #2, includes 2 Variable Angle Screw Caddies. Good Condition. SELLER DISCLAIMER: Regardless of the origin of the equipment, documentation provided or identification appearing upon the equipment, the equipment described and offered here is in no wa
A spinal fixation system and method for mechanically fusing a skull and a portion of a spine are described. In an embodiment, the fixation system includes a plate, connecting members for attaching the
We manufacture a select range of Titanium Plates. We hold limited stocks but can produce most plates on request. ONLY use Titanium Screws with these Plates.
A polyaxial orthopedic device for use with rod implant apparatus includes a screw having a curvate head, a cross bar mounting element having a socket into which the head of the screw is initially polyaxially nested. The cross bar mounting element further includes a vertical split which permits the socket to be expanded or compressed via the application of a corresponding force directed at the split. The cross bar mounting element further includes a pair of upwardly extending members which define a trough into which a cross bar element is positioned. The cross bar element includes features which permit the secure fixation of a rod thereto, as well as a selectively slideable element, such as a nut, which may be tightened to apply the compressive force necessary to compress the interior volume onto the head of the screw, thus locking the assembly in place.
A plate that prevents axial deformity or deviation as a result of shearing or bending forces (central portion of plate has no screw holes to increase plate strength). They are also used to splint or bridge a fracture area to maintain the length of the bone. They can be used in conjunction with lag screws and can maintain alignment of highly comminute segments of bone. Gaps in the bone may be present. When gaps are present, the plate with this type of fixation is subject to full loading. Every possible effort should be made to maintain soft tissue attachments and blood supply to the comminute fragments since union will depend on the formation of a callus bridge and not direct healing of the bone.. Evolox® Biological Healing Plates offer the advantage of polyaxial locking screws in this useful plate ...
Here the number plates are issued to the driver, not the car. They fit easily with little spring clips, and you can use the same plates on up to three cars, paying insurance only for the most expensive. Plates are issued by insurance companies through local offices staffed with clever and capable office ladies who scrutinise carefully all documents and make it virtually impossible for a non-qualifying driver to get a pair of plates. Only EU or international driving licences work here, and you still need insurance to get a pair of plates. This means you will see in the Summer in the cities loads of gloomy migrants on bicycles. Mostly they have to be taught to ride them, and its a comic sight to see a squad of former Sryian tank commanders, Iraqi tanker drivers and Afghani taxi operators wobbling around a sports centre car park on learner bikes. Being confined to cycles and watching Austrian women confidently whizzing about in cars really pisses them off. ...
We were told that they were performing a fixation of the C1 and C2, this means two small screws in either side and a small titanium plate joining them up to keep them perfectly straight. This means that she wont be able to turn her neck as much as before. Im sure she will cope, she hasnt been able to turn her neck for the last ten months anyway. We were also told that she might need a further plate on the occipital joint at the base of her skull which means that she wouldnt have been able to look up or down either. Again, she hasnt been able to look up or down for the past 10 months. However, once in there they decided that they wouldnt need the plate on the occipital joint. They were not happy with the C1 on the left side, the bone that had deteriorated, so they performed a bone graft from her skull and added it to the C1 to give it more strength ...
Holland, C. T. (1901). Description of Plates: Plate CXIV.(a): Bone in the Right Elbow. Archives of the Roentgen Ray. 5(4), 105- ... Holland, C. T. (1904). Description of Plate: Plate I: The Left and Right Kidney Regions: Plate A.(the Left) shows the Shadow of ... Plate CXVII.(b) and (c). Archives of the Roentgen Ray. 5(4), 106-106. Holland, C. T. (1901). Description of Plates: Plate CXX: ... Holland, C. T. (1899). Description of Plates: Plate LXXVII: A Tumour of the Thigh. Archives of the Roentgen Ray. 4(2), 47-47. ...
1911b). "Cranium of a Chimpanzee, showing Metopic Suture; also Fontanelle and Sutural Bone-Plates". Journal of Anatomy and ...
Larva bone-colour; subdorsal line somewhat interrupted, broad, purplish-fuscous; lateral lines similar, but narrower; head ... black; thoracic plate brown. mThe wingspan is 32-36 mm. Adults are on wing from July to August. The larvae feed internally in ...
The "Geschickter tumor", a bone tumor found on the femur or humerus that is often malignant, is named after him. A partial list ... Geschickter, Charles F.; Cannon, Albert (1963). Central Nervous System: Illustrated with 293 Plates. Lippincott. Retrieved 2013 ... After their internship, Bloodgood invited both men to study bone tumors in his surgical pathology laboratory. In 1929 they were ... Geschickter, Charles Freeman; Copeland, Murray Marcus (1949). Tumors of bone. J.B. Lippincott Co. Retrieved 2013-01-02. ...
Their head is armoured with bone plates. The families of this order are generally small, bottom living, and unsuited as food ...
Larva bone colour, dorsally tinged with red, whiter below; the spiracles black; head glossy, yellowish brown; thoracic and anal ... plates paler. The wingspan is 26 to 30 millimetres (1.0 to 1.2 in). The moth flies from July to August depending on the ...
"Purported latest bone of a plated dinosaur (Ornithischia: Stegosauria), a "dermal plate" from the Maastrichtian (Upper ... "dermal plate or misinterpreted sauropod bone." Titanosauria indet. - "solitary egg." Troodontidae indet. - "One isolated tooth ...
Growth plates are particularly vulnerable to injury compared to bone. Children can have an open medial epicondyle growth plate ... Surgeons want to determine if surgery to restore the natural position of the elbow is better than allowing the bone to heal in ... A medial epicondyle fracture is an avulsion injury to the medial epicondyle of the humerus; the prominence of bone on the ... The debate is whether to realign the displaced bones back into their natural position with surgery, and hold the fragments of ...
Stone and bone arrowheads, spears and harpoons are richly represented. Armour plates were also used in warfare. Finds of bronze ...
suprascapular A bone uniting the shoulder girdle with the skull. suture The line of union of two bones or plates. swimbladder A ... hypural plate The flattened bony plate at the posterior end of the vertebral column, formed from parts of the posterior ... pharyngeal bones Bones behind the gills in the oesophagus or gullet. pharyngeal teeth Teeth within the pharynx. pharynx The ... vomer A bone forming the front part of the roof of the mouth. vomerine teeth Teeth on the vomer. Weberian apparatus An ...
