Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Grafting: Fixation of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT, during surgical reconstruction, by the use of a bone-patellar tendon graft.Alveoloplasty: Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Volleyball: A team sport in which two teams hit an inflated ball back and forth over a high net using their hands.Alveolar Bone Grafting: Surgical procedure to add bone to the ALVEOLAR RIDGE in children born with a CLEFT LIP and a CLEFT PALATE.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Tibial FracturesBone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFemur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mandibular Osteotomy: Intraoral OSTEOTOMY of the lower jaw usually performed in order to correct MALOCCLUSION.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Humeral FracturesCollagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alveolar Ridge Augmentation: Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cleft Lip: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Mandibular Injuries: Injuries to the lower jaw bone.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Fractures, Malunited: Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.OsteomyelitisFractures, Open: Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Radius FracturesTuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ilizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Chondroblastoma: A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Bone Marrow DiseasesDental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Volar Plate: A thick, fibrocartilaginous ligament at the metacarpophalageal joint.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Vascular Grafting: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Resorbable screws versus pins for optimal transplant fixation (SPOT) in anterior cruciate ligament replacement with autologous hamstring grafts: rationale and design of a randomized, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial [ISRCTN17384369]. (1/41)

BACKGROUND: Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common injuries to the knee joint. Arthroscopic ACL replacement by autologous tendon grafts has established itself as a standard of care. Data from both experimental and observational studies suggest that surgical reconstruction does not fully restore knee stability. Persisting anterior laxity may lead to recurrent episodes of giving-way and cartilage damage. This might at least in part depend on the method of graft fixation in the bony tunnels. Whereas resorbable screws are easy to handle, pins may better preserve graft tension. The objective of this study is to determine whether pinning of ACL grafts reduces residual anterior laxity six months after surgery as compared to screw fixation. DESIGN/METHODS: SPOT is a randomised, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial conducted at a single academic institution. Eligible patients are scheduled to arthroscopic ACL repair with triple-stranded hamstring grafts, conducted by a single, experienced surgeon. Intraoperatively, subjects willing to engage in this study will be randomised to transplant tethering with either resorbable screws or resorbable pins. No other changes apply to locally established treatment protocols. Patients and clinical investigators will remain blinded to the assigned fixation method until the six-month follow-up examination. The primary outcome is the side-to-side (repaired to healthy knee) difference in anterior translation as measured by the KT-1000 arthrometer at a defined load (89 N) six months after surgery. A sample size of 54 patients will yield a power of 80% to detect a difference of 1.0 mm +/- standard deviation 1.2 mm at a two-sided alpha of 5% with a t-test for independent samples. Secondary outcomes (generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life, magnetic resonance imaging morphology of transplants and devices) will be handled in an exploratory fashion. CONCLUSION: SPOT aims at showing a reduction in anterior knee laxity after fixing ACL grafts by pins compared to screws.  (+info)

Quantitative evaluation of anterior tibial translation during isokinetic motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using either patellar or hamstring tendon grafts. (2/41)

We studied 79 patients with unilateral injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The patients were randomly allocated to reconstruction with autologous patellar bone-tendon-bone (BTB) grafts (49 knees) or hamstring tendon (ST) grafts (30 knees). We measured anterior tibial translation (ATT) during isokinetic concentric contraction exercise 18-20 months after surgery using a computerized electrogoniometer. In both groups the highest ATT during exercise was observed at a knee flexion of about 20 degrees and was 13.5+/-3.0 mm in the BTB group and 13.9+/-3.4 mm in the ST group. There was no difference in the ATT between the reconstructed and healthy knees. For a range of knee flexion between 30 and 50 degrees the ATT in the ST group was significantly higher on the reconstructed side than on the healthy side. In the BTB group, the mean ATT in the reconstructed group was similar to that on the healthy side at a knee flexion angle between 0 and 90 degrees .  (+info)

Evaluation of tibial bone-tunnel changes with X-ray and computed tomography after ACL reconstruction using a bone-patella tendon-bone autograft. (3/41)

Thirteen patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone autografts (BTB) using interference screws were the subjects of this study. We analysed the relationship between bone-tunnel changes and clinical results 2 years after ACL reconstruction. To investigate changes, X-ray images were used to evaluate bone-tunnel enlargement, and computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate the sclerotic area around the bone tunnel. The KT-2000 was used to measure the discrepancy of tibial anterior displacement between the affected and nonaffected sides (DTAD). There was no correlation between bone-tunnel enlargement and DTAD. On the other hand, in the CT evaluation, there was a significant correlation between the sclerotic area and DTAD. Our results suggest that it is more significant to analyse the area of sclerotic change than bone-tunnel enlargement for clinical evaluation. We cannot evaluate bone-tunnel changes correctly with two-dimensional X-rays and cannot analyse the sclerotic area using X-rays. Therefore, we recommend that CT, with which it is possible to analyse the sclerotic area, be used to evaluate bone-tunnel changes and clinical results.  (+info)

Bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts versus hamstring autografts for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament: meta-analysis. (4/41)

OBJECTIVES: To compare bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts with hamstring autografts for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. DATA SOURCES: Medline, WebSPIRS, Science Citation Index, Current Contents databases, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Review methods All randomised controlled trials reporting one or more outcome related to stability (instrumented measurement of knee laxity, Lachman test, or pivot shift test) and morbidity (anterior knee pain, kneeling test, loss of extension, or graft failure). Study quality was assessed by using a 5 point scale. Random effect models were used to pool the data. Heterogeneity in the effect of treatment was tested on the basis of study quality, randomisation status, and number of tendon strands used. RESULTS: 24 trials of 18 cohorts (1512 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Study quality was poor for nine studies and fair for nine studies. The weighted mean difference of the instrumented measurement of knee laxity was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.71; P = 0.04). Relative risk of a positive Lachman test was 1.22 (1.01 to 1.47; P = 0.04), of anterior knee pain 0.57 (0.44 to 0.74; P < 0.0001), of a positive kneeling test 0.26 (0.14 to 0.48; P < 0.0001), and of loss of extension 0.52 (0.34 to 0.80; P = 0.003). Other results were not significant. CONCLUSION: Morbidity was lower for hamstring autografts than for patellar tendon autografts. Evidence that patellar tendon autografts offer better stability was weak. The poor quality of the studies calls into question the robustness of the analyses.  (+info)

