Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Breaks in bones.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.

Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. (1/184)

Cbfa1, a transcription factor that belongs to the runt-domain gene family, plays an essential role in osteogenesis. Cbfa1-deficient mice completely lacked both intramembranous and endochondral ossification, owing to the maturational arrest of osteoblasts, indicating that Cbfa1 has a fundamental role in osteoblast differentiation. However, Cbfa1 was also expressed in chondrocytes, and its expression was increased according to the maturation of chondrocytes. Terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes expressed Cbfa1 extensively. The significant expression of Cbfa1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), and its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes was most prominent at E14.5-16.5. In Cbfa1-deficient mice, whose entire skeleton was composed of cartilage, the chondrocyte differentiation was disturbed. Calcification of cartilage occurred in the restricted parts of skeletons, including tibia, fibula, radius, and ulna. Type X collagen, BMP6, and Indian hedgehog were expressed in their hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and collagenase 3 were not expressed at all, indicating that they are directly regulated by Cbfa1 in the terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chondrocyte differentiation was severely disturbed in the rest of the skeleton. The expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor, Indian hedgehog, type X collagen, and BMP6 was not detected in humerus and femur, indicating that chondrocyte differentiation was blocked before prehypertrophic chondrocytes. These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of SpBMP5-7, a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily expressed in sea urchin embryos. (2/184)

TGF-beta ligands are probably pan-bilaterian in phylogenetic distribution. The family appears to have diversified greatly with the evolution of the vertebrates, but only a few invertebrate deuterostome TGF-beta molecules have so far been isolated. A search for members of this family expressed in sea urchin embryos, using canonical PCR primers, revealed a single-copy gene encoding a new TGF-beta protein. The sequence which it encodes is closely related to those of vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 5-7. No additional TGF-beta family members were uncovered other than univin, which had previously been reported.  (+info)

Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation. (3/184)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-(&bgr;) superfamily, and is most similar to BMP-5, osteogenic protein (OP)-1/BMP-7, and OP-2/BMP-8. In the present study, we characterized the endogenous BMP-6 signaling pathway during osteoblast differentiation. BMP-6 strongly induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in cells of osteoblast lineage, including C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and ROB-C26 cells. The profile of binding of BMP-6 to type I and type II receptors was similar to that of OP-1/BMP-7 in C2C12 cells and MC3T3-E1 cells; BMP-6 strongly bound to activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2 (also termed ActR-I), together with type II receptors, i.e. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) and activin type II receptor (ActR-II). In addition, BMP-6 weakly bound to BMPR-IA (ALK-3), to which BMP-2 also bound. In contrast, binding of BMP-6 to BMPR-IB (ALK-6), and less efficiently to ALK-2 and BMPR-IA, together with BMPR-II was detected in ROB-C26 cells. Intracellular signalling was further studied using C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Among the receptor-regulated Smads activated by BMP receptors, BMP-6 strongly induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad5, and less efficiently those of Smad1. However, Smad8 was constitutively phosphorylated, and no further phosphorylation or nuclear accumulation of Smad8 by BMP-6 was observed. These findings indicate that in the process of differentiation to osteoblasts, BMP-6 binds to ALK-2 as well as other type I receptors, and transduces signals mainly through Smad5 and possibly through Smad1.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-6 and parathyroid hormone-related protein coordinately regulate the hypertrophic conversion in mouse clonal chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. (4/184)

We evaluated the roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, BMP-4 and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the hypertrophic conversion using mouse chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. In ATDC5 cells, the expression of BMP-6 and PTHrP receptor mRNAs increased in parallel with the progression of chondrogenic differentiation of these cells, exhibiting a time course similar to that of type II collagen, a phenotypic marker of proliferating chondrocytes, while BMP-4 mRNA was continuously expressed throughout the differentiation processes. The expression of type X collagen mRNA, a phenotypic marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes, was upregulated by BMP-6 and BMP-4, and downregulated by PTHrP(1-141). The expression of BMP-6 mRNA was upregulated while that of BMP-4 mRNA was downregulated by both BMP-6 and BMP-4. Moreover, the expression of BMP-6 mRNA was downregulated by PTHrP(1-141). Furthermore, even in the presence of PTHrP(1-141), BMP-6 increased the transcript level of type X collagen in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that transiently expressed BMP-6 promotes the hypertrophic conversion in association with the augmentation of BMP-6 gene expression by BMP signals and that both BMP-6 and PTHrP coordinately regulate the rate of the hypertrophic conversion of ATDC5 cells.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary gland. (5/184)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6, also known as vegetal-pale-gene-related and decaplentaplegic-vegetal-related) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of multifunctional signaling molecules. BMP-6 appears to play various biological roles in developing tissues, including regulation of epithelial differentiation. To study the possible involvement of BMP-6 in normal and neoplastic human salivary glands, we compared its mRNA and protein expression in 4 fetal and 15 adult salivary glands and in 22 benign and 32 malignant salivary gland tumors. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis indicated that BMP-6 transcripts are expressed at low levels in acinar cells of adult submandibular glands but not in ductal or stromal cells. BMP-6 was immunolocated specifically in serous acini of parotid and submandibular glands. None was found in primitive fetal acini or any other types of cell in adult salivary glands, including mucous acini and epithelial cells of intercalated, striated, and excretory ducts. All 16 cases of acinic cell carcinoma consistently exhibited cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining in the acinar tumor cells. Other cell types in these tumors, including intercalated duct-like cells, clear, vacuolated cells, and nonspecific glandular cells, exhibited no cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining. Other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors lacked BMP-6 immunoreactivity, except in areas of squamous differentiation. The results indicate that in salivary glands, BMP-6 expression is uniquely associated with acinar cell differentiation and suggest that BMP-6 may play a role in salivary gland function. More importantly, our experience of differential diagnostic problems related to salivary gland tumors suggests that the demonstration of consistent and specific BMP-6 immunoreactivity in acinic cell carcinoma is likely to be of clinical value.  (+info)

Tel-2 is a novel transcriptional repressor related to the Ets factor Tel/ETV-6. (6/184)

We report here the isolation of Tel-2, a novel member of the Ets transcription factor family, with high homology to Tel/ETV-6. Tel-2 is the second mammalian member of the Tel Ets family subclass whose prototype Tel is involved in various chromosomal translocations in human cancers. Six differentially expressed alternative splice products of Tel-2 were characterized encoding different Tel-2 isoforms which either contain or lack the amino-terminal Pointed domain and also vary at the carboxyl terminus. In contrast to Tel, which is highly expressed in several different cell types and tissues, Tel-2 is only weakly expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, including placenta, prostate, spleen, liver, and lung. Tel-2 binds to functionally relevant Ets-binding sites of several genes and only the Tel-2 isoform containing the Pointed domain and the DNA-binding domain acts as a strong repressor of transcription. The retinoic acid receptor alpha and bone morphogenetic protein-6B (BMP-6) genes are specifically repressed by Tel-2 indicating a function for Tel-2 as an inhibitor of differentiation. Due to the important involvement of Tel in human cancer and the location of Tel-2 within the MHC cluster region, Tel-2 might be involved in chromosomal translocations in human cancer as well.  (+info)

Skin cell induction of calcitonin gene-related peptide in embryonic sensory neurons in vitro involves activin. (7/184)

Target skin cells induce the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naive embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro, but the molecular basis of that induction is not known. Recombinant activin or bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) dramatically increase the number of sensory neurons with CGRP and substance P in vitro (X. Ai et al., 1999, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 14, 506-518). These experiments were designed to test if activin or BMPs accounted for the CGRP-inductive activity by skin cells. To identify factors from skin that induce CGRP, we developed a bioassay in which embryonic DRG neurons isolated before peripheral target contact in vivo are challenged in vitro with specific factors. Conditioned medium from an embryonic rat skin cell line induced neuronal CGRP expression, and induction was blocked by follistatin, implicating transforming growth factor family members. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the skin cell line medium contained several activin and bone morphogenetic protein moieties. Antibody specific to activin neutralized most of the CGRP-inductive activity in skin conditioned medium. These data indicate that the CGRP-inductive action of skin cells involves activin and establish activin as a candidate regulator of this sensory neuropeptide phenotype during development.  (+info)

Ca2+ and BMP-6 signaling regulate E2F during epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. (8/184)

The epidermis consists of a squamous epithelium continuously replenished by committed stem cells, which can either self-renew or differentiate. We demonstrated previously that E2F genes are differentially expressed in developing epidermis (Dagnino, L., Fry, C. J., Bartley, S. M., Farnham, P., Gallie, B. L., and Phillips, R. A. (1997) Cell Growth Differ. 8, 553-563). Thus, we hypothesized that various E2F proteins likely play distinct growth regulatory roles in the undifferentiated stem cells and in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. To further understand the function of E2F genes in epidermal morphogenesis, we have examined the expression, regulation, and protein-protein interactions of E2F factors in undifferentiated cultured murine primary keratinocytes or in cells induced to differentiate with Ca(2+) or BMP-6 (bone morphogenetic protein 6). We find similar patterns of E2F regulation with both differentiating agents and demonstrate a switch in expression from E2F-1, -2, and -3 in undifferentiated, proliferating cells to E2F-5 in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation by transforming growth factor-beta1 did not enhance E2F-5 protein levels, suggesting that this response is specific to differentiation rather than reversible cell cycle withdrawal. E2F-5 up-regulation is also accompanied by formation of heteromeric nuclear complexes containing E2F5, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1. Overexpression of E2F5 specifically inhibited DNA synthesis in undifferentiated keratinocytes in an HDAC-dependent manner, suggesting that E2F-5.p130.HDAC1 complexes are likely involved in the permanent withdrawal from the cell cycle of keratinocytes responding to differentiation stimuli.  (+info)

Disease-associated impairment/dysfunction of stem cell populations is prominent in chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) where the multifunctional...
Bone engineering strategies often exploit modulation of the extracellular environment, including delivery of cell and growth factors to repair and regenerate damaged tissues. During bone healing, the expression of endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins is an essential component of the healing response. However, in some situations, the inherent reparative capacity available in the local microenvironment is exceeded by the requirements of the defects. Currently, exogenous growth factors, scaffolds and/or cells are applied in repair of such defects. The central approach used in the current project takes a dramatic departure from current strategies by exploiting the specificity of antibodies to capture and make available endogenous osteogenic growth factors. This approach is referred to herein as antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). The experiments outlined in this study were designed to test the hypothesis that anti-BMP-2 antibodies, immobilized on a solid scaffold, mediate osteogenic ...
Babitt, J.L. and Lin, H.Y. (2010) Molecular Mechanisms of Hepcidin Regulation Implications for the Anemia of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 55, 726-741.