... of the bone. Open reduction refers to open surgery to set bones, as is necessary for some fractures. Internal fixation refers ... which happens when implants such as plates (e.g. dynamic compression plate) are used. ORIF techniques often are used in cases ... Risks and complications may include bacterial colonization of the bone, infection, stiffness and loss of range of motion, non- ... Various techniques of minimally invasive surgery for internal fixation of bones have been reported. The treatment of fractures ...
Almost everything was re-used: old corks were sold to wine-merchants; orange peels were sold to distillers; bones were used to ... It was pulled by two horses and was equipped with a driver and conductor dressed in royal blue uniforms with silver-plated ... The leftovers were sorted and put on plates; and any that looked acceptable were sold. Some leftovers were reserved for pet ... foods; old bones were collected to make bouillon; uneaten bread crusts from schools and restaurants were used to make croutons ...
The body is often partly or completely covered with dermal plates. The name "Gasterosteiformes" means "bone-bellies". It is ... ", "abdomen") + ostoun (ὀστοῦν; "bone"). The ending for fish orders "-formes" is derived from Latin and indicates "of similar ... then appear to be derived offshoots of the scorpaeniform-gasterosteiform radiation which have apomorphically lost the bone " ...
He had plates inserted into the arm and underwent bone grafts. He eventually made his return to first grade in round 23, ...
Whiskers were also inserted on the side to the bone plates. Unangan headgear makers also added small bone carved figurines to ... Unangan headgear makers would add carved bone plates, also called volutes, to the backs and sides. These plates covered the ... On the sides, makers would add a carved plate near the wearer's temple; it had a long trianglual shape with a rounded circle at ... as well as their ornamentation with bone carvings and sea lion whiskers. Russian and European explorers collected many Unangan ...
Only the tips show and there are no conical bone plates. The 3 lateral caruncles have club-shaped glands that secrete a slime ... This apparatus is primarily composed of a terminating esca or lure supported by an extremely long pterygiophore bone encased in ... Winding muscles control the anterior and posterior movement of the bone, suggesting extension and retraction by rotation. The ...
All cuts are made into the middle of the bone, where bone marrow is present. Then, a chisel is inserted into the pre existing ... The bony segments are stabilized with titanium plates; no fixation (binding of the jaw) necessary. If advancement is indicated ... The word "osteotomy" means the division of bone by means of a surgical cut. The "jaw osteotomy", either to the upper jaw or ... Lastly, if screws were inserted in the jaw, bone will typically grow over them during the two to three month healing period. ...
In 1990, Helmut Allgaeuer replaced the bone plates of the keyboard. In 1993-1994, a new company founded by former choirboys of ...
Larva dirty bone-colour, with the dark dorsal vessel showing through; the tubercles black; spiracles white in black rings; head ... thoracic, and anal plates brown. The wingspan is 44-50 mm. Adults emerge in August and the beginning of September. The larvae ...
... indicating extensive bone damage. Bulging of the buccal or lingual cortical plates may be present. Age of occurrence in the ... The cyst is tamponaded to allow for the cyst contents to escape the bone. Over time, the cyst decreases in size and bone ... a. Collagenase (breakdown of collagen) in the jaw bone leads to bone degeneration, providing room for cysts to develop. ... The alveolar plate may exhibit crepitus when palpated. Expansion of the cyst causes erosion of the floor of the maxillary sinus ...
6 colour plates and 6 pencil drawings. Lockwards. 1988 Calendar: Pheasants of the World. 6 colour plates and 6 pencil drawings ... 12 English bone china bells. Royal Doulton, Franklin Porcelain. 1978 Agriframes Company Christmas card. Redwing & fieldfare. ( ... 1 colour plate. Sportsman's Press. 1991. Permission was not sought from the artist prior to publication. Nature in Art. David ... 12 black & white plates. Chancellor Press. 1990. Second edition 1993. Kingfisher Field Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe ...
9. Prearticular bone with its tooth plate, Orlovichthys limnatis..." ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-06-03. v t e. ...
These bones are the premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary. Most known placoderms had simple beak-like jaws made of bone plates. The ... Specifically, this is the first stem gnathostome with dermal marginal jaw bones. ... referring to how the animal had a complete set of dermal marginal jaw bones. The specific name translates as "primordial". ... "A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones]". Nature. 502 (7470): 188-193. doi:10.1038/nature12617. ISSN ...
... the broad and flattened bar along the postorbital and squamosal bones, and the squamosal bones being deep plates on the occiput ... The prefrontal and palpebral bones were fused and formed a thick ridge above the orbit. The relatively large jugal bone formed ... Before being incorporated into the enlarging dome, the skull bones expanded, resulting in junctions between these bones. The ... its inflated nasal bones, its ornamentation of tubercles on the sides and back of the squamosal bones, rows of up to six ...
The humerus had a boss (bone overgrowth) above the condyle that contacted its hook-shaped radius (forearm bone). Accordingly, ... Its lesser trochanter is markedly plate-like. In the ankle, the astralagus had an ascending process taller than that of ... long bone of the hand) is known; showing a robust morphology (form). In the pelvis, the ilium (main hip bone) was high. The ... frontmost snout bones) and the hind branch of the maxillae (main upper jaw bone). The praemaxillae had an upward branch ...
Examination of the bone reveals normal epiphyseal plates but disorganized metaphyseal regions. Hypercalcemia (elevated levels ... X-rays may reveal abnormal development of the bulbous ends of the metaphyses of the limb bones. Tests that detect ... wide cranial sutures and irregular formation of the long bones which can resemble rickets. Nephrocalcinosis (accumulation of ...
Horner then studied the bones, and at first, there was a refusal to return the bones to Brandvold. It contained the first ... "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement. "Baby dino ... "Missing bones". Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Carr, Thomas D.; Varricchio, David J.; Sedlmayr, Jayc C.; Roberts, Eric M.; Moore, ... He was eight years old when he found his first dinosaur bone. He attended the University of Montana for seven years, majoring ...
The frontal bone has an almost vertical forehead, similar to Homo erectus, but unlike the Ngangdong or the Broken Hill crania. ... The right tympanic plate has an ossified styloid process. There appears to be no sagittal torus. The supramastoid crest does ... The area of bone around the right parietal indicates parietal bossing. The sides of the braincase are more vertical when viewed ... Bones, Stones and Molecules: "Out of Africa" and Human Origins, By David W. Cameron, Colin P. Groves, p. 186, Elsevier Academic ...
