Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Grafting: Fixation of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT, during surgical reconstruction, by the use of a bone-patellar tendon graft.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Volleyball: A team sport in which two teams hit an inflated ball back and forth over a high net using their hands.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Bone Diseases, MetabolicCalcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Autografts: Transplant comprised of an individual's own tissue, transferred from one part of the body to another.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Oroantral Fistula: A fistula between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Alveolar Ridge Augmentation: Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Bone Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 126.96.36.199.Bone Marrow DiseasesMaterials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Transplant Donor Site: The body location or part from which tissue is taken for TRANSPLANTATION.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Tibial FracturesSuture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Mice, Inbred C57BLAdaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Oral Surgical Procedures, Preprosthetic: Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.