Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Diseases, MetabolicMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGranulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 10: A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DioxolesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.OdontoblastsMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/3840)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (2/3840)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (3/3840)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (4/3840)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, 6, 7 subgroup of the TGF-beta superfamily. (5/3840)

The Growth/differentiation factor (Gdf) 5, 6, 7 genes form a closely related subgroup belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. In zebrafish, there are three genes that belong to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup that have been named radar, dynamo, and contact. The genes radar and dynamo both encode proteins most similar to mouse GDF6. The orthologous identity of these genes on the basis of amino acid similarities has not been clear. We have identified gdf7, a fourth zebrafish gene belonging to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup. To assign correct orthologies and to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the human, mouse, and zebrafish Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup, we have compared genetic map positions of the zebrafish and mammalian genes. We have mapped zebrafish gdf7 to linkage group (LG) 17, contact to LG9, GDF6 to human chromosome (Hsa) 8 and GDF7 to Hsa2p. The radar and dynamo genes have been localized previously to LG16 and LG19, respectively. A comparison of syntenies shared among human, mouse, and zebrafish genomes indicates that gdf7 is the ortholog of mammalian GDF7/Gdf7. LG16 shares syntenic relationships with mouse chromosome (Mmu) 4, including Gdf6. Portions of LG16 and LG19 appear to be duplicate chromosomes, thus suggesting that radar and dynamo are both orthologs of Gdf6. Finally, the mapping data is consistent with contact being the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian GDF5/Gdf5.  (+info)

Cloning and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene. (6/3840)

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is involved in bone formation, organogenesis or pattern formation during development. The expression of BMP-2 is regulated accurately and coordinately with that of other transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily members. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of BMP-2 expression, a 6.7 kb SpeI-SalI fragment, from the P1 phage library, encompassing the 5'-flanking region of the human BMP-2 gene, was isolated and sequenced. Transcription start sites were mapped by the 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It has been found that the human BMP-2 gene contains, largely, two promoter regions surrounded by GC-rich sequences with several Sp1 consensus motifs. The proximal promoter possesses a single start site, whereas several start sites are clustered in the distal promoter region. Neither TATA nor CAAT consensus sequences are found in the proximity of the start sites for either promoter. Interestingly, in no case is the transcription-initiation site common between the human and mouse BMP-2 genes, although the sequence of the BMP-2 gene is well conserved in the promoter region between two species. Transient transfection experiments with the reporter fused with various lengths of the BMP-2 promoter sequence demonstrated that there exist enhancer elements in an 1.1 kb GC-rich fragment covering both promoter regions. It is noteworthy that the enhancer elements are 5'-flanked by a 790 bp strong repressor element that is characterized by numerous AT stretches. This intriguing organization may be amenable to the tight control of the expression of BMP-2 that is essential for development or bone morphogenesis.  (+info)

Convergence of transforming growth factor-beta and vitamin D signaling pathways on SMAD transcriptional coactivators. (7/3840)

Cell proliferation and differentiation are regulated by growth regulatory factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and the liphophilic hormone vitamin D. TGF-beta causes activation of SMAD proteins acting as coactivators or transcription factors in the nucleus. Vitamin D controls transcription of target genes through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Smad3, one of the SMAD proteins downstream in the TGF-beta signaling pathway, was found in mammalian cells to act as a coactivator specific for ligand-induced transactivation of VDR by forming a complex with a member of the steroid receptor coactivator-1 protein family in the nucleus. Thus, Smad3 may mediate cross-talk between vitamin D and TGF-beta signaling pathways.  (+info)

Bmp4 is required for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. (8/3840)

In many organisms the allocation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is determined by the inheritance of maternal factors deposited in the egg. However, in mammals, inductive cell interactions are required around gastrulation to establish the germ line. Here, we show that Bmp4 homozygous null embryos contain no PGCs. They also lack an allantois, an extraembryonic mesodermal tissue derived, like the PGCs, from precursors in the proximal epiblast. Heterozygotes have fewer PGCs than normal, due to a reduction in the size of the founding population and not to an effect on its subsequent expansion. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity in Bmp4(lacZneo) embryos reveals that prior to gastrulation, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic ectoderm. Later, Bmp4 is expressed in the extraembryonic mesoderm, but not in PGCs. Chimera analysis indicates that it is the Bmp4 expression in the extraembryonic ectoderm that regulates the formation of allantois and primordial germ cell precursors, and the size of the founding population of PGCs. The initiation of the germ line in the mouse therefore depends on a secreted signal from the previously segregated, extraembryonic, trophectoderm lineage.  (+info)

Sclerostin is a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling and bone formation. However, there is currently no information on the relation of circulating sclerostin levels to age, gender, or bone mass in humans. Thus we measured serum sclerostin levels in a population-based sample of 362 women [123 premenopausal, 152 postmenopausal not on estrogen treatment (ET), and 87 postmenopausal on ET] and 318 men, aged 21 to 97 years. Sclerostin levels (mean ± SEM) were significantly higher in men than women (33.3 ± 1.0 pmol/L versus 23.7 ± 0.6 pmol/L, p , .001). In pre- and postmenopausal women not on ET combined (n = 275) as well as in men, sclerostin levels were positively associated with age (r = 0.52 and r = 0.64, respectively, p , .001 for both). Over life, serum sclerostin levels increased by 2.4- and 4.6-fold in the women and men, respectively. Moreover, for a given total-body bone mineral content, elderly subjects (age ≥ 60 years) had higher serum sclerostin levels than younger subjects (ages 20 to 39 ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMPs in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, Buchberg AM (March 1990). "Chromosomal ...
The molecular factors that regulate cardiac differentiation have been extensively studied, yet, relatively little is known about how cardiomyocytes acquire atrial versus ventricular characteristics. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which have the potential to differentiate to a wide array of distinct cell types, including most types of cardiovascular cells, offer a pertinent in vitro model to work out the molecular mechanisms of atrial specification and differentiation. We discovered that the secreted antagonist of BMP signaling, Protein Related to Dan and Cerberus (PRDC, also called Gremlin2) leads to a surge in cardiomyocytic differentiation when applied to mouse ES-derived cardiac progenitor cells. This property is unique to PRDC among tested BMP antagonists. Lineage expansion is restricted to cardiomyocytes, with the differentiation of endodermal, blood, endothelial and neuronal cells being unaffected. Using molecular and electrophysiological analyses, we show that PRDC-induced cardiomyocytes ...
|p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins, plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. It is involved in the hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway, and in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. It is involved also in cardiac cell differentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types.|/p||p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone and recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) and is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States.|/p|
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The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a staged fashion by the activin-like kinase receptor 1 (ALK1) after stimulation by BMP-9. In this study, however, we show that CV2 preferentially binds and inhibits BMP-9 thereby providing strong feedback inhibition for BMP-9/ALK1 signaling rather than for BMP-4/ALK2 signaling. CV2 disrupts complex formation by ALK2, ALK1, BMP-4 and BMP-9 required for the induction of both BMP antagonists. It also limits VEGF expression and proliferation of ALK1-expressing endothelial cells. In vivo, CV2 deficiency translates into a dysregulation of vascular BMP signaling, resulting in a thickened, abnormal endothelium with increased markers of endothelial differentiation. Thus, mutual regulation by BMP-9 and CV2 is essential in regulating the development of the ...