"Chondroblastoma of Bone." The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 82A.8 (2000): 1140-1145. Web. 6 Dec. 2015. Kurt, Ann-Marie, et ... In patients who are near the end of skeletal growth, complete curettage of the growth plate is an option. In addition to ... However, local recurrence for long bone lesions is around 10%, with chondroblastoma in flat bones having higher recurrence and ... locally aggressive bone tumor that typically affects the epiphyses or apophyses of long bones. It is thought to arise from an ...
... has become more mineralized and brittle and needs to be attached to the surrounding bone with sutures or an absorbable plate.[ ... The bone is still more malleable and can be remodelled relatively 'simply' by greenstick fractures of the bone.[42] At ... the plates have been observed to come into direct contact with the brain.[51][52] Absorbable plates are now used instead.[51][ ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time.[42] A bone graft is ...
The feeling of hunger could be triggered by the smell and thought of food, the sight of a plate, or hearing someone talk about ... such as giraffes, camels, and cattle, will gnaw on bones to consume particular minerals and nutrients.[37] Also, cats, which ... Half of plate to be filled with vegetables, according to Harvard School of Public Health ... Hypercarnivores, however, have conical teeth and sharp carnassials meant for slashing, and in some cases strong jaws for bone- ...
In rare cases surgery may be required to place pins or plates in the bone to hold the pieces in place.[8] ... Due to the linear articulation of bones, the force is able to travel freely across these joints and bones and be dissipated ... means a break in specifically the second metacarpal bone or third metacarpal bone,[12] with "bar room fracture" being specific ... A boxer's fracture is the break of the 5th metacarpal bones of the hand near the knuckle.[4] Occasionally it is used to refer ...
Nelson, D.E., Radiocarbon dating of bone and charcoal from Divje babe I cave, cited by Morley, p. 47 ... During the Pleistocene, the modern continents were essentially at their present positions; the tectonic plates on which they ... Upper Paleolithic (and possibly Middle Paleolithic)[83] humans used flute-like bone pipes as musical instruments,[38][84] and ... In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also ...
... and decreased bone mineral density, make its use for male acne impractical in most cases.[114][115][116] Pregnant and lactating ... Staining of the nail plate. *Stippled nails. *Subungual hematoma. *Terry's nails. *Twenty-nail dystrophy ...
"Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 22 (8): 1245-1259. doi:10.1359/jbmr.070420. PMID 17456009.. ... Loss of the regulator, Pten, of the Phophatidylinositol3' kinase pathway results in skeletal overgrowth and growth plate ... giving rise to either bone or cartilage respectively. Osteochondroprogenitor cells are important for bone formation and ... Brian Keith Hall (2005). Bones and cartilage: developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. Academic Press. pp. 150-. ISBN ...
When the cause is unknown, it is called idiopathic short stature.[5] Short stature can also be caused by the bone plates fusing ... Normally, the bone age is the same as the biological age but for some people, it is older. For many people with advanced bone ... However, in some cases, people who are naturally shorter combined with their advanced bone age, end up being even shorter than ...
This is accomplished by the exchange of natural bone constituents, deposition in voids or defects, adsorption onto the bone ... Due to the increase in porosity of bones through collagen loss, the bone becomes susceptible to hydrolytic infiltration where ... 2002). "The Survival of Organic Matter in Bone: A Review". Archaeometry. 44 (3): 383-394. doi:10.1111/1475-4754.t01-1-00071.. ... Role of diagenesis in bone decomposition[edit]. Diagenesis alters the proportions of organic collagen and inorganic components ...
Talk:Basal plate (neural tube). *Talk:Basal vein. *Talk:Base of lung ... Talk:Bone marrow. *Talk:Bone tissue. *Talk:Bony labyrinth. *Talk:Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery ...
... to the X-rays and collected the resulting image of the broken bone on gelatin photographic plates obtained from Howard Langill ... Cancer, bone fractures. Significant tests. screening tests, X-ray, CT, MRI, PET, bone scan, ultrasonography, mammography, ... DEXA, or bone densitometry, is used primarily for osteoporosis tests. It is not projection radiography, as the X-rays are ... Usually the hip (head of the femur), lower back (lumbar spine), or heel (calcaneum) are imaged, and the bone density (amount of ...
Plates. *Horizontal plate (Posterior nasal spine). *Perpendicular plate (Greater palatine canal, Sphenopalatine foramen, ... Bones of head and neck: the facial skeleton of the skull (TA A02.1.08-15, GA 2.156-177) ... Palatine process (Incisive foramen, Incisive canals, Foramina of Scarpa, Incisive bone, Anterior nasal spine) ... Anatomy photo:34:st-0203 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Oral Cavity: Bones" ...
... were able to conclude that an increase in heel height lead to an increase in pressure beneath each of the Metatarsal bones of ... the effects of increased heel height on foot pressure using forty-five female participants walking across a pressure plate in ... study consisted of eleven participants wearing tracking and reflective markers as they walked across a 10 meter force plated ...
A simple homemade device for demonstration can be constructed out of bismuth plates and a few permanent magnets that levitate a ... JPL said it hopes to perform experiments regarding the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle mass. ...
For example, it is the main purification technique for removing organic impurities from bright nickel plating solutions. A ... Their excessive build up can adversely affect plating quality and physical properties of deposited metal. Activated carbon ... Bone char. *Carbon filtering. *Conjugated microporous polymer. *Kværner-process. *Onboard refueling vapor recovery ... variety of organic chemicals are added to plating solutions for improving their deposit qualities and for enhancing properties ...
In 2008, Hayden ran his old number 69 since Casey Stoner earned the right to run the number 1 plate after winning the MotoGP ... British and San Marino rounds due to a second round of surgery on his right wrist in July to remove a set of small bones.[153][ ... After it was declared that Hayden had not broken any bones, he returned in the warm-up session on Sunday[94] and went on to ...
... and include 11 to 13 long bones. There is a covering of meat on top of the bones and also between them. Spare ribs (pork) are ... Pork spare ribs are taken from the belly side of the pig's rib cage above the sternum (breast bone) and below the back ribs ... Beef short ribs are taken from the belly side of the cattle's rib cage above the sternum (breast bone). Beef spare ribs tend to ... They are generally cooked on a barbecue or on an open fire, and are served as a slab (bones and all) with a sauce. American ...
They have a pair of blowholes side-by-side and lack teeth; instead they have baleen plates which form a sieve-like structure in ... These vibrations are received through fatty tissues in the jaw, which is then rerouted into the ear-bone and into the brain ... Baleen whales have no teeth; instead they have plates of baleen, a fringe-like structure used to expel water while retaining ... This is followed by the colonization of bones and surrounding sediments (which contain organic matter) by enrichment ...
