Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Common form of habitual body manipulation which is an expression of tension.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Fractures of the femur.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Breaks in bones.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
A rare condition characterized by the presence of yellow nails, LYMPHEDEMA, and/or PLEURAL EFFUSION with respiratory tract involvement. Abnormal lymphatic network may play a role in its etiology. Occasionally inherited, yellow nail syndrome mostly is sporadic without apparent family history.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
An inflammatory reaction involving the folds of the skin surrounding the fingernail. It is characterized by acute or chronic purulent, tender, and painful swellings of the tissues around the nail, caused by an abscess of the nail fold. The pathogenic yeast causing paronychia is most frequently Candida albicans. Saprophytic fungi may also be involved. The causative bacteria are usually Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Streptococcus. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p271)
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The shaft of long bones.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A syndrome of multiple abnormalities characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the PATELLA and congenital nail dystrophy. It is a genetically determined autosomal dominant trait.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Separation of nail plate from the underlying nail bed. It can be a sign of skin disease, infection (such as ONYCHOMYCOSIS) or tissue injury.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.

Halo femoral traction and sliding rods in the treatment of a neurologically compromised congenital scoliosis: technique. (1/614)

In severe congenital scoliosis, traction (whether with a halo or instrumental) is known to expose patients to neurologic complications. However, patients with restrictive lung disease may benefit from halo traction during the course of the surgical treatment. The goal of treatment of such deformities is, therefore, twofold: improvement of the respiratory function and avoidance of any neurologic complications. We report our technique to treat a 17-year-old girl with a multi-operated congenital scoliosis of 145 degrees and cor pulmonale. Pre-operative halo gravity traction improved her vital capacity from 560 c.c. to 700 c.c., but led to mild neurologic symptoms (clonus in the legs). To avoid further neurologic compromise, her first surgery consisted of posterior osteotomies and the implantation of two sliding rods connected to loose dominoes without any attempt at correction. Correction was then achieved over a 3-week period with a halofemoral traction. This allowed the two rods to slide while the neurologic status of the patient was monitored. Her definitive surgery consisted of locking the dominoes and the application of a contralateral rod. Satisfactory outcome was achieved for both correction of the deformity (without neurologic sequels) and improvement of her pulmonary function (1200 c.c. at 2 years). This technique using sliding rods in combination with halofemoral traction can be useful in high-risk, very severe congenital scoliosis.  (+info)

Safety of the limited open technique of bone-transfixing threaded-pin placement for external fixation of distal radial fractures: a cadaver study. (2/614)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety of threaded-pin placement for fixation of distal radial fractures using a limited open approach. DESIGN: A cadaver study. METHODS: Four-millimetre Schanz threaded pins were inserted into the radius and 3-mm screw pins into the second metacarpal of 20 cadaver arms. Each threaded pin was inserted in the dorsoradial oblique plane through a limited open, 5- to 10-mm longitudinal incision. Open exploration of the threaded-pin sites was then carried out. OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury to nerves, muscles and tendons and the proximity of these structures to the threaded pins. RESULTS: There were no injuries to the extensor tendons, superficial radial or lateral antebrachial nerves of the forearm, or to the soft tissues overlying the metacarpal. The lateral antebrachial nerve was the closest nerve to the radial pins and a branch of the superficial radial nerve was closest to the metacarpal pins. The superficial radial nerve was not close to the radial pins. CONCLUSION: Limited open threaded-pin fixation of distal radial fractures in the dorsolateral plane appears to be safe.  (+info)

Mandibular subluxation for distal internal carotid exposure: technical considerations. (3/614)

PURPOSE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has become one of the most commonly performed vascular procedures, because of the beneficial outcome it has when compared with medical therapy alone and because of the anatomic accessibility of the artery. In cases of distal carotid occlusive disease, high cervical carotid bifurcation, and some reoperative cases, access to the distal internal carotid artery may limit surgical exposure and increase the incidence of cranial nerve palsies. Mandibular subluxation (MS) is recommended to provide additional space in a critically small operative field. We report our experience to determine and illustrate a preferred method of MS. METHODS: Techniques for MS were selected based on the presence or absence of adequate dental stability and periodontal disease. All patients received general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation before subluxation. Illustrations are provided to emphasize technical considerations in performing MS in 10 patients (nine men and one woman) who required MS as an adjunct to CEA (less than 1% of primary CEAs). Patients were symptomatic (n = 7) or asymptomatic (n = 3) and had high-grade stenoses demonstrated by means of preoperative arteriography. RESULTS: Subluxation was performed and stabilization was maintained by means of: Ivy loop/circumdental wiring of mandibular and maxillary bicuspids/cuspids (n = 7); Steinmann pins with wiring (n = 1); mandibular/maxillary arch bar wiring (n = 1); and superior circumdental to circummandibular wires (n = 1). MS was not associated with mandibular dislocation in any patient. No postoperative cranial nerve palsies were observed. Three patients experienced transient temporomandibular joint discomfort, which improved spontaneously within 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: Surgical exposure of the distal internal carotid artery is enhanced with MS and nasotracheal intubation. We recommend Ivy loop/circumdental wiring as the preferred method for MS. Alternative methods are used when poor dental health is observed.  (+info)

The use of Poller screws as blocking screws in stabilising tibial fractures treated with small diameter intramedullary nails. (4/614)

Intramedullary nailing of metaphyseal fractures may be associated with deformity as a result of instability after fixation. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical use of Poller screws (blocking screws) as a supplement to stability after fixation with statically locked intramedullary nails of small diameter. We studied, prospectively, 21 tibial fractures, 10 in the proximal third and 11 in the distal third in 20 patients after the insertion of Poller screws over a mean period of 18.5 months (12 to 29). All fractures had united. Healing was evident radiologically at a mean of 5.4+/-2.1 months (3 to 12) with a mean varus-valgus alignment of -1.0 degree (-5 to 3) and mean antecurvatum-recurvatum alignment of 1.6 degrees (-6 to 11). The mean loss of reduction between placement of the initial Poller screw and follow-up was 0.5 degrees in the frontal plane and 0.4 degrees in the sagittal plane. There were no complications related to the Poller screw. The clinical outcome, according to the Karstrom-Olerud score, was not influenced by previous or concomitant injuries in 18 patients and was judged as excellent in three (17%), good in seven (39%), satisfactory in six (33%), fair in one (6%), and poor in one (6%).  (+info)

Leg lengthening over an intramedullary nail. (5/614)

Distraction osteogenesis is widely used for leg lengthening, but often requires a long period of external fixation which carries risks of pin-track sepsis, malalignment, stiffness of the joint and late fracture of the regenerate. We present the results of 20 cases in which, in an attempt to reduce the rate of complications, a combination of external fixation and intramedullary nailing was used. The mean gain in length was 4.7 cm (2 to 8.6). The mean time of external fixation was 20 days per centimetre gain in length. All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. There were three cases of deep infection, two of which occurred in patients who had had previous open fractures of the bone which was being lengthened. All resolved with appropriate treatment. This method allows early rehabilitation, with a rapid return of knee movement. There is a lower rate of complications than occurs when external fixation is used on its own. The time of external fixation is shorter than in other methods of leg lengthening. The high risk of infection calls for caution.  (+info)

Combined spinal-epidural in the obstetric patient with Harrington rods assisted by ultrasonography. (6/614)

We describe a patient with severe scoliosis, which had been corrected partially with Harrington rods, who requested epidural analgesia for labour. With no palpable landmarks, the use of ultrasound enabled identification of the vertebral midline and allowed provision of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

Sport related proximal femoral fractures: a retrospective review of 31 cases treated in an eight year period. (7/614)

In an eight year period, 31 patients with proximal femoral fractures resulting from sports accidents were treated by implantation of either a Gamma nail or a dynamic hip screw. Return to work or sports and the time to bone healing did not differ very much between the treatments. Gamma nailing was clearly the best with regard to stability and time to full mobilisation (4.5 days), but required 39 minutes to perform compared with insertion of a dynamic hip screw (27 minutes). The incidence of complications and malalignments did not differ very much between the two, although, when Gamma nailing was first used in the authors' clinic, more intraoperative complications occurred than with the dynamic hip screw. Stable pertrochanteric fractures may be treated with a dynamic hip screw. Unstable pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures are treated with a Gamma nail at the authors' institution.  (+info)

Two stage reconstruction for the Shepherd's crook deformity in a case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. (8/614)

Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia leads to progressive and disabling deformity involving the proximal femur. Conventional methods of treatment have been ineffective in controlling this problem. Two stage reconstruction was carried out in a case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with bilateral shepherd's crook deformity. Bilateral subtrochanteric osteotomies with intramedullary fixation in the first stage and intertrochanteric osteotomies in the second stage with nail plate fixation was done to provide definitive control of the deformity. Bone graft was not used.  (+info)

1. Onychomycosis: This is a fungal infection of the nail that can cause discoloration, thickening, and brittleness of the nails. It is more common in toenails than fingernails.
2. Paronychia: This is a bacterial or fungal infection of the skin around the nail that can cause redness, swelling, and pus.
3. Nail psoriasis: This is a chronic condition that causes redness, thickening, and pitting of the nails. It is often associated with psoriasis, an autoimmune disorder.
4. Nail trauma: This can occur due to injury or repetitive stress on the nail, such as from biting or picking at the nails.
5. Nail cancer: This is a rare condition that affects the skin underneath the nail and can cause thickening, discoloration, and bleeding.
6. Melanonychia: This is a condition where the nails become darkened due to an increase in melanin production. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to ultraviolet radiation, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions.
7. Nail fragility: This is a condition where the nails are weak and prone to breaking or splitting. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including nutritional deficiencies, systemic diseases, and trauma.
8. Nail abnormalities: These can occur due to a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medical conditions. Examples include clubbing of the nails, where the nails curve downward, and koilonychia, where the nails are thin and concave.