Buy anti-BMP7 antibody, Mouse anti-Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) Monoclonal Antibody-NP_001710.1 (MBS2090573) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunoprecipitation (IP)
Aim: Effective treatment of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is lacking. We hypothesize that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a ligand of the TGF-β family that binds to the activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1)-BMP receptor type 2 (BMPR2) receptor complex, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD. Therefore, we investigated the cardiopulmonary effects of BMP9 in neonatal Wistar rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Methods: Directly after birth Wistar rat pups were exposed to 100% oxygen for 10 days. From day 2 rat pups received BMP9 (2.5 µg/kg, twice a day) or 0.9% NaCl by subcutaneous injection. Beneficial effects of BMP9 on aberrant alveolar development, lung inflammation and fibrosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were investigated by morphometric analysis and cytokine production. In addition, differential mRNA expression of BMP9 and its receptor complex: ALK1, BMPR2 and Endoglin, and of the ALK1 downstream target transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) were studied
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling cascade is aberrantly activated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but not in normal lung epithelial cells, suggesting that obstructing BMP signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer. cascades would become ideal for anticancer drug development. In a zebrafish embryo-based structure and activity study, we previously recognized a group of highly selective small molecule inhibitors specifically antagonizing the intracellular kinase website of BMP type I receptors. In the present study, we shown that DMH1, one of such inhibitors, potently reduced lung cell expansion, advertised cell death, and decreased cell migration and attack in NSCLC cells by obstructing BMP signaling, as indicated PD318088 by suppression of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and gene appearance of Identification1, Id2 and Id3. Additionally, DMH1 treatment significantly PD318088 reduced the tumor growth in human being lung malignancy xenograft model. In ...
J:133691 Choi M, Stottmann RW, Yang YP, Meyers EN, Klingensmith J, The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist noggin regulates mammalian cardiac morphogenesis. Circ Res. 2007 Feb 2;100(2):220-8 ...
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) target cells positive for phosphorylated (P-)SMAD1/5, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium. METHODS: Synovial biopsies were obtained by needle arthroscopy. Anti-P-SMAD1/5 antibodies were used for Western blot (WB) on protein extracts from RA and normal synovium and for immunostaining of synovial biopsy sections. Positive cells were further identified by double staining for CD3, CD20, CD68, CD138, CD90, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA), endoglin (CD105) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). In sections from early RA patients taken before and under antirheumatic treatment, the degree of inflammation and activation of the BMP pathway were quantified. RESULTS: P-SMAD1/5 protein was detected by WB in RA and to a lesser extent in normal synovium. Different P-SMAD1/5 positive cell populations were identified in RA synovium, mainly in perivascular and sublining cells. P-SMAD1/5 positive perivascular cells were alpha SMA positive and located ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues
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Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) offered by Overland Park KS Oral Surgeon to produce new bone & start the healing process. 913-469-8895
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provid...
Asia-Pacific Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Report 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-23 Available for US$ 4000 at Researchmoz.us
Bone morphogenetic protein signalling dynamics in hFOBs under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. (a) hFOBs in two-dimensional monolayer c
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Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), their structure, action and detailed description of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7.
Noggin protein is a potent bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist capable of inhibiting vasculogenesis even in the presence of provasculogenic VEGF and FGF-2. We found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) do not express Noggin in culture and used these cells for modeling of antivasculogenesis. We hypothesized that high-efficiency transduction of HUVECs with bicistronic lentiviral vector encoding Noggin and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) enables direct visualization of Noggin effects in homogenous primary cell populations in vitro and in vivo. By comparing HUVECs transduced with a control GFP and GFP/Noggin expression cassettes, we showed that constitutive and orthotopic Noggin protein expression did not influence cell proliferation, down-regulated BMP-2 expression, and showed no effect on BMP receptor transcripts. We demonstrated that in contrast to GFP-only control, Noggin expression in endothelial cells abrogated endothelial migration in response to monolayer injury,
BMP4 antibody [10F4B4] (bone morphogenetic protein 4) for ELISA, WB. Anti-BMP4 mAb (GTX83027) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Sclerostin inhibits unstimulated and BMP-stimulated osteoblastic differentiation of KS483 and primary human MSCs, but not of C2C12 cells. Silver staining (lanes 1 and 2) and Western blotting with a rabbit anti-human sclerostin antibody (lanes 3-8) of human sclerostin (lanes 2 [100 ng/ml], 3 [500 ng/ml], 5 [100 ng/ml], and 7 [100 ng/ml]), sclerostin containing medium of KS483 (lane 4), CHO cells (lane 6), and immunodepleted sclerostin preparation (lane 8, equal volume as 100 ng/ml sclerostin preparation) run under reducing conditions (A). Long-term (18 d) osteogenic KS483 cell cultures were treated with sclerostin (2.5 μg/ml or concentrations indicated) or CoM (equal volume) from day 4 onwards and analyzed for ALP activity (B) and mineralization (C). Confluent KS483 were stimulated with BMPs (50 ng/ml BMP-2, 50 ng/ml BMP-4, 300 ng/ml BMP-5, 100 ng/ml BMP-6, and 300 ng/ml BMP-7) in the absence or presence of the dose range of sclerostin or CoM. ALP activity was measured kinetically 4 d after ...
The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a morphogenic protein stimulatory factor (MPSF) for improving the tissue inductive activity of morphogenic proteins, particularly
Using a biochemical approach, we confirmed the C-terminal region of HOXA13 folds into a functional DNA-binding motif and binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner. In vitro, the A13-DBD peptide facilitated the identification of HOXA13-binding sites upstream of Bmp2 and Bmp7. Quantitation of A13-DBD affinity for these enhancer elements revealed a novel series of nucleotide sequences that are preferentially bound with affinities almost 2-fold greater than the DNA regions bound by other homeodomain peptides (Catron et al., 1993).. In vivo, the interactions between HOXA13 and the Bmp2 and Bmp7 enhancer regions are conserved, as both enhancer elements were present in immunoprecipitated complexes of HOXA13 bound to DNA. The association of HOXA13 with the Bmp2 and Bmp7 enhancer regions in the developing limb strongly suggests that HOXA13 directly regulates the expression of these genes during autopod formation. It is important to note that because chromatin immunoprecipitations do not separate protein ...
Research proven goat polyclonal BMP-4 antibody. Initiates, promotes and regulates bone development, growth, remodeling and repair. Smad1 translocation to the nucleus is observed after the addition of BMP4. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting and related applications.