After Plate's definition, Hans Gruneberg was the first to study the mechanisms of pleiotropy.[3] In 1938 Gruneberg published an ... This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The term "pleiotropie" was first coined by Ludwig Plate in his Festschrift, which was published in 1910.[3] He originally ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ...
Orifice plate[edit]. Venturi tubes are more expensive to construct than simple orifice plates, and both function on the same ... The leadpipe of a trombone, affecting the timbre. *Foam proportioners used to induct fire fighting foam concentrate into fire ... Both venturis and orifice plates are used in industrial applications and in scientific laboratories for measuring the flow rate ... However, for any given differential pressure, orifice plates cause significantly more permanent energy loss.[2] ...
... such as hypercalcemia and numerous bone changes such as bone loss that potentially leads to osteoporosis, spontaneous bone ... Kodaka T, Takaki H, Soeta S, Mori R, Naito Y (July 1998). "Local disappearance of epiphyseal growth plates in rats with ... resulting in increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. It is likely to exert this effect by binding to specific ... Increased bone turnoverEdit. Retinoic acid suppresses osteoblast activity and stimulates osteoclast formation in vitro,[23] ...
Both sets of bones connect the shoulder girdle to the skull. With the loss of these bones, tetrapods acquired a neck, allowing ... The dorsal extension of the pelvis was the ilium, while the broad ventral plate was composed of the pubis in front and the ... Bones and groups of bones were also consolidated and strengthened.[71]. In Carboniferous tetrapods, the neck joint (occiput) ... A notable feature of Tiktaalik is the absence of bones covering the gills. These bones would otherwise connect the shoulder ...
Living bones are subject to Wolff's law, which states that bones are physically affected and remodeled by physical activity or ... Direct testing of bioarchaeological methods for sexing skeletons by comparing gendered names on coffin plates from the crypt at ... Living or freshly dead bones are somewhat resilient, so metal blade injuries to bone will generate a linear cut with relatively ... The archaeology of human bones. Routledge. Samuel J. Redman, 2016. Bone Rooms: From Scientific Racism to Human Prehistory in ...
A more dubious story tells of how he wished for his bones to be carried along on future expeditions against the Scots. Another ... Prestwich 1997, p. plate 14 *^ Harriss 1975, p. 49 *^ Brown 1989, pp. 65-66 ...
As the plate of Mytilene while the divers dive to catch the Cross women at the same time "getting a detaining (= pumpkin) water ... Special food jelly from pork and beef meat and bones called "pacha" (пача) or "pivtii" (пивтии) is prepared the day before, but ...
With plates.]. Maclachlan & Stewart. *^ Alexander, T. L., & Buxton, D. (Eds.). (1986). Management and diseases of deer: a ... Currently, eagles only occur in the Hawaiian Islands as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus have been found on three ... MacGillivray, W. (1836). Descriptions of the Rapacious Birds of Great Britain.[With plates.]. Maclachlan & Stewart. ... On Orkney, Scotland, sea eagle bones have been found in 6000-year-old burial mounds, among them the Tomb of the Eagles, ...
Foundation for strong healthy bones and teeth - majority of the calcium consumed as a child is deposited onto collagen bone ... Be a strong role model and have lots of vegetables on your plate at meal times. Involve children in meal preparation so they ... As a child the body requires iodine for brain and bone development. Fruit and vegetables grown in iodine rich soils provide the ... Vitamin A ensures sufficient collagen is produced to build strong healthy bones and other connecting tissues (Deen & Hark, 2007 ...
Excavations in Ashkelon, Ekron, and Gath reveal dog and pig bones which show signs of having been butchered, implying that ... Plate CCXXII) "carefully labeled with a hieroglyphic inscription" each of the combatants, and Champollion's posthumously ... referring to the new genetic input from the direction of Southern Europe that was found in bone samples taken from infants ...
In 1,017 plate appearances, he had 105 walks and 90 hits. He has the most career plate appearances of anyone with more walks ... The accident broke his left collar bone, requiring him to wear a cast for four months. Post-injury efforts to strengthen the ...
The flattened plates, which each antenna terminates, are fitted together to form a club. The outer edges of the front legs may ... The adults and larvae feed on the dried skin, tendons and bone left by fly larvae. Hide beetles are the only beetle with the ...
The madreporite of sea urchins is located within one of the plates surrounding the anus on the upper surface of the animal. The ... Ophiuroids have no ambulacral groove, and the radial canals instead run through the solid bone-like ossicles of the arms. ... The madreporite is located on the underside of the animal, usually in one of the jaw plates. The stone canal runs upwards to ... The radial canal ends in a small water-filled tentacle which protrudes through the uppermost plate of the ambulacral region.[11 ...
A bone plate includes one or more locking devices which rotate to inhibit or prevent bone screws from backing out of the plate ... Bone plate screw-blocking systems and methods. US8652182 *. 28 Sep 2009. 18 Feb 2014. Spinal U.S.A.. Bone plate with retainer ... Bone plate screw-blocking systems and methods. US20130204306 *. 13 Mar 2013. 8 Aug 2013. Spinal Usa, Inc.. Bone plate screw- ... A bone plate includes one or more locking devices which rotate to inhibit or prevent bone screws from backing out of the plate ...
... although the plate is also adaptable for other bone areas. The bone plate is comprised of a solid elongated rod portion and a ... The plates may be of predetermined lengths and curves to fit specific bones and contours or the plates may be supplied as ... The bone plate is particularly adaptable for fracture in the pelvic and acetabular area, ... A bone plate for bridging two portions of a broken bone which can be formed to fit and retain many irregular surfaces and yet ...
Find great designs on durable and weather resistant License Plate Frames to make your car stand out! ✓Free Returns ✓100% ... Shop Cross Bones License Plate Frames from CafePress. ... License Plate Frames Cross Bones License Plate Frames. Change ... License Plates Bumper Stickers Car Magnets Keychains License Plate Frames Aluminum License Plate Frame Chrome License Plate ... These rugged license plate holders are personalized to share your message, whether its about a hobby, an issue or just your ...
The bone plate generally includes a first mounting portion for attachment to a first bone portion, a second mounting portion ... for attachment to a ssecond bone portion, and an intermediate portion connecting the first mounting portion and the second ... A system for performing osteotomies includes a bone plate and a retractor assembly. ... A bone plate for securing the relative positions between first and second portions of a bone separated by a gap, the bone plate ...