The effect of interference screw diameter on soft tissue graft fixation. (5/41)

Tibial fixation of soft-tissue grafts is a weak link in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Previous studies have examined varying interference screw lengths, screw types and tunnel sizes as means to improve graft fixation. We hypothesized that increasing interference screw diameter would significantly increase the maximum load to failure of the graft and decrease the graft's initial slippage. Seventy tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior tendons were divided, looped, trimmed, and sutured to simulate 4-strand hamstring grafts. These grafts were then inserted into composite bone blocks having pre-drilled 8 mm holes and fixed with 8 mm, 9 mm, 10 mm, 11 mm, or 12 mm interference screws. Fourteen grafts were tested for each screw size. The graft was first cyclically loaded from 50 N to 250 N at 0.3 Hz for 100 cycles to measure graft slippage. The graft was then tested to failure at 0.5 mm/sec to determine the maximum load to failure and mode of failure. Graft slippage was not affected by screw diameter. Maximum load to failure increased with increasing screw diameter up to 11 mm; 11 mm screw fixation was 20% stronger than 8 mm screw fixation. In this model, no increase in graft fixation was seen in by increasing interference screw diameter beyond 3 mm of the tunnel diameter.  (+info)

The interaction between the whipstitch sutures of multi-strand ACL grafts and interference screw fixation. (6/41)

In a recent experiment examining the effect of interference screw sizing on the fixation stability of multi-strand anterior cruciate ligament grafts, we noticed a large variation in fixation strengths and attributed it to the suturing of the grafts and its interaction with the screw. We performed an experiment using interference screws for fixation of hamstring grafts within a bone tunnel model to compare how the presence of sutures affected graft fixation. We found that having sutures along the region of the graft that contacts the screw within the bone tunnel can increase graft fixation strength 100%.  (+info)

The effect of graft choice on functional outcome in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (7/41)

A prospective, randomised, 5-year follow-up study was designed to compare the functional results between patellar tendon and hamstring tendon autografts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Primary reconstruction was performed in 32 patients using the central third of the patellar ligament and in 32 patients using double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. All reconstructions were performed by a single surgeon, with identical surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol. Of the total 64 patients in the study, 54 (85%) were available for the 5-year follow-up. No statistically significant differences were seen with respect to Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) classification, clinical and KT-2000 arthrometer laxity testing, single-legged hop test and anterior knee pain. Graft rupture occurred in two patients (8%) in the patellar tendon group and in two patients (7%) in the hamstring tendon group; 23 patients (88%) in the patellar tendon group and 23 patients (82%) in the hamstring tendon group returned to their pre-injury activity level. Good subjective outcome and stability can be obtained by using either graft; no statistically significant differences were found in functional outcome between the grafts.  (+info)

Proprioceptive skills and functional outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a bone-tendon-bone graft. (8/41)

Several studies have shown that patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have an improved proprioceptive function compared to subjects with ACL-deficient knees. The measurement of functional scores and proprioception potentially provides clinicians with more information on the status of the ACL-reconstructed knees. To evaluate proprioception in patients following ACL reconstruction with a bone-tendon-bone (BTB) graft, we used the angle reproduction in the sitting, lying and standing positions and the one-leg hop test. Forty-five patients between 19 and 52 years of age were investigated in a 36-month period after the operation. For functional performance measurement, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was used. Very good and good results were seen in 95% of cases. All patients returned to the same activity level as seen before ACL repair. There was a significant difference in the active angle reproduction test between the ACL-reconstructed knees and normal knees in the active sitting position. Tests with passive angle adjustment in the sitting, lying and active standing positions did not show any differences in proprioceptive skills. Good to very good results in the one-leg hop test we found in 95% of patients. After ACL reconstruction, deficiencies in the active angle reproduction test were very small but, nevertheless, were still observed. Overall, the functional and proprioceptive outcomes demonstrate results to recommend the procedure.  (+info)