Nail diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as nail scrapings, biopsies, or blood tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may involve topical or oral medications, changes to the diet or lifestyle, or surgery in severe cases. It is important to seek medical attention if you notice any changes or abnormalities in your nails, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.


* Trim the nails straight across and avoid cutting them too short
* Avoid wearing tight shoes that pressure the toes
* Keep the feet clean and dry


* Soak the foot in warm water to reduce swelling
* Use a topical antibiotic ointment or cream to treat any infection
* Trim the nail edge to relieve pressure on the skin
* Wear proper fitting shoes to avoid further irritation


* Infection of the bone or nerve
* Cellulitis (inflammation of the skin and underlying tissue)
* Abscess formation

Note: This is a general overview of ingrown toenails. It is important to consult a medical professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

There are several factors that can contribute to bone resorption, including:

1. Hormonal changes: Hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin can regulate bone resorption. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to excessive bone resorption.
2. Aging: As we age, our bones undergo remodeling more frequently, leading to increased bone resorption.
3. Nutrient deficiencies: Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients can impair bone health and lead to excessive bone resorption.
4. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can increase bone resorption, leading to bone loss and weakening.
5. Genetics: Some genetic disorders can affect bone metabolism and lead to abnormal bone resorption.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants, can increase bone resorption.
7. Diseases: Conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and bone cancer can lead to abnormal bone resorption.

Bone resorption can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:

1. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing: This test measures the density of bone in specific areas of the body. Low BMD can indicate bone loss and excessive bone resorption.
2. X-rays and imaging studies: These tests can help identify abnormal bone growth or other signs of bone resorption.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can measure levels of certain hormones and nutrients that are involved in bone metabolism.
4. Bone biopsy: A bone biopsy can provide a direct view of the bone tissue and help diagnose conditions such as Paget's disease or bone cancer.

Treatment for bone resorption depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications: Bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, and other medications can help slow or stop bone resorption.
2. Diet and exercise: A healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, along with regular exercise, can help maintain strong bones.
3. Physical therapy: In some cases, physical therapy may be recommended to improve bone strength and mobility.
4. Surgery: In severe cases of bone resorption, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.

Some common types of bone neoplasms include:

* Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that grow on the surface of a bone.
* Giant cell tumors: These are benign tumors that can occur in any bone of the body.
* Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that develop in the cartilage of a bone.
* Ewing's sarcoma: This is a malignant tumor that usually occurs in the long bones of the arms and legs.
* Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.

Symptoms of bone neoplasms can include pain, swelling, or deformity of the affected bone, as well as weakness or fatigue. Treatment options depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the symptoms. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.

Some common types of bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle, porous bones that are prone to fracture.
2. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that causes pain and stiffness in the joints.
3. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
4. Bone cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the bones.
5. Paget's disease of bone: A condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and deformity.
6. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone and can cause brittle bones and other skeletal deformities.
7. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare condition characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone tissue.
8. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
9. Bone cysts: Fluid-filled cavities that can form in the bones and cause pain, weakness, and deformity.
10. Bone spurs: Abnormal growths of bone that can form along the edges of joints and cause pain and stiffness.

Bone diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and bone biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.

The condition can affect anyone, but it is more common in older adults and people with certain underlying health conditions such as diabetes, circulatory problems, and immune deficiency disorders. It can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of exposure to fungal spores in the environment.

There are several types of onychomycosis, including:

1. Distal lateral subungual onychomycosis: This is the most common type and affects the nails of the big toe and thumb.
2. Proximal subungual onychomycosis: This type affects the nails of the fingertips and toes.
3. White superficial onychomycosis: This type is characterized by a white, patchy appearance on the surface of the nail.
4. Candidal onychomycosis: This type is caused by a yeast infection and is more common in people with diabetes or compromised immune systems.

Onychomycosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and fungal cultures of the nail. Treatment options include topical creams and ointments, oral medications, and laser therapy. The best treatment approach depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the individual's overall health status.

Preventative measures for onychomycosis include keeping the nails clean and dry, avoiding sharing personal care items, wearing socks that absorb sweat, and using antifungal sprays or powders. Good hygiene practices and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can also help prevent and manage onychomycosis.

The symptoms of a femoral fracture may include:

* Severe pain in the thigh or groin area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected area
* Difficulty moving or straightening the leg
* A visible deformity or bone protrusion

Femoral fractures are typically diagnosed through X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment for these types of fractures may involve immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or in some cases, surgical plate and screws or rods may be used to hold the bone in place as it heals.

In addition to surgical intervention, patients may also require physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg after a femoral fracture.

Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.

Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.

Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.

Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.

Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.

Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.

Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.

* Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone tissue, leading to fragile bones and an increased risk of fractures.
* Rickets: A vitamin D-deficient disease that causes softening of the bones in children.
* Osteomalacia: A condition similar to rickets, but affecting adults and caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium.
* Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to an imbalance in bone metabolism and an increase in bone resorption.
* Hypoparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too little PTH, leading to low levels of calcium and vitamin D and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Bone diseases, metabolic are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to evaluate bone metabolism. Treatment depends on the specific underlying cause of the disease and may include medications, dietary changes, or surgery.

Foot dermatoses refer to any skin conditions that affect the feet. These conditions can cause discomfort, pain, and difficulty walking. Some common types of foot dermatoses include:

1. Athlete's foot (tinea pedis): a fungal infection that causes itching, burning, and cracking on the soles of the feet and between the toes.
2. Plantar warts: small, rough growths on the soles of the feet caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
3. Calluses and corns: areas of thickened skin that can become painful due to pressure or friction.
4. Eczema: a chronic inflammatory skin condition that can cause dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin, including the feet.
5. Psoriasis: an autoimmune disorder that causes red, scaly patches on the skin, including the feet.
6. Vitiligo: a condition that causes white patches on the skin due to the loss of pigment-producing cells.
7. Actinic keratosis: a precancerous condition that causes rough, scaly spots on sun-exposed areas of the skin, including the feet.
8. Molluscum contagiosum: a viral infection that causes small, painless bumps on the skin, often found on the feet and hands.
9. Candidiasis: a fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the feet.
10. Paronychia: an inflammation of the skin around the nails, which can cause redness, swelling, and pus-filled bumps on the feet.

These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, such as fungal or bacterial infections, viruses, allergies, injuries, and genetic predisposition. Treatment options for foot dermatoses range from self-care measures like keeping the feet clean and dry to prescription medications like antifungals, topical creams, and oral medications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove growths or correct deformities.

It's essential to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or recurring foot problems, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes. A dermatologist can help determine the underlying cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatments.

In terms of symptoms, Yellow Nail Syndrome typically presents with yellow discoloration of the nails, skin, and whites of the eyes. The nails may also be thickened, brittle, and prone to crumbling or breaking. The condition can affect one or more nails, and may occur in conjunction with other symptoms such as respiratory infections, allergies, and skin rashes.

In terms of diagnosis, Yellow Nail Syndrome is usually diagnosed based on the appearance of the nails and any other symptoms that are present. A healthcare professional may also perform a physical examination and take a medical history to rule out other conditions that may be causing the yellow discoloration. In some cases, a skin scraping or biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

In terms of treatment, there is no cure for Yellow Nail Syndrome, but symptoms can be managed with topical creams and ointments, oral antibiotics, and addressing any underlying conditions. For example, antifungal creams may be used to treat fungal infections that may be contributing to the yellow discoloration. Oral antibiotics may be prescribed to treat bacterial infections, and corticosteroid creams or ointments may be used to reduce inflammation. In addition, addressing any underlying conditions such as allergies or respiratory infections can help to improve symptoms.

In terms of prevention, there is no known way to prevent Yellow Nail Syndrome, but good hand hygiene and avoiding exposure to harsh chemicals can help to reduce the risk of developing the condition. It's also important to regularly inspect your nails for any changes or abnormalities and seek medical attention if you notice any unusual symptoms.

In terms of the impact on daily life, Yellow Nail Syndrome can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. The discoloration of the nails can be embarrassing and affect self-esteem, and the condition can also cause physical discomfort and pain. In addition, the underlying causes of the condition can make it difficult to perform daily activities such as dressing, grooming, or using utensils. It's important for individuals with Yellow Nail Syndrome to seek medical attention to manage symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Overall, Yellow Nail Syndrome is a relatively rare condition that can cause discoloration of the nails and other symptoms such as pain, swelling, and difficulty growing nails. While there is no cure for the condition, symptoms can be managed with topical creams, oral antibiotics, and addressing underlying causes. Early detection and proper management can help to improve the quality of life for individuals with Yellow Nail Syndrome.

Tibial fractures can range in severity from minor cracks or hairline breaks to more severe breaks that extend into the bone's shaft or even the joint. Treatment for these injuries often involves immobilization of the affected leg with a cast, brace, or walking boot, as well as pain management with medication and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments.