A ventral bone-plate assembly has a U-shaped base having a pair of legs bridged by a bight and each formed with an inner hole ... So as not to have to provide any additional bone screws for the brace plate, the brace plate is formed with holes that align ... However, it is disadvantageous that with the known bone plates the surgeon cannot see the areas covered by the plate, which is ... A ventral bone-plate assembly has a U-shaped base having a pair of legs bridged by a bight and each formed with an inner hole ...
The plate may be hinged along the central axis, with a pair of collinear holes on eac ... A bone plate system comprising a thin plate and fasteners for securing the plate to at least two segments of bone. ... A bone plate system comprising a thin plate and fasteners for securing the plate to at least two segments of bone. The plate ... Bone screws may be used to fasten the plate to the bones. Spinal plating systems are commonly used to correct problems in the ...
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Home , December 15th, 2009 - Volume 34 - Issue 26 , Anterior-Only Stabilization Using Plating With Bone Structur... ... 1.Dai L-Y, Jiang L-S, Jiang S-D. Anterior-only stabilization using plating with bone structural autograft versus titanium mesh ... Anterior-Only Stabilization Using Plating With Bone Structural Autograft Versus Titanium Mesh Cages for Two- or Three-Column ... Anterior-Only Stabilization Using Plating With Bone Structural Autograft Versus Titanium Mesh Cages for Two- or Three-Column ...
9 is an alternate embodiment of a perspective view of a bone plate system extender plate emphasizing a top surface. ... 1 is a perspective view of a bone plate system extender plate emphasizing a top surface. ... 2 is a perspective view of a bone plate system extender plate emphasizing a bottom surface. ... The ornamental design for a bone plate system extender plate, as shown and described. ...
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Irving Penn, Fish Bones on a Plate, New York, 1993, printed 2000, chromogenic print, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of ...
"Bone Plates" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bone Plates" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Bone Plates" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bone Plates" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Bone Plates". ...
This is a lovely plate was designed by Phil Burgess for the Beagle Bone. Pick one up today in the adafruit shop! ------, http ... Adafruit Proto Plate for Beagle Bone by adafruit is licensed under the Creative Commons - Attribution - Share Alike license. ... Adafruit Proto Plate for Beagle Bone by adafruit is licensed under the Creative Commons - Attribution - Share Alike license. ... Adafruit Proto Plate for Beagle Bone by adafruit is licensed under the Creative Commons - Attribution - Share Alike license. ...
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Standard Specification and Test Method for Metallic Bone Plates) [19]. The wave plates were shaped from straight plates as ... The wave plate shifts the neutral axis toward the lateral cortical region, so that the bone is in compression, while the plate ... bone deformities, and open growth plate. Metal plates have been used for the fixation of fractures since the end of the 19th ... bones, either as wave plate for simple fractures or as straight plate for complex fractures, in situations where the high cost ...
... for fixing bone with a bone plate supported temporarily at a slant on bone by a leg member before the bone plate is used as a ... the bone plate and the leg member may be used near the end of a long bone, such as on a distal portion of a radial bone. ... the leg member may be a post member that attaches to the bone plate by threaded engagement with an aperture of the bone plate. ... lever to reposition a region of the bone. In some embodiments, ... Bone Plates. A bone plate generally refers to any structure or ...
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Such assemblies comprise spring structures assembled to bone treatment plates. The spring structure comprises elongate bands, ... detents in the plate thereby to arrest longitudinal movement of the spring structure with respect to the plate. ... and springs between the bands, urging the bands against structure of the plate. Spring width is less than spring height and/or ... Bone treatment plate assemblies, methods of fabrication, and methods of use. ...
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Ive now developed a cyst at the end of the of the plate from the irritation. I was ... I had a metal plate put on my ulnar bone last February. ... Bone Disorders Message Board HealthBoards , Bone Joint Muscle ... Cyst caused by irritation from metal plate Hi all,. I had a metal plate put on my ulnar bone last February. Ive now developed ... I was wondering if anyone else out there developed cysts when they had a plate on their bone.. Thanks,. MountainReader ...
  • Bone plates for osteosynthesis have been known for a long time and are employed in particular in order to cover sites of fractures. (
  • Nonoperative Treatment Compared with Volar Locking Plate Fixation for Dorsally Displaced Distal Radial Fractures in the Elderly. (
  • Ochen Y, Frima H, Houwert RM, Heng M, van Heijl M, Verleisdonk EJMM, van der Velde D. Surgical treatment of Neer type II and type V lateral clavicular fractures: comparison of hook plate versus superior plate with lateral extension: a retrospective cohort study. (
  • Teunis T, Meijer S, Jupiter J, Rikli D. The correlation between the teardrop angle and anterior lunate facet displacement in plating distal radial fractures. (
  • The objective of this study was to compare the Locking Compression Plate (LCP) with the more cost-effective straight-dynamic compression plate (DCP) and wave-DCPs by testing in vitro the effects of plate stiffness on different types of diaphyseal femur fractures (A, B, and C, according to AO classification). (
  • The current standard of care for femoral fractures is the intramedullary nail, but there are situations in which the use of plates is indicated, like narrow medullary cavity, bone deformities, and open growth plate. (
  • Metal plates have been used for the fixation of fractures since the end of the 19th century. (
  • At that time, researchers believed that "absolute" stability was the best method for treating long bone diaphyseal fractures, but a high rate of nonunions and postoperative infections questioned this concept only a few decades later [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • VLP ◊ MINI-MOD ◊ Small Bone Plating System is a modular mini-fragment system designed to treat small bone fractures and small bone fragments. (
  • Fractures in the proximal tibia (top of the shin bone) or distal femur (bottom of the thighbone) are the most common epiphyseal plate injuries that lead to growth stoppage. (
  • Fractures involving growth plate injuries usually require a doctor to set the bone. (
  • An innovative approach to external fixation of severe nasal bone fractures with orthopedic plates. (
  • To circumvent this problem, many innovative techniques have been developed, such as a nasal bone clip fabricated from a K-wire, (1) halo external fixation, (2) and the use of bioabsorbable plates (3) and fibrin glue (4) for open fractures. (
  • Gotfried, Y., The Gotfried PC.C.P for Percutaneous Compression Plating of Pertrochanteric Hip Fractures, Operative Technique publication, date not known, 26 pages, available on the Internet at (
  • The last five years, plates and screws have been used to treat these fractures. (