Mouse Monoclonal BMP4 antibody for ELISA, WB. Published in 3 Pubmed References. Order this anti-BMP4 antibody. | Product number ABIN968986
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are key regulators for a lot of diverse cellular processes. During embryonic development these proteins act as morphogens and play a crucial role particularly in organogenesis. BMPs have a direct impact on distinct cellular fates by means of concentration-gradients in the developing embryos. Using the diverse signaling input information within the embryo due to the gradient, the cells transduce the varying extracellular information into distinct gene expression profiles and cell fate decisions. Furthermore, BMP proteins bear important functions in adult organisms like tissue homeostasis or regeneration. In contrast to TGF-ß signaling, currently only little is known about how cells decode and quantify incoming BMP signals. There is poor knowledge about the quantitative relationships between signal input, transducing molecules, their states and location, and finally their ability to incorporate graded systemic inputs and produce qualitative responses. A key ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-BMP2 antibody [65529.111] (ab6285) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry & immunofluorescence…
BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
When using the Xenbase gene expression search we felt it would be most valufuable if high quality images appeared near the top of your search results. That is why we have developed a way to allow Xenbase users to vote on the quality of an image. You can change your vote for a given image as many times as you want, but only your last vote is counted. Additionally,weve provided a comment box if you want to tell us why you think a specific image is good or bad ...
In the present study, we explored the correlations of the BMP4 gene polymorphisms and the serum BMP4 levels with the development of LVH among Chinese EH patients. We found that the 6007C , T polymorphism of the BMP4 gene and the serum BMP4 level were significantly associated with the risk to develop LVH. Our in vitro study shows that the BMP4 inhibition in cardiomyocyte by si-RNA technique significantly decreased the Ang II induced cardiomyocyte size and protein content per cell, indicating the importance of BMP4 in the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Collectively, our data suggest that both the 6007C , T of the BMP4 gene and the serum BMP4 level may be used as potential marker for LVH incidence among the EH patients.. Bone morphogenetic proteins are osteoinductive growth factors that play a key role in cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, development, and apoptosis. BMP4 has been linked to the receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) mediated calcification in vessel smooth ...
Inspite of doing extensive research work, cancer is still the leading cause of deaths. Its associated cost accounts a largest economic burden worldwide...
Bmp4 - Bmp4 (untagged) - Mouse bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for BMP8B gene (Protein Coding), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 8b, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The TGFβ superfamily comprises 4 signaling pathways: TGFβ, Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP), Activin, and Nodal. This family of secreted proteins regulates immune function, cell proliferation, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMPs play roles in embryogenesis as well as tissue and organ morphogenesis, whereas TGFβ signaling regulates cell growth and differentiation. Activin and Nodal signaling are also involved in cellular development. Activation of TGFβ cytokines occurs via proteolytic cleavage of their precursors, and their signaling results in activation of SMAD dependent and independent transcription. Many genes are targets of TGFβ activation, including genes involved in cell adhesion, apoptosis, and developmental processes. Dysregulation of TGF signal transduction is associated with a number of diseases including fibrosis and cancer ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) a subgroup from the transforming development factor (TGF)-β family members transduce their sign through multiple parts downstream of their receptors. is necessary for the phosphorylation of Mad in S2 cells. Furthermore the mammalian orthlog of Ter94 valosin-containing proteins (VCP) plays a crucial part in the BMP-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway in mammalian cells. […]. ...
Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years ...
Several models have been proposed to explain the anti- and pro-Bmp mechanisms of Bmper (Coles et al., 2004). Recently, a paper using biochemical and genetic studies in Drosophila proposes a model where Cv-2 can enhance and inhibit Bmp signaling at low and high concentrations, respectively (Serpe et al., 2008). Dependency on concentration and proteolytic cleavage have also been reported for other extracellular modulators of Bmp activity (Larrain et al., 2001). Our data provide an additional mechanism whereby proteolysis and concentration dependency fine-tune Bmp signaling through interactions with secreted proteins.. Although both proteolytic activation and inactivation have been described for several Bmp factors, the degradation of secreted Bmps are incompletely understood. To date, limited data are available describing Bmp degradation (Entchev et al., 2000; Degnin et al., 2004). Lysosomal- and proteasomal-dependent degradation of Bmp4 within the presecretory pathway was shown to occur after the ...
Rabbit polyclonal BMP8a antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab118867 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P…BMP4抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab39973 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,ICC/IF…BMP4抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Thickvein C, 0.1 mg. Thickvein is a (Drosophila spp) type I transmembrane receptor that mediates signaling by decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup of TGF beta-type factors.
Defendants received payments and/or other consideration, directly or indirectly, from Medicare after submitting false claims for payment, including facts that the use of BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) for this surgery was approved and proper, and that [the patient] was informed, and in fact, knowingly consented to the use of BMP-2 on this spinal surgery, which he did not," the complaint states ...
View our 16 SOST/Sclerostin products for your research including SOST/Sclerostin Primary Antibodies, ELISAs, and Proteins and Enzymes.
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DOI: 10.11607/jomi.3543 To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients ...
Sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, located on chromosome 17, locus q11.2 in humans, was originally believed to be a non-classical Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist.More recently Sclerostin has been identified as binding to LRP5/6 receptors and inhibiting the Wnt signalling pathway .Wnt activation under these circumstances is antagonistic to bone formation. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, it is believed that the antagonism of BMP-induced bone formation by sclerostin is mediated by Wnt signalling, but not BMP signalling pathways.. Sclerostin is produced by the osteocyte and has catabolic effects on bone formation. This protein, with a length of 113 residues, has a dssp secondary structure that is 28% beta sheet (6 strands; 32 residues. Sclerostin has an inhibitory effect on the lifetime of the osteoblast. Sclerostin production by osteocytes is inhibited by parathyroid hormone, mechanical loading and cytokines including oncostatin M, cardiotrophin-1 and leukemia ...
Sclerostin, the product of the SOST gene, located on chromosome 17, locus q11.2 in humans, was originally believed to be a non-classical Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist.More recently Sclerostin has been identified as binding to LRP5/6 receptors and inhibiting the Wnt signalling pathway .Wnt activation under these circumstances is antagonistic to bone formation. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, it is believed that the antagonism of BMP-induced bone formation by sclerostin is mediated by Wnt signalling, but not BMP signalling pathways.. Sclerostin is produced by the osteocyte and has catabolic effects on bone formation. This protein, with a length of 113 residues, has a dssp secondary structure that is 28% beta sheet (6 strands; 32 residues. Sclerostin has an inhibitory effect on the lifetime of the osteoblast. Sclerostin production by osteocytes is inhibited by parathyroid hormone, mechanical loading and cytokines including oncostatin M, cardiotrophin-1 and leukemia ...
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Increasingly, reports of frequent and occasionally catastrophic complications associated with use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in spinal fusion surgeries are being published. In the original peer review, industry-sponsored publications describing the use of rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion, adverse events of these types and frequency were either not reported at all or not reported to be associated with rhBMP-2 use. Some authors and investigators have suggested that these discrepancies were related to inadequate peer review and editorial oversight. PURPOSE To compare the conclusions regarding the safety and related efficacy published in the original rhBMP-2 industry-sponsored trials with subsequently available Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data summaries, follow-up publications, and administrative and organizational databases. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. METHODS Results and conclusions from original industry-sponsored rhBMP-2 publications regarding
Our data revealed that deficiency in CIZ increased basal bone mass in adult mice. This phenotype was through the enhancement of bone formation in vivo, increased mineralized nodule formation in bone marrow cells, and elevated expression levels of the genes encoding osteoblastic phenotype-related marker proteins including COL1, ALP, OPN, and OSX in bone in vivo. CIZ deficiency also enhanced bone marrow ablation-induced new bone formation in vivo as well as BMP injection-induced de novo osteogenesis in adult mice. Thus, CIZ acts as an inhibitor of bone formation in adult mice in vivo at least in part through its suppression of BMP actions.. CIZ localizes at adhesion plaques, transfers into nuclear compartments, binds to consensus DNA sequences, and activates promoters of the genes encoding enzymes that degrade matrix proteins (15). As CIZ is expressed in cultured osteoblasts (17-19), this protein was thought to be a modulator of osteoblastic function. However, there was an ambiguity regarding CIZ ...