Some common types of hand dermatoses include:

1. Contact dermatitis: This is a type of eczema that occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen. It can cause redness, itching, and dryness on the hands.
2. Psoriasis: This is a chronic condition that causes red, scaly patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the hands.
3. Eczema: This is a general term for a group of conditions that cause dry, itchy skin. It can affect the hands as well as other parts of the body.
4. Dermatitis herpetiformis: This is a condition that causes small blisters or bumps on the skin, often in conjunction with other symptoms such as fever and joint pain.
5. Urticaria: This is a condition that causes hives or itchy, raised welts on the skin. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and environmental exposures.
6. Angioedema: This is a condition that causes swelling of the deeper layers of skin, often in conjunction with hives or other symptoms.
7. Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum: This is a condition that affects people with diabetes and causes raised, darkened areas on the skin, often on the hands and feet.
8. Hand eczema: This is a type of eczema that specifically affects the hands, causing dryness, itching, and redness on the palms and soles.

Treatment for hand dermatoses depends on the underlying cause and can include topical creams or ointments, medications, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding irritants and allergens, keeping the hands moisturized, and protecting them from extreme temperatures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected skin or repair damaged tissue.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms on your hands, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The symptoms of paronychia may include:

* Redness and swelling around the nail bed
* Pain and tenderness in the affected area
* Increased warmth and sensitivity to touch
* Thickening and pus-filled discharge under the nail
* Loose or separated nails
* Foul odor

The diagnosis of paronychia is typically based on a physical examination and medical history. A doctor may also perform a skin scraping or nail clipping to collect samples for microscopic examination or culture testing.

Treatment for paronychia depends on the cause and severity of the infection. For bacterial paronychia, antibiotics may be prescribed to clear the infection. For fungal paronychia, antifungal medication may be used. In severe cases, surgical drainage or debridement may be necessary.

Prevention measures for paronychia include:

* Keeping the hands and feet clean and dry
* Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or nail care tools
* Trimming nails straight across and avoiding pushing back the cuticles
* Wearing gloves when performing activities that may cause nail injury
* Using antifungal powder or spray on the nails and surrounding skin

Complications of paronychia can include:

* Cellulitis: a bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue
* Abscess: a pocket of pus that forms as a result of the infection
* Gangrene: dead skin or tissue due to a lack of blood supply
* Nail loss: the nail may fall off or become deformed
* Scarring: permanent scars may form around the nail bed.

The alveolar bone is a specialized type of bone that forms the socket in which the tooth roots are embedded. It provides support and stability to the teeth and helps maintain the proper position of the teeth in their sockets. When the alveolar bone is lost, the teeth may become loose or even fall out completely.

Alveolar bone loss can be detected through various diagnostic methods such as dental X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for alveolar bone loss depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, bone grafting, or tooth extraction.

In the context of dentistry, alveolar bone loss is a common complication of periodontal disease, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums and bone. The bacteria that cause periodontal disease can lead to the destruction of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss.

In addition to periodontal disease, other factors that can contribute to alveolar bone loss include:

* Trauma or injury to the teeth or jaw
* Poorly fitting dentures or other prosthetic devices
* Infections or abscesses in the mouth
* Certain systemic diseases such as osteoporosis or cancer

Overall, alveolar bone loss is a significant issue in dentistry and can have a major impact on the health and function of the teeth and jaw. It is essential to seek professional dental care if symptoms of alveolar bone loss are present to prevent further damage and restore oral health.

There are several types of bone cysts, including:

1. Simple bone cysts: These are the most common type of bone cyst and typically occur in children and young adults. They are filled with air or fluid and do not contain any cancerous cells.
2. Angiomatous cysts: These are smaller than simple bone cysts and are usually found near the ends of long bones. They are also filled with blood vessels and do not contain any cancerous cells.
3. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts: These are similar to simple bone cysts but are larger and may be more complex in shape.
4. Multicameral bone cysts: These are larger than unicameral bone cysts and may contain multiple chambers filled with air or fluid.
5. Enchondromas: These are benign tumors that occur within the cartilage of a bone. They are usually found in the long bones of the arms and legs.
6. Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that occur in the cartilage of a bone. They are typically found in the long bones of the arms and legs.
7. Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the cartilage and bone of a joint. They are usually found near the ends of long bones.
8. Malignant bone cysts: These are rare and can be cancerous. They may occur in any bone of the body and can be aggressive, spreading quickly to other areas of the body.

The symptoms of bone cysts can vary depending on their size and location. They may cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. In some cases, they may also lead to fractures or deformities.

Diagnosis of bone cysts usually involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible conditions.

Treatment for bone cysts depends on their size, location, and severity. Small, asymptomatic cysts may not require any treatment, while larger cysts may need to be drained or surgically removed. In some cases, medication such as bisphosphonates may be used to help reduce the risk of fractures.

In conclusion, bone cysts are abnormalities that can occur in any bone of the body. They can be benign or malignant and can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size and location. Diagnosis is usually made through imaging tests, and treatment may involve observation, draining, or surgical removal.

There are several types of osteoporosis, including:

1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.

The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:

1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test

The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:

1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.

The term "leg length inequality" is used in the medical field to describe a condition where one leg is shorter than the other, resulting in an imbalance and potential discomfort or pain. The condition can be caused by various factors, such as genetics, injury, or uneven muscle development.

There are several different types of leg length inequality, including:

1. Congenital leg length inequality: This is a condition that is present at birth and is caused by genetic or environmental factors during fetal development.
2. Acquired leg length inequality: This type of inequality is caused by an injury or condition that affects the bones or muscles in one leg, such as a fracture or tendonitis.
3. Neurological leg length inequality: This type of inequality is caused by a neurological condition, such as cerebral palsy, that affects the development of the muscles and bones in one leg.

The symptoms of leg length inequality can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Pain or discomfort in the lower back, hips, or legs
2. Difficulty walking or standing for long periods of time
3. A noticeable difference in the length of the legs
4. Muscle spasms or cramps in the legs
5. Difficulty maintaining balance or stability

Treatment options for leg length inequality will depend on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Shoe lifts or inserts to raise the shorter leg
2. Orthotics or braces to support the affected leg
3. Physical therapy to strengthen the muscles and improve balance and coordination
4. Surgery to lengthen the shorter leg, either by cutting the bone and inserting a device to lengthen it or by fusion of the vertebrae to realign the spine.
5. In some cases, a combination of these treatments may be necessary to effectively address the condition.

It is important to note that early diagnosis and treatment of leg length inequality can help prevent further progression of the condition and reduce the risk of complications. If you suspect you or your child may have leg length inequality, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Terms related to 'Fractures, Open':

1. Closed fracture: A fracture where the skin is not broken and there is no exposure of the bone.
2. Comminuted fracture: A fracture where the bone is broken into several pieces.
3. Greenstick fracture: A type of fracture in children where the bone bends and partially breaks, but does not completely break.
4. Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not extend all the way through the bone.
5. Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.

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There are several types of pigmentation disorders, including:

1. Vitiligo: A condition in which white patches develop on the skin due to the loss of melanin-producing cells.
2. Albinism: A rare genetic condition that results in a complete or partial absence of melanin production.
3. Melasma: A hormonal disorder that causes brown or gray patches to appear on the face, often in pregnant women or those taking hormone replacement therapy.
4. Post-inflammatory hypopigmentation (PIH): A condition where inflammation causes a loss of melanin-producing cells, leading to lighter skin tone.
5. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition that can cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), where dark spots remain after acne has healed.
6. Nevus of Ota: A benign growth that can cause depigmentation and appear as a light or dark spot on the skin.
7. Cafe-au-Lait spots: Flat, light brown patches that can occur anywhere on the body and are often associated with other conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1.
8. Mongolian spots: Bluish-gray patches that occur in people with darker skin tones and fade with age.
9. Poikiloderma of Civatte: A condition that causes red, thin, and wrinkled skin, often with a pigmentary mottling appearance.
10. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis: A rare condition that causes reddish-brown spots on the skin, often associated with other conditions such as lupus or vasculitis.

Pigmentation disorders can be difficult to treat and may require a combination of topical and systemic therapies, including medications, laser therapy, and chemical peels. It's essential to consult with a dermatologist for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Penetrating head injuries can cause significant damage to the brain and surrounding tissues, leading to a range of neurological symptoms and complications. Treatment for penetrating head injuries typically involves emergency surgery to remove the foreign object and repair any damaged tissue. The prognosis for these types of injuries depends on the severity of the injury, the location and extent of damage, and the promptness and quality of medical treatment received.

Some common causes of penetrating head injuries include:

1. Gunshot wounds: These are caused by high-velocity projectiles that can penetrate the skull and cause extensive damage to the brain.
2. Stabbing: This can occur with a sharp object, such as a knife or ice pick, that is inserted into the skull.
3. Impalement: This occurs when an object, such as a wooden stake or metal rod, is driven through the skull and into the brain.
4. Blunt trauma: This can occur when the head is struck with a blunt object, such as a hammer or baseball bat, causing a penetrating injury.

Symptoms of penetrating head injuries can vary depending on the location and extent of the injury. Some common symptoms include:

1. Seizures
2. Confusion or disorientation
3. Dizziness or loss of balance
4. Weakness or numbness in the face or limbs
5. Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
6. Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
7. Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
8. Difficulty with coordination and balance

If you suspect that someone has sustained a penetrating head injury, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Prompt treatment can help to minimize damage to the brain and improve outcomes.

There are several types of hip fractures, including:

1. Femoral neck fracture: A break in the thin neck of the femur just above the base of the thigh bone.
2. Subtrochanteric fracture: A break between the lesser trochanter (a bony prominence on the upper end of the femur) and the neck of the femur.
3. Diaphyseal fracture: A break in the shaft of the femur, which is the longest part of the bone.
4. Metaphyseal fracture: A break in the area where the thigh bone meets the pelvis.