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Inion CPS biodegradable plates and screws on pediatric facial fractures. (
  • The site of fracture was different: 18 patients had mandibular fractures, four patients had zygomatic complex fractures, four patients had orbital fractures, two patients had maxillary fractures (one isolated and the other with mandibular fracture), and one patient had frontal bone and sinus fractures (anterior wall). (
  • Fractures were plated with a biodegradable system (Inion CPS) using standard plating principles. (
  • Until recently fractures of the zygomatic bone with caudal and dorsal dislocation were, after reduction, fixated with wire osteosynthesis at the fronto-zygomatic suture. (
  • With this method endorotation of the zygomatic bone and flattening of the cheek was prevented, which proved to be of considerable value especially in old or infra-orbital comminuted fractures. (
  • Kusen G.J., Van Den Akker H.P., Bazuin M. (1978) Stable Fixation of Fractures of the Zygomatic Bone with the Use of AO Compression Plates. (
  • Implantable device for healing bone fractures. (
  • A bone plate includes one or more locking devices which rotate to inhibit or prevent bone screws from backing out of the plate when installed on a patient. (
  • Respective inner bone screws extend through the inner holes, and respective outer bone screws each extend through a respective one of the outer holes and a respective one of the end holes. (
  • 10. The ventral bone-plate assembly defined in claim 1 wherein each of the holes has an inner face forming a part-spherical seat, each of the screws having a complementary part-spherical head formation. (
  • A typical such ventral plate is formed with a plurality of holes for receiving bone screws that pass through the holes and that are to be screwed into the vertebral bodies of adjacent vertebras. (
  • 10. The system of claim 1, wherein said bone anchor elements comprise a plurality of bone engaging screws, each of said screws including a lower threaded section for affixing said screw within said bone. (
  • Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (
  • In this system, the fixation screws are locked in the plate [ 14 - 16 ]. (
  • In this procedure, the surgeon tries to improve alignment by cutting the bone at, or near, the fracture location and fixates the bone segments in an improved position, using a plate and screws. (
  • Additionally, the screws in the system feature a flat head to sit flush when used independently or through a plate. (
  • This feature combines the benefits of both monoaxial and polyaxial locked plating concepts into one intuitive system allowing locking screws to be angled up to 15° off axis. (
  • Whether used with a plate or independently, Osteopenia Screws are designed with an optimized thread form for use in areas of poor bone quality. (
  • However, the local distribution of bone quality in the humeral head may also have a significant effect because it remains unclear in what quality of bone screws of standard implants purchase. (
  • However, recent advances in treatment have enabled us to use biodegradable plates and screws, which overcome the limitations of metallic plates. (
  • Bach 350 No. 5 Small Shank Mouthpiece Silver Plated Medium cup, Approx Cup Dia. 25.50mm, medium wide, semi flat rim. (
  • In some embodiments, the bone plate and the leg member may be used near the end of a long bone, such as on a distal portion of a radial bone. (
  • 8. The method of claim 7 , wherein the bone is a radial bone, and wherein the step of pivoting adjusts a palmar inclination of a distal articular surface region of the radial bone. (
  • A patient-tailored plate is designed by virtually cutting the bone and temporary plate at a user-defined location and repositioning the distal plate segment using the correction matrix M c . (
  • The cross section of the plate (Fig. 6 a, Plane 0) is positioned repetitively within the gap such that it smoothly runs from the proximal plate segment to the distal plate segment. (
  • This system is also indicated for non-load bearing stabilization and reduction of bone fragments in long bones. (
  • A growth plate, also called an epiphyseal plate, is a section of cartilage located at the ends of the long bones of children and teenagers. (
  • Growth plate injuries are also common in the long bones of the fingers, and can occur in joints such as the shoulder, wrist, ankle, or elbow. (
  • Growth plate is a specialized structure which is responsible for the longitudinal growth of long bones as it promotes ossification, thus resulting a cumulative bone deposition at the metaphysis. (
  • Many of the long bones (arms & legs) you can get two per plate. (
  • Show your loving bond with your dogs with this shiny rhodium plated sterling silver epoxied dog bone pendant necklace. (
  • This beautiful rhodium plated silvertone torc bracelet features a pair of three dimensional skulls at the tips, with vertebral bones connecting the skulls. (
  • The plate systems were tested by applying compression/bending in different osteosynthesis simulation models using wooden rods to simulate the fractured bone fragments. (
  • As opposed to the wide surgical approach required by this technique, it has been suggested that less manipulation of the bone fragments would result in faster bone healing by preserving the fracture site vasculature [ 5 ]. (
  • The VLP MINI-MOD Small Bone Plating System is indicated for fracture fixation, arthrodesis, reconstruction, replantation or reduction of small bones and small bone fragments. (
  • The superior wire was passed through the comminuted nasal bone fragments anterior and inferior to the medial canthus, and the inferior wire was passed through the frontal process of the maxillary bone. (
  • Tine plates are designed specifically to engage bone fragments for fragment manipulation. (
  • Good bones: marrow and caviar at Five Eleven. (
  • By 6 p.m., there were only three orders of the special appetizer left: roasted beef marrow bones served with micro greens and black tobiko caviar ($16). (
  • Halves of the split bone, like a pair of dug-out canoes, are filled with melting marrow salted only by the briny caviar. (
  • Repair of alveolar cleft defects: reduced morbidity with bone marrow stem cells in a resorbable matrix," The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery , vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 895-901, 2007. (
  • Comparison of multi-lineage cells from human adipose tissue and bone marrow," Cells Tissues Organs , vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 101-109, 2003. (
  • Immunomodulatory effect of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells: comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells," British Journal of Haematology , vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 118-129, 2005. (
  • Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-directed bone regeneration in the dog mandible: a comparison between biphasic calcium phosphate and natural bone mineral," Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology , vol. 105, no. 5, pp. e14-e24, 2008. (
  • Many of the cell types present in the microenvironment of growing bone contribute to the local synthesis of cytokines and growth factors including the resident endothelial cells, marrow stromal cells, osteoblasts, periosteal cells and chondrocytes. (
  • 6. The system of claim 1, wherein said second pair of openings lie at a 15° anterior angulation to the upper surface of said second plate. (
  • Anterior-Only Stabilization Using Plating With Bone Structur. (