Name Designation Contact No. Email ID Vandana Kini Commissioner Off Tel- +91-641-2401001 Res Tel- +91-641-2401201 Mob- +91-9473191433 [email protected][dot]in Sujeet Kumar D.I.G Off- +91-641-2400202 Mob- +91-9431822958 [email protected][dot]in Pranav Kumar District Magistrate Off Tel- +91-641-2402200 Res Tel- +91-641-2402300 Mob- +91-9473191381 Fax- +91-641-2402400 dm-bhagalpur[dot][email protected][dot]in Ashish Bharti S.S.P Off- +91-641-2400103 Res- +91-641-2401003 Mob- +91-9431800003 [email protected][dot]in Swapna G Mesharam S.P […]
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is decreased in pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study. AU - van Santen, Susanne. AU - Kroot, Joyce J. C.. AU - Zijderveld, Gerard. AU - Wiegerinck, Erwin T.. AU - Spaanderman, Marc E. A.. AU - Swinkels, Dorine W.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. KW - hepcidin. KW - iron homeostasis. KW - physiology. KW - pregnancy. U2 - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. DO - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. M3 - Article. C2 - 23241678. VL - 51. SP - 1395. EP - 1401. JO - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. JF - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. SN - 1434-6621. IS - 7. ER - ...
The investigators aim to compare the levels of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -7 (BMP-4 and 7) in blood, follicular fluid and ovarian organ culture s
The Assembly adjourned at 6:13 P.M. to meet again on Monday, February 25, 2008, (QUORUM, Committee Groups A and B scheduled to meet ...
Další analýzy (2007) přiřadily dovnitř chromist/chromalveolát i Rhizaria (ještě v r. 2005 považovaná za samostatnou superskupinu vedle chromalveolát), do příbuznosti skrytěnek a haptofytů se pak dnes řadí i Katablepharida, Telonemea, Centrohelida a Picobiliphyta.[8][9][10] Nepodařilo se však prokázat přirozenost takto posílené říše Chromista jako celku. Sice se původně zdálo, že je tvořena dvěma liniemi, dodnes v některých systémech udržovaných jako podříše, a sice SAR (Stramenopiles + Alveolata + Rhizaria) a Hacrobia (Haptophyta + Cryptophyta + Katablepharida + Centrohelida + Telonemea + Picobiliphyta). Zatímco přirozenost SAR je s vysokou věrohodností prokázána, nové analýzy ukazují nepřirozenost hacrobií jako celku. Haptofyta, centrohelidní slunivky a Telonemea by se podle nich odvětvovala na bázi holofyletických SAR, umístění skrytěnek (s plastidem morfologicky podobným haptofytům), katablefarid a pikobilifyt by mělo být na ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric ...
Successful adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) requires the ability to activate tumor-specific T cells with the ability to traffic to the tumor site and effectively kill their target as well as persist over time. We hypothesized that ACT using marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) in multiple myeloma (MM) could impart greater antitumor immunity in that they were obtained from the tumor microenvironment. We describe the results from the first clinical trial using MILs in MM. Twenty-five patients with either newly diagnosed or relapsed disease had their MILs harvested, activated and expanded, and subsequently infused on the third day after myeloablative therapy. Cells were obtained and adequately expanded in all patients with anti-CD3/CD28 beads plus interleukin-2, and a median of 9.5 × 108 MILs were infused. Factors indicative of response to MIL ACT included (i) the presence of measurable myeloma-specific activity of the ex vivo expanded product, (ii) low endogenous bone marrow T cell interferon-γ ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Molecular basis of bone morphogenetic protein-15 signaling in granulosa cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
/PRNewswire/ -- Protagonist Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:PTGX) today announced that a Phase 2 study of its novel hepcidin mimetic PTG-300 in patients with...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 reduces ischemia-induced brain damage in rats. AU - Wang, Yun. AU - Chang, Chen Fu. AU - Morales, Marisela. AU - Chou, Jenny. AU - Chen, Hui Ling. AU - Chiang, Yung Hsiao. AU - Lin, Shinn Zong. AU - Cadet, Jean Lud. AU - Deng, Xiaolin. AU - Wang, Jia Yi. AU - Chen, Su Yu. AU - Kaplan, Paul L.. AU - Hoffer, Barry J.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Background and Purpose - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6) and its receptors are expressed in adult and fetal brain. Receptors for BMP6 are upregulated in adult brain after injury, leading to the suggestion that BMP6 is involved in the physiological response to neuronal injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a neuroprotective effect of BMP6 in vivo and in vitro. Methods - Lactate dehydrogenase and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) activities were used to determine the protective effect of BMP6 against H2O2 in primary cortical cultures. The neuroprotective effects of BMP6 ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), their structure, action and detailed description of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provid...
BACKGROUNDOsteogenic protein-1/bone morphogenetic protein-7 (OP-1/BMP-7), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, has been shown to prevent kidney damage from ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The molecular events involved in OP-1 action on kidney are not yet understood.METHODSIn this study, we evaluated the biodistribution of (125)I-labeled OP-1 in rat kidneys. Adult rats received a single intravenous injection of 250 microg (125)I-labeled OP-1 per kg body wt, a dose that was effective in protecting kidneys from ischemic injury. Tissue localization, in situ hybridization, and immunostaining with a specific receptor antibody were performed to identify OP-1 cellular targets. Also, isolated plasma membranes from kidney cortex and medulla regions were analyzed to identify and characterize receptor structural components that recognize OP-1.RESULTSAt 10 and 180 minutes following injection, the relative uptake of (125)I-labeled OP-1 was consistently higher in kidney cortex than ...
Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: Bone morphogenetic pr
Bone morphogenetic protein signalling dynamics in hFOBs under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. (a) hFOBs in two-dimensional monolayer c
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Inspite of doing extensive research work, cancer is still the leading cause of deaths. Its associated cost accounts a largest economic burden worldwide...
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Intaglio Printmaker, 9 Playhouse Court, 62 Southwark Bridge Road, London, SE1 OAT tel- 020 7928 2633 Smiths Metal Centre, 42-56 Tottenham Rd, London N1 4BZ. 0207 2412430 (also plastics and stainless steel) Forward Metals Ltd., Saxon Way, Chelmsley Wood, Birmingham, B37 5AY tel- 0121 779 4888 Dore Metal Services, 46 Imex Business Park, Flaxley Rd, Birmingham B33 9AL. 0121 6245750 Builders Iron and Zinc, Millmarsh Land, Enfield En3 7QA. 020 8443300. ...
Carragee and colleagues recently published an analysis of publicly available raw data from the Medtronic sponsored AMPLIFY study (a randomized controlled trial
Bmp4 - Bmp4 (untagged) - Mouse bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-7 signaling via upregulation of Ski-related novel protein N (SnoN): possible mechanism for the failure of BMP therapy? ...
As part of a continuing investigation into a bone morphogenetic protein-2 product marketed as Infuse, the |em|Milwaukee Journal Sentinel/MedPage Today|/em| describe a first-hand account of early signs
Hyundai Motor Co. expected problems finding enough trained technicians to tend its army of robots when it began building a massive assembly plant in Alabama five years ago. So Hyundai did something it had never done before: It trained its own robotics experts.
Looking for online definition of bone morphogenetic protein 2B in the Medical Dictionary? bone morphogenetic protein 2B explanation free. What is bone morphogenetic protein 2B? Meaning of bone morphogenetic protein 2B medical term. What does bone morphogenetic protein 2B mean?
Mutations in HFE are the most common cause of the iron-overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. Levels of the main iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, are inappropriately low in hereditary hemochromatosis mouse models and patients with HFE mutations, indicating that HFE regulates hepcidin. The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)-SMAD signaling pathway is an important endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression. We investigated whether HFE is involved in BMP6-SMAD regulation of hepcidin expression. METHODS: The BMP6-SMAD pathway was examined in Hfe knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type (WT) mice as controls. Mice were placed on diets of varying iron content. Hepcidin induction by BMP6 was examined in primary hepatocytes from Hfe KO mice; data were compared with those of WT mice. RESULTS: Liver levels of Bmp6 messenger RNA (mRNA) were higher in Hfe KO mice; these were appropriate for the increased hepatic levels of iron in these mice, compared with WT mice. However, levels of hepatic ...
|p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins, plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. It is involved in the hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway, and in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. It is involved also in cardiac cell differentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types.|/p||p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone and recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) and is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States.|/p|
RPA013Hu01, Recombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2), Homo sapiens (Human), Recombinant protein, BMP2A, BMP-2A, Hemochromatosis Modifier, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
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A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: roles of animal pole tissue in the development of vent
This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer. This protein regulates a wide range of biological processes including iron homeostasis, fat and bone development, and ovulation. Differential expression of this gene may be associated with progression of breast and prostate cancer. Mutations in this gene may be associated with iron overload in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016 ...
C3H10T1/2 cells are an established mesenchymal stem cell line which can differentiate into muscle, fat and cartilage cells when treated with azacytidine. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) caused a dose dependent differentiation of these cells into fat, cartilage and bone cells-low concentrations …
Hepcidin, presumed to be a potential link in the mutual relationship between thyrometabolic and haematologic status, is a liver-derived protein encoded by the HAMP gene, responsible mainly for bodily Fe distribution (9). The mechanism of hepcidin response to inflammatory stimuli comprises two possible pathways: one through bone morphogenetic protein-mothers against decapentaplegic (BMP-SMAD) and more specifically via Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The latter axis is triggered by cytokines, mainly IL-6, which activates JAK2 and leads to phosphorylation of STAT3, enabling its translocation to the nucleus and upregulation of HAMP gene transcription. IL-6 also contributes to hepcidin regulation via the BMD pathway (14). Cross-talk between two presented pathways has been postulated (15). Stimulated hepcidin affects ferroportin, which is a cellular iron transporter, causing its internalization and degradation, thus retaining Fe absorption from a lumen of ...
Video articles in JoVE about bone morphogenetic protein 6 include Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks.
Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair.
A sandwich CLIA kit for quantitative measurement of Rat BMP-5 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5) in samples from Serum, Plasma, Cell supernatant
RGM-C/Hemojuvelin Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our RGM-C/Hemojuvelin Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Instrumentation et méthodes pour lastrophysique [astro-ph.IM]. Université de Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 2010. Français - tel-00667559. Determination of the radiative heating rates of dust over West Africa and their impact on the atmospherical dynamics using satellite observations during the AMMA campaign ...
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Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMPs in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic). Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, Buchberg AM (March 1990). Chromosomal ...
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Market Research Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) market...
To examine the local effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on diverse skeletal tissues in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells transfected with the murine bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene were implanted into athymic nude mice by injection into the subcutaneous space of the skull, intra- and extraarticular spaces of the knee, paravertebral muscles, and intramedullary space in the femur, to form experimental tumors secreting bone morphogenetic protein-4. As a control, mock vector-transfected Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells were used. Three weeks after injection, the newly formed Chinese hamster ovary tumors together with the skeletal tissues adjacent to the tumor were recovered from each site and processed for histologic examination. On the periosteum of calvaria, new bone, but no cartilage, was observed, and abundant chondrogenic cell proliferation was seen in the apophysis of the spinous process and around Ranviers groove in the knee. There were no apparent reactions to the Chinese hamster
Bone metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors within the bone of cancer patients, is a debilitating and incurable disease. Despite its morbidity, the biology of bone metastasis represents one of the most complex and intriguing of all oncogenic processes. This complexity derives from the intricately organized bone microenvironment in which the various stages of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and osteolysis are jointly regulated but spatially restricted. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from various common malignancies such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancers or myeloma are uniquely primed to subvert these endogenous bone stromal elements to grow into pathological osteolytic or osteoblastic lesions ...