BMP-14 is expressed in long bones during embryonic development and postnatally in articular cartilage. Mutations in the BMP-14 gene have been implicated in Grebe Syndrome, which is characterized by short stature, extra digits, short and deformed extremities, and in Hunter- Thompson type dwarfism. The mature and functional form of BMP-14 is a homodimer of two 120 amino-acid polypeptide chain (monomers) linked by a single disulfide bond. Each BMP-14 monomer is expressed as the C-terminal part of a precursor polypeptide, which also contains a 27 amino-acid signal peptide and a 354 amino-acid propeptide. This precursor undergoes intracellular dimerization, and upon secretion it is processed by a furin-type protease. Recombinant human BMP-14 is a 27.0 kDa homodimeric disulfide-linked protein consisting of two 120 amino acids ...
Our results identify BMPR2/ALK2 and BMPR2/ALK3 as key receptors that mediate proangiogenic BMP signaling in the early postnatal retina and reveal regional differences among BMPR1s by analysis of parallel genetic experiments in a defined vascular bed. Deletion of the common BMPR2 receptor reduced vascular sprouting and density. Deletion of ALK3, which is ubiquitously expressed in retinal endothelial cells, also dramatically reduced vascular sprouting and density, while loss of ALK2, which is enriched behind the vascular front, did not significantly affect sprouting but reduced overall vessel density. Therefore, we propose that spatially regulated BMPR1 expression fine-tunes endothelial cell responses to proangiogenic BMP ligands in development. Since expression of BMP ligands selective for ALK2 and ALK3 is elevated during retinal angiogenesis, it is tempting to speculate that BMP6/7-ALK2/3-BMPR2 signaling axis may provide essential input for the developing retina.. Since the phenotype of ...
Reliable and effective communication between neurons and their postsynaptic targets across the synaptic cleft is critical for the formation, growth, and plasticity of neuronal synapses. One mode of this transsynaptic communication is retrograde signaling, in which target cells provide molecular signals to influence presynaptic neurons (Tao and Poo, 2001; Marqués and Zhang, 2006). In Drosophila melanogaster, Glass bottom boat (Gbb), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), acts as a critical retrograde signal that promotes synaptic growth and neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ; Haghighi et al., 2003; McCabe et al., 2003; Goold and Davis, 2007). Genetic experiments have shown that the retrograde Gbb signal is sensed by a presynaptic receptor complex formed by the type II BMP receptor wishful thinking (Wit) and either of two type I BMP receptors, thick veins (Tkv) and saxophone (Sax; Aberle et al., 2002; Marqués et al., 2002; Rawson et al., 2003; McCabe et al., 2004; ...
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily comprises more than 30 ligands that play essential roles during early vertebrate development in the specification and subsequent patterning of the germ layers and in tissue homeostasis in adult organisms. Deregulation of signaling downstream of many of these ligands has been implicated in human diseases such as cancer and fibrosis, in wound healing disorders, and in several hereditary conditions (7, 37). The TGF-β superfamily ligands elicit their pleiotropic effects by signaling to the nucleus and inducing new programs of gene expression. The large number of ligands in this superfamily signal to the nucleus through a much smaller number of receptors and Smads, which act as intracellular signal transducers (14). Thus, different ligands utilize common pathway components. This raises important questions about how cells respond specifically to individual ligands and how cells integrate and interpret signals received from multiple ligands ...
Treatment with 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in significant growth changes and fusion of the coronal sutures bilaterally, anterior sagittal suture, and frontonasal suture by cephalometric analyses at 42 days postoperatively (p,0.05). Growth changes appeared greatest in the nasal region and less in the bicoronal and anterior sagittal regions. No significant differences in cranial growth were noted with use of 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 when compared to the empty defect group. Qualitative uCT analysis revealed comparable bony defect healing between rhBMP-2 groups. Application of high-dose, 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in pansynostosis upon uCT analysis, further verifying cranial growth restriction. Low-dose, 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 consistently regenerated bone within the surgical defect margin without evidence of extra-sutural invasion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of steroidogenesis by bone morphogenetic proteins in granulosa cells. T2 - Involvement of extracellularly regulated kinase signaling and oocyte actions in follicle-stimulating hormone-induced estrogen production. AU - Miyoshi, Tomoko. AU - Otsuka, Fumio. AU - Inagaki, Kenichi. AU - Otani, Hiroyuki. AU - Takeda, Masaya. AU - Suzuki, Jiro. AU - Goto, Junko. AU - Ogura, Toshio. AU - Makino, Hirofumi. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which oocytes and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) govern FSH-induced steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. BMP-6 and BMP-7 both inhibited FSH- and forskolin (FSK)-induced progesterone synthesis and reduced cAMP synthesis independent of the presence or absence of oocytes. BMP-7 also increased FSH-induced estradiol production, and the response was further augmented in the presence of oocytes. In contrast, BMP-6 had no impact on estradiol synthesis regardless ...
Specifically, Becky says she works on a Bone Morphogenic Protein pathway that is important for proper synaptic development in Drosophila larvae. "My project focuses on how the active pathway is transported from the synaptic terminal to the neuron nucleus where gene transcription can take place. An implication of my research is towards neurodegenerative diseases where neuron survival signals are not able to reach the nucleus, causing the neuron to die. Also, discovering the basics of synaptic remodeling has larger implications on how synapses are strengthened during learning.". The awards and honors Becky has received since attending UAB are the UAB Medical Alumni Associations Carmichael Scholarship; 1st place in life sciences-session 2 at the 2006 UAB Graduate Student Research Days; 2nd place presentation at the 2006 UAB Cell Biology retreat; and 2nd place in life sciences-session 9 at the 2008 UAB Graduate Student Research Days. Although these accomplishments are impressive, her most rewarding ...
Specifically, Becky says she works on a Bone Morphogenic Protein pathway that is important for proper synaptic development in Drosophila larvae. "My project focuses on how the active pathway is transported from the synaptic terminal to the neuron nucleus where gene transcription can take place. An implication of my research is towards neurodegenerative diseases where neuron survival signals are not able to reach the nucleus, causing the neuron to die. Also, discovering the basics of synaptic remodeling has larger implications on how synapses are strengthened during learning.". The awards and honors Becky has received since attending UAB are the UAB Medical Alumni Associations Carmichael Scholarship; 1st place in life sciences-session 2 at the 2006 UAB Graduate Student Research Days; 2nd place presentation at the 2006 UAB Cell Biology retreat; and 2nd place in life sciences-session 9 at the 2008 UAB Graduate Student Research Days. Although these accomplishments are impressive, her most rewarding ...