  • C-TEK Anterior Cervical Plate, 2001 Interpore Cross International, 1 sheet. (
  • Because it is generally not possible to effectively palpate the anterior lacrimal crest in a case of severe nasal bone fracture, an estimate of its position was made, based on the position of the medial canthus. (
  • The anterior border articulates with the spine of the frontal bone and the crest of the nasal bones. (
  • Composition: Crafted of highly polished Sterling Silver plating. (
  • Overview: -Unisex -Comfortable -Unique design -Handmade -Lightweight -Suitable for sensitive ears -High quality materials Materials: Bone, silver plating, high quality brass setting, sterling silver ear wire. (
  • and a plurality of bone anchor elements dimensioned to be inserted through said first and second pairs of openings to rigidly affix said first and second plates to said first and second bone segments. (
  • and introducing a plurality of bone anchor elements, one through each of said first and second pairs of openings to affix said first and second plates to said first and second bone segments. (
  • Bone metabolism is a complex equilibrium between bone formation and resorption regulated through numerous hormones, steroids, growth factors, and cytokines. (
  • In osteoporosis, this dynamic equilibrium between bone formation and resorption is perturbed, leading to bone loss and structural deterioration, both increasing fracture risk. (
  • Although the method has become quite popular, a major limitation is that DTA produces hard classifications only, failing to distinguish between narrow and wide plates. (
  • This beautiful Regency Teacup, Saucer and Plate Set is part of our exclusive Netherfield Collection - a range of fine bone china crockery, made in England and branded with our Jane Austen silhouette logo and signature. (
  • A beautiful, fine bone china Regency Teacup, Saucer and Plate Set - part of our brand new and exclusive Netherfield Collection. (
  • Set contains one teacup, one saucer and one matching plate. (
  • Infusing a touch of class to rustic themes, this lovely plate will make a great impression when teamed with our BUMBLE BEES espresso cup and saucer. (
  • More particularly this invention concerns such a plate that is secured to two vertebras to stabilize a spine. (
  • CSLP Variable Angle: For Use with the Cervical Spine Locking Plate System," Technique Guide, 2000 SYNTHES.RTM. (
  • Its medial end is sharp and pointed, and, when united with that of the opposite bone, forms a projecting process, the posterior nasal spine for the attachment of the musculus uvulae. (
  • This set of 4 dessert plates are decorated in the same beautiful pattern as the rest of our Beau Rose bone china line. (
  • These dessert plates measure 7.5 inches in diameter and are also great for serving salad. (
  • I'm so glad that I purchased these dessert plates to finish my Beau Rose tea set. (
  • Freshen up your tableware collection with Wedgwood's beautiful range of bone china side plates, salad plates, accent plates and dessert plates. (
  • Created Using Real Human Tissues, These Bone China Histology Dessert Plates Are Availabl. (
  • Created using real human tissues, these bone china histology dessert plates are available in 4 different human tissue designs: Testicle, Liver, Thyroid, and Esophagus. (
  • Made in England from fine bone china in a beautiful blue rose design. (
  • All the KIM SERA ceramics are hand decorated on fine bone china plates and fired at our potter's factory in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire. (
  • Made from fine bone china, this romantic and playful plate is lined with 22 carat gold and features the whimsy of peonies and butterflies. (
  • Cool Blue Set - 6x Artists Designed Fine Bone China Plates has been added to your cart. (
  • Made in England by Roy Kirkham, these fine bone china plates have simple and elegant designs and make excellent gifts. (
  • A great gift for anyone who loves to have a tea break using quality fine bone china but with a modern twist. (
  • The wave plate shifts the neutral axis toward the lateral cortical region, so that the bone is in compression, while the plate is in tension [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • i.e., decrease in volume, reduction in total area and height, decrease in the area ossified zones, mechanical weakening, reduction in mass of trabecular and cortical bone, lower bone density, deterioration of the trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, and trabeculae with lower collagen deposition. (
  • Dietary restriction had severe detrimental effects on the growth plate and trabecular and cortical bone. (
  • Fracture and plate geometries affect the stress distribution and stiffness of the bone/plate system and must be taken into account when considering an osteosynthesis repair. (
  • In recent years it has been demonstrated that a large number of growth factors and cytokines regulate the proliferation and differentiation of bone and cartilage cells in vitro and in vivo (Table 2). (
  • The correlation between the peak torque and cycles to failure revealed the potential of the DensiProbe to predict the failure of locked plating in vitro. (
  • Growth plate cells proliferate, differentiate, and undergo hypertrophy and apoptosis with replacement by newly formed trabecular bone 1 . (
  • Trabecular bone (TB) is a complex quasi-random network of interconnected struts and plates. (
  • The bone plate is comprised of a solid elongated rod portion and a plurality of screw retaining areas extending from the rod portion and spaced apart from each other along the rod portion, forming rod segments between the protruding screw retaining areas. (
  • The EVOS◊ MINI Plating System consists of stainless steel, variable-angle locking, low profile plates paired with screw options for both small and long bone applications. (
  • The plate may be hinged along the central axis, with a pair of collinear holes on each portion of the plate. (
  • Each of the holes accommodates a bolt which is screwed into the bone and secured to the plate using a nut. (
  • Front plate measures 6 x 12 with four holes. (
  • Plate does not have holes. (
  • 20.5 x 4.4 Inch European Style Plate Without Holes. (
  • Cut segments (two holes) of a medium-sized orthopedic stainless-steel plate were used to fashion the external fixation device. (
  • Punch holes in the plates & connect the "bones" with twine. (
  • Bone plating implants, instruments, systems and methods for fracture fixation are provided. (
  • The intraoperative C-arm and postoperative X-ray imaging results indicated that the customized bone plate matched well to the damaged pelvis. (
  • The two horn cups each with silver-plated banding to rims, applied stag and knight on horseback to bodies, larger cup with engraving M.C.S.E.D below knight on horseback. (
  • Like its inspiration, this accent salad plate from Waterford features an artistically-etched platinum design on white bone china. (
  • Salad Plates: 8 in. (
  • Present heart felt meals or simply add a fresh salad to a warm summer meal with friends on the salad plates. (
  • The salad plates in this range are 23cm in diameter and will set off any starter to its absolute best! (
  • Featuring silver edging, these plates are decorated on white bone china with a lovely pink and white rose design. (
  • Bone bangle with silver-plated caps with raised floral design on the edges. (
  • Premium personalized banded plastic plates are embellished with silver or gold edging which gives a beautiful style with the convenience of plastic and the elegance of china. (
  • Silver plated finish. (