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Sample request, please email : [email protected] Summary Report Summary The United States Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Industry 2017 Market
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 opposes Shh-mediated proliferation in cerebellar granule cells through a TIEG-1-based regulation of Nmyc.
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a staged fashion by the activin-like kinase receptor 1 (ALK1) after stimulation by BMP-9. In this study, however, we show that CV2 preferentially binds and inhibits BMP-9 thereby providing strong feedback inhibition for BMP-9/ALK1 signaling rather than for BMP-4/ALK2 signaling. CV2 disrupts complex formation by ALK2, ALK1, BMP-4 and BMP-9 required for the induction of both BMP antagonists. It also limits VEGF expression and proliferation of ALK1-expressing endothelial cells. In vivo, CV2 deficiency translates into a dysregulation of vascular BMP signaling, resulting in a thickened, abnormal endothelium with increased markers of endothelial differentiation. Thus, mutual regulation by BMP-9 and CV2 is essential in regulating the development of the ...
Purpose.: There are limited studies on the factors that regulate the processing of TGF-β2 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into their mature form. Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1) is an enzyme responsible for the cleavage and maturation of growth factors and ECM proteins. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells express BMP1, BMP1 expression is regulated by TGF-β2, BMP1 is biologically active, and BMP1 regulates LOX activity. Methods.: Primary human TM cells were isolated and subjected to quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western immunoblotting (WB) for BMP1. BMP1 immunolocalization was performed in TM tissues. qPCR was used to determine BMP1 mRNA expression and WB results were used to determine BMP1 protein expression. BMP1 activity was measured in TM cells treated with TGF-β2 or with a combination of TGF-β2/UK383367. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme activity was evaluated by WB in TM cells treated with BMP1 or with a combination of ...
Research proven goat polyclonal BMP-4 antibody. Initiates, promotes and regulates bone development, growth, remodeling and repair. Smad1 translocation to the nucleus is observed after the addition of BMP4. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting and related applications.
Hemojuvelin turns out to be a co-receptor, acting at the plasma membrane, for the BMP signaling pathway, which is necessary for the secretion of hepcidin from hepatocytes. As elevated hepcidin levels are associated with anemia of chronic disease and decreased access to reticuloendothelial stores, it stands to reason that inhibitors of the BMP pathway-either small molecule BMP inhibitors such as this, or a soluble form of hemojuvelin such as this-might be successfully used to decrease hepcidin expression and therefore treat anemia of chronic kidney disease ...
BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals.
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Pediatric neuroblastoma in its advanced stage (st. IV) is usually lethal. 70% of the affected children die. 50% of the children show upon diagnosis metastasis or a genetic amplification of the oncogene N-myc. This group has a poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 33%. A drawback of the current standard therapy is the poor efficacy accompanied with severe side effects. Therefore a new treatment of neuroblastoma with a different antitumoral mode of action than the traditional cytotoxics is urgently required ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins. New members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily predominantly expressed in long bones during human embryonic development. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
|p|LDN-212854 is a selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling with IC50 value of 1.2nM [1].|/p||p|In the kinase assay, LDN-212854 shows inhibitory activities against caALK2 and caALK5 with IC50 values of 16nM and 2μM, respectively.
Developmental Signals - Bone Morphogenetic Protein,Bmp]],noinclude>[[Category:Template]][[Category:Term Link]][[Category:Molecular]][[Category:BMP]],/noinclude ...
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Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... 2010). "Mutation of the bone morphogenetic protein GDF3 causes ocular and skeletal anomalies". Hum. Mol. Genet. 19 (2): 287-98 ... Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the brain, thymus, spleen, bone marrow and ... Chen C, Ware SM, Sato A, Houston-Hawkins DE, Habas R, Matzuk MM, Shen MM, Brown CW (January 2006). "The Vg1-related protein ...
Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... Growth differentiation factor 1 (GDF1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF1 gene. GDF1 belongs to the ... Developmental genes and proteins, TGFβ domain, All stub articles, Human chromosome 19 gene stubs). ... 4 (4): 381-6. doi:10.1038/ng0893-381. PMID 8401586. S2CID 33426184. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and is a member of the TGF- ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... Reddi AH (1997). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ...
Growth differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 3B (BMP-3B) is a protein that in humans is ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... GDF10 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that is closely related to bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3 ... Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ...
"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massagué J (1995). "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the ... The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 also known as NCOA3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the NCOA3 gene. NCOA3 is ... The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. ...
"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ...
"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... "Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... Activin receptor type-2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2A gene. ACVR2A is an activin type 2 receptor. This ... Barbara NP, Wrana JL, Letarte M (1999). "Endoglin is an accessory protein that interacts with the signaling receptor complex of ...
Her research indicated that transduction of BMDMSC with bone morphogenetic proteins‐2 or ‐6 can accelerate osteogenic ... bone morphogenetic protein6 (BMP‐6) vector. She found BMP‐6 to be osteo-inductive in vivo resulting in acceleration of bone ... "Mesenchymal Stem Cell-mediated Gene Delivery of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in an Articular Fracture Model". Molecular Therapy ... "Gene-mediated osteogenic differentiation of stem cells by bone morphogenetic proteins-2 or -6". Journal of Orthopaedic Research ...
A. Hari Reddi entitled Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine.). Reddi AH, Reddi A (2009). "Bone ... Babitt JL, Huang FW, Xia Y, Sidis Y, Andrews NC, Lin HY (2007). "Modulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in vivo ... Based on this definition, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are metabologens, since they are involved in iron homeostasis, ... Schulz TJ, Tseng YH (2009). "Emerging Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Adipogenesis and Energy Metabolism". Cytokine ...
1 April 2001). "Highly prolific Booroola sheep have a mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein ... 1 December 2002). "Growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 are essential for ovarian follicular ... Jennifer L. Juengel; McNatty KP (10 February 2005). "The role of proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily in ... 67 (6): 1777-1789. doi:10.1095/BIOLREPROD.102.007146. ISSN 0006-3363. PMID 12444053. Wikidata Q44223816. Heywood R Sawyer; ...
"Entrez Gene: NOG noggin". Blázquez-Medela AM, Jumabay M, Boström KI (May 2019). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein ... superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link] Noggin publications, gene expression data, sequences and ... Hall AK, Burke RM, Anand M, Dinsio KJ (July 2002). "Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins are present in perinatal sensory ...
... an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), allowing cells to become BMP-4 responsive. Therefore, this directly links ... "Domain-specific modification of heparan sulfate by Qsulf1 modulates the binding of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... Although the core protein is important, the large heparan sulfate (HS) chains extending from the core are responsible for most ...
2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/ ... Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... Vitt UA, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh AJ (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2). ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein 8B promotes the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis". Nature Metabolism. 2 (6): 514-531. ... Because the liver is important for making proteins used in blood clotting, coagulation-related studies are often carried out, ... Protein & Cell. 9 (2): 164-177. doi:10.1007/s13238-017-0436-0. PMC 5818366. PMID 28643267. Bagherniya M, Nobili V, Blesso CN, ... or a low-carbohydrate ketogenic or high-protein diet such as the Mediterranean diet, and avoiding all beverages and food ...
Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone+Morphogenetic+Proteins at the US National Library ... Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I. (2019-01-04). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... 2003). "BMPER, a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
... (BMP-15) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. It is involved in ... Developmental genes and proteins, Bone morphogenetic protein, TGFβ domain). ... Bragdon B, Moseychuk O, Saldanha S, King D, Julian J, Nohe A (April 2011). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: a critical review". ... Persani L, Rossetti R, Di Pasquale E, Cacciatore C, Fabre S (2014-11-01). "The fundamental role of bone morphogenetic protein ...
... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ... Bone morphogenetic protein, Developmental genes and proteins, TGFβ domain, All stub articles, Human chromosome 4 gene stubs). ...
... or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... Reddi AH (July 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and skeletal development: the kidney-bone connection". Pediatric Nephrology ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Der Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 ...
... (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... Developmental genes and proteins, Bone morphogenetic protein, TGFβ domain, All stub articles, Human chromosome 2 gene stubs). ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse ...
... , also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ...
... or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ... As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... Blázquez-Medela AM, Jumabay M, Boström KI (January 2019). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ...
"Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23. BMP4 ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ...
Other bone morphogenetic proteins are also known to impact corticogenesis in the mouse. Bmp2, 4, 5, and 6 are expressed during ... In mice, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp-7), is an important regulator in corticogenesis, though it is not understood whether ... a motor protein that affects intercellular movement such as protein sorting and the process of cell division. Another protein ... DAB1 is a regulator protein downstream of the reelin receptors. This protein is located inside cells residing in the ...
Through the stimulation of growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (6-BMP- ... Although this decreased bone density is also seen in anorexia nervosa, the severity of peak bone density loss is less in FHA ... Bone loss is best treated by correction of the underlying cause. Patients should undergo evaluation of bone marrow density ... Lower strength estimates, abnormal bone microarchitectures, and deficient volumetric bone density has been found in young adult ...
When stimulating alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt, expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-6 in the dental ... Therefore, it is only when concurrent bone deposition can be confirmed at the base of the crypt and inhibition of such bone ... In many studies, with the usage of tetracyclines as indicators of bone deposition have proven that bone resorption is principal ... The balance between tissue formation of bone, periodontal ligament and root, and tissue destruction of bone, connective tissue ...
... fibroblast growth factor 8 and bone morphogenetic protein), transcription factors (T-box, Pax, Nkx2-5, GATA-6, and Forkhead), ... and gap junction proteins (Connexin). The cardiac neural crest also contributes the smooth muscle of the great arteries.[ ...
Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F (2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 induces osteogenic ... Mi LZ, Brown CT, Gao Y, Tian Y, Le VQ, Walz T, Springer TA (March 2015). "Structure of bone morphogenetic protein 9 procomplex ... Fong D, Bisson M, Laberge G, McManus S, Grenier G, Faucheux N, Roux S (Apr 2013). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 activates Smad ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (19 ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ... Life-threatening Complications Associated with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Cervical Spine Fusion". fda.gov ... "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience ... bone graft or artificial bone substitute is packed between the vertebrae to help them heal together.[1] In general, fusions are ...
Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ... The vertebral bones or intervertebral disks can shatter, causing the spinal cord to be punctured by a sharp fragment of bone. ... Between the dura mater and the surrounding bone of the vertebrae is a space called the epidural space. The epidural space is ... the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone, passing through the foramen magnum and then enters the spinal canal at the ...
1990). "Interaction of osteogenin, a heparin binding bone morphogenetic protein, with type IV collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (28 ... Collagen alpha-2(IV) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL4A2 gene. This gene encodes one of the six subunits ... The C-terminal portion of the protein, known as canstatin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Like the other ... Gupta S, Batchu RB, Datta K (1992). "Purification, partial characterization of rat kidney hyaluronic acid binding protein and ...
... a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and endothelial cell ... "Human Crossveinless-2 is a novel inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... "BMPER is an endothelial cell regulator and controls bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent angiogenesis". Circulation Research ... BMP binding endothelial regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMPER gene. KLF15 is a strong and direct ...