Hip fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Osteoporosis: A condition that causes brittle and weak bones, making them more susceptible to fractures.
2. Trauma: A fall or injury that causes a direct blow to the hip.
3. Overuse: Repetitive strain on the bone, such as from sports or repetitive movements.
4. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as osteopenia (low bone density) or Paget's disease (a condition that causes abnormal bone growth), can increase the risk of hip fractures.

Treatment for hip fractures typically involves surgery to realign and stabilize the bones. This may involve inserting plates, screws, or rods to hold the bones in place while they heal. In some cases, a total hip replacement may be necessary. After surgery, physical therapy is often recommended to help regain strength and mobility in the affected limb.

Preventive measures for hip fractures include:

1. Exercise: Regular exercise, such as weight-bearing activities like walking or running, can help maintain bone density and reduce the risk of hip fractures.
2. Diet: A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D can help support bone health.
3. Fall prevention: Taking steps to prevent falls, such as removing tripping hazards from the home and using handrails, can help reduce the risk of hip fractures.
4. Osteoporosis treatment: If you have osteoporosis, medications or other treatments may be recommended to help strengthen your bones and reduce the risk of hip fractures.

1. Nail deformities: The nails may be misshapen, thickened, or have an irregular surface.
2. Kneecap deformities: The patellae may be small, misshapen, or dislocated.
3. Elbow deformities: The elbows may be bowed or stiff.
4. Skin problems: Some individuals with nail-patella syndrome may experience skin problems such as thickened skin on the palms and soles.
5. Joint pain: Pain in the joints, particularly the knees and elbows, is a common symptom of nail-patella syndrome.

Nail-patella syndrome is caused by mutations in the GDF6 gene, which plays a crucial role in the development of the nails, patellae, and elbow joints. The condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition.

There is no cure for nail-patella syndrome, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms. These may include physical therapy, bracing, and medication to relieve pain and improve joint mobility. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct deformities or repair damaged tissue.

Early diagnosis of nail-patella syndrome is essential to prevent complications and manage the condition effectively. A healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and review the patient's medical history to make a diagnosis. Imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans may also be ordered to confirm the diagnosis and assess the severity of the condition.

In addition to infectious causes, onycholysis can also be caused by non-infectious factors such as trauma, chronic diseases like diabetes or thyroid disorders, and certain medications. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as onycholysis can lead to more serious complications if left untreated. A healthcare professional can diagnose onycholysis by examining the nail and may perform tests such as a fungal culture or blood work to determine the underlying cause.

1. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the immune system, often involving the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
3. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): A group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
5. Osteopetrosis: A rare genetic disorder that causes an overgrowth of bone, leading to a thickened bone marrow.
6. Bone marrow failure: A condition where the bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and other complications.
7. Myelofibrosis: A condition characterized by the scarring of the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
8. Polycythemia vera: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
9. Essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of platelets, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
10. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of rare blood disorders that are characterized by the overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.

These are just a few examples of bone marrow diseases. There are many other conditions that can affect the bone marrow, and each one can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a bone marrow disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform tests and provide a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Also known as nonunion or malunion.

Note: This term is not intended to be used as a substitute for proper medical advice. Do you have a specific question about your condition? Please ask your healthcare provider for more information.

Examples of 'Fractures, Closed' in a sentence:

* The patient suffered a closed fracture of his wrist after falling from a bike.
* The doctor diagnosed a closed fracture of the ankle and prescribed rest and physical therapy for recovery.
* The athlete was unable to continue playing due to a closed fracture of the collarbone.

Symptoms of Pachyonychia Congenita:

* Thickened, brittle, and crumbling nails
* Skin lesions that can be painful and disfiguring
* Scalp papules and nodules
* Perioral and perianal dermatitis
* Nail bed infections
* Bone and joint deformities

Treatment of Pachyonychia Congenita:

* Good oral hygiene to prevent nail infections
* Topical creams and ointments to manage skin lesions
* Antibiotics for bacterial infections
* Surgery to remove scalp papules and nodules
* Physical therapy to improve joint mobility


* PC is a chronic condition, and symptoms can persist throughout life.
* The condition can be challenging to manage, and patients may require ongoing medical care.
* With proper treatment, patients can lead relatively normal lives.


* Nail infections
* Skin infections
* Bone and joint deformities
* Social and emotional distress due to the appearance of the nails and skin.


* PC is a rare condition, affecting approximately 1 in 250,000 individuals worldwide.
* The condition can occur in families, with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.
* PC can also occur sporadically due to mutations in the PACM gene.


* PC is caused by mutations in the PACM gene, which codes for a protein involved in skin and nail development.
* Mutations in the PACM gene lead to dysregulation of cell signaling pathways, resulting in the characteristic skin and nail abnormalities of PC.

Other key points:

* PC is often misdiagnosed or overlooked, leading to delays in appropriate medical care.
* Patients with PC may experience social and emotional distress due to the appearance of their skin and nails.
* Proper diagnosis and management of PC can improve quality of life for patients.

These tumors can cause a variety of symptoms such as pain, swelling, and weakness in the affected area. Treatment options for bone marrow neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

Here are some examples of bone marrow neoplasms:

1. Osteosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the bone-forming cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in children and young adults.

2. Chondrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the cartilage-forming cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in older adults.

3. Myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow. These cells produce antibodies to fight infections, but with myeloma, the abnormal plasma cells produce excessive amounts of antibodies that can cause a variety of symptoms.

4. Ewing's sarcoma: A rare malignant tumor that arises from immature nerve cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in children and young adults.

5. Askin's tumor: A rare malignant tumor that arises from the fat cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in older adults.

These are just a few examples of the many types of bone marrow neoplasms that can occur. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms that may indicate a bone marrow neoplasm, such as pain or swelling in the affected area, fatigue, fever, or weight loss. A healthcare professional can perform diagnostic tests to determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Some examples of ectodermal dysplasias include:

* Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a group of rare genetic disorders that cause fragile skin and mucous membranes.
* Ichthyosis, a group of genetic disorders that cause dry, scaly skin.
* Hereditary neurological and muscular atrophy (HNMA), a condition characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells and muscle wasting.

Ectodermal dysplasias can be caused by mutations in genes that are important for ectodermal development, such as genes involved in cell signaling, differentiation, and growth. These disorders can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner, depending on the specific gene mutation.

There is no cure for ectodermal dysplasias, but treatment may involve managing symptoms and preventing complications. This can include using protective clothing and devices to prevent skin injury, managing infections and inflammation, and addressing any related psychosocial issues. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or improve function.

Overall, ectodermal dysplasias are a diverse group of rare genetic disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life. Early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and prevent complications, and ongoing research is focused on understanding the underlying causes of these disorders and developing new treatments.

Terms related to 'Humeral Fractures' and their definitions:

Displaced Humeral Fracture: A fracture where the bone is broken and out of place.

Non-Displaced Humeral Fracture: A fracture where the bone is broken but still in its proper place.

Greenstick Fracture: A type of fracture that occurs in children, where the bone bends and partially breaks but does not completely break through.

Comminuted Fracture: A fracture where the bone is broken into several pieces.

Open Fracture: A fracture that penetrates the skin, exposing the bone.

Closed Fracture: A fracture that does not penetrate the skin.

Operative Fracture: A fracture that requires surgery to realign and stabilize the bones.

Conservative Fracture: A fracture that can be treated without surgery, using immobilization and other non-surgical methods.

Comminuted fractures are often more complex and difficult to treat than other types of fractures because they involve multiple breaks that may require different treatment approaches. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments, and the healing process can take longer for comminuted fractures compared to simple fractures.

Comminuted fractures are classified based on the number and distribution of the breaks in the bone. For example, a comminuted fracture may be described as being "segemental" if it involves multiple breaks in the same segment of the bone, or "non-segmental" if it involves breaks in multiple segments.

Treatment for comminuted fractures typically involves immobilization of the affected limb to allow the bone fragments to heal, as well as pain management and physical therapy to restore strength and range of motion. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments or to remove any loose pieces of bone that may be causing complications.

Surgery is often necessary to treat bone cysts, aneurysmal, and the type of surgery will depend on the size and location of the cyst. The goal of surgery is to remove the cyst and any associated damage to the bone. In some cases, the bone may need to be repaired or replaced with a prosthetic.

Bone cysts, aneurysmal are relatively rare and account for only about 1% of all bone tumors. They can occur in people of any age but are most commonly seen in children and young adults. Treatment is usually successful, but there is a risk of complications such as infection or nerve damage.

Bone cysts, aneurysmal are also known as bone aneurysmal cysts or BACs. They are different from other types of bone cysts, such as simple bone cysts or fibrous dysplasia, which have a different cause and may require different treatment.

Overall, the prognosis for bone cysts, aneurysmal is generally good if they are treated promptly and effectively. However, there is always a risk of complications, and ongoing follow-up with a healthcare provider is important to monitor for any signs of recurrence or further problems.