AbstractObjectiveThe aim of this study is to determine the outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction without foreign material with patellar tendon bone graft in the fixation with bone dowels near the native insertion.Materials and methodsBetween 1998 and 1999, 189 patients were oper
PURPOSE: To compare the results of bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (BPTB), semitendinosus-gracilis graft with preserved insertions (STGPI) and semitendinosus-gracilis-free graft (STGF) in terms of graft failure, objective mechanical stability, functional outcome, and return to sports in elite and recreational sports persons. It was hypothesized that the STGPI graft provided superior outcome as compared to the other two grafts. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-nine elite and recreational players who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery, with BPTB graft (N = 80), STGPI graft (N = 85), and STGF graft (N = 84) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, were assessed using clinical tests, knee arthrometer (KT 1000™), single-leg hop test, Lysholm knee score, Tegners activity scale, and return to sports ...
PURPOSE: To compare the results of bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (BPTB), semitendinosus-gracilis graft with preserved insertions (STGPI) and semitendinosus-gracilis-free graft (STGF) in terms of graft failure, objective mechanical stability, functional outcome, and return to sports in elite and recreational sports persons. It was hypothesized that the STGPI graft provided superior outcome as compared to the other two grafts. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-nine elite and recreational players who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery, with BPTB graft (N = 80), STGPI graft (N = 85), and STGF graft (N = 84) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, were assessed using clinical tests, knee arthrometer (KT 1000™), single-leg hop test, Lysholm knee score, Tegners activity scale, and return to sports ...
A bone-tendon-bone drill guide for use is guiding drilling to form a pair of transverse holes through a bone end of a bone-tendon-bone ligament graft to receive a suture or sutures threaded therethrough to form a suture sling or craddle supporting the bone end as the suture are pulled into a tunnel section of a straight that has been formed into a patients bone. The drill guide includes a pair of scissor arms connected at a pivot that are formed to where moving of lower hand engaging portions of the arms together also moves upper ends of the arms together whereacross opposing jaws are maintained. The jaws each include curved surface therealong for engaging a bone end fitted therebetween and each preferably includes spikes that extend from a jaw face for engaging, to hold in place, the bone end as a drill is turned through straight drill guide holes formed through a jaw to form transverse holes through the bone end, with the drill to exit the bone end and pass through openings formed through the other
This study investigated whether gene transfer to the tendon-bone insertion site is possible during early tendon-transplant healing using viral vectors. In addition, we evaluated the optimal gene delivery technique for an in vivo adenoviral gene transfer to a tendon-bone insertion site in a bone tunnel. Twenty-six rabbits underwent a bilateral transfer of the flexor digitorum longus tendon into a bone canal in the calcaneus. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group (n=18) received a direct injection of an adenoviral vector carrying the luciferase marker gene into the tendon on the left side, while on the right side the adenoviral vector was first injected into the bone trough and the tendon was later inserted into the trough. The analysis of this experiment showed that over a 4-week period a higher luciferase activity was achieved using the bone trough immersion technique. In the second group (n=8) we therefore used the qualitative marker virus (Ad/-LacZ) with the bone trough ...
which code(s) are used for an ACL reconstruction,allograft bone-tendon-bone? also if it is an ACL w/autograft is it appropriate to use 29888 w/ 20902?
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Introduction : Several studies have suggested that anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) without wound drainage has no impact on long-term follow-up. Aim: To investigate a prospective patient series as measured by the patient-administered disease-specific questionnaire Knee...
Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K*, Bruce J*, Slauterbeck J. The Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Postoperative Pain After Patellar Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000.. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of microcurrent electrical therapy in providing pain relief to a selected post-operative patient population.. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 19 females and 22 males (mean age of 21.1) who received arthroscopic bone-patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups ("Microcurrent" or "Placebo" Groups) in a double blind experimental design. Using a portable microcurrent device (Alpha-Stim 100 by Electromedical Products International, Inc, Mineral Wells, Texas), the Microcurrent Group received 100 microamperes of ...
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A bioimplantable tissue fixation device is provided for use in repairing and replacing torn or damaged connective tissue such as ligaments and tendons. The device includes an elongate body formed of a bioresorbable material including an outer surface, a proximal end, a distal end and a longitudinal axis extending therethrough. The body includes an internal cavity open at the proximal end which terminates proximal to the distal end. The internal cavity is in fluid communication with at least one opening formed in the outer surface of the body. The internal cavity is able to accept a treatment material for delivery external to the outer surface of the body through the at least one opening at the proximal end.
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There are several types of treatments for BPH/LUTS, including medication and surgery. Other types of treatments are considered minimally invasive, including…
When Dr. A.W. Mayo Robson performed the first ACL repair back in 1895, I doubt he ever imagined that in the future doctors would use synthetic 3-D polymers
Comments about Mens 2XU Thermal Compression 3/4 Tights Fitted:. I run regularly in all weather. I use a number of brands of running tights. Hands down these have been my least favorite. They are designed as a compression tight but do not offer the support of any of the others I own. I have larger than average leg diameter. I have had knee issues including an acl repair. These do not offer the structure support or tight fitting compression of my other tights. To add to my gripe the stitching has come loose in two spots (outside leg and crotch) yet I have only worn them twice. At this price go for a quality product rather than these. ...
Boston Scientific acquired Xlumena in April, 2015. We believe the acquisition of Xlumena and their minimally-invasive products combined with the Boston Scientific broad product portfolio demonstrates our commitment to advancing the field of interventional EUS therapeutics, said David Pierce, senior vice president and president, Endoscopy, Boston Scientific.
Experimental and numerical analysis of screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - -This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in hamstring ACL reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine/calf bones and tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.
View details of top anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction hospitals in Bangalore. Get guidance from medical experts to select best anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction hospital in Bangalore