... served as the 3rd largest site in the nation for the trial of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) - the first use of biologics in ... Disc Disease by Using Stand Alone Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cages and Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2: as ... of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Arthrodesis with Use of Interbody Fusion Cages and recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 ... of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Arthrodesis with Use of Interbody Fusion Cages and Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 ...
Developmental research in 2004 found that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and its differential expression during ... 54 (6): 501-510. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0501:baavei]2.0.co;2. Sato A, Tichy H, O'hUigin C, Grant PR, Grant BR, Klein J ...
Core AB, Canali S, Babitt JL (2014). "Hemojuvelin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in iron homeostasis". ... hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, bone morphogenic protein 6 (BMP6), matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP ... Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene. Hepcidin is a key regulator of the entry of iron into the ... NMR studies showed a new model for hepcidin: at ambient temperatures, the protein interconverts between two conformations, ...
2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... Huang CK, Zhan L, Ai Y, Jongstra J (1997). "LSP1 is the major substrate for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein ... Harrison RE, Sikorski BA, Jongstra J (2005). "Leukocyte-specific protein 1 targets the ERK/MAP kinase scaffold protein KSR and ...
Alliston T, Ko TC, Cao Y, Liang YY, Feng XH, Chang C, Derynck R (Jun 2005). "Repression of bone morphogenetic protein and ... Alliston T, Ko TC, Cao Y, Liang YY, Feng XH, Chang C, Derynck R (Jun 2005). "Repression of bone morphogenetic protein and ... MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1 (MECOM) also known as ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog (EVI-1) or ... along with other TGF-β family ligands such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and activin are involved in regulating important ...
Msx2 induces Sp7 directly, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) induces it indirectly through either Dlx5 or Runx2. Once ... Accelerated bone fracture healing was found when researchers implanted Sp7 overexpressing bone marrow stroma cells at a site of ... It was found that the mechanism by which Sp7 expression accelerated bone healing was through triggering new bone formation by ... Along similar mechanistic lines as bone repair is the integration of dental implants into alveolar bone, since the insertion of ...
Therefore, LGR5 might be a receptor for a member of the large family of bone morphogenetic protein antagonists. Moreover, R- ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGR5 gene. It is a member of GPCR class A receptor proteins. R-spondin proteins ... Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) also known as G-protein coupled receptor 49 (GPR49) or G- ... "LGR5 leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5". Entrez Gene. "LGR5 leucine-rich repeat containing G protein- ...
An Animal Model With and Without Bone Morphogenetic Protein". Spine. Lippincott-Raven. 23 (7): 758-765. doi:10.1097/00007632- ... and the Cortical Bone Dowel, which is cut from allograft femur. The cages can be packed with autologous bone material in order ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. 81 (6): 859-880. doi: ...
"Identification and functional characterization of distinct critically important bone morphogenetic protein-specific response ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... E proteins heterodimerize with tissue restricted bHLH proteins such as Myod, NeuroD, etc. to form active transcription ... October 2001). "Protein-protein interaction panel using mouse full-length cDNAs". Genome Research. 11 (10): 1758-65. doi: ...
... gradient of pituitary morphogenesis is dependent on neuroectodermal signals from the infundibular bone morphogenetic protein 4 ... Other essential proteins necessary for pituitary cell proliferation are Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), Wnt4, and Wnt5. ... An assortment of genes and proteins - such as WNT4, RSPO1, FOXL2, and various estrogen receptors - have been shown to prevent ... May 1, 2002). "Parathyroid hormone is essential for normal fetal bone formation". J Clin Invest. 109 (9): 1173-1182. doi: ...
January 2006). "Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits corticotroph tumor cells: involvement in the retinoic acid inhibitory ... February 2003). "Involvement of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in pituitary prolactinoma pathogenesis through a Smad/ ... October 2007). "RSUME, a small RWD-containing protein, enhances SUMO conjugation and stabilizes HIF-1alpha during hypoxia". ... 2001 - The presentation "Transcriptional regulation of the gp130 cytokine IL-6 by PACAP and estrogens: its importance for ...
"The RING domain of PIASy is involved in the suppression of bone morphogenetic protein-signaling pathway". Biochem. Biophys. Res ... E3 SUMO-protein ligase PIAS4 is one of several protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins. It is also known as protein ... "Entrez Gene: PIAS4 Protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 4". Imoto, Seiyu; Sugiyama Kenji; Muromoto Ryuta; Sato Noriko; Yamamoto ... 2002). "Protein inhibitors of activated STAT resemble scaffold attachment factors and function as interacting nuclear receptor ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signals. These molecular signals direct the growth of the surrounding ... ISBN 0-683-30242-6. Vaahtokari A., Aberg T., Jernvall J., Keranen S., Thesleff, I (1996). "The Enamel Knot as a Signaling ...
2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... PDZ domain-containing RING finger protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDZRN3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 6 (3): 197-205. doi: ...
2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... Tubulin beta-4A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBB4A gene. Two tubulin beta-4 chain proteins are encoded ... 2005). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... 2003). "Nuclear coactivator-62 kDa/Ski-interacting protein is a nuclear matrix-associated coactivator that may couple vitamin D ...
How proteins become localised to different parts of the cell - such as to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus or the ... During the 1960s, molecular biology the world over flourished, the outline bones of the 1950s now having flesh put on them. The ... Under his influence, Crick also became interested in morphogenetic gradients and how they may help specify biological patterns ... Sanger had invented methods for determining the sequence of amino acids in a protein: he was awarded the Nobel Prize in ...
... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva. In food and wine pairing, ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ... foods that are high in proteins (such as red meat) are often paired with tannic wines to minimize the astringency of tannins. ...
This model only specifies a "bare bones" pattern. Other factors like sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Hox proteins, primary ... Limb formation begins in the morphogenetic limb field, as mesenchymal cells from the lateral plate mesoderm proliferate to the ... In the development of most vertebrate limbs (though not in some amphibians), the cartilage skeleton is replaced by bone later ... Zhu J, Zhang YT, Alber MS, Newman SA (2010). "Bare bones pattern formation: a core regulatory network in varying geometries ...
"HIV-1 Tat interaction with cyclin T1 represses mannose receptor and the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 transcription". ... "Entrez Gene: HTATIP2 HIV-1 Tat interactive protein 2, 30kDa". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to ... King FW, Shtivelman E (2004). "Inhibition of nuclear import by the proapoptotic protein CC3". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (16): 7091- ... a protein associated with metastasis suppression". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57 (5): 851-8. doi:10.1007/s000180050047. PMID 10892349 ...
"Differentiation of human pluripotent teratocarcinoma stem cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Reproduction, ... Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that ... Perry SS, Wang H, Pierce LJ, Yang AM, Tsai S, Spangrude GJ (April 2004). "L-selectin defines a bone marrow analog to the thymic ... Stahl J, Wobus AM, Ihrig S, Lutsch G, Bielka H (September 1992). "The small heat shock protein hsp25 is accumulated in P19 ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) suppress neural differentiation and promote epithelial growth. Therefore, the primitive node ... Retrieved 6 June 2022. Arendt, D.; Nübler-Jung, K. (March 1999). "Rearranging gastrulation in the name of yolk: evolution of ... 3 (6): E138-E139. doi:10.1038/35078603. PMID 11389452. S2CID 30040011. Overview at Northwestern University Embryonic+Organizers ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... Ligaments connect one bone to another, while tendons connect muscle to bone. Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular ... In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In ... G-proteins, which induce intracellular signaling cascades, may also be important, and ion channels are activated by stretching ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... 2003). "BMPER, a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL ... Prostate cancer induces bone metastasis through Wnt-induced bone morphogenetic protein-dependent and independent mechanisms. ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" by people in this website by ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) and BMP7 inhibit estrogen-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells by suppressing p38 ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) and BMP7 inhibit estrogen-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells by suppressing p38 ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) and BMP7 inhibit estrogen-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells by suppressing p38 ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) and BMP7 inhibit estrogen-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells by suppressing p38 ...
Also, 1.3-fold more MFPCs were obtained from BMP-6 null than from WT mononuclear cell cultures, but in vivo only very few MFPCs ... Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) suppresses inflammatory genes in renal proximal tubular cells and regulates iron ... We hypothesized that loss of endogenous BMP-6 would aggravate renal injury and fibrosis. Wild type (WT) and BMP-6 null mice ... The obstructed kidneys of BMP-6 null mice showed 2.2-fold more iron deposition, in association with 3.3-fold higher expression ...
Home , Products , ELISA Kit , Rat , Rat BMP-6(Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6) ELISA Kit ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6) ELISA Kit ...
About Bone Morphogenetic Proteins:. BMP is the generic name of a family of proteins, identified originally in extracts of ... With the exception of BMP1 members of the family of bone morphogenetic proteins (see also: gene family) belong to the TGF-beta ... For some components of extracellular pathways that regulate the activity of bone morphogenetic protein see also: BMPER, Chordin ... Among different morphogenetic proteins there is a considerable species conservation with a variety of proteins even being ...
Here, we report that Hic-5 binds to Smads 1, 5 and 8, and represses bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling responses. Myc- ... is a transforming growth factor-β-inducible LIM protein whose deregulation is implicated in the progression of prostate cancer ... bone morphogenetic protein-7 controls the motility of prostate cancer cells through regulation of bone morphogenetic protein ... Increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 in bone metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate 54: 268-274. ...
Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression. Nat Genet. 2006 May. 38(5):531-9. [QxMD ... and is the coreceptor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). De-arranged BMP signaling in hemojuvelin mutants associated with ... recent studies suggest that newly identified heterozygous missense pro-peptide mutations in bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6 ... HFE protein, the product of the HFE gene, is homologous to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins. However, ...
This study was conducted to elucidate the bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) mRNA and protein expression in normal and ... Bone morphogenetic protein-6 expression in normal and malignant prostate. p. 57. ... BMP-6 mRNA and protein were also produced by normal and neoplastic human prostate cancer (clinical specimens and human ... Tumours with Gleason score 6 or more had a greater BMP-6 immunostaining than the lower grade tumours, viz., those with Gleason ...
BDNS and TrkB are involved in bone fracture healing by inhibiting AEP. Here the authors show that a TrkB agonist prodrug can ... Here we show that R13, a small molecular TrkB receptor agonist prodrug, inhibits AEP and promotes bone formation. Though both ... attenuating bone turnover. 7,8-DHF, released from R13, activates TrkB and its downstream effector CREB, which is critical for ... blocking trabecular bone loss. Strikingly, both R13 and anti-RANK-L exhibit equivalent therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, OVX ...
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease caused by an inherited mutation in bone morphogenetic protein receptor II. Am J Respir Crit ... in a cell falls too low, the activity of the EIF2AK4 protein helps reduce the production of other proteins, which conserves ... The protein produced from the EIF2AK4 gene helps cells respond appropriately to changes that could damage the cell. For example ... The EIF2AK4 gene mutations involved in PVOD likely eliminate functional EIF2AK4 protein; however, it is unknown how absence of ...