  • Charm, antique silver-plated pewter (tin-based alloy), 11x9mm single-sided dog head with bone. (
  • Happily carrying a bone in his mouth, this perky pup's details are enhanced by an antique silver plating. (
  • Charms Silver Plated/Finished Silver Colored Land H20B2725FN Charm, antique silver-plated pewter (tin-based alloy), 11x9mm single-sided dog head with bone. (
  • A bone plate for bridging two portions of a broken bone which can be formed to fit and retain many irregular surfaces and yet retain optimum strength. (
  • A broken bone in a child or adolescent should be treated more carefully than in an adult because of the risk of growth plate injury. (
  • The customized bone plate fixed the broken bone and guides pelvis restoration while reducing operation time to about two hours. (
  • In doing so, the panels, made out of a titanium alloy, are put on top of the bone. (
  • The residual stress was eliminated by exposing the SLM-fabricated titanium-alloy bone plate to a vacuum heat treatment. (
  • these lead from the medial foramina on the cribriform plate and lodge filaments of the olfactory nerves. (
  • Because OSN axon bundles leave high-fidelity perforations (foramina) in the bone as they traverse the cribriform plate (CP) to reach the brain, we predicted that taxa with larger ORG repertoires would have proportionately expanded footprints in the CP foramina. (
  • Made using 316L stainless steel, the EVOS MINI Plating System provides unique plate geometries for both small and long bone anatomy. (
  • In exquisite Royal Albert snow white bone china on the widely fluted Countess Shape, the only decoration on these luncheon plates is the elegant gold trim around the edge. (
  • Takashi Takizawa, first author of 'Titanium Fibre Plates for Bone Tissue Repair', published in the Wiley Online Library, said that "Our titanium fibre plates, unlike conventional titanium plates are prepared by compressing titanium fibre at normal room temperature into plates without changing the fibre shape. (
  • In a classic elegant coupe shape this stunning ivory range of bone china features gentle curves and would look equally good for a relaxed lunch or a formal dinner party. (
  • The GP Series features an innovative shape and extra-heavy gold-plate finish for players who prefer a focused, concentrated tonal core. (
  • an intermediate portion connecting the first mounting portion and the second mounting portion in a first direction, the intermediate portion having a reduced cross-sectional dimension and including first and second shelves extending from a rear surface of the bone plate, the first and second shelves each having a width in a direction generally parallel to the first direction that is substantially greater than a central portion of the intermediate portion. (
  • The joint surface of the bone plate was placed upwards with respect to the build platform to keep it away from the support and to improve the quality of the joint surface. (
  • Since there is no way to regenerate the growth plate cartilage after a physeal bar, additional treatments are required. (
  • In addition to their direct effects on osteogenic cells that will be discussed in a later paper, systemic agents may have important interactions with local factors in bone and cartilage. (
  • There is also increasing evidence that abnormal production of cytokines in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and osteoporosis may result in inappropriate responses by bone and cartilage cells. (
  • For those who love all things from the sea and are looking for a smaller nose ring, this 22 gauge nose bone still packs plenty of shine. (
  • A 16-year-old boy presented with a compound and severely depressed fracture of the nasal bones and frontal processes of the maxillae bilaterally after he had been struck with a cricket bat (figure 1). (
  • System, including apparatus and methods, for fixing bone with a bone plate supported temporarily at a slant on bone by a leg member before the bone plate is used as a lever to reposition a region of the bone. (
  • Bone treatment plate assemblies, methods of fabrication, and methods of use. (
  • We have used the above method utilising a locked plate, rather than conventional plating methods, facilitating immediate stability and early mobilisation. (
  • Decorated with enamel and polished finish for an attractive shine, this 14.81x26.82mm pendant hangs from 18-inch flash gold plated Spiga chain that secures with lobster clasp. (
  • In this article, I describe a simple technique for managing severe nasal bone injuries with good results. (
  • Surgeons generally prefer to splint fractured nasal bones internally with absorbable nasal or gauze packing along with a conventional external splint. (
  • its superior edge is raised into a ridge, which, united with the ridge of the opposite bone, forms the nasal crest for articulation with the posterior part of the lower edge of the vomer. (
  • These plates made me say 'Ah! (
  • Pre-operative experiments and operation rehearsal were performed using the customized bone plate and the ABC-made pelvic model. (
  • Made by Royal Albert China during the 1960s and 1970s, each plate has a small manufacturing flaw on the edge in the form of a slightly uneven spot. (
  • Made of heavy weight plastic, this strong and sturdy plate is perfect for your restaurant, cafe, or catering service. (
  • ProCook Malvern bone china tableware is made from the highest quality grade A bone china featuring classic translucent characteristics and offers incredible value for money. (
  • The customized bone plate eliminated the need for preoperative titanium plate pre-bending, thereby greatly reducing surgical wounds and operation time. (
  • 1 Furthermore, it is an acceptable surgical option in the treatment of aggressive benign bone lesions 1,2,3 Gitelis et al . (
  • The EVOS ◊ MINI Plating System was designed with the trauma surgeon in mind and built from the surgeon's need for an intuitive, straightforward implant system to provide adjunctive fixation and assist with achieving bone fragment reduction in long bone periarticular trauma. (
  • Bone collar charm in palladium-plated metal hardware. (
  • Includes a metal plate hanger as shown. (
  • Hi all, I had a metal plate put on my ulnar bone last February. (
  • The key steps of this study included designing the customized bone plate, metal 3D printing, vacuum heat treatment, surface post-processing, operation rehearsal, and clinical application and evaluation. (
  • Our data support the use of bioresorbable plate fixation in pediatric craniofacial surgery as a means of avoiding the potential and well-documented problems associated with rigid metal fixation. (
  • 11. The method of claim 10 , further comprising a step of adjusting an angle of slant of the body portion to provide a better fit of the head portion of the bone plate on the end region of the bone. (
  • In a small percentage of patients, the bone or a portion of the bone will stop growing. (
  • For your consideration here is the Original German WW2 round SIGN plate with Skull & Bones. (
  • Show your dad that he's bad to the bone with a wickedly cool skull plate that's perfect for using at the grill or at the table! (
  • Brush 2 coats of Pure Brilliance onto skull parts, and one light coat onto remainder of plate. (
  • Effect of Fixation Type and Bone Graft on Tarsometatarsal Fusion. (
  • The safety of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement has been proven, although potential chondrolysis and cement fracture have resulted in some surgeons replacing PMMA cement at 2 years post-op or using bone graft or bone graft substitutes instead. (