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. T2 - A literature review of the anatomy, biomechanics, surgical considerations, and clinical outcomes. AU - Beasley, Leslie S.. AU - Weiland, Daniel E.. AU - Vidal, Armando F.. AU - Chhabra, Anikar. AU - Herzka, Andrea S.. AU - Feng, Matthew T.. AU - West, Robin V.. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are some of the most common knee injuries seen by sports medicine physicians. However, given the complex anatomy and function of the ACL, reconstruction of this ligament is anything but straightforward. The last decade has seen much advancement in ACL reconstruction, with an improved knowledge of the biology and biomechanics of graft incorporation, new choices for graft material and graft fixation devices, and more accelerated rehabilitation protocols. Although there are numerous studies in the literature on ACL reconstruction, there is yet to be a consensus among surgeons on the "best" graft choice and ...
An anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an operation to replace a damaged anterior cruciate ligament with a ligament graft or a synthetic ligament.
All-Inside Versus Inside-Out Meniscal Repair With Concurrent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Meta-regression Analysis .
Arthroscopy of the left knee was performed with the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Removal of loose bodies. Medial femoral chondroplasty and
Minimising post-operative donor site morbidity is an important consideration when selecting a graft for surgical reconstruction of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). One of the most common procedures, the bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft involves removal of the central third from the tendon. However, it is unknown whether the mechanical properties of the donor site (patellar tendon) recover. The present study investigated the mechanical properties of the human patellar tendon in 12 males (mean+/-S.D. age: 37+/-14 years) who had undergone surgical reconstruction of the ACL using a BPTB graft between 1 and 10 years before the study (operated knee; OP). The uninjured contralateral knee served as a control (CTRL). Patellar tendon mechanical properties were assessed in vivo combining dynamometry with ultrasound imaging. Patellar tendon stiffness was calculated from the gradient of the tendons force-elongation curve. Tendon stiffness was normalised to the tendons dimensions to obtain ...
Most anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are replaced with a tissue graft. This graft acts as a scaffolding for a new ligament to grow on.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are severe sport injuries associated with long absence from sport [ 11 , 20 , 31 ]. The best way to restore
Endosteal fixation of a ligament graft with a bioabsorbable interference screw installed in a retrograde manner in ACL reconstruction. The bioabsorbable interference screw is insert-molded with a length of suture extending from the distal tip of the screw for pulling the interference screw into the joint and into position for retrograde insertion at the top of the tibial tunnel. The interference screw has a cannulation extending partially through the screw from the leading tip. The cannulation is shaped to receive a correspondingly shaped driver. The driver is inserted into the tibial tunnel to engage the screw. By turning the driver, the interference screw is turned into the tibial tunnel in a retrograde manner. Accordingly, interference fixation of the graft near the tibial plateau is provided, thereby eliminating graft abrasion at the tibial plateau tunnel opening.
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Thomas L. Wickiewicz performs an ACL Reconstruction, central 3rd of patella tendon is used as acl graft. Hospital For Special Surgery
Best orthopaedic surgeon for ACL reconstruction. Knee after acl surgery for best doctor and hospital in India. ACL repair without surgery Medtravels patient care portal
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Return to sport following an anterior cruciate ligament tear. Signs and symptoms of an ACL tear. Surgical options for an ACL tear.
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Seventeen meta-analyses were identified comparing BPTB versus HT for ACLR. The majority of meta-analyses were published in 2011 (5; 29 %), and North America was the most common continent of publication (6; 35 %). The three most commonly reported outcomes were stability (82 %), complications (76 %), and function (return to sport, IKDC score) (71 %). The median number of satisfactorily reported items in the Users Guide was three out of seven (IQR 2-4). The median number of satisfactorily reported items in PRISMA for the meta-analyses was 20 out of 27 (IQR 19-22).. CONCLUSION ...
At a time when surgeons aim for surgery without scars, robots are their most high-tech tools.The doctor sits in a darkened corner of an operating room about 10 feet from the gurney where his patient
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OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of graft choice (allograft, bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, or hamstring autograft) on deep tissue infections following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND POPULATION Patients from 6 US health plans who underwent ACL reconstruction from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2008. METHODS We identified ACL reconstructions and potential postoperative infections using claims data. A hierarchical stratified sampling strategy was used to identify patients for medical record review to confirm ACL reconstructions and to determine allograft vs autograft tissue implanted, clinical characteristics, and infection status. We estimated infection rates overall and by graft type. We used logistic regression to assess the association between infections and patients demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and choice of graft. RESULTS On review of 1,452 medical records, we found 55 deep wound infections. With ...
Background: The ACL is the primary restrain to anterior translation of the tibia on the femur. The present study was conducted to assess cases of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery in adult patients.Subjects and Methods:The present study was conducted on 72 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Risk factors were recorded. Results:Out of 72 patients, males were 48 and females were 24. Out of 72 patients, infection was present in 10 males and 4 females. Risk factors for ACL surgery was BPTB graft in 3, STG graft in 5 cases. Obesity was seen in 11, smoking in 6, and diabetes mellitus in 4. The difference was significant (P, 0.05).Conclusion: ACL injury is common among sports person. Risk factors reported were diabetes mellitus, smoking and obesity.. ...
Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a tendon graft necessitates solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Improvement of graft healing to bone is crucial for facilitating an early and aggressive rehabilitation and ensuring rapid return to pre-injury levels activity. Tendon graft healing in a bone tunnel requires bone ingrowth into the tendon. Indirect Sharpey fiber formation and direct fibrocartilage fixation confer different anchorage strength and interface properties at the tendon-bone interface. For enhancing tendon graft-to-bone healing, we introduce a strategy that includes the use of periosteum, hydrogel supplemented with periosteal progenitor cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2, and a periosteal progenitor cell sheet. Future studies include the use of cytokines, gene therapy, stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, and mechanical stress for tendon-to-bone healing. These strategies are currently under investigation, and will be applied in the clinical setting in the
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) are frequently performed on young, active patients and can result in persistent knee symptoms and activity limitations that may affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To date, there has been no systematic review of HRQoL outcomes after ACLR. Purpose: The objectives of this study were to report HRQoL ≥5 years after ACLR, compare HRQoL outcomes with available population norms, and describe factors that may affect HRQoL in this population. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: All studies reporting HRQoL ≥5 years after ACLR with hamstring or patellar tendon autografts were eligible for review. Common HRQoL outcomes were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis and compared with published population norms. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to identify variables associated with HRQoL outcomes. Where insufficient data were available, outcomes were reported descriptively. Results: Fourteen studies ...
Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double press- fit technique: an alternative to interference screw fixation.: The double press-f
Background:The main goal of physiotherapy for patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is to improve postural control and retain knee function. Therefore, clinicians need to use evaluative tools that assess postural changes during physiotherapy. To maximize the clinical utility of the results of these tools, the extracted measures should have appropriate psychometric properties of reliability, validity and responsiveness. No study has yet addressed responsiveness of postural measures in these patients. This study was designed to investigate the responsiveness and determine the minimal clinically important changes (MCIC) of static and dynamic postural measures in patients with (ACL-R) following physiotherapy. Methods: Static and dynamic postural measures were evaluated at first occasion and again after four weeks physiotherapy. The static measures consisted of center of pressure (COP) parameters while dynamic measures included the stability indices. Correlation analysis and ROC
Background:The main goal of physiotherapy for patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is to improve postural control and retain knee function. Therefore, clinicians need to use evaluative tools that assess postural changes during physiotherapy. To maximize the clinical utility of the results of these tools, the extracted measures should have appropriate psychometric properties of reliability, validity and responsiveness. No study has yet addressed responsiveness of postural measures in these patients. This study was designed to investigate the responsiveness and determine the minimal clinically important changes (MCIC) of static and dynamic postural measures in patients with (ACL-R) following physiotherapy. Methods: Static and dynamic postural measures were evaluated at first occasion and again after four weeks physiotherapy. The static measures consisted of center of pressure (COP) parameters while dynamic measures included the stability indices. Correlation analysis and ROC
Anatomy Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of basic and clinical anatomy.
Background: The goal of this study is to provide outcomes data for ACL reconstruction surgeries to a single physician/surgeon and the patient. Outcomes data collected and analyzed for a single physician will provide the surgeon with information that can be given to patients seeking ACL reconstruction surgery. This information will help the patient know what to expect in terms of recovery, infection rate, and failure rate. It will also aid the surgeon in identifying areas of strength and weakness in his practice. To accomplish this goal a database was created using Filemaker Pro 7 software that allows for data entry at the point of care and basic data analysis. The analyzed data will be given to ACL reconstruction surgery candidates likely in the form of a handout or pamphlet during the informed consent process. Hypothesis: Collection of subjective and objective data should allow for a better understanding of the post-operative outcomes of a single surgeon for ACL reconstruction surgery and improve the
FAN FOLDED FASCIA LATA FOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT SUBSTITUTION AND METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING THE SAME - Cruciate ligament substitutes are formed using fan-folded fascia lata grafts. Devices of making the same and methods of making and using the same are described herein. The fan-folded fascia lata cruciate ligament substitutes disclosed herein are used in a single-loop fashion and have surprisingly exhibited load to failure and stiffness values that compare favorably with conventional grafts, including tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, peroneus longus, and bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) half-patella specimens. It has been demonstrated that single-loop, fan-folded fascia lata sheets can exhibit mechanical properties that compare favorably with existing cruciate ligament grafts. An apparatus for handling a fascia lata sheet can include a first and a second removable anchoring member. A method of producing a cruciate ligament substitute can include providing a fascia lata sheet secured in a ...
Athletes who have sustained an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury often opt for an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with the goal and expectation to resume sports. Unfortunately, the proportion of...
Radiographic enlargement of bone tunnels following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been recently introduced in the literature; however, the etiology and clinical relevance of this
Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most important ligaments inside human knee joint. Knee joint is the meeting point of thigh bone known as femur and shinbone known as tibia. Best treatment for this condition can be obtained from a knee injury doctor. Conservative medicines and physical therapy are useful only in
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
A method of replacing an ACL with a graft. The method provides for the drilling bone tunnels in a femur and a tibia. A replacement graft is provided having first and second ends. A biodegradable composite screw is provided. The screw is made from a biodegradable polymer and a bioceramic or a bioglass. At least one end of the graft is secured in a bone tunnel using the biodegradable composite screw.
|p|The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses elicited during aquatic and land rehabilitation to establish the comparison among parameters such as, range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, circumference of muscle mass and swelling. Thirteen individuals with an anterior reconstruction ligament with a concomitant meniscal injury participated in the study who established 2 groups: the land rehabilitation (LR), patients who were followed by a land program and the water rehabilitation (WR) whose patients had an aquatic program. Clinical evaluations were applied in the 0, 3, 6 and 9 weeks measuring the parameters. The patients from the WR reached the best results for all parameters which were evaluated. We concluded the aquatic rehabilitation allowed earlier function recuperation than the land program.|/p|
... ,The Stryker Bioabsorbable Wedge Interference Screw is made of Poly-L Lactic Acid (PLLA). The patented wedge design makes it perfect for cruciate reconstruction and is indicated for BTB and soft tissue grafts.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Minimally-invasive surgery can offer patients many positive outcomes including less pain, shorter recovery time and a shorter length of stay in the hospital. Laparoscopic surgery is used for many different types of treatment. With this type of surgery, a surgeon places a camera inside a patients body through several small incisions. This way, there is a smaller incision for the patient, but the surgeon can still see the way he or she could through a larger incision. Robotic surgery is on the leading edge of surgical care. Surgeons use computer-guided tools to operate with unparalleled precision, dexterity and control enabling complex surgical procedures with smaller incisions. Spartanburg Regional offers many options for minimally-invasive surgery including, but not limited to, the below. ...