Immunoblot analysis was used to measure the expression of δEF1 at the protein level in δEF1-overexpressing and δEF1-interfered ... Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of BMP-6, E-cadherin, and δEF1 at the mRNA level in MCF-7 and MDA-MB- ... MCF-7 breast cancer cells, an ER+ cell line that expressed high levels of BMP-6 and E-cadherin exhibited very low levels of ... Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) is critically involved in many developmental processes. Recent studies indicate that BMP-6 ...
... and bone morphogenetic protein 6. Having ID, either alone or on top of anaemia and/or CKD, was associated with a lower overall ... Key biomarkers shared between syndromes with ID included transferrin receptor, interleukin-6, fibroblast growth factor-23, ... summary Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score, an impaired 6-min walk test and increased incidence of hospitalizations ...
... and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 in chondrogenic group. This study demonstrates that BTAG can be considered as a suitable ... Osteoporosis is a bone disorder that reduces bone mineral density (BMD) and leads to bone fracture. In addition to different ... Bax (apoptotic protein) and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) expressions were evaluated by striatum using RT-PCR and Western blot ... There was a significant increase in Bax protein expression in the MDMA+SCH group and a significant decrease in Bcl-2 protein ...
Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and SirT1 expression were induced by THSG. Treatment of THSG decreased ... H.-C. Chiu, C.-Y. Chiang, H.-P. Tu, U. M. E. Wikesjö, C. Susin, and E. Fu, "Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on ... 100%. (b) The periodontal bone-supporting ratio was measured and shown. (. ; ; were compared with control group. ; ; were ... The protein concentration of the nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts was determined with the BCA™ Protein Assay kit (Thermo ...
A case of well-documented PVOD associated with a bone morphogenetic protein receptor protein type II (BMPR2) mutation has been ... Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease caused by an inherited mutation in bone morphogenetic protein receptor II. Am J Respir Crit ... 22] PVOD seems to occur more commonly in bone marrow transplant recipients than in the general population. [23, 24] ... Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in an adult following bone marrow transplantation. Case report and review of the literature. ...
The new study pinpoints one likely gene, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6), responsible for tooth number. While the gene ... The freshwater fish rapidly lost its armor, pelvic fin and other bones after moving from the ocean. Photo: Nicholas Ellis and ... Adult marine (top) and freshwater (bottom) threespine sticklebacks stained with a red dye that labels calcified bone. ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 6 polymorphisms are associated with radiographic progression in ankylosing spondylitis. PloS one ...
Home , Products , ELISA Kit , Rat , Rat BMP-4(Bone morphogenetic protein 4) ELISA Kit ...
... which encodes for a bone morphogenetic protein, is frequently upregulated through hypermethylation (85,86). The FLT4 gene, that ... Apoptosis, downregulation of protein kinases, histone deacetylases and heat-shock proteins. (41). ... Nucleic acid material of eukaryotes consists of DNA and histone proteins (83). Histone proteins are found as octamers and are ... p300/CREB binding protein (CBP) and nuclear receptors] (93). These enzymes neutralize positive charges of the histone proteins ...
bone morphogenetic protein 6 [Sour.... BOLL. 66037. BOLL. boule homolog, RNA binding protein.... ...
Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in the brain during normal aging and in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned animals. Chen, H. ... Chang, H. Y., Chou, C. C., Wu, M. L. & Wang, A. H. J., May 1 2017, In: Protein Expression and Purification. 133, p. 121-131 11 ... Expression of caspid protein VP1 for use as antigen for the diagnosis of enterovirus 71 infection. Shih, S. R., Li, Y. S., ... Comparison with native proteins by immunological assays and NMR spectroscopy. Rafnar, T., Ghosh, B., Metzler, W. J., Huang, S. ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein-6).. J. Cell Biol. 120. , 493. -. 502. Google Scholar ... A binding site for Gli proteins is essential for HNF-3floor plate enhancer activity in transgenics and can respond to Shh in ... When the Shh signal derived from the notochord is received by the neural plate, the widely expressed Gli2 and Gli3 proteins are ... In cultured cells, truncation of the activation domain in the C-terminal half results in a protein with repressor activity, ...
Inflammatory Cytokines Stimulate Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Expression and Release from Pancreatic Beta Cells. Publikation: ... We have recently showed that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and -4 are expressed in pancreatic islets and inhibit beta-cell ... IL-1β increased BMP-2 mRNA levels 6- and 3-fold in isolated islets of Langerhans from neonatal rat and human. Downstream target ...
Body weights at 3 months postoperatively were decreased by 6% and 3% in the control and amino acid groups, respectively. ... Hepcidin expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathways. ... Furthermore, expression of PPAR? and PPAR?-dependent proteins Cyp4a and ACSL1 were upregulated. In the PTENf/f mice, HFD ... 88.5%; P = 0.038). Further, median serum total protein level 1 year after surgery in the cologastrostomy group was ...
Recombinant Human BMP-8a Protein (1073-BP) is manufactured by R&D Systems, Inc. a Bio-Techne Brand. Cited in 8 publications. ... action of bone morphogenetic protein 6. PLoS ONE, 9(3):e92608. PMID: 24658703 ... Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a ... BMPs were originally identified as protein regulators of cartilage and bone formation. They have since been shown to be ...
bone morphogenetic protein 10. U: 1. BMP4. bone morphogenetic protein 4. U: 5 ... epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1. U: 4 ... growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, gamma interacting protein 1. U: 1 ...
Functional characterization of bone morphogenetic protein binding sites and Smad1/5 activation in human vascular cells ... Structure of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor ALK2 and implications for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva ... Familial primary pulmonary hypertension (gene PPH1) is caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II gene ... Endothelial cells produce bone morphogenetic protein 6 required for iron homeostasis in mice ...
Antibodies, ELISA kits, proteins, reagents. Order quickly and easily at antikoerper-online.de ... "Matrix Gla protein maintains normal and malignant hematopoietic progenitor cells by interacting with bone morphogenetic protein ... matrix Gla protein (MGP), matrix Gla protein (Mgp), matrix Gla protein L homeolog (mgp.L), matrix Gla protein (mgp), ... The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and likely acts as an inhibitor of bone formation. The encoded protein is found in ...
  • The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMPs were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we investigated the effects of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on breast cancer cell proliferation caused by estrogen using human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • BMPs are a family of structurally and functionally related proteins and represent a subfamily of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily. (bio-techne.com)
  • BMPs were originally identified as protein regulators of cartilage and bone formation. (bio-techne.com)
  • This triggers the assembly of a putative 'iron-sensing' complex, comprising of HFE, TfR2, BMPs (such as BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-9) and their receptor BMPR, and Hjv, which mediates signalling to activate hepcidin transcription via Smad proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, we discuss how these regions can be traced back in development to the function of a few key genes, including those that encode fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), sonic hedgehog (SHH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), forkhead box G1 (FOXG1), paired box 6 (PAX6) and LIM homeobox protein 2 (LHX2), that pattern the early telencephalon. (nyu.edu)
  • So we're going to go through its inflammatory modulating effects of what's called BMPs, which I'm going to refer to pretty frequently throughout the presentation, that's called bone morphogenetic proteins. (chiroeco.com)
  • I will go through these BMPs and their stem cell signaling pathway, and then we're going to talk about just principles of bone and cartilage. (chiroeco.com)
  • TGF-β-related molecules are expressed in all metazoan organisms investigated to date and include TGF-βs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), activins, inhibins, Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS, also termed anti-Müllerian hormone, AMH), nodal, and leftys (de Caestecker 2004). (cshmonographs.org)
  • This unique combination of surface topographies is designed to create an optimal host-bone response and actively participate in the fusion process by promoting the upregulation of osteogenic and angiogenic factors necessary for bone growth, encouraging natural production of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), downregulating inflammatory factors, and creating the potential for a faster and more robust fusion. (businesswire.com)
  • BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. (abbexa.com)
  • Noggin belongs to a course of polypeptides that bind to bone tissue morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and therefore NS1 stops the activation of BMP receptors (71). (grefi-mefi.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a large subclass of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. (timothyrlyman.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol rapidly activated MAPK phosphorylation including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways and BMP6, BMP7, and activin preferentially inhibited estradiol-induced p38 phosphorylation. (elsevier.com)
  • The new study pinpoints one likely gene, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6), responsible for tooth number. (berkeley.edu)
  • This QTL is located on chromosome 21 and contains an excellent candidate gene: Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (Bmp6). (berkeley.edu)
  • 11] Mendes JF,Siqueira EM,de Brito E Silva JG,et al.Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism independent of hemojuvelin(Hfe2)and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) transcript levels[J].Genes Nutr,2016,11:1. (magtech.com.cn)
  • The mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are regulators of hepcidin, was also down-regulated in the livers of ANG II-treated mice. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • When Recombinant Human BMP‑8a is present at 1 μg/mL, the concentration of recombinant human BMPR‑1A Fc Chimera that produces 50% of the optimal binding response is approximately 1.5‑6 μg/mL. (bio-techne.com)
  • Ridge augmentation was performed with a combination of rib graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein‑2. (who.int)
  • The biomaterials used for calvarial reconstruction were demineralised perforated bone matrix (DBM), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP2) and autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). (annals.edu.sg)
  • The aim was to test whether or not one of two biologic mediators, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB), is superior to the other and to control groups for localized bone regeneration. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on hematopoietic reconstitution after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological outcomes using a freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in sinus floor augmentation. (koreamed.org)
  • Graft resorption with the use of bone morphogenetic protein: lessons from anterior lumbar interbody fusion using femoral ring allografts and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. (ucdenver.edu)
  • BDNF/TrkB signaling activates Akt that phosphorylates and inhibits asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), which regulates the differentiation fate of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) and is altered in postmenopausal osteoporosis. (nature.com)
  • BDNF is involved in osteoblast cell differentiation and stimulates bone/cementum-related proteins including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone morphogenetic protein-2, and osteopontin expression in cementoblasts 6 . (nature.com)
  • Active AEP inhibits osteoblast differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein, fibronectin. (nature.com)
  • Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) are non-hematopoietic multipotent cells capable of differentiation into mesodermal cell types such as osteoblasts and adipocytes 13 . (nature.com)
  • Recent studies indicate that BMP-6 is closely related to tumor differentiation and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we developed a chemically defined, scalable, and reproducible specification protocol with bone morphogenetic protein 4, prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), and StemRegenin 1 (SR1) for hematopoietic differentiation of Mn iPSCs. (stemcell.com)
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Growth Differentiation Factor 6" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Growth Differentiation Factor 6" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Growth Differentiation Factor 6" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Protective Effects of Growth Differentiation Factor-6 on the Intervertebral Disc: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study. (harvard.edu)
  • Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, 6, 7 subgroup of the TGF-beta superfamily. (harvard.edu)
  • In terms of the effect on bone cell differentiation or proliferation, an ethanol extract of R. crispus root significantly stimulates alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, but partially increases bone nodule formation in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-2 converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts into the osteoblast lineage [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1995 Feb;128(4):following 713]. (cnreagent.com)