Background It has been reported that calf oocytes are less developmentally competent than oocytes obtained from adult cows. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth and differentiation factor...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are thought to be important in breast cancer promotion and progression. We evaluated genetic variation in BMP-related genes and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) (1,481 cases, 1,586 controls) women who participated in the 4-Corner's Breast Cancer Study, the Mexico Breast Cancer Study and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. BMP genes and their receptors evaluated include ACVR1, AVCR2A, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, BMP1, BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, BMP7, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, MSTN and GDF10. Additionally, 104 ancestral informative markers were assessed to discriminate between European and native American ancestry. The importance of estrogen on BMP-related associations was suggested through unique associations by menopausal status and estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status of tumors. After adjustment for multiple comparisons ACVR1 (8 SNPs) was modestly associated with ER+PR+ tumors [odds ratios ...
article{68313ef7-27fc-4663-8f97-88e1ccb5049b, abstract = {The central role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the remodelling process of the human skeleton has been identified in numerous experimental and clinical studies. BMPs appear to be key agents in the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, and more recent evidence implicates them with the cells of the osteoclastic lineage. BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6 and BMP-7 have been studied in the context of osteoporosis and have been associated with its pathophysiological pathways. The theoretical advantages of local or systemic treatment of osteoporotic fractures with BMPs include the potential of inducing a rapid increase in bone strength locally at the fractured area and systemically in the entire skeleton, as well as accelerating the bone-healing period. Animal models of osteoporotic fractures suggested that the induction of new bone by local or systemic use of BMP-7 should be investigated as potential bone augmentation therapy to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ecsit is required for Bmp signaling and mesoderm formation during mouse embryogenesis. AU - Xiao, Changchun. AU - Shim, Jae Hyuck. AU - Klüppel, Michael. AU - Zhang, Samuel Shao Min. AU - Dong, Chen. AU - Flavell, Richard A.. AU - Fu, Xin Yuan. AU - Wrana, Jeffrey L.. AU - Hogan, Brigid L M. AU - Ghosh, Sankar. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily that play critical roles during mouse embryogenesis. Signaling by Bmp receptors is mediated mainly by Smad proteins. In this study, we show that a targeted null mutation of Ecsit, encoding a signaling intermediate of the Toll pathway, leads to reduced cell proliferation, altered epiblast patterning, impairment of mesoderm formation, and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5), phenotypes that mimic the Bmp receptor type1a (Bmpr1a) null mutant. In addition, specific Bmp target gene expression is abolished in the absence of ...
Dr Edmond Bedrossian uses bone morphogenic protein to stimulate the cells to produce new bone during bone grafting surgery in San Francisco. 415-956-6610
Influence of bone morphogenetic protein on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
DescriptionDevelopment is controlled by a surprisingly small number of genetic pathways. One such pathway is called the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway, similar from flies to humans. We used the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to study the BMP pathway during Drosophila oogenesis, the formation of the egg. While the pathway is relatively simple, there exist combinations between the three different ligands, and four different receptors. My work focused largely on the two type II receptor, specifically on Wishful thinking (WIT). Much is known about the dynamic expression of the type I receptor during oogenesis, Thickveins. However, the pathway requires action of both type I and type II receptors. We found that WIT performs a necessary role during oogenesis and is regulated, indirectly, by BMP signaling. WIT is required for proper patterning of pathway target genes and necessary for proper formation of the eggshell. We also used a new technology, CRISPR/Cas9, to specifically ...
Establishment of mesodermal tissues in the amphibian body involves a series of inductive interactions probably elicited by a variety of peptide growth factors. Results reported here suggest that mesodermal patterning involves an array of signalling molecules including DVR-4, a TGF-beta-like molecule. We show that ectopic expression of DVR-4 causes embryos to develop with an overall posterior and/or ventral character, and that DVR-4 induces ventral types of mesoderm in animal cap explants. Moreover, DVR-4 overrides the dorsalizing effects of activin. DVR-4 is therefore the first molecule reported both to induce posteroventral mesoderm and to counteract dorsalizing signals such as activin. Possible interactions between these molecules resulting in establishment of the embryonic body plan are discussed.. ...
Objective: Pancreas organogenesis is orchestrated by interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme, but these interactions are incompletely understood. Here we investigated a role for BMP signalling within the pancreas mesenchyme and found it to be required for the normal development of the mesenchyme as well as the pancreatic epithelium.. Research Design and Methods: We analysed active BMP signalling by immunostaining for phospho-Smad1,5,8 and tested whether pancreas development was affected by BMP inhibition after expression of Noggin and dominant negative BMP receptors in chicken and mouse pancreas.. Results: Endogenous BMP signalling is confined to the mesenchyme in the early pancreas and inhibition of BMP signalling results in severe pancreatic hypoplasia with reduced epithelial branching. Notably, we also observe an excessive endocrine differentiation when mesenchymal BMP signalling is blocked, presumably secondary to defective mesenchyme to epithelium signalling.. Conclusions: We ...
Chambered cover glass /Glass bottom dishes / glass bottom plates at Cellvis (formerly In Vitro Scientific) for confocal microscopy studies. ideal for fluorescence microscopy.
We next investigated the possible role of Bmp6 in the induction of hepcidin by inflammation. Hepcidin is part of the type II acute-phase response and is thought to have a crucial role in anemia of chronic disease. Whereas hepcidin is induced by activation of the inflammatory pathway in Hfe2-deficient mice(14), this induction is not observed in mice with liver-specific Smad4 deficiency(11). We therefore set out to determine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent induction of hepcidin requires Bmp6 by treating Bmp6 mutant mice and wild-type controls with LPS or saline solution. As expected, the acute-phase genes Il6, Tnf and Crp were strongly induced in LPS-treated mice as compared with saline-treated animals (see Supplementary Figs. 6 and 7 online). Hamp gene expression was induced about 24-fold in response to the LPS treatment in Bmp6 -/- mice and 2.6-fold in wild-type controls (Fig. 1). Notably, Hamp mRNA levels in LPS- injected Bmp6 -/- animals did not reach those of wild-type controls. ...
Purpose.: There are limited studies on the factors that regulate the processing of TGF-β2 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into their mature form. Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1) is an enzyme responsible for the cleavage and maturation of growth factors and ECM proteins. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells express BMP1, BMP1 expression is regulated by TGF-β2, BMP1 is biologically active, and BMP1 regulates LOX activity. Methods.: Primary human TM cells were isolated and subjected to quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western immunoblotting (WB) for BMP1. BMP1 immunolocalization was performed in TM tissues. qPCR was used to determine BMP1 mRNA expression and WB results were used to determine BMP1 protein expression. BMP1 activity was measured in TM cells treated with TGF-β2 or with a combination of TGF-β2/UK383367. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme activity was evaluated by WB in TM cells treated with BMP1 or with a combination of ...
A composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable admixture of an osteogenic protein; a polymer matrix component selected from the group consisting of poly(lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid), and copolymers of lactic acid and glycolic acid; and an osteogenic protein-sequestering material.