... is there a nail abnormality? A prospective study". J Bone Joint Surg Br. 69 (5): 840-2. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.69B5.3680356. ... The total time needed for the nail to be reshaped is one full nail growth or about 18 months. There are two main types of nail ... Improper cutting of the nail may cause the nail to cut into the side-fold skin from growth and impact, whether or not the nail ... nail' and κρυπτός (kryptos) 'hidden', is a common form of nail disease. It is an often painful condition in which the nail ...
Nine Inch Nails; Fear Factory; Marilyn Manson; Static-X Hard Alternative (1985-present) Faith No More; Jane's Addiction; Prong ... Mother Love Bone; Stone Temple Pilots; Pearl Jam Industrial Metal (1988-present) Ministry; White Zombie; Godflesh; ...
Day, Laurence (August 27, 2015). "Zola Jesus is bound in a latex "sensory deprivation bed" in the video for "Nail"". The Line ... Munro, Scott (April 4, 2018). "Zola Jesus premieres video for Ash To Bone remix". Louder Than Sound. Bath, England. Retrieved ... Hensler did styling for the Zola Jesus videos for "Dangerous Days," "Seekir," "Hunger," "Nail," and "Exhumed," and the Marissa ... Daramola, Israel (April 3, 2018). "Video: Zola Jesus - "Ash to Bone" (Johnny Jewel Remix)". Spin. New York, NY. Retrieved ...
Toes and nails point upwards. The articulation of joints is well rendered. Sometimes the flank of the advanced leg is placed ... The metatarsal bones are lightly indicated. The absolute chronology of this period is provided by the dedication of Rhombos on ... The metacarpal bones are sometimes indicated. The bulge of the vastus internus increases. Toes are no longer parallel but do ... Four smaller toes and toe nails curve gently downwards. "Astonishingly uniform": 90 the products of this period are found ...
The nails are flat, grooved, and dysplastic. High bone density, Acro-osteolysis and obtuse mandibular angle are the ... Other abnormalities involve the head and face, teeth, collar bones, skin, and nails. The front and back of the head are ... Pycnodysostosis causes the bones to be abnormally dense; the last bones of the fingers (the distal phalanges) to be unusually ... Because of the bone denseness, those with the syndrome suffer from fractures. Those with the syndrome have brittle bones which ...
Fraser, I.; Meier-Augenstein, W. (2007). "Stable 2H isotope analysis of human hair and nails can aid forensic human ... Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F. (2012). "Stabel Isotope Analysis: Bone and Teeth". Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic ... Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F. (2012). "Stable Isotope Analysis: Hair and Nails". Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic ... A longitudinal study into the variability of isotope signals in human hair and nails". Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20 (7): ...
Acquired racquet nail may also be diagnostic of bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism. Racquet nail often presents with other ... In racquet nails (also known as brachyonychia, nail en raquette, and racquet thumb), the nail plate is flattened, the end of ... and half-and-half nails. Cosmetic surgery can be used to improve the appearance of the nails. Nail anatomy List of cutaneous ... the width of the nail bed and nail plate is greater than their length.: 657 The condition is painless and asymptomatic. Racquet ...
The underlying bone is a virtual mold of the overlying horny structure and therefore has the same shape as the claw or nail. ... Human nails The nail consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix and the nail bed below it, and the grooves surrounding it. The ... The place where a nail technician works may be a nail salon or nail shop or nail bar. Acrylic nails are made out of acrylic ... nail polish, and dip powders can be applied. Painting the nails with colored nail polish (also called nail lacquer and nail ...
Goodman, Tim (2007-01-31). "Silverman nails funny bone and all your buttons". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-04-02. ...
Rush nail for diaphyseal fractures of a long bone Smith Peterson nail for fracture of the neck of femur Smith Peterson nail ... Barry, M; Paterson, JM (2004). "A flexible intramedullary nails for fractures in children". The Journal of Bone and Joint ... Halder, SC (1992). "The Gamma nail for peritrochanteric fractures". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 74 ( ... An orthopedic implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing joint or bone or to support a damaged bone. The ...
... "nail" it is pointed out that nail or claw is actually an extended connotation of onyx, derived from the translucent and ... Cuttlefish bone looks like large fingernails and can also be used in incense.[citation needed] Spikenard is a well known ... "nail" it is pointed out that nail or claw is actually an extended connotation of onyx, derived from the translucent and ... It is dry and shining having numerous white spots, like finger-nails in shape. Dioscorides said that bdellium was "the tear of ...
The nails fell from them, from hunger and cold. They looked like living skeletons, skin and bones. From old men faces, ...
Pieces of bone had been misidentified. There was no bone from a second heel; the nail-pierced only one heel. Some of the bone ... The nail was shorter than Haas had reported and thus would not have been long enough to pierce two heel bones and the wood. ... Zias and Sekeles also stated the presence of the scratch in one of the forearms "was not convincing" evidence of a nail wound: ... There is ample literary and artistic evidence for the use of ropes rather than nails to secure the condemned to the cross. ...
Nail was born in Kansas City, Missouri, with the congenital bone disorder osteogenesis imperfecta. In the 1960s he moved to ... The Nail Life Master Open Pairs event is named after him. Nail and Robert Stucker invented the Big Diamond bidding system and ... Robert Nail, 70, Champion at Bridge". The New York Times. May 29, 1995. Page 28. Quote: "died on Thursday in Houston". "Nail, G ... George Robert Nail (April 21, 1925 - May 25, 1995) was an American bridge player and a club owner and teacher in Houston, Texas ...
"bunion, hammer toe, nail fungus, hallux rigidus". Antón, Mauricio; Salesa, Manuel J.; Pastor, Juan F.; ... Often, these bones form in response to strain, or can be present as a normal variant. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone ... Sesamoid bones generally have a very limited blood supply, rendering them prone to avascular necrosis (bone death from lack of ... In some people, only a single sesamoid is found on the first metatarsal bone. One or both of the sesamoid bones under the first ...
Integumentary system: skin, hair, fat, and nails. Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ...
The Chinese legend tells us that P'an-Ku's bones changed to rocks; his flesh to earth; his marrow, teeth and nails to metals; ... his bones, valuable minerals; his bone marrow, precious jewels; his sweat, rain; and the fleas on his fur carried by the wind ...
... nails, ceramics, and bottle glass; and food remnants such as burnt seeds and bone. Fort Mose's location on the small tidal ...
The original case is covered with leather studding with gilded nails." John Hsu estimated that the Prince was probably not a ... on its extra fingerboard there is a foliated scroll inlay of bone and wood. The peg-box ends in a carved, painted moustachiod ...
"I'm Down" was released to radio on June 4. Fear Inside Our Bones was released on June 11 by Tooth & Nail Records. Fear Inside ... Lay, Nathaniel (June-July 2013). "The Almost: Fear Inside Our Bones (Tooth & Nail)". Outburn. No. 69. p. 58. ISSN 1542-1309. ... Conner, Matt (August 1, 2013). "The Almost: Fear Inside Our Bones (Tooth & Nail)". CCM Magazine. p. 74. Retrieved August 10, ... Fear Inside Our Bones is the third studio album by alternative rock band The Almost, who also produced the album with Marshall ...
Any missing toe nails can lead to disqualification of the rabbit. The Mini Rex is judged 45 points on body, 6 for head, 5 for ... They should have medium-fine bone and rather short legs. Fur should be extremely dense, straight, and upright. It should be ...
Wood - Nails or glue are not used in a Chinese garden. Wooden elements are joined together using traditional Chinese ... "bones of the earth." Water - The garden contains three ponds and one waterfall. Water is thought of as the arteries of the ...
"Bone Thugs-N-Harmony". Billboard. Retrieved 2021-10-25. "Chart Highlights: Nine Inch Nails Soar Onto Rock Airplay, Alternative ... "Bone Thugs-N-Harmony". Billboard. "Bone Thugs-N-Harmony". Billboard. "Bone Thugs-N-Harmony". Billboard. "Introducing Music ... "Uni5: The World's Enemy by Bone Thugs-N-Harmony". Genius. Retrieved 2021-10-26. " - Mo Thugs Family feat. Bone ... He has worked with numerous artists and musicians, including Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Lyfe Jennings, Tahj Mowry, Bone Thugs-n- ...
Catgut frets are fixed on the neck by means of minute nails. The main bridge is trapezoidal and mobile, and since the shell ... The smaller upper bridge between the pegbox and the neck is traditionally made of bone. The plectrum is made of tortoiseshell ...
... of the bones alone the figure remains, for the fleshy parts are wasted; the nails of the fingers crooked, their pulps are ... Human bones from the Neolithic show presence of the bacteria. There has also been a claim of evidence of lesions characteristic ... Evidence of the infection in humans was also found in a cemetery near Heidelberg, in the Neolithic bone remains that show ...
O'Connell TC, Hedges RE, Healey MA, Simpson AH (November 2001). "Isotopic comparison of hair, nail and bone: modern analyses". ...
13) the bones will heal; I'm still under heavy medication. And I still take pain relievers. The pain is terrible. Three days ... They were all concrete nails. In 2022, Teves, ran under Nationalist People's Coalition, defeated incumbent Negros Oriental ...
The exhumation revealed a number of preserved bones, pieces of wood, and nails. The bones were placed on a silver plate, and ...