  • Formation of these gaps depends on the expression of proteins involved in mesenchymal cell differentiation, such as cartilage-derived morphogenic protein 1 (also called GDF5) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 5. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Without these proteins no joints are formed, since the appropriate differentiation of cells, which form the synovial membrane, are then lacking. (bmj.com)
  • A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS. (musc.edu)
  • Differentiation of an embryonic stem cell to hemogenic endothelium by defined factors: essential role of bone morphogenetic protein 4. (ucsf.edu)
  • Bisphosphonates are antiresorptive drugs that influence bone metabolism mainly via inhibition of osteoclast recruitment, differentiation, and bone resorption activity [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides their inhibitory effect on osteoclasts and bone resorption, bisphosphonates may promote the processes of bone formation and enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using an antibody specifically raised against Xenopus Eya1, we characterize the subcellular localization of Eya1 proteins, their levels of expression as well as their distribution in relation to progenitor and neuronal differentiation markers during otic neurogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Morpholino-based knockdown of Eya1 leads to reduction of proliferating, Sox3- and Islet1/2-immunopositive cells, redistribution of cell polarity proteins and loss of N-cadherin suggesting that Eya1 is required for maintenance of epithelial cells with apicobasal polarity, progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation during otic neurogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In tissue engineering, biomaterial scaffolds are considered a crucial component because they provide a physical environment for bone formation and play an important role in cell growth, adhesion, and differentiation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, different in vitro studies showed that EGF affects processes associated with bone healing, such as osteoblast differentiation and bone resorption. (bjbms.org)
  • Osteopontin (OPN) and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) were detected by immunochemistry, as indicators of bone remodeling and vascular density, respectively. (bjbms.org)
  • Matsuda N, Kimar NM, Ramakrishnan PR, Cho M-I. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor in osteoblastic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells. (bjbms.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) suppresses inflammatory genes in renal proximal tubular cells and regulates iron metabolism by inducing hepcidin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Human gingival fibroblast cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from P. gingivalis in the presence of resveratrol or THSG to analyze the expression of TNF- α , IL-1 β , and IL-6 genes. (hindawi.com)
  • When the Shh signal derived from the notochord is received by the neural plate, the widely expressed Gli2 and Gli3 proteins are presumably converted to their active forms in the ventral cells, leading to activation of transcription of their target genes, including Gli1. (biologists.com)
  • For humans, the protein products of these two genes share 98% amino acid (aa) sequence identity in their pro- and mature regions. (bio-techne.com)
  • Genetic polymorphism of prolactin, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B and Insulin- like growth factor 1 genes in two selected lines of Japanese quail. (ac.ir)
  • Four genes had been down regulated in each groups, together with genes involved in bone and hypertrophic cartilage ECM produc tion and mineralization. (ppar-signal.com)
  • proteins (NAIP) genes had been considerably upregulated in the GnRH-ant group set alongside the GnRH-a group, using the fold switch of 3.990 (SD 1.325), 6.274 (SD 1.542), and 2.156 (SD 1.443), respectively, (P 0.001). (immune-source.com)
  • Summary The present research showed, for the very first time, the manifestation degrees of genes mixed up in cytoplasmic maturity (BMP15, GDF9), adenosine triphosphate creation (ATPase 6), and antiapoptotic procedure (NAIP), in human being GV oocytes had been considerably higher in the GnRH-anta group than in the GnRH-a group in COS. (immune-source.com)
  • The stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 ( STRA6 ) and Sloan-Kettering viral oncogene homolog ( SKI ) genes are involved in vitamin A metabolism, and are implicated with A/M developmental abnormalities in human and animal studies. (molvis.org)
  • The primary downstream focus on genes of BMP signaling will be the Identification proteins. (grefi-mefi.org)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells-derived matrix Gla protein contribute to the alleviation of experimental colitis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • A thermoresponsive polydiolcitrate-gelatin scaffold and delivery system mediates effective bone formation from BMP9-transduced mesenchymal stem cells. (wjgnet.com)
  • Argonaute (AGO) proteins play an essential role in mediating BMP9-induced osteogenic signaling in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (wjgnet.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate whether the injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34) could promote the regeneration and chondroprotection of 3D printed scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a canine total meniscal meniscectomy model. (researchsquare.com)
  • Isolation of pig bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells suitable for one-step procedures in chondrogenic regeneration. (tissue-regeneration.at)
  • Comparison of Chondrogenic Potential in Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Bone Marrow. (worthington-biochem.com)
  • Characterization of Equine Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells: Adipogenic and Osteogenic Capacity and Comparison with Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. (worthington-biochem.com)
  • Possible mechanism of vitamin A deficiency causing anemia in children[J]. journal1, 2020, 28(6): 657-659. (magtech.com.cn)
  • These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. (abbexa.com)
  • In Indisulam (E7070) mammals, Shh signaling consists of two Ptc receptors (Ptc1 and Ptc2) with least three Gli proteins (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) (23,30,64). (grefi-mefi.org)
  • Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M. Bone morphogenetic protein receptors and signal transduction. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGFβ superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vacuum pump cylinder dysfunction with medicine or external woundless/scarless surgery and metastasized prostate inhibition of Smad signaling and is, like transforming growth factor-b superfamily, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP 6), has been altered by varying the individual studies could not have significant active concurrent medical illness or malignancy precluding EMP treatment. (dogaterapievi.org)
  • Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. (lookformedical.com)
  • TWEAK is a cell surface-associated protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and has multiple biological activities. (timothyrlyman.com)
  • Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the RANK signaling axis, the RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) is activated through key signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or NF-κB [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Key biomarkers shared between syndromes with ID included transferrin receptor, interleukin-6, fibroblast growth factor-23, and bone morphogenetic protein 6. (uib.no)
  • These proliferation defects could be a secondary consequence of the loss of Foxg1 caused by the abnormal expression of several morphogens (Fibroblast growth factor 8, bone morphogenetic proteins) in the telencephalon of Foxg1 null mutants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TGF-ß activation by bone marrow-derived thrombospondin-1 causes Schistosoma- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising cell source in regenerative medicine, of particular utility for cell therapies and tissue engineering, because adipose tissue can easily be harvested in large quantities compared to bone marrow, and ADSCs have high proliferation rates in culture. (ncu.edu.tw)
  • Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. (lookformedical.com)
  • Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • 1997). Northern blot analysis of RNA isolatedfrom various organs of adult mice now reveals thatthe Nkx2-3 gene is also highly expressed in spleenand at considerably lower levels in bone marrow,heart, liver and thymus (Fig. 1C). (fliphtml5.com)
  • Objective: In mice, homeostatic erythropoiesis occurs primarily in the bone marrow. (elsevier.com)
  • In humans, erythropoiesis occurs in the bone marrow. (elsevier.com)
  • 2013) Vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells exposed to hypoxic stress. (wisc.edu)
  • 6] Cabezas-Wallscheid N,Buettner F,Sommerkamp P,et al.Vitamin A-retinoic acid signaling regulates hematopoietic stem cell dormancy[J].Cell,2017,169(5):807-823. (magtech.com.cn)
  • 2017;6(5):883-887. (dogaterapievi.org)
  • Lipids Health Dis, 2017 Dec 6. (nih.gov)
  • BMP-8, also known as osteogenic protein 2 (OP-2), was first isolated from a hippocampal library in a screen to identify relatives of BMP-7 (OP-1) (1). (bio-techne.com)
  • osteoarthritis , osteogenic PTK787 2HCl proteins-1 , sandwich ELISA , synovial liquid Intro Osteoarthritis (OA) from the knee is really a degenerative osteo-arthritis that is mainly seen in older people population. (tak-700.info)
  • 6) Recently, osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, has shown a great potential for cartilage repair due to its anabolic and anticatabolic effects on cartilage. (tak-700.info)
  • Takegami K, An HS, Kumano F, Chiba K, Thonar EJ, Singh K, Masuda K. Osteogenic protein-1 is most effective in stimulating nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells to repair their matrix after chondroitinase ABC-induced in vitro chemonucleolysis. (rush.edu)
  • An HS, Takegami K, Kamada H, Nguyen CM, Thonar EJ, Singh K, Andersson GB, Masuda K. Intradiscal administration of osteogenic protein-1 increases intervertebral disc height and proteoglycan content in the nucleus pulposus in normal adolescent rabbits. (rush.edu)
  • Through our extensive research, which has been published in several peer-reviewed journals, the industry is now beginning to understand the importance of our very specific titanium nano-architecture in its ability to promote the generation of osteogenic and angiogenic growth factors necessary for bone growth and fusion compared to other surfaces. (businesswire.com)
  • In addition to osteogenic stimulation, angiogenesis has recently been the focus of efforts to improve the clinical success of bone tissue repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepcidin expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathways. (omicsdi.org)
  • Thus, molecular concepts of structural remodelling in AS need revision, and new pathways involved in bone formation, such as Wingless proteins or transforming growth factor β, might be a clue to the pathogenesis of structural remodelling in AS. (bmj.com)
  • Cell death & disease , Vol. 9 , Issue 6 , pp. 691 , ( 2018 ) ( PubMed ). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • 10] Hibler E,Jurutka P,Egan J,et al.Gestational vitamin D supplementation leads to reduced perinatal RXRA DNA methylation:Results from the MAVIDOS trial[J].J Bone Miner Res,2018,34(2):231-240. (magtech.com.cn)
  • 12] Houston D.Hepcidin and the anemia of critical illness[J].Crit Care Med,2018,46(6):1030-1031. (magtech.com.cn)
  • Bone tissue morphogenetic proteins 15 (Mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (didn't have any manifestation in either group, as offered in Desk?4. (immune-source.com)
  • The protein produced from the EIF2AK4 gene helps cells respond appropriately to changes that could damage the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • University of California, Berkeley, scientists say that the corresponding gene in humans may turn out to be involved in tooth, jaw and bone formation. (berkeley.edu)
  • In transgenic mouse embryos, N-terminally truncated Gli2, unlike the full length protein, activates a Shh target gene, HNF3beta, in the dorsal neural tube, thus mimicking the effect of Shh signal. (biologists.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and likely acts as an inhibitor of bone formation. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Here, we show that during transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-mediated EMT, inhibition of the microRNAs 200 (miR200) family results in upregulated expression of the mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), a negative regulator of EGFR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [ 6 ] However, the specific gene defect was not discovered until 1996 when Feder et al . (medscape.com)
  • Gene delivery to skeletal muscle results in sustanined expression and systemic delivery of a therapeutic protein. (cnreagent.com)
  • Mutations of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene ( BMPR2), a component of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family which plays a key role in cell growth, have recently been identified as causing familial PPH. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION The sporadic form of PPH is associated with germline mutations of the gene encoding the receptor protein BMPR-II in at least 26% of cases. (bmj.com)
  • 6 Recognition of the inherited form of this disorder enabled linkage, with no evidence of locus heterogeneity, and, most recently, positional cloning of a gene mapped to a locus designated PPH1 on chromosome 2q33. (bmj.com)
  • 7-11 Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene ( BMPR2 ), a receptor member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family, have recently been identified as causing FPPH. (bmj.com)
  • Mutation in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension in a large kindred. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. (abbexa.com)
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and mutations resulting in loss of APC protein function are associated with carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Wang Y, Sun HY, Kumar S , Puerta MDM, Jo H , Rezvan A. ZBTB46 is a shear-sensitive transcription factor inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation via gene expression regulation of cell cycle proteins. (academictree.org)
  • 2016;101(6):2602-11. (inra.fr)