FGF-10 is involved in the initial budding as well as the continuous outgrowth of vertebrate limbs, FGF10 mRNA is expressed preferentially in neurons but not in glial cells and may have a distinct role in the brain. human FGF-10 is mitogenic for fetal rat keratinizing epidermal cells but not for NIH 3T3 cells.Recombinant FGF10 induces the proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and induces the proliferation of transitional epithelium. FGF-10 is secreted by cultured mouse pre-adipocytes, prevention of FGF-10 signaling inhibits subsequent differentiation. The ability of embryonic fibroblasts derived from FGF-10 knock-out mice to differentiate into adipocytes is also impaired.
Pediatric neuroblastoma in its advanced stage (st. IV) is usually lethal. 70% of the affected children die. 50% of the children show upon diagnosis metastasis or a genetic amplification of the oncogene N-myc. This group has a poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 33%. A drawback of the current standard therapy is the poor efficacy accompanied with severe side effects. Therefore a new treatment of neuroblastoma with a different antitumoral mode of action than the traditional cytotoxics is urgently required ...
This will be one of the shorter posts.. It is almost been completely concluded that the glycoprotein Noggin and the gene that creates inhibits longitudinal growth. Mutations in the gene often leads to tall stature.. from the wikipedia article on Noggin (HERE). Noggin, also known as NOG, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the NOG gene.[1]. Noggin inhibits TGF-β signal transduction by binding to TGF-β family ligands and preventing them from binding to their corresponding receptors. Noggin plays a key role in neural induction by inhibiting BMP4, along with other TGF-β signaling inhibitors such as chordin and follistatin. Mouse knockout experiments have demonstrated that noggin also plays a crucial role in bone development, joint formation, and neural tube fusion. Molecular biology. The secreted polypeptide noggin, encoded by the NOG gene, binds and inactivates members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 ...
Das Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) gehört zur TGF-beta Superfamilie und findet seinen Fokus in der osteogenen Aktivierung und in der Anwendung bei der Frakturheilung. Es wird angenommen, dass weitere, bisher unbekannte Verbindungen existieren, die die BMP2-Signalübertragung und die osteogene Aktivität verbessern und somit zu einer verbesserten klinischen Wirksamkeit von BMP2 führen. Für den Stickstoffoxid (NO)-Signalweg ist bereits bekannt, dass im endothelialen Kontext eine Verbindung zum BMP2-Signalweg existiert. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es daher, eine Verbindung zwischen dem NO- und BMP2-Signalweg bezüglich der Regulierung des BMP2-abhängigen Signalwegs und der Osteoinduktion aufzuzeigen. Dies erfolgte durch Anwendung von Inhibitoren (LNAME, ODQ und LY83583) und Aktivatoren (L-Arginin, Deta NONOate, SNAP und YC-1) des NO-Signalwegs, in Kombination mit BMP2. Eine mögliche Verbindung zwischen dem BMP2- und NO-Signalweg, über eine Protein Kinase A (PKA) Brücke, wurde durch die ...
Video articles in JoVE about bone morphogenetic protein 6 include Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks.
|p|LDN-212854 is a selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling with IC50 value of 1.2nM [1].|/p||p|In the kinase assay, LDN-212854 shows inhibitory activities against caALK2 and caALK5 with IC50 values of 16nM and 2μM, respectively.
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and the TGF-beta superfamily. This group of proteins is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site which is cleaved to produce a mature protein containing seven conserved cysteine residues. The members of this family are regulators of cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Studies in rodents suggest that this protein plays a role in the adult liver and in differentiation of cholinergic central nervous system neurons. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Developmental Signals - Bone Morphogenetic Protein,Bmp]],noinclude>[[Category:Template]][[Category:Term Link]][[Category:Molecular]][[Category:BMP]],/noinclude ...
Knochenwachstumsfaktoren (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, BMPs) sind ubiquitäre, sekretierte Proteine mit vielfältigen biologischen Funktionen. Die Vielfalt an zellulären Prozessen, die durch BMPs reguliert werden, von der Knochenentwicklung und Organhomöostase bis hin zur Neurogenese, erstaunt - und wirft angesichts von teils redundanten, teils spezifischen Funktionen der BMPs Fragen zu den Mechanismen ihrer Signalübermittlung auf. Die Signaltransduktion von BMPs erfolgt wie bei den strukturell verwandten TGF-βs und Activinen durch die ligandeninduzierte Oligomerisierung von transmembranen Serin/Threonin-Kinaserezeptoren, von denen zwei Typen - Typ I und Typ II - existieren. Einer Vielzahl von mehr als 18 BMP-Liganden stehen nach derzeitigem Erkenntnisstand nur vier Typ I und drei Typ II Rezeptorsubtypen für die Bildung von heteromeren Rezeptorkomplexen zur Verfügung. Ein BMP-Ligand kann hochspezifisch nur einen bestimmten Rezeptorsubtyp oder in einer promisken Art und Weise mehrere ...
To identify molecules found at different levels in the circulation of old versus young mice, Loffredo et al5 used a proteomic approach. Of 13 proteins that were identified that differentiate old versus young plasma, GDF11, also called bone morphogenetic protein 11, was chosen for further study. GDF11 is expressed widely during development and in adulthood,11-13 and GDF11 knockout mice die soon after birth with defects in patterning of the axial skeleton14 and spinal cord15 because of the loss of expression in the primitive streak, a temporary developmental structure where cells acquire anterior/posterior positional identity. GDF11 mutants have kidney agenesis,11 changes in the number of islet cell types and progenitors,16,17 and an increased number of neurons in the olfactory epithelium18 and retinal ganglion.19 Loffredo et al5 suggest that the spleen may be the main source of GDF11 in circulation because of the relatively high gene expression of the growth factor in the spleen compared with ...
BMPR1A is a Type I member of the TGF beta receptor superfamily of transmembrane serthr kinases which phosphorylates intracellular SMADs in response to bone morphogenic proteins.
The company at the centre of an investigation by a US Senate committee into an alleged failure to mention the side effects of a spinal treatment it makes has agreed to fund an independent review into the safety and effectiveness of the product. It is the first time that a medical technology company has agreed to this type of detailed scrutiny.. Medtronic announced in early August that it will give Yale University $2.5m (£1.5m; €1.7m) to review all published and unpublished data on the safety and effectiveness of Infuse Bone Graft, a recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) that is used to stimulate bone growth in spine fusion surgery.. In what the company describes as "unprecedented in the medical industry," academics will be granted access to full patient data possessed by Medtronic-and not … ...
J:56303 Hollnagel A, Oehlmann V, Heymer J, Ruther U, Nordheim A, Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 9;274(28):19838-45 ...
Rafael MS, Laizé V, M. Cancela L. Identification of Sparus aurata bone morphogenetic protein 2: molecular cloning, gene expression and in silico analysis of protein conserved features in vertebrates. Bone. 2006;39(6):1373-81. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2006.06.021 ...
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Marques CL, Fernández I, Viegas MN, et al. Comparative analysis of zebrafish bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4 and 16: molecular and evolutionary perspectives. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2016;73(4):841-857. doi:10.1007/s00018-015-2024-x ...
SAN DIEGO -- High levels of the osteocyte-secreted protein sclerostin are found in patients with multiple myeloma and that finding could give scientists a therapeutic target, researchers said here.
4HY0: Design and Synthesis of Potent Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins Antagonists Bearing an Octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine Scaffold as a Novel Proline Mimetic.