A soft tissue fixation system, most typically applicable to orthopedic joint repairs, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) knee repair procedures, comprises an implant which is placeable in a tunnel disposed in a portion of bone, wherein the tunnel is defined by walls comprised of bone. A first member is deployable outwardly to engage the tunnel walls for anchoring the implant in place in the tunnel, and a second member is deployable outwardly to engage tissue material to be fixed within the tunnel. The second member also functions to move the tissue material outwardly into contact with the tunnel walls to promote tendon-bone fixation. Extra graft length is eliminated by compression of the tendon against the bone at the aperture of the femoral tunnel, which more closely replicates the native ACL and increases graft stiffness. The inventive device provides high fixation of tendon to bone and active tendon-bone compression. Graft strength has been found to be greater than 1,000 N (Newtons), which is
A method for using a foam condensation board system in a building according to one embodiment comprises the steps of: providing a foam condensation board system, providing a building having a roof and a roof supporting structure, and installing the foam condensation board system to the roof supporting structure. The foam condensation board system comprises at least a first layer, a second layer, a third layer, a fourth layer, and a fifth layer. The first layer is made from a material selected from the group consisting of alkenyl aromatic polymers, polyolefins, polyethylene terephthalate, polyesters, and combinations thereof. The second and fourth layers are independently made from a material selected from the group consisting of alkenyl aromatic polymers, polyolefins, polyethylene terephthalate, adhesives, and combinations thereof. The third layer is made from a material selected from the group consisting of alkenyl aromatic polymers, polyethylene terephthalate, and combinations thereof. The fifth layer
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Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 90 902 093.5, corresponding to PCT/US89/05081 (WO 90/07592) in the name of AlliedSignal Inc. (formerly Allied-Signal Inc.), which had been filed on 17 November 1989, claiming priority from a US application filed on 3. January 1989, resulted in the grant of European patent No. 452 405 on 16 September 1992 on the basis of 9. claims, independent Claim 1 reading as follows:. 1. A process for the production of a dimensionally stable drawn polyethylene terephthalate multifilament yarn having filaments of at least 2.5 denier per filament (2.8 dtexpf) comprising the steps of:. a) extruding a polyethylene terephthalate polymer melt through a spinnerette having a plurality of extrusion orifices to form filaments;. b) advancing the extruded multifilament yarn first through a delay zone then through a quenching zone to solidify the filaments in a controlled manner;. c) withdrawing the solidified multifilament yarn from the quenching zone ...
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Ellibs Ebookstore - Ebook: Controversies in the Technical Aspects of ACL Reconstruction - Author: Marx, Robert G. (#editor) - Price: 259,15€
Even moderate amounts of alcohol affect recovery from athletic performance, with muscle performance loss doubled in those who drank alcohol.
Likewise, epileptics or migraine sufferers can experience an aura which can discussing it with your doctor, or go against professional advice. It was ...
Arthrex offers a comprehensive selection of fixation devices for a variety of bone-patella tendon-bone (BTB) graft techniques. These options include adjustable, continuous-loop suspensory fixation, and interference screws in a variety of materials. The TightRope® implant, which has been used in 2 million procedures globally,1 simplifies ACL ...
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If this feels a little like the old arcade game Whack-A-Mole, where cheeky moles continually pop up and are beaten down again and again, it is. There is a continual cycle between new clandestine methods of performance enhancement, their eventual discovery by the regulatory bodies that police sports legal and ethical boundaries, and the development and institution of tests for those methods.. Some final points should be made here: firstly, there is an enormous disconnect between clandestine performance enhancement at the highest levels and our understanding and detection of it.. Obviously, these topics cannot be discussed freely. Commentators often refer to an "Omertà" within professional sport, a Mafia-like code of silence which prevents anyone speaking out.. Drug users who "come clean" are routinely portrayed as corrupt, bitter or litigious people, regardless of the truth or falsity of their stories.. This is also an extremely difficult area to research. Working with existing sportspeople ...
Events where sportspeople come together to compete (and have fun!) are often a culmination of much planning and effort. But how does an event organiser know if an event has been successful or not? CHARL DURAND takes a look at what measures a truly winning event. Sports events are big investments in all senses of the word. Anyone who has ever organised an event big or small can relate tales about the amount of blood, sweat and tears never mind money! that an event requires to be successful. It therefore stands to reason that ensuring that an event goes well and preferably lives on once it has been completed is very important, otherwise it s not worth the immense effort it takes to stage.
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The patellar ligament is often used, since bone plugs on each end of the graft are extracted which helps integrate the graft ... The two most common sources for tissue are the patellar ligament and the hamstrings tendon. ... Once the graft is pulled through the bone tunnels, two screws are placed into the tibial and femoral bone tunnel. Recovery time ... The surgeon will drill a hole forming the tibial bone tunnel and femoral bone tunnel, allowing for the patient's new ACL graft ...
Patellar tendon[edit]. Knees following ACL reconstruction surgery. A patellar tendon graft was used. Discoloration of the left ... Types of grafts[edit]. Grafts are inserted through a tunnel that is drilled through the shin bone (tibia) and thigh bone (femur ... No ideal graft site for ACL reconstruction exists. Surgeons have historically regarded patellar tendon grafts as the "gold ... Evidence suggests that the hamstring tendon graft does as well, or nearly as well, as the patellar ligament graft in the long ...
... bone transplantation MeSH E04.555.130.100 --- bone-patellar tendon-bone graft MeSH E04.555.200 --- diskectomy MeSH E04.555. ... bone transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.050.100 --- bone-patellar tendon-bone graft MeSH E04.936.450.475 --- heart ... bone marrow transplantation MeSH E04.936.225.687.312 --- cord blood stem cell transplantation MeSH E04.936.225.687.500 --- ... bone lengthening MeSH E04.555.120.380 --- ilizarov technique MeSH E04.555.120.690 --- osteogenesis, distraction MeSH E04.555. ...
... a human clinical trial of a porcine bone-patellar tendon-bone graft for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of ... Xenograft ligament cartilage, bone, and tendon transplantation.. FDA-Approved ACL Replacement Study 2003 - PRESENT. CE Mark ... 2006, "Pop Goes the Tendon", The New York Times, Play. p32. *^ The American Oprthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine :Cabaud ... The paste graft technique 2-12 year results were published in 2006 revealing 85% of the patients obtained improvement in pain ...
"Is There Any Correlation Between Patient Height and Patellar Tendon Length?". Arch Bone Jt Surg. 3 (2): 99-103. PMC 4468619 . ... This patellar ligament method of reconstruction was traditionally the gold standard graft for anterior cruciate ligament ... It is also sometimes called the patellar tendon as it is a continuation of the quadriceps tendon. The patellar ligament is a ... The patellar ligament can be injured in a patellar tendon rupture. It can be used as a tissue source in the repair of other ...