  • A 2016 study found that nearly half of 800 people with dental implants required a bone graft prior to implantation. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • In diabetic patients, an increase of myofibroblast progenitor cells (MFPCs), also known as fibrocytes, was found to be associated with decreased BMP-6 expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The obstructed kidneys of BMP-6 null mice showed 2.2-fold more iron deposition, in association with 3.3-fold higher expression of the oxidative stress marker HO-1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, ureteral obstruction leads to down-regulation of BMP-6 expression, and BMP-6 deficiency aggravates tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis independent of BMP-7. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2005). Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in human metastatic prostate and breast cancer. (nature.com)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of BMP-6, E-cadherin, and δEF1 at the mRNA level in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as well as in 16 breast cancer specimens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunoblot analysis was used to measure the expression of δEF1 at the protein level in δEF1-overexpressing and δEF1-interfered MDA-MB-231 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further, we found that BMP-6 inhibited δEF1 transcription, resulting in an up-regulation of E-cadherin mRNA expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, ectopic expression of δEF1 was able to block BMP-6-induced transactivation of E-cadherin, whereas RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of endogenous δEF1 in breast cancer cells abolished E-cadherin transactivation by BMP-6. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to down-regulating the expression of δEF1, BMP-6 also physically dislodged δEF1 from E-cadherin promoter to allow the activation of E-cadherin transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with the fact that higher level of δEF1 expression is associated with more invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells, our collective data suggests that δEF1 is likely the switch through which BMP-6 restores E-cadherin-mediated cell-to-cell adhesion and prevents breast cancer metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, a number of recent studies have shown that BMP-6 expression is associated with progression of tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and SirT1 expression were induced by THSG. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein Expression and Purification. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolation and characterization of piscine osteonectin and downregulation of its expression by PTH-related protein. (ualg.pt)
  • Isoform-specific antibodies to TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 proteins were generated and have been used to examine the expression of these factors in the developing mouse embryo from 12.5-18.5 d post coitum (d.p.c. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, all three TGF beta proteins demonstrated discrete cell-specific patterns of expression at various stages of development and the wide variety of tissues expressing TGF beta proteins represent all three primary embryonic germ layers. (rupress.org)
  • Compared to the expression of TGF beta mRNA transcripts in a given embryonic tissue, TGF beta proteins were frequently colocalized within the same cell type as the mRNA, but in some cases were observed to localize to different cells than the mRNA, thereby indicating that a complex pattern of transcription, translation, and secretion for TGF beta s 1-3 exists in the mouse embryo. (rupress.org)
  • Expression of cytochrome P450 CYP81A6 in rice: tissue specificity, protein subcellular localization, and response to herbicide application[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2015, 16(2): 113-122. (zju.edu.cn)
  • thereafter the expression peaked at 120 h and returned gradually to basal levels by Day 6. (zju.edu.cn)
  • The Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Up-Regulates the Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor Expression in Granulosa Cells. (inra.fr)
  • our data imply that EPHA6 expression is beneficial for glioblastoma multiforme inhibition, particularly in combination with activation of BMP-2 signaling.These results suggest that EPHA6 expression or protein levels could be used as biomarkers for identification of subsets of glioblastoma multiforme patients who might benefit from BMP treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Addition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 to healthy FLS stimulated with SF inhibited the expression of α-sma mRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also compared expression of proteins associated with implantation in luminal epithelium and stroma. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In the LIF-null animals, no OSM protein was detected in either LE or stroma adjacent to the embryo, indicating that expression requires uterine LIF in addition to a blastocyst signal. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), which is a peptide growth factor closely related to transforming growth factors-β (TGFs-β), decreased the expression of α2 and α3 integrins in Saos-2 cells, and in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, respectively. (jyu.fi)
  • We hypothesized locally delivered ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate act as a bone graft extender to increase the volume of new bone formed in a murine model of posterior lumbar fusion. (ijssurgery.com)
  • Fresh morselized bone graft from 12 donor mice was used. (ijssurgery.com)
  • 1 - 3 An additional $2 billion is spent on products to augment iliac crest autograft and local bone graft with bone graft extenders or substitutes, such as demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, and bone morphogenetic proteins. (ijssurgery.com)
  • Dynamic compression plate and cancellous bone graft for aseptic nonunion after intramedullary nailing of femoral fracture. (gov.tw)
  • As a scaffold, most present graft biomaterials are able to osteoconduct matrix or three-dimensional substrates to support new bone tissue formation [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ] . (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • bone graft. (intjmorphol.com)
  • Bone reconstruction requires bone graft surgery in various conditions such as tumors, trauma, disease, and fracture of the bone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Will I Need a Bone Graft for Dental Implants? (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • A bone graft, or bone augmentation, for dental implants ensures a strong and secure hold for the artificial tooth before placing the implant. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • Although a bone graft procedure may not be a desirable experience, it makes a massive difference in the long-term results of the dental implant process. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • Our team offers a bone graft for dental implants when necessary, along with providing assistance and treatment throughout the entire dental implant process. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • To learn more about a bone graft for dental implants, give us a call at (206) 539-5734 to schedule a consultation visit. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • It is essential to restore lost bone in the jawbone through bone graft treatment after tooth loss. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • A bone graft is a procedure to rebuild lost bone inside the jaw and recommended for patients who experience loss of bone density as a result of tooth loss. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • Good candidates for a bone graft include those who are planning to undergo implants for missing teeth, those with tooth loss or gum disease, and those with bone loss. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • The purpose of a bone graft procedure is to rebuild bone density that may have become lost after the natural tooth becomes lost. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • There are two primary signs the dentist may look for when determining if a bone graft is necessary. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • If the bone inside the jaw is thin, then we will likely recommend a bone graft. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • If the bone is soft, then a minor bone graft might be required to strengthen the bone and provide additional support for the implant. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • The majority of procedures use real bone, although a synthetic bone material is used for an alloplastic graft. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • A bone graft is beneficial for patients as it provides additional support to the dental implant. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • 1] Nambiema A,Robert A,Yaya I.Prevalence and risk factors of anemia in children aged from 6 to 59 months in Togo:analysis from Togo demographic and health survey data,2013-2014[J].BMC Public Health,2019,19(1):215. (magtech.com.cn)
  • PRP did not enhance bone regeneration. (annals.edu.sg)
  • YUHSpace: Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB for localized bone regeneration. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • OBJECTIVES: Improvement in localized bone regeneration is needed to avoid the use of autogenous tissue. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of rhBMP-2 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to all other groups including the group with rhPDGF-BB. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Masterson JC, Molloy EL, Gilbert JL, McCormack N, Adams A, O'Dea S. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in airway epithelial cells during regeneration. (ucdenver.edu)
  • This study was to clarify whether HA-g-CS and moderate-intensity exercise might have a synergistic effect on facilitating (1) regeneration of osteochondral defects and (2) subchondral bone remodeling in a mouse model of osteochondral defects. (medsci.org)
  • Today's webinar, "Breakthrough in Stem Cell Activation: The First Oral Protein Complex for Tissue Regeneration. (chiroeco.com)
  • Genetic and pharmacologic suppression of PPARγ enhances NELL-1-stimulated bone regeneration. (ucla.edu)
  • Bone healing is a quite complex and dynamic process that dates back to embryonic bone development and regeneration, and ends with the restoration of anatomical and functional standard conditions of the bone. (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • The manufacturing production of scaffolds with ideal characteristics is one of the most challenging issues in bone tissue regeneration strategy. (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • Osteochondral lesions treatment and regeneration demands biomimetic strategies aiming physicochemical and biological properties of both bone and cartilage tissues, with long-term clinical outcomes. (springer.com)
  • The significant studies on silk fibroin-based structures, namely hydrogels and scaffolds, towards bone, cartilage, and osteochondral tissue repair and regeneration are overviewed herein. (springer.com)
  • These studies demonstrate that a fibrin and bone powder scaffold loaded with ANG might be useful to promote bone regeneration by enhanced angiogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alisertib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking a protein called aurora kinase A that is needed for cell growth. (georgiacancerinfo.org)
  • Fanning S § , Xu W § , Beaurepaire C, Suhan J, Nantel A, Mitchell A * . Functional control of the Candida albicans cell wall by catalytic protein kinase A subunit Tpk1. (cmu.edu)
  • and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Tyrosine kinase Eph receptor A6 sensitizes glioma-initiating cells towards bone morphogenetic protein-induced apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • The genetic cause of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva was identified as a recurrent missense mutation in the GS activation domain of activin receptor Ia/activinlike kinase 2 ( ACVR1/ALK2 ), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor, in all individuals with classic fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. (medscape.com)
  • A-kinase anchoring protein 10 [Source:HG. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Wnt flagging is an upstream controller of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4) and FGF, both significant in lung advancement. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In mice treated with nitrofen, GATA-6 (an upstream activator of Wnt 7b) Wnt 7b, Wnt2, and BMP4, were down-managed. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The purpose of the research was to explore the therapeutic action of simvastatin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(gamma-benzyl l-glutamate) (PEG- b -PBLG 50 ) on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (II/RI) through downregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway as compared to free simvastatin (Sim). (dovepress.com)
  • In addition, I will describe the novel findings that demonstrate bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) as a paracrine negative regulator of adrenal C19 steroid secretion. (openrepository.com)
  • Therefore, while microbial plaque is the primary etiology and initiates the host immune response, which induces the signs of periodontitis [ 5 ], the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis , lipopolysaccharide (LPS), initiates the production of various cytokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and TNF- α [ 6 ] which infiltrate gingival connective tissue and elicit a local inflammatory response. (hindawi.com)
  • Its supplementation directly suppresses the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, IFN α , and IFN β in a wide range of tissues [ 15 - 19 ], including the brain in rodents [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • After acute brain injury or infection there is a complex inflammatory response that involves activation of microglia and astrocytes and increased production of cytokines, chemokines, acute phase proteins, and complement factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytokines, chemokines (a type of cytokine), and growth factors are proteins that act as immune signaling molecules. (timothyrlyman.com)
  • Cell proliferation, viability, and adhesion were evaluated using endothelial cells in vitro , and angiogenesis and new bone formation were evaluated using a rabbit calvarial defect model in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biphasic effects of epidermal growth factor on bone nodule formation by isolated rat calvaria cells in vitro. (bjbms.org)
  • Prior results indicate that the BMP type I receptor ALK3 is mainly involved in the acute inflammatory hepcidin induction four and 72 h after IL-6 administration. (omicsdi.org)