A history of acquired racquet nails (brachyonychia) may be indicative of bone resorption. Radiographically, hyperparathyroidism ... "Stones" refers to kidney stones, "bones" to associated destructive bone changes, "groans" to the pain of stomach and peptic ... increased bone resorption, allowing the flow of calcium from bone to blood reduced kidney clearance of calcium increased ... clinical problems are due to bone resorption and manifest as bone syndromes such as rickets, osteomalacia, and renal ...
Legs - Short, straight, well boned and parallel. Dewclaws may be present. Feet - Large, well-arched toes with strong nails and ... Hip bones often slightly higher than the withers. Chest - More cylindrical than deep. Ribs - Well sprung. Underline - Ample ... Feet - Smaller than forefeet, well arched toes, strong nails and thick well developed pads. Coat Long, fine, firm with slight ... Occipital protuberance easy to palpate, cheek bones moderately prominent. Frontal furrow only slightly marked. Muzzle - Nasal ...
2005 Nine Inch Nails, TV on the Radio, and Bauhaus - June 7, 2006 The Unholy Alliance Tour - June 27, 2006 Drive-By Truckers, ... Bone Thugs-N-Harmony, Dru Hill, Ginuwine, and Aaliyah - September 10, 1997 Aerosmith - September 12, 1997 Fleetwood Mac - ... 1995 Nine Inch Nails - October 9, 1995 Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young and Chicago - May 22, 1996 Sting - June 28, 1996 Gloria ... 2000 A Perfect Circle and Nine Inch Nails - May 20, 2000 Blink-182, Bad Religion, and Fenix TX - May 21, 2000 Red Hot Chili ...
Finger Nail) for violin and viola (2009); Ricordi David Popper (1843-1913) Romance in G major for cello (or viola) and piano, ... trombone and harp (2005-2007); Edizioni Suvini Zerboni Ex voto for violin and viola (1995); Edizioni Suvini Zerboni Monólogo ... bass trombone (2007) Corrente for viola solo (2006) Duo Concertante for viola and alto saxophone (2005-2006) Helios and Nemesis ... 2 trombones and 3 percussionists (1968) Five Sketches for flute, clarinet and viola (1961); American Composers Alliance Rondo ...
When 'Knee Deep' came out, that just put the last nail in the coffin of disco music. Despite the short-lived disco boom in ... A number of New York producers were also making an impression at this time, notably Frankie Bones, Lenny Dee, and Joey Beltram ...
Billy Swann nailed them to the front of the house and "Buba Flirf" became its name. Air Friction was a limited edition LP of ... trombone (1976-) Manna/Mirage (1978, LP, Random Radar Records, CD Cuneiform Records, US) Air Fiction (1979, LP) - live and home ...
... to nail' *ɓlwa1 'navel' *phlai5 'near' *ke1 'net (to cast)' *hmai5 'new' *ʔnaŋ1 'nose, face' *man2 'oil' *kaːu5 'old (things ... bone' *cam3 'bow, bend' *duːi4 'bowl, cup' *ʔŋa5 'branch' *ciŋ5 'branch' *praːk7 'break, tear' **kraːŋ1 'bright' *ɣwaːi4 ' ... bone)' *lun2 'back, behind' *hwaːi6 'bad, cruel' *thruk7 'bamboo strip' *xwan1 'bamboo' *pwaŋ5 'bank, shore' *khrau5 'to bark ...
Gamini helps them with a fellow Sri Lankan whose hands have been nailed to a road, and tells them about the various atrocities ... While on an expedition with archeologist Sarath, Anil notices that the bones of a certain skeleton do not seem to be 6th ...
1: △△". Sacred Bone Records. Retrieved August 27, 2017. Roffman, Michael (May 22, 2017). "Twin Peaks getting two new ... Lynch hand-picked several of the bands, including Nine Inch Nails, Sharon Van Etten, Chromatics, and Eddie Vedder. Twin Peaks: ... Reilly, Nick (June 26, 2017). "Watch Nine Inch Nails perform 'She's Gone Away' on Twin Peaks". NME. Retrieved September 3, 2017 ... Kreps, Daniel (June 26, 2017). "See Nine Inch Nails Perform 'She's Gone Away' on 'Twin Peaks'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved ...
After finding bones in the soil, David Christianson of the Nova Scotia Museum was called to come out to the site. He found a ... Wrought-iron square nails and fragments of wood dated the graves to the 18th century. A King George III halfpenny and ceramic ...
On June 28, 2016, Dykstra released an autobiography titled House of Nails: A Memoir of Life on the Edge. House of Nails landed ... Dykstra suffered broken ribs, a broken collarbone and a broken facial bone, in addition to second-degree burns on his left arm ... McGrath, Ben (March 24, 2008). "Nails Never Fails". The New Yorker. Retrieved November 10, 2011. "Nails Investments". ... YOU THINK YOUR JOB SUCKS? TRY WORKING FOR LENNY DYKSTRA, GQ Dykstra's business: a bed of 'Nails', "Lenny Dykstra files ...
Using a scalpel, nail-file, felt-tip pen and even ball-point pen, Body worked the images by scratching and re-colouring to ... with Canons for Brass for three male voices with three trumpets and three trombones Marvel not Joseph for tenor and alto solos ...
Fledgling signed to Nine Inch Nail's TVT label and released one self-titled album in 1995, before disbanding. The Fledgling ... Bones W/The Legendary Rich Gilbert (2013) self-released (US) 'Be Many Gone (January 2014) Holy Wreckords/Cadiz (US/UK) Live at ...
... syndrome Cystathionine beta synthetase deficiency Cystic adenomatoid malformation of lung Cystic angiomatosis of bone, diffuse ... mental retardation Cryroglobulinemia Crystal deposit disease Culler-Jones syndrome Curly hair ankyloblepharon nail dysplasia ... dysplasia micrognathia absent thumbs Cloacal exstrophy Clonal hypereosinophilia Clouston syndrome Cloverleaf skull bone ...
However, as the girl grew older, the bones would begin to heal. Even after the foot bones had healed, they were prone to ... Each time the feet were unbound, they were washed, the toes checked for injury, and the nails meticulously trimmed. When ... Bones in the girls' feet would often be deliberately broken again in order to further change the size or shape of the feet. ... If the infection in the feet and toes entered the bones, it could cause them to soften, which could result in toes dropping off ...
Just as on the first Pesach night, breaking bones from the second Paschal offering or leaving meat over until morning is ... "Cutting Hair and Nails on Erev Pesach - OU Torah". Orthodox Union (OU). We may not eat matzah the entire day erev Pesach ... One had to be careful not to break any bones from the offering, and none of the meat could be left over by morning. Because of ... de-boned fish, mostly carp or pike Chicken soup with matzah balls (kneydlach) - Chicken soup served with matzo-meal dumplings ...
Tenor Trombone, Bass Trombone, Eb Alto Horn on track 6 Michael McDonald - Executive Producer, Management Don Was, John Mayer - ... "proves more successful than Mayer's last effort at nailing the styles that inspired it." The album debuted at #2 on the ...
"Youth Code's Top 10 Industrial Songs that have Nothing to do with Nine Inch Nails". Self-Titled. Archived from the original on ... 2011, p. 516 Bessman, Jim (27 December 1986). "Is Offbeat Act Ready for Mainstream? Fetchin Rattles Some Bones" (PDF). ... Skinny Puppy toured in support of the album, featuring an early incarnation of the industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails as ... Trent Reznor also acknowledged that Skinny Puppy's "Dig It" inspired the very first Nine Inch Nails track written, "Down in It ...
It can also be accompanied by changes to the nail, such as the nail plate lifting from the skin. Other symptoms include ... "Inflammation of sites where tendons and ligaments are attached to the bone"), and epicondylitis (degeneration of the origin of ... "Palmar Eccrine Hidradenitis Secondary to Trauma from Computer Gaming in an Adolescent After Bone Marrow Transplantation". ...
The issue led to a dissolution in the relationship between Hopkins and the band, which Hinman describes as "yet another nail in ... Field, Elizabeth (2002). "Skin and Bone, Tea and Scones: Food and Drink Imagery in The Kinks' Music, 1964-1997". In Kitts, ...
These themes alternate with a dotted funereal motif introduced by a pair of solo flutes, then taken up by a solo trombone, ... The sketch manuscript also includes an unfinished and still unpublished setting of Yevgeny Yevtushenko's "Yelabuga Nail," a ...
... trombone Gabriela Dîaz - violin Elizabeth England - oboe Benjamin Fox - oboe Angela Park - cello John Russell - trumpet Karina ... hammer and nails, metal can, etc. Production John Zorn - executive producer Kazunori Sugiyama - associate producer Fred Frith ...
Manson had broken his fibula in two places, requiring a plate and ten screws to be inserted into his bone. The rest of the tour ... at which Nine Inch Nails was also scheduled to appear. Manson indicated a possibility of joining that band on stage during the ...
Oedema Bone pain Myasthenia Twitching Bronchitis Hyperventilation Pneumonia Sinusitis Furunculosis Herpes simplex Nail disorder ...
"TLC Announce 2021 Tour In Celebration Of 'CrazySexyCool' with Bone Thugs-N-Harmony". HipHop-N-More. June 25, 2021. Retrieved ... combining the body slam of hip-hop and the giddy uplift of a jump-rope rhyme without breaking a nail." In a 2015 article for ...
The Gate of Bones by Andy Clark (novel 2) (February 2021) The Wolftime by Gav Thorpe (novel 3) (November 2021) Throne Of Light ... also included in the book nº 42 Butcher's Nails by Aaron Dembski-Bowden (August 2012) ... also included in the book nº 31 Grey ...
... thick and thin thunder and lightning tits and ass to and fro tooth and nail touch and go track and field trial and error tuck ... fits and starts flesh and blood flesh and bone forever and a day forever and ever front and center fun and games fuss and ... Bob Watson and Crick Adam and Eve apples and pears bottle and glass Brahms and Liszt dog and bone frog and toad hand and ... stout show and tell shuck and jive sick and tired slash and burn slings and arrows slip and fall slow and steady skin and bone( ...
... and Nine Inch Nails. Jon Bon Jovi stated that even though the album was their darkest, the band was in a very happy place at ... trombone Jerry Vivino - tenor saxophone Mark Pender - trumpet Ed Manion - baritone saxophone Tommy Funderburk, Rory Dodd - ...
It was a nail biter, for sure." In the Daytona 500, Whitt ran as high as fourth, but ran out of fuel, and was later down two ... At Daytona in the Coke Zero 400, Whitt was caught up into a multi-car pileup and he t-boned Kyle Busch throwing Busch onto his ...