The two most common sources for tissue are the patellar tendon and the hamstrings tendon. The surgery is arthroscopic, meaning ... More commonly, the ligament must be replaced by a graft from the patient's own tissue or tissue from a cadaver. Graft choice ... The surgeon will make holes in the patient's bones to run the new tissue through, and that tissue serves as the patient's new ... ACL injuries in children are a challenge because children have open growth plates in the bottom of the femur or thigh bone and ...
A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials for PRP use to augment bone graft found ... Platelet-rich plasma is used in horses for treatment of equine lameness due to tendon and ligament injury, wounds, fractures, ... "Are Multiple Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections Useful for Treatment of Chronic Patellar Tendinopathy in Athletes?: A Prospective ... 2016). "Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma as an adjunctive material to bone graft: a systematic review and meta-analysis of ...
Choice of graft material, autograft or allograft. Choice of anterior cruciate ligament augmentation, patellar tendon or ... Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 85 (5): 782. McLean SG, Huang X, van den Bogert AJ (2005). "Association between lower ... Mohtadi, NG; Chan, DS; Dainty, KN; Whelan, DB (Sep 7, 2011). "Patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft for anterior ... the tibia and femur bone are more likely to rub against each other. Immediately after a tear of the ACL, the person should rest ...
Three months later, a scan indicated a broken cuboid bone, leading to a bone graft and reconstructive surgery. Coomes/Buckland ... Coomes underwent an operation on 10 January 2017 to remove the wires in her knee, which were digging into the patellar tendon, ...
... gracilis tendon, sartorius tendon, adductor magnus tendon, medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, semimembranosus tendon, ... Securing the POL graft is done in full knee extension. The graft is pulled tight and fixed using a bioabsorbable screw. The ... The bones of the knee are the femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. The fibula is on the lateral side of the knee and the patella ... It is rarely injured from a medial knee injury unless there is a concurrent lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. The ...
Patellar tendon autograft (An autograft is a graft that comes from the patient) Hamstring tendon autograft Quadriceps tendon ... O'Donoghue D (1950). "Surgical treatment of fresh injuries to the major ligaments of the knee". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 32 (A:4 ... patellar tendon, Achilles tendon, semitendinosus, gracilis, or posterior tibialis tendon The goal of reconstruction surgery is ... Nedeff DD, Bach BR (2001). "Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon autografts: a ...
Bone mass is affected by muscles forces and their loads to the bone structure. The strength and density of the bone is directly ... It has been deduced that high muscle tendon forces delivered in a controlled environment are needed for optimal tendon ... Early, high-force eccentric training can be used to increase muscle strength and volume without damage to the ACL graft, ... This is the reason chronic patellar tendonitis is often called "jumper's knee." A study done by Roald Bahr and colleagues ...
Bone cutter - Bone cyst - Bone density - Bone disease - Bone fracture - Bone fracture healing - Bone grafting - Bone healing - ... Patellar dislocation - Patellar tendon rupture - Pathologic fracture - Patrick's test - Patrick's test - Pauwel's angle - ... Bone metastases - Bone mineral - Bone pathology - Bone remodeling - Bone resorption - Bone tumor - Bone - Bosworth fracture - ... Congenital patellar dislocation - Conradi-Hünermann syndrome - Coopernail's sign - Cortical bone - Cotrel-Dubousset ...
The method currently in favor is to place an anchor in the bone at the natural attachment site, with resuture of torn tendon to ... When possible, surgeons make tension-free repairs in which they use grafted tissues rather than stitching to reconnect tendon ... The shoulder is a complex mechanism involving bones, ligaments, joints, muscles, and tendons. ... The amount of stress needed to tear a rotator cuff tendon acutely will depend on the underlying condition of the tendon prior ...
Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act to hold the tendon further away from the joint, the angle of the ... Some complex fractures can be treated by the use of bone grafting procedures that replace missing bone portions. ... Bone marrow[edit]. Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds ... Bone volume[edit]. Bone volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested ...
... (ESWT) is a treatment used in physical therapy, orthopedics, urology and cardiology. The shock waves are abrupt, high amplitude pulses of mechanical energy, similar to soundwaves, generated by an electromagnetic coil or a spark in water. Similar technology using focused higher energies is used to break up kidney and gallstones, and is termed lithotripsy. "Extracorporeal" means that the shockwaves are generated externally to the body and transmitted from a pad through the skin. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy is used to treat a growing number of tendon, joint and muscle conditions. These include tennis elbow, where results in double blind studies are reported as excellent; chronic tendinitis of the knee and shoulder rotator cuff pain, achilles tendinitis, hamstring tendinitis and plantar fasciitis have also been treated successfully. The above conditions are often difficult to treat using other methods and can become chronic. With ESWT patients report reduced ...
... must be treated surgically. With a tourniquet applied, the tendon is exposed through a midline longitudinal incision extending from the upper patellar pole to the tibial tuberosity. The tendon is either avulsed (detached) from the lower patellar pole or lacerated. Even so, the continuity and tone of the tendon should be restored, taking into consideration the patellar height. A cast or brace is then put over where the operation took place. The cast or brace remains for at least 6 weeks followed by an unidentified time of rehabilitation of the knee. The usual risks of surgery are involved, including: infection, stiffness, death, suture reaction, failure of satisfactory healing, risks of anesthesia, phlebitis, pulmonary embolus, and persistent pain or weakness after the injury and repair. If the tendon rupture is a partial tear (without the two parts of the tendon being ...
... , also known as patellar instability, or unstable kneecap is an injury that is concerned with the kneecap. Patellar subluxation is more common than patellar dislocation and is just as disabling. In this condition, the patella repetitively subluxates and places strain on the medial restraints and excessive stress/tension on the patellofemoral joint. Patellar subluxation can be caused by osseous abnormalities, such as incorrect articulation of the femoral groove with the patella, trochlear dysplasia, or patella alta, which is a distance of greater than 20 mm between the tibial tubercle and the trochlear groove. It can also result from soft-tissue abnormalities, such as a torn medial patellofemoral ligament, or a weakened vastus medialis obliquus. Symptoms are regulated by the amount of activity. Such pain is commonly caused by running and jumping sports and activities that place large forces on the patellofemoral joint. Symptoms usually ...
Patella é um género de gastrópodes marinhos da família Patellidae ao qual pertencem as espécies vulgarmente conhecidas por lapas. O género está centrado no nordeste do Oceano Atlântico (Macaronésia, costa ocidental europeia e costa magrebina) e no Mar Mediterrâneo. Algumas das espécies do género (as lapas) são um marisco muito apreciado nos Açores, Madeira e Canárias, onde é consumido em cru, grelhado nas respectivas conchas (as lapas grelhadas) ou em diversos tipos de confecções culinárias (como o afonso de lapas).. ...