  • 5 It is well known that oxygen supply reestablishment results in ROS production, causing lipid oxidation reaction in cell membranes, 6 and blood supply reestablishment leads to production of a lot of inflammatory factors to aggravate tissue injury and intestinal barrier dysfunction, and toxic metabolite products enter the systemic blood circulation and threaten life. (dovepress.com)
  • Sub-clinical dose of bone morphogenetic protein-2 does not precipitate rampant, sustained inflammatory response in bone wound healing. (musc.edu)
  • Vertebrate bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP-1), a protein which induces cartilage and bone formation and expresses metalloendopeptidase activity. (embl.de)
  • Fatty Acid Metabolism, Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2, and the Right Ventricle. (ucdenver.edu)
  • J Bone Miner Metab 1996;14(3):137-45. (bjbms.org)
  • Increasing the level of sex hormones, type 1 collagen and bone morphogenetic proteins. (enhancetech.eu)
  • A second "sponge control" group received morselized bone with the control collagen sponge. (ijssurgery.com)
  • The third group received morselized bone and a collagen sponge with ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. (ijssurgery.com)
  • Ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, and its role in bone synthesis have been studied since the discovery of scurvy, 9 and it has been involved in the collagen biosynthetic pathway 10 and upregulates alkaline phosphatase. (ijssurgery.com)
  • Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts. (lookformedical.com)
  • For example, in the complement proteases, the CUB domains mediate dimerisation and binding to collagen-like regions of target proteins (e.g. (embl.de)
  • Second, turnover of tumor ECs is up to 50 times higher than that of endothelium in normal quiescent tissues [ 6 ]. (avensonline.org)
  • In individuals with an inherited disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), the same ACVR1 mutations lead not to cancer, but to a different mechanism resulting in abnormal growth of bone in other tissues. (stjude.org)
  • Platelet Rich Plasma: A source of multiple autologous growth factors for bone grafts. (thieme-connect.com)
  • The use of Platelet-Rich Plasma to Enhance the Sucess of Bone Grafts Around Dental Implants. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Bone grafting the jaws in the 21st century: The use of platelet-rich plasma and bone morphogenetic protein. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Matrix Gla protein maintains normal and malignant hematopoietic progenitor cells by interacting with bone morphogenetic protein-4. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Prostate cancer induces bone metastasis through Wnt-induced bone morphogenetic protein-dependent and independent mechanisms. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, the fact that this BMP is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 has led to speculation of possible bone inductive activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, BMP5/6/7/8-type ligands, Screw (Scw) and Glass bottom boat (Gbb), form heterodimers with Dpp for DV patterning and PCV development, respectively. (helsinki.fi)
  • Sequence analysis indicates that the Scw ligand contains two N-glycosylation motifs: one being highly conserved between BMP2/4- and BMP5/6/7/8-type ligands, and the other being Scw ligand specific. (helsinki.fi)
  • These results suggest that tolerance for structural changes of BMP5/6/7/8-type ligands is dependent on developmental constraints. (helsinki.fi)
  • Genetically engineered 'triple-knockout' mice lacking three skin barrier proteins were used in the study to replicate the skin defects found in eczema sufferers. (wattlab.org)
  • The successful separation of a pair of craniopagus twins resulted in significant cranial vault defects that required reconstruction.1 Previously, calvarial reconstruction in separated craniopagus twins was postponed until adolescence when autologous bone was more plentiful.2 The goals of pediatric calvarial reconstruction are to provide protection for the brain, to enable normal growth of the cranial vault and to reduce deformity of the head shape. (annals.edu.sg)
  • Shen K, Liu X, Qin H, Chai Y, Wang L, Yu B. HA-g-CS Implant and Moderate-intensity Exercise Stimulate Subchondral Bone Remodeling and Promote Repair of Osteochondral Defects in Mice. (medsci.org)
  • Biomechanical Integrity in Craniofacial Surgery: Calvarial Reconstruction in Favorable and Infected Defects with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2. (musc.edu)
  • Although small defects self-regenerate, large bone defects remain challenging for bone replacement because they do not heal themselves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Allogeneic mineralized bone powder has been widely used in the clinic to reconstruct bone defects because the molecular structure of bone is the same across species, making it possible to use bone from animal sources for bone grafts to enhance bone healing efficiency [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1998). "Bone morphogenetic protein-6 production in human osteoblastic cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both BDNF and its TrkB receptor are present at various stages of the bone formation process, and they are upregulated in human osteoblasts and implicated in fracture healing 7 . (nature.com)
  • IL-1β increased BMP-2 mRNA levels 6- and 3-fold in isolated islets of Langerhans from neonatal rat and human. (ku.dk)
  • In this report, we present a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) (N-Hydroxy-6-(5-nitro-naphtalimide)-hexanamide: ES8) that efficiently inhibits angiogenesis in relevant ex vivo models (Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), 3D aortic ring assay) and in vivo (chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), Zebrafish). (avensonline.org)
  • Repeat use of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 for second level lumbar arthrodesis. (rush.edu)
  • Caloriburn-GP also preserves ALL the metabolism-enhancing bioactive compounds from human studies: 6-Paradol, 6-Gingerdione, 6-Shogaol, and 6-Gingerol. (naturalscience.com)
  • The main purpose of this paper is to show one possible application of this new method of investigation: 3D inner display and morphometric characterization of a human bone sample previously grafted with a scaffold. (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • The main purpose of this paper is to show the possible applications of microtomography for 3D inner displaying and morphometric characterization of a human bone tissue grafted with an osteoconductive biomaterial. (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • Recombinant protein of human BMPR1B. (abbexa.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Sclerostin Domain Containing Protein 1 (SOSTDC1) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Sclerostin Domain Containing Protein 1 (SOSTDC1) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Sclerostin domain containing protein 1(SOSTDC1) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (glideruniversity.org)
  • also called as ALK2, ALK3 and ALK4 respectively) and the signaling proteins (SMADs 4 and 5) in the human adrenal gland, as well as the human adrenocortical cell line H295R. (openrepository.com)
  • Bone loss in osteoporosis is a result of an imbalance in bone remodeling from an increased rate of osteoclast bone resorption that exceeds osteoblast bone formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). (lookformedical.com)
  • An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS. (lookformedical.com)
  • Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE. (lookformedical.com)
  • When tooth loss occurs, the supporting bone loses its primary purpose, and the process of resorption begins. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • Resorption will also mean there is less bone that can bond with the titanium implant and help to solidify a firm hold of the implant. (gentlingsmiles.com)
  • Raisz LG, Simmons HA, Sandberg AL, Canalis E. Direct stimulation of bone resorption by epidermal growth factor. (bjbms.org)
  • Most recently, we have focused our efforts on elucidating critical pathogenic factors in the development of bone and soft tissue tumors (BSTTs). (upenn.edu)
  • Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES. (lookformedical.com)
  • Giant cell tumors of the knee: subchondral bone integrity affects the outcome. (gov.tw)
  • More targeted sequencing of additional tumors was conducted to track how instructions encoded in DNA were translated into the proteins that do the work of cells. (stjude.org)
  • Meta-analysis showed that coating of titanium surfaces with bisphosphonates increases alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts after 3 days ( n = 1), 7 ( n = 7), 14 ( n = 6) and 21 ( n = 3) days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DMH1 has been used for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibition. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells, an ER - cell line had significantly reduced BMP-6 and E-cadherin mRNA levels, suggesting an inverse correlation between BMP-6/E-cadherin and δEF1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies on biological and synthetic biomaterials have been carried out to restore form and function of lost bone structures. (oapublishinglondon.com)
  • Gli family zinc finger proteins are mediators of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in vertebrates. (biologists.com)
  • H-type-1 antigen remained higher on day 5, and was not reduced even by day 6 in contrast to wild type uterus. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5, or androgen receptor-associated protein 55) is a transforming growth factor-β-inducible LIM protein whose deregulation is implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. (nature.com)
  • 2007). Bone morphogenetic proteins and prostate cancer: evolving complexities. (nature.com)
  • Wahdan-Alaswad RS, Song K, Krebs TL, Shola DT, Gomez JA, Matsuyama S, Danielpour D. Insulin-like growth factor I suppresses bone morphogenetic protein signaling in prostate cancer cells by activating mTOR signaling. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Association of bone metastatic burden with survival benefit from prostate radiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that R13, a small molecular TrkB receptor agonist prodrug, inhibits AEP and promotes bone formation. (nature.com)
  • Protein scaffold-based molecular probes for cancer molecular imaging. (stanford.edu)
  • Since the '60s the application of molecular methods to evolutionary systematics - especially DNA and protein sequences analysis - has had a profound effect on our understanding of the relationships among organisms. (ualg.pt)
  • Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. (bio-techne.com)
  • Wild type (WT) and BMP-6 null mice underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Twenty-four healthy male C57BL/6 mice underwent an uninstrumented posterior L3-L5 lumbar fusion. (ijssurgery.com)
  • Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Classic and atypical fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) phenotypes are caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ACVR1. (medscape.com)
  • A standardized incidence ratio of 68 for colorectal cancer was reported for carriers of hMLH1 or hMSH2 mutations compared with the general population ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling network, comprising evolutionary conserved BMP2/4/Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Chordin/Short gastrulation (Sog), is widely utilized for dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning during animal development. (helsinki.fi)
  • A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the future, it may be possible to harness some of the molecules identified in the study (in particular a protein called TSLP, which has been found in previous research to modify tumour formation and progression) to treat skin cancer. (wattlab.org)
  • Sequential coculture with bone morphogenetic protein 4, PGE2, and SR1 led to robust Mn iPSC hematopoietic progenitor cell formation. (stemcell.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that is generally characterized by progressive cartilage deterioration, sclerosis of the underlying subchondral bone, osteophyte formation and low-grade synovitis [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three months postoperatively, the lumbar spine underwent high-resolution micro-computed tomography for analysis of bone formation, density, and bridging fusion. (ijssurgery.com)
  • Locally delivered ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate in a murine model of posterior spinal fusion yielded statistically significant increases in new bone formation in the lumbar spine but statistically significant decreases in mineralized bone fraction. (ijssurgery.com)
  • although clinically efficacious, some common risks of the use of rhBMP-2 in patients include heterotopic bone formation and life-threatening soft tissue swelling, resulting in airway obstruction in the setting of anterior cervical fusion. (ijssurgery.com)
  • 7 , 8 Therefore, the development of a newer, lower-cost, noninferior method for bone healing and formation with fewer complications is needed. (ijssurgery.com)
  • The extent of cartilage repair was correlated positively to bone formation activity at the injured site as verified by microCT and correlation analysis. (medsci.org)
  • This bone formation process was accompanied by an increase in osteogenesis and chondrogenesis factors at the injury site which promoted cartilage repair. (medsci.org)
  • Fusion of joints is based on increased endochondral ossification, which allows bone formation and bridges the joint space. (bmj.com)
  • Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a key proinflammatory cytokine in AS, but is a potent inhibitor of bone formation, and so is unlikely to explain the formation of osteophytes in AS. (bmj.com)
  • Wingless (Wnt) proteins, such as Wnt-14 (also known as Wnt-9a), are also crucial for the initiation of joint formation in the limbs. (bmj.com)
  • A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. (ouhsc.edu)
  • The process of bone formation. (lookformedical.com)
  • The resulting attachmentsite is characterized by a fibrovascular scar tissue interface (IF), without formation of anintermediate zone of fibrocartilage between tendon (T) and bone (B). (Reprinted fromRodeo SA. (2medicalcare.com)
  • Stromal cells of LIF-null animals showed no evidence of decidual giant cell formation even by day 6 of pregnancy. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, in vivo implantation resulted in enhanced angiogenesis, and new bone formation depended on the amount of loaded ANG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, our results indicate that EGF promotes bone formation and microvascularization in ONFH and thus positively affects the preservation of femoral head during healing. (bjbms.org)