Danzig and Mother Love Bone" sound the same. Thrash metal emerged in the early 1980s under the influence of hardcore punk and ... Ministry and Nine Inch Nails began incorporating metal into their industrial sound, and vice versa, respectively; and Marilyn ...
... one form of which had iron nails in loose contact. Thus the Reis phone worked best for speech when it was slightly out of ... and communicated its vibrations through the hammer-bone behind it to the auditory nerve. It therefore occurred to him, if he ...
Biodegradable intramedullary nail (BIN) with high-strength bioceramics for bone fracture.. Sun, Miao; Shao, Huifeng; Xu, Haibin ... Metal intramedullary nails (INs) can provide strong support but a stress shielding effect can occur that results in nonunion ... About 10 million fractures occur worldwide each year, of which more than 60% are long bone fractures. It is generally agreed ... but also promote osteogenesis and affect the microenvironment of the bone marrow cavity. Therefore, they could be expected to ...
Discover Our Top 6 Best Bone Broths For Healthy Immune Systems, Gut Health & Regenerated Skin, Hair & Nails. ... Bare Bones Beef Bone Broth. Check Price. Bare Bones Beef Bone Broth is made from grass-fed beef bones and collagen, as well as ... 4. Bare Bones Beef Bone Broth. If you are looking for a strictly grass-fed beef bone broth, then Bare Bones Beef Bone Broth is ... Signature Bone Broth is a nutritional powerhouse that contains chicken bones, turkey bones, pork bones, grass-fed beef bones, ...
In bone repair applications, i.e. scaffolds for bone regeneration, the solubility of bioceramics is an important parameter, and ... Intramedullary nails. Align fractures. Bioglass-metal fibre composite, Polysulphone-carbon fibre composite ... Bone. 3-30. 130-180. 60-160. NA. NA Multipurpose[edit]. A number of implanted ceramics have not actually been designed for ... which are key for effective bone graft and bone transplant materials.[10] This can be achieved by the inclusion of grain ...
... build strong bones, osteoporosis Eye health Good bowel/colon health Healthy Joints, arthritis Healthy skin, hair, and nails ...
These disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and lead to other diseases. They affect people physically, ... Osteoporosis, or loss of bone density. - Brittle nails. - Irregular or abnormal heart rhythms ... These disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and lead to other diseases. They affect people physically, ...
Loss of muscle and bone. * Changes in skin, hair, or nails. * Numbness ...
Return to Article Details Osteosynthesis With Elastic Titanium Nail For Fractures Of Long Bones Of The Lower Extremities In ...
Interlocking Nailing of Canine and Feline Fractures. In: Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery (5th Edition) ... Bone Grafts and Implants. In: Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery (5th Edition) ... Fixation with Screws and Bone Plates. In: Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery (5th Edition) ...
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... or bones; fractures from nail penetration; and infected puncture wounds. Most persons with nail-gun injuries were not ... When users depress the manual trigger, they can rapidly fire a nail (i.e., bounce nail) each time the nail-gun nose contacts ... a nail was shot completely through a body part, or a person removed the nail before seeking treatment. Approximately 4% of nail ... To characterize nail-gun injuries in work and nonwork settings, patients with nail-gun injuries treated in U.S. hospital ...
Interlocking nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures due to gunshot wounds. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1991 Apr. 73(4):598- ... Flexible nailing in children. Cramer et al [24] conducted a prospective trial of 53 femur fractures treated with Ender nails in ... Antegrade intramedullary nailing in adults. Reamed intramedullary nailing has been shown to have excellent results. In a study ... Intramedullary nailing became prominent in the United States in the 1970s. Since the intramedullary nailing technique was ...
Thinning of the bones (osteopenia or osteoporosis). *Brittle hair and nails. *Dry and yellowish skin ...
muscle, joint, or bone pain. *hair loss. *nail changes. *increased eye tearing ...
Jeaniene, you nailed it. If you published a book from Bones POV, Id buy it in a heartbeat.. Loved it!!!!!!!!!! 😀 ... Love Bones and Cat stories. Seeing it from Bones perspective it even better. Just think he was so close and Cat didnt even ... But bones…. I love bones. Having this little snippet of his view point was priceless. I would love to have more. Im absolutely ... I would love to get Boness side from all the books. You can never get enough of Bones. Id love a bite or a million. ...
bone nails. ● tumor. ● infection. ● arthritis. ● chronic inflammation. ● Many women struggle with sciatica during pregnancy. ...
Rotating Bones Rotating Bones is a unique platform puzzle game where you rotate the world to guide Mr Bones to his lost stars. ...
Böker Plus Cowboy Cross Draw Bone Available soon *Fixed Blade Knives. *440C ...
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Natural Factors BioSil Beauty, Bones, Joints. One staffer found herself going to the beauty salon more often after using this- ... So did her nails. Its made with a proprietary silica complex thats described as an "advanced collagen generator." ... New Chapter Perfect Hair, Skin & Nails. This supplement stands out from the crowd, thanks to its combination of biotin, ... And because we believe that nutrients play a big role in hair, skin, and nail health, weve included our favorite beauty- ...
Sometimes, the nail can be damaged. Fractures are unusual, but are at risk for a bone infection (osteomyelitis). ... For a cracked nail without rough edges, leave it alone.. *For a large flap of nail thats almost torn through, cut it off. Use ... A doctor can put a small hole through the nail to release the blood. This can relieve the pain and prevent loss of the nail. ... Skin or nail is cut and No past tetanus shots. Note: tetanus is the T in DTaP, TdaP, or Td vaccines. ...
... elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) to both bones (n = 18), and hybrid fixation (ESIN for one forearm bone and plate- ... Comparison of intramedullary nailing to plating for both-bone forearm fractures in older children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Jun. ... Krzykawski R, Król R, Kamiński A. The results of locked intramedullary nailing for non-union of forearm bones. Ortop Traumatol ... Stabilization of adolescent both-bone forearm fractures: a comparison of intramedullary nailing versus open reduction and ...
Bone Maker, Bone Builder, Bone-Up, Complete Bone Health Supplements. ... Patented collagen generators for hair, skin, nails, bones and joints.... Jarrow Formulas Bone-Up. Super Calcium Formula, ... Bone Balance & Ultra Bone Balance. Source Naturals Bone Balance bioactive calcium formula, Ultra Bone Balance Bio-Aligned.... ... Mineral Blend Liquid - Bone Support Concentrate, 2 oz, Eidon Ionic Minerals. Out of Stock. Nutri Bone, Liquid Bone Care Formula ...
Beauty News Celebrity Beauty Skin Care Makeup Hair Nails Beauty Reviews Beauty Shopping All the Range ... Dolly Partons Heartstrings: These Old Bones. El Camino: A Breaking Bad Movie. Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt: Kimmy vs. The ... Nailed It. RuPauls Drag Race. Top Chef. The Voice. OUTSTANDING LEAD ACTOR IN A DRAMA SERIES. Jason Bateman, Ozark. Sterling K ... Nicole Byer, Nailed It!. Bobby Berk, Queer Eye. RuPaul, RuPauls Drag Race. Barbara Corcoran, Shark Tank. Padma Lakshmi, Top ...
Mother gets nails done while 6-year-old suffers with broken bones, blood clots. ...
It cut her so deep that the bone was sticking out! can you believe it? i even have pictures so show it! ... funny story of how i got that, i was painting my nails and i could not open my nail polish my feet where geting hot so i took ... thanks you are a lifesaver because when i put me nail polish in hot water and when i went back to where i was doing my nails i ... You saved my life (or my hands and nail polish remover anyway) I was soaking it in nail polish remover and it wasnt working. ...
Medication-loaded bone cement was also used for patients requiring intramedullary nailing. Patients with PJI were also treated ... Infection of prosthetic arthroplasty by Mycobacterium fortuitum. Two case reports. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1979;61:300-2. DOI ... The clinicopathological spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial osteoarticular infections. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:925- ... Surgical treatment at UCH consisted of aggressive debridement of infected bone and soft tissue, as well as explantation of any ...
Riot Fest 2022 day 3 pics & review: Nine Inch Nails, Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Sleater-Kinney, Jimmy Eat World, more. Riot Fest 2022 day ... Cult of Youth, Lust For Youth, Pop 1280, Psychic Ills, Sacred Bones, Wymond Miles, Zola Jesus ... Congrats to Sacred Bones on their anniversary, maybe we'll see you on the other side... or maybe not. ... Sacred Bones Records will use the occaision to celebrate their five year anniversary, scheduling a show the Mojave desert. ...
  • About 10 million fractures occur worldwide each year, of which more than 60% are long bone fractures . (
  • The mainstay of treatment has been reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing, but a variety of treatment options now exist for solitary fractures or fractures with associated injury. (
  • Early attempts at internal fixation of such fractures achieved little success until Küntscher developed and utilized the intramedullary nail in 1937. (
  • Fractures are unusual, but are at risk for a bone infection (osteomyelitis). (
  • Unreamed unlocked intramedullary nail and unlocked nailing by the curved Küntscher nail for open tibial fractures. (
  • Shah et al in Nepal until the second generation tissue and bone) were encountered in 30 (19.5%) nails with interlocking capabilities were provided to fractures. (
  • Bone union was delayed for seven (5.3%) fractures. (
  • The treatment principles of the AO group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen ["working group for bone fusion issues"]) have revolutionized treatment of radius and ulna fractures. (