BMP2 - BMP2 - Human, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral RFP vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
LDN193189 is a highly potent and selective BMP pathway inhibitor specifically targeting ALK2 (IC50=5 nM) and ALK3 (IC50=30 nM) receptors and only weakly inhibiting ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7. ESIBIO.com.
Straw bales were installed is a semi-circle around the down-slope side of the area to be excavated. BMPs installed 9/30/96 (V. Hesch, 4/98). BMPs inspected: 9/30/96 (V. Hesch, 4/98 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult hippocampal progenitor cell culture. AU - Brederlau, A.. AU - Faigle, Romanus. AU - Elmi, M.. AU - Zarebski, A.. AU - Sjöberg, S.. AU - Fujii, M.. AU - Miyazono, K.. AU - Funa, K.. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as growth regulators and inducers of differentiation. They transduce their signal via three different type I receptors, termed activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), Alk3, or bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia (BMPRIa) and Alk6 or BMPRIb. Little is known about functional differences between the three type I receptors. Here, we have investigated consequences of constitutively active (ca) and dominant negative (dn) type I receptor overexpression in adult-derived hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPs). The dn receptors have a nonfunctional intracellular but functional extracellular domain. They thus trap BMPs that ...
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors are a family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases that include the type I receptors BMPR1A and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. These receptors are also closely related to the activin receptors, ACVR1 and ACVR2. The ligands of these receptors are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. TGF-betas and activins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes with 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of cells of an early mesenchymal lineage, as judged by the expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs), in the joints of normal individuals and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Synovial fluids, single cell suspensions of cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and synovial tissues were examined by immunohistology with antibodies to BMPR type IA (BMPRIA), BMPRIB, and BMPRII and then quantified using computerized image analysis. Other antibodies were evaluated by cytofluorography. RESULTS: In primary cultures of joint effusions from patients with RA and other forms of inflammatory arthritis, there were large adherent cells with the appearance of either fibroblasts or stromal cells that stained with antibodies to mesenchymal elements-CD44, type I collagen, alpha-actin, and vimentin-but not with antibodies to hematopoietic markers. These cells proliferated rapidly, expressed BMPRIA and BMPRII, and soon became the predominant cells in
TY - JOUR. T1 - The spatial patterning of mouse cone opsin expression is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein signaling through downstream effector COUP-TF nuclear receptors. AU - Satoh, Shinya. AU - Tang, Ke. AU - Iida, Atsumi. AU - Inoue, Mariko. AU - Kodama, Tatsuhiko. AU - Tsai, Sophia Y.. AU - Tsai, Ming Jer. AU - Furuta, Yasuhide. AU - Watanabe, Sumiko. PY - 2009/10/7. Y1 - 2009/10/7. N2 - Cone photopigments, known as opsins, are pivotal elements and the first detection module used in color vision. In mice, cone photoreceptors are distributed throughout the retina, and short-wavelength (S) and medium-wavelength (M) opsins have unique expression patterns in the retina with a gradient along the dorsoventral axis; however, the mechanisms regulating the spatial patterning of cone opsin expression have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to define the mechanisms regulating the spatial patterning of cone opsin expression. By analyzing knock-outs for bone morphogenetic ...
Sclerostin is an inhibitor of bone formation expressed by osteocytes. We hypothesized that sclerostin is expressed by cells of the same origin and also embedded within mineralized matrices. In this study, we analyzed (a) sclerostin expression using immunohistochemistry, (b) whether the genomic defect in individuals with van Buchem disease (VBD) was associated with the absence of sclerostin expression, and (c) whether this was associated with hypercementosis. Sclerostin was expressed by cementocytes in mouse and human teeth and by mineralized hypertrophic chondrocytes in the human growth plate. In individuals with VBD, sclerostin expression was absent or strongly decreased in osteocytes and cementocytes. This was associated with increased bone formation, but no overt changes in cementum thickness. In conclusion, sclerostin is expressed by all 3 terminally differentiated cell types embedded within mineralized matrices: osteocytes, cementocytes, and hypertrophic chondrocytes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neogenin inhibits HJV secretion and regulates BMP-induced hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. AU - Lee, Dai Hoon. AU - Zhou, Li Juau. AU - Zhou, Zheng. AU - Xie, Jiau Xiu. AU - Jung, Ji Ung. AU - Liu, Yu. AU - Xi, Cai Xia. AU - Mei, Lin. AU - Xiong, Wen Cheng. PY - 2010/4/15. Y1 - 2010/4/15. N2 - Neogenin, a deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) family member, has been identified as a receptor for the neuronal axon guidance cues netrins and repulsive guidance molecules repulsive guidance molecules (RGM). RGMc, also called hemojuvelin (HJV), is essential for iron homeostasis. Here we provide evidence that neogenin plays a critical role in iron homeostasis by regulation of HJV secretion and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Livers of neogenin mutant mice exhibit iron overload, low levels of hepcidin, and reduced BMP signaling. Mutant hepatocytes in vitro show impaired BMP2 induction of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and hepcidin expression. Neogenin is expressed in liver ...
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP; MIM 135100) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification of soft connective tissues including skeletal muscle, tendons and ligaments. Individuals with FOP appear normal at birth, except for malformed great toes and thumbs. The ossification begins in early childhood and progresses over the course of a lifetime. It leads to a debilitating ankylosis of all major joints of the axial and appendicular skeleton and most patients will be confined to wheelchair by the third decade of life. Most FOP cases are sporadic, but there are reports of affected siblings. FOP is caused by mutations in the ACVR1 gene that codes for activin A receptor, type I. It belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and functions as a receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs are extracellular signaling proteins that are critical for the early development of heart, central nervous system, cartilage, and bone. All of the ACVR1 ...
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and disabling genetic condition characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) in specific anatomic patterns. {file27251}{file27252}Most cases arise as a result of a spontaneous new mutation.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). *Ciliary neurotrophic factor family *Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFLP) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Protein or other substance that stimulates cellular proliferation. "Growth factors" redirects here. For the journal, see Growth ...
This gene encodes an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4. The encoded protein may play a role in topographic ... Kane R, Godson C, O'Brien C (2008). "Chordin-like 1, a bone morphogenetic protein-4 antagonist, is upregulated by hypoxia in ... Gazzerro E, Canalis E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists". Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 7 (1-2): 51-65. doi ... Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors. 22 (4): 233-41. doi:10.1080/ ...
BMP2: Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (osteoblast differentiation). *BPIFB1: encoding protein BPI fold containing family B, member ... encoding protein Transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein. *TTPAL: encoding protein Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein- ... YTHDF1: encoding protein YTH domain family, member 1. *ZFP64 encoding protein Zinc finger protein 64 homolog, isoforms 1 and 2 ... FASTKD5: encoding protein FAST kinase domain-containing protein 5 (FASTKD5). *FITM2: encoding protein Fat storage-inducing ...
Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... 2010). "Mutation of the bone morphogenetic protein GDF3 causes ocular and skeletal anomalies". Hum. Mol. Genet. 19 (2): 287-98 ... Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the brain, thymus, spleen, bone marrow and ... Chen C, Ware SM, Sato A, Houston-Hawkins DE, Habas R, Matzuk MM, Shen MM, Brown CW (January 2006). "The Vg1-related protein ...
Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... Growth differentiation factor-1 (GDF1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF1 gene. GDF1 belongs to the ...
The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and is a member of the TGF- ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... Reddi AH (1997). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ...
Growth differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 3B (BMP-3B) is a protein that in humans is ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... GDF10 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that is closely related to bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3 ... Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link]. ...
A. Hari Reddi entitled Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine.). Reddi AH, Reddi A (2009). "Bone ... Babitt JL, Huang FW, Xia Y, Sidis Y, Andrews NC, Lin HY (2007). "Modulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in vivo ... Based on this definition Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are metabologens since they are involved in iron homeostasis, brown ... Schulz TJ, Tseng YH (2009). "Emerging Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Adipogenesis and Energy Metabolism". Cytokine ...
Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B also known as CDw293 (cluster of differentiation w293) is a protein that in humans ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein receptor". Mishina Y, Starbuck MW, Gentile MA, Fukuda T, Kasparcova V, Seedor JG, Hanks ... BMPR1B is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ...
These include: activin (or inhibin), bone morphogenetic proteins and nodal. They are involved in a host of physiological ...
Examples of such proteins include bone morphogenetic proteins and cadherins. Expression of these proteins is essential to ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4, or BMP4, is a transforming growth factor that causes the cells of the ectoderm to differentiate ... Signaling proteins are also important in neural plate development, and aid in differentiating the tissue destined to become the ... When the neural plate begins to fold, rostral areas of the neural plate do not express Pax3 and MSX proteins. Areas caudal to ...
Bmp-7, or bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an important regulator in corticogenesis, though it is not understood whether it ... Other bone morphogenetic proteins are also known to impact corticogenesis. Bmp2, 4, 5, and 6 are expressed during the process ... a motor protein that affects intercellular movement such as protein sorting and the process of cell division. Another protein ... DAB1 is a regulator protein downstream of the reelin receptors. This protein is located inside cells residing in the ...
C-proteinase enhancer protein 1 and differs from bone morphogenetic protein 1 in the functional roles of homologous protein ... 2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein-1 processes probiglycan". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (39): 30504-11. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004846200. ... 2001). "Multiple bone morphogenetic protein 1-related mammalian metalloproteinases process pro-lysyl oxidase at the correct ... with high sequence similarity to mammalian tolloid/bone morphogenetic protein-1". Genomics. 34 (2): 157-65. doi:10.1006/geno. ...
There is a potential association between RGMs and cancer bone metastasis, as RGMs coordinate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ... is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor of the repulsive guidance molecule family. In humans this protein is encoded ... Li J, Ye L, Kynaston HG, Jiang WG (February 2012). "Repulsive guidance molecules, novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors ... a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (14): 14122-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M410034200. PMID 15671031. Severyn ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). *Ciliary neurotrophic factor family *Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFLP) ... Individual growth factor proteins tend to occur as members of larger families of structurally and evolutionarily related ... Usually it is a protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. ...
... a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and endothelial cell ... "Human Crossveinless-2 is a novel inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... "BMPER is an endothelial cell regulator and controls bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent angiogenesis". Circulation Research ... BMP binding endothelial regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMPER gene. KLF15 is a strong and direct ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) suppress neural differentiation and promote epithelial growth. Therefore, the primitive node ...
2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/ ... Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... Vitt UA, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh AJ (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2). ...
"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ...
Shi X, Yang X, Chen D, Chang Z, Cao X (1999). "Smad1 interacts with homeobox DNA-binding proteins in bone morphogenetic protein ... "Smad1 interacts with homeobox DNA-binding proteins in bone morphogenetic protein signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (19): 13711-7. ... Wan M, Shi X, Feng X, Cao X (2001). "Transcriptional mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoprotegrin gene ... Homeobox protein Hox-C8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXC8 gene. This gene belongs to the homeobox family of ...
Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/threonine ... Koštani morfogenetički protein 2 ili BMP-2 pripada TGF-β superfamiliji proteina.[1] ...
Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ... The vertebral bones or intervertebral disks can shatter, causing the spinal cord to be punctured by a sharp fragment of bone. ... Between the dura mater and the surrounding bone of the vertebrae is a space called the epidural space. The epidural space is ... the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone where it passes through the foramen magnum, and meets and enters the spinal canal ...
Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ... The neural crest cells that are found outside of a given neuromere will express the same proteins as the cells that are found ... Between the dura mater and the surrounding bone of the vertebrae is a space called the epidural space. The epidural space is ... The Hox genes contain the 183-bp homeobox, which encodes a particular portion of the Hox proteins called the homeodomain. The ...
Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression. Nature Genetics 2006; 38:531-9. 1993-2006, ...
However it has been demonstrated that hemojuvelin interacts with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), possibly as a co-receptor, ... Li J, Ye L, Kynaston HG, Jiang WG (February 2012). "Repulsive guidance molecules, novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors ... "Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression". Nat. Genet. 38 (5): 531-9. doi:10.1038/ ... "Pro-protein convertases control the maturation and processing of the iron-regulatory protein, RGMc/hemojuvelin". BMC Biochem. 9 ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ...
"Harmine promotes osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein signaling". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Bone. 49: 264-274. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.04.003. PMID 21504804. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Eric Yarnell; ... bone-forming cells), and chondrocytes (cells in the cartilage)." It was also shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis (the formation ... of bone resorbing cells) Harmine, and plants containing significant amounts of harmine and other harmala alkaloids are ...

No data available that match "bone morphogenetic proteins"


  • The FOP mutation is a single replacement for a DNA building block in the gene for a receptor protein called ACVR1. (healthcanal.com)
  • In 2006, Kaplan and Shore's team discovered that in the DNA of every patient with FOP they examined, the same mutation occurred: one building block in the protein-coding region of the ACVR1 gene is replaced by another, resulting in conversion of a single arginine amino acid in the sequence of the ACVR1 protein to histidine. (healthcanal.com)
  • The result is activation of a cell-signaling cascade that culminates in changes in gene expression, and ultimately, in the formation of new bone. (healthcanal.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA - An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine , is taking the first step in developing a treatment for a rare genetic disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), in which the body's skeletal muscles and soft connective tissue turns to bone, immobilizing patients over a lifetime with a second skeleton. (healthcanal.com)
  • The mutation is mildly activating, and so it may take time or the right tissue environment to allow the signal to tip the balance to induce bone formation, explains Shore. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the case of FOP, that normal process of bone formation occurs inappropriately in soft tissue, sometimes in response to injury, and sometimes spontaneously, typically beginning by age 5 or so. (healthcanal.com)
  • In early childhood, afflicted individuals develop soft tissue swellings that transform into bone. (businesswire.com)
  • Thus, cell survival was decreased, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was reduced, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes increased. (elsevier.com)
  • The experiments further show that the mutant ACVR1 receptor alters the usual binding of an ACVR1 partner protein, FKBP1A, which normally keeps the ACVR1 receptor off in the absence of BMP. (healthcanal.com)
  • Development of such lesions is exacerbated by trauma, and surgical intervention leads to dramatic and explosive new bone growth. (businesswire.com)
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