... s, or tenocytes, are elongated fibroblast type cells. The cytoplasm is stretched between the collagen fibres of the tendon. They have a central cell nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. Tendon cells have a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and they are responsible for synthesis and turnover of tendon fibres and ground substance. Tendon cells form a connecting epithelial layer between the muscle and shell in molluscs. In gastropods, for example, the retractor muscles connect to the shell via tendon cells. Muscle cells are attached to the collagenous myo-tendon space via hemidesmosomes. The myo-tendon space is then attached to the base of the tendon cells via basal hemidesmosomes, while apical hemidesmosomes, which sit atop microvilli, attach the tendon cells to a thin layer of collagen. This is in turn attached to the shell via organic fibres ...
The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx of the great toe. The other deep muscles are the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior; the tibialis posterior is the most powerful of these deep muscles. All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve. The flexor hallucis longus is situated on the fibular side of the leg. It arises from the inferior two-thirds of the posterior surface of the body of the fibula, with the exception of 2.5 cm. at its lowest part; from the lower part of the interosseous membrane; from an intermuscular septum between it and the peronius muscles, laterally, and from the fascia covering the tibialis posterior, medially. The fibers pass obliquely downward and backward, where it passes through the tarsal tunnel on the medial side of the foot and end in a tendon which occupies nearly the ...
... must be treated surgically. With a tourniquet applied, the tendon is exposed through a midline longitudinal incision extending from the upper patellar pole to the tibial tuberosity. The tendon is either avulsed (detached) from the lower patellar pole or lacerated. Even so, the continuity and tone of the tendon should be restored, taking into consideration the patellar height. A cast or brace is then put over where the operation took place. The cast or brace remains for at least 6 weeks followed by an unidentified time of rehabilitation of the knee. The usual risks of surgery are involved, including: infection, stiffness, death, suture reaction, failure of satisfactory healing, risks of anesthesia, phlebitis, pulmonary embolus, and persistent pain or weakness after the injury and repair. If the tendon rupture is a partial tear (without the two parts of the tendon being ...
In human anatomy, the extensor indicis [proprius] is a narrow, elongated skeletal muscle in the deep layer of the dorsal forearm, placed medial to, and parallel with, the extensor pollicis longus. Its tendon goes to the index finger, which it extends. It arises from the distal third of the dorsal part of the body of ulna and from the interosseous membrane. It runs through the fourth tendon compartment together with the extensor digitorum, from where it projects into the dorsal aponeurosis of the index finger. Opposite the head of the second metacarpal bone, it joins the ulnar side of the tendon of the extensor digitorum which belongs to the index finger. Like the extensor digiti minimi (i.e. the extensor of the little finger), the tendon of the extensor indicis runs and inserts on the ulnar side of the tendon of the common extensor digitorum. The extensor indicis lacks the juncturae tendinum ...
These muscles (or their tendons) apart from the short head of the biceps femoris, are commonly known as the hamstrings. The depression at the back of the knee, or kneepit is the popliteal fossa, colloquially called the ham. The tendons of the above muscles can be felt as prominent cords on both sides of the fossa-the biceps femoris tendon on the lateral side and the semimembranosus and semitendinosus tendons on the medial side. The hamstrings flex the knee, and aided by the gluteus maximus, they extend the hip during walking and running. The semitendinosus is named for its unusually long tendon. The semimembranosus is named for the flat shape of its superior attachment.[4] ...
The proximal tendons of the biceps brachii are commonly involved in pathological processes and are a frequent cause of anterior shoulder pain.[14] Disorders of the distal biceps brachii tendon include insertional tendonitis and partial or complete tears of the tendon. Partial tears are usually characterized by pain and enlargement and abnormal contour of the tendon.[15] Complete tears occur as avulsion of the tendinous portion of the biceps away from its insertion on the tuberosity of the radius, and is often accompanied by a palpable, audible "pop" and immediate pain and soft tissue swelling.[16] A soft-tissue mass is sometimes encountered in the anterior aspect of the arm, the so-called Reverse Popeye deformity, which paradoxically leads to a decreased strength during flexion of the elbow and supination of the forearm.[17] Tears of the biceps brachii may occur during athletic activities, however avulsion injuries of the ...
... is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sheath (called the synovium) that surrounds a tendon, typically leading to joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Tenosynovitis can be either infectious or noninfectious. Common clinical manifestations of noninfectious tenosynovitis include de Quervain tendinopathy and stenosing tenosynovitis (more commonly known as trigger finger) The most common manifestation of infectious tenosynovitis is in the flexor tendons of the fingers, though infections of other tendon sheaths have been reported as well. The four cardinal signs of infectious flexor tenosynovitis are tenderness to touch along the flexor aspect of the finger, symmetric enlargement of the affected finger, the finger being held in slight flexion at rest, and severe pain with passive extension. Fever may also be present but is uncommon. Tenosynovitis most commonly results from the introduction of bacteria into a sheath through a puncture or laceration wound, ...
A compression lock, muscle lock, muscle slicer or muscle crusher, is a grappling hold which causes severe pain by pressing a muscle into a bone. A compression lock can cause a joint lock in a nearby joint when it is applied by squeezing a limb over a fulcrum. A forceful compression lock may damage muscles and tendons, and if accompanied by a joint lock, may also result in torn ligaments, dislocation or bone fractures. Compression locks can be used as pain compliance holds, and are sometimes featured in combat sports as submission holds. An Achilles lock (also called an Achilles hold or Achilles squeeze or Ashi-Hishigi in judo) is a compression lock that involves pressing the Achilles tendon into the back of the ankle or lower leg. It is typically performed by wedging a forearm, especially a bony part of it, into the Achilles tendon, while leveraging the foot and the leg over the forearm ...
... s and wallabies have large, elastic tendons in their hind legs. They store elastic strain energy in the tendons of their large hind legs, providing most of the energy required for each hop by the spring action of the tendons rather than by any muscular effort.[42] This is true in all animal species which have muscles connected to their skeletons through elastic elements such as tendons, but the effect is more pronounced in kangaroos. There is also a link between the hopping action and breathing: as the feet leave the ground, air is expelled from the lungs; bringing the feet forward ready for landing refills the lungs, providing further energy efficiency. Studies of kangaroos and wallabies have demonstrated, beyond the minimum energy expenditure required to hop at all, increased speed requires very little extra effort (much less than the same speed increase in, say, a horse, dog or human), and the extra energy is required to carry extra ...
... and bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) half-patella specimens. It has been demonstrated that single-loop, fan-folded fascia lata ... COMPRESSED DECALCIFIED TRABECULAR BONE GRAFTS AND TOOTH SOCKET REPAIR - A method of preparing a bone graft of compressed ... PORTION OF BONE AND ISOLATED BONE PERIOSTEUM - Particulate bone and structural bone, more specifically decalcified bone from ... PORTION OF BONE AND ISOLATED BONE PERIOSTEUM - Particulate bone and structural bone, more specifically decalcified bone from ...

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