  • Fractures of both bones of the forearm are usually classified according to the level of fracture, the pattern of the fracture, the degree of displacement, the presence or absence of comminution or segment bone loss, and whether they are open or closed. (
  • Most nail gun injuries are puncture wounds to the hands and fingers, but nail guns also cause bone fractures, internal injuries, and even death. (
  • Treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft with the use of interlocking nailing without reaming. (
  • Thirty four (7.6) of the fractures involved the hand and only 13 (2.9) involved the foot bones. (
  • Biodegradable intramedullary nail (BIN) with high-strength bioceramics for bone fracture. (
  • It is generally agreed that intramedullary nails have significant advantages in rigid fracture fixation . (
  • Metal intramedullary nails (INs) can provide strong support but a stress shielding effect can occur that results in nonunion healing in clinic. (
  • Intramedullary nailing became prominent in the United States in the 1970s. (
  • Since the intramedullary nailing technique was introduced in 1939, it has continued to evolve into the antegrade reamed interlocking nails that are the standard today. (
  • Surgical options in adults include the mainstays of intramedullary nailing, either antegrade or retrograde. (
  • skin layers (outer and inner skins), subcutaneous tissue, bone and nail. (
  • The soft tissues (inner skin and subcutaneous tissue) are considered to be nonlinearly viscoelastic, while the hard tissues (outer skin , bone and nail) are considered to be linearly elastic. (
  • Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones. (
  • This makes Kettle & Fire's Chicken Bone Broth an excellent natural source of nutrients, vitamins, and amino acids. (
  • And because we believe that nutrients play a big role in hair, skin, and nail health, we've included our favorite beauty-boosting supplements as well. (
  • Provides valuable nutrients for the skin, bones, hair and nails. (
  • Amino acid chelated calcium, enhanced absorbtion bone nutrients. (
  • Ethical Nutrients Bone Builder and plus formulas. (
  • Kettle & Fire's Chicken Bone Broth helps to promote gut health, youthful looking skin, and a strong immune system. (
  • Grass-fed beef is an excellent base ingredient for bone broth, as it helps to aid gut health, ease achey joints, and boost the creation of healthy skin, nails and hair. (
  • Skin or nail is cut and No past tetanus shots. (
  • Supports healthy hair, skin, and nails. (
  • Silica is one of the most abundant minerals in the world and a crucial component of good health, particularly for skin, bones, hair and nails. (
  • The best bone broths are made by simmering organic chicken, beef bones, and connective tissue to create a stock high in macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals. (
  • Experiments show that the BINs could not only fix and support the tibial fracture model, but also promote osteogenesis and affect the microenvironment of the bone marrow cavity. (
  • Bone broths are also an awesome source of collagen and healthy proteins. (
  • Alongside these rich sources of collagen and protein, the bone broth also contains tones of veggies like organic apple cider vinegar, garlic, sea salt, onion, parsley, and water. (
  • Each serving of Bonafide Provisions Beef Bone Broth contains 40 calories, and 10 grams of protein, and is an excellent source of collagen, amino acids, and organic veggies (including over 80 naturally-occurring minerals). (
  • Each serving of Kettle & Fire's Chicken Bone Broth contains 45 calories, 10 grams of protein, and 4 grams of collagen. (
  • Bare Bones Beef Bone Broth is made from grass-fed beef bones and collagen, as well as tonnes of great veggies. (
  • Bare Bones Beef Bone Broth is packed full of collagen (10g), amino acids, and protein, as well as superfoods like turmeric, ginger and apple cider vinegar. (
  • The femur is one of the largest and strongest bones in the human body. (
  • Known for generating healing power, the best bone broths help to increase amino acids , support the immune system, aid gut health, promote healthy joints, and combat signs of ageing. (
  • Bonafide Provisions Beef Bone Broth is made from grass-fed beef bones, including marrow bones, joints, femurs, ribs and knuckles. (
  • Calcium phosphate -based ceramics constitute, at present, the preferred bone substitute material in orthopaedic and maxillofacial applications, as they are similar to the main mineral phase of bone in structure and chemical composition. (
  • Source Naturals Bone Balance bioactive calcium formula, Ultra Bone Balance Bio-Aligned. (
  • Source Naturals' advanced calcium multiple system support for healthy bones. (
  • However, with the discovery of skeletal radiology near the end of the 19th century came an understanding of the forces acting on fractured bones and a change in the treatment of such injuries. (
  • Fingertip injuries from hydrogen fluoride may result in persistent pain, bone loss, and injury to the nail bed. (
  • Although useful to workers in residential construction and to consumers at home, nail guns are responsible for a significant number of serious injuries to both users and bystanders [CPSC, 2002]. (
  • Unintended nail discharge is a common cause of injury and, in one study, two-thirds of workers compensation claims for nail gun injuries involved unintended discharge or misfire [Dement et al. (
  • From 2006 to 2011, approximately 14,000 worker and 11,000 consumer nail gun injuries per year required emergency medical treatment [Lipscomb and Schoenfisch, 2015]. (
  • Has opening a bottle of nail polish ever made you feel like the weakest person on the planet? (
  • How does hot water melt nail polish? (
  • Speaking of extreme temperatures and nail polish, I live in Manitoba, Canada, where in the winter it's -30 degrees Celcius (-22 degrees Fahrenheit) regularly, and, unfortunately, I have a PO Box so when I order n/p online, it usually sits in the PO Box for hours before I get to it so it freezes. (
  • As with make-up, nail decoration is difficult to begin with but gets easier, so don't give up ね!Go out and by some nice nail polish, make me proud and remember… DON'T f@#$ it up! (
  • We recently had a nail polish party… so much fun! (
  • Kettle & Fire Chicken Bone Broth is made from organic chicken bones giving it a unique chicken flavor, and is packed full of wholesome veggies like carrots, fennel, leeks, and apple cider vinegar. (
  • Ceramics are now commonly used in the medical fields as dental and bone implants . (
  • Our commentary describes the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) process used to develop a nail gun consensus standard and the need for that process to be reformed. (
  • Membership on the pneumatic nail gun standards development consensus body was composed of 44 members, of which only one represented labor, and there were no consumer representatives. (
  • Every time you paint your nails, I encourage you to experiment with something different. (
  • They have the advantage of being inert in the human body, and their hardness and resistance to abrasion makes them useful for bones and teeth replacement. (
  • Many people are turning to bone broth as a healthy dietary supplement and nutritional drink. (
  • Osso Good Co. Signature Bone Broth is a nutritional powerhouse that contains chicken bones, turkey bones, pork bones, grass-fed beef bones, as well as tonnes of great tasting veggies. (
  • One of the best bone broths used strictly as a nutritional supplement is Kettle & Fire's Chicken Bone Broth. (
  • Bare Bones Beef Bone Broth can be taken either as a nutritional supplement, or added to the slow cooker. (
  • Silicon: a nutritional beneficence for bones, brains and blood vessels? (
  • In children, rapid bone-healing times and the possibility of remodeling with growth allow conservative treatment much of the time. (
  • My hands are in hot water pretty regularly, and I don't see my nails melting. (
  • Commercially available first in the 1960s, PNGs are now the most popular type of nail gun in use. (
  • These tools are able to drive any size nail into wood or other materials, from a small finishing nail to a 3.5 inch long nail, in a fraction of a second [Lipscomb et al. (
  • With a contact trigger, nails can be discharged as long as the trigger remains activated which allows rapid "bump firing. (
  • Pneumatic nail guns have (PNGs) caused injury and death to both workers and consumers. (
  • A sequential activation trigger ("sequential trigger") was developed over 40 years ago to reduce injury risk from nail guns [Burke et al. (
  • We feature organic bone broths made from both chicken and beef bones, as well as bone broths that contain zero salt, or that are exclusively made from grass-fed beef. (
  • I started experimenting with nail art years ago and it's not really as hard as it looks. (
  • Whether you want to make bone broth, or buy one of the best bone broths on the market, our top list and buying guide can help. (
  • The bow varies in degree from person to person, but its presence explains the need for curved nails in order to hold the reduction. (
  • If you are looking for a bone broth that has super high protein content, then Osso Good have a great product. (
  • Our in-house team of nutrition experts have tested and reviewed all of the best bone broths so that you can quickly find the right bone broth to meet your needs. (
  • Here at BigBlueTest we compare and review all of the best bone broths so that you can quickly find the right bone broth to suit your needs. (
  • These easy-to-use tools are designed to quickly drive nails into work surfaces. (
  • Now I wanna read the rest from Bones' point of view! (
  • Of all the books I have read Bones is still and will always be my number one book boyfriend. (
  • These disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and lead to other diseases. (
  • Osso Good Co. Signature Bone Broth contains 130 calories per serving, and 24 grams of protein per serving. (
  • On top of this, Osso Good Co. Signature Bone Broth is keto-friendly , paleo-friendly, gluten-free, and has is contains zero artificial flavorings. (

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