Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Breaks in bones.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.

Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. (1/184)

Cbfa1, a transcription factor that belongs to the runt-domain gene family, plays an essential role in osteogenesis. Cbfa1-deficient mice completely lacked both intramembranous and endochondral ossification, owing to the maturational arrest of osteoblasts, indicating that Cbfa1 has a fundamental role in osteoblast differentiation. However, Cbfa1 was also expressed in chondrocytes, and its expression was increased according to the maturation of chondrocytes. Terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes expressed Cbfa1 extensively. The significant expression of Cbfa1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), and its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes was most prominent at E14.5-16.5. In Cbfa1-deficient mice, whose entire skeleton was composed of cartilage, the chondrocyte differentiation was disturbed. Calcification of cartilage occurred in the restricted parts of skeletons, including tibia, fibula, radius, and ulna. Type X collagen, BMP6, and Indian hedgehog were expressed in their hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and collagenase 3 were not expressed at all, indicating that they are directly regulated by Cbfa1 in the terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chondrocyte differentiation was severely disturbed in the rest of the skeleton. The expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor, Indian hedgehog, type X collagen, and BMP6 was not detected in humerus and femur, indicating that chondrocyte differentiation was blocked before prehypertrophic chondrocytes. These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of SpBMP5-7, a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily expressed in sea urchin embryos. (2/184)

TGF-beta ligands are probably pan-bilaterian in phylogenetic distribution. The family appears to have diversified greatly with the evolution of the vertebrates, but only a few invertebrate deuterostome TGF-beta molecules have so far been isolated. A search for members of this family expressed in sea urchin embryos, using canonical PCR primers, revealed a single-copy gene encoding a new TGF-beta protein. The sequence which it encodes is closely related to those of vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 5-7. No additional TGF-beta family members were uncovered other than univin, which had previously been reported.  (+info)

Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation. (3/184)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-(&bgr;) superfamily, and is most similar to BMP-5, osteogenic protein (OP)-1/BMP-7, and OP-2/BMP-8. In the present study, we characterized the endogenous BMP-6 signaling pathway during osteoblast differentiation. BMP-6 strongly induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in cells of osteoblast lineage, including C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and ROB-C26 cells. The profile of binding of BMP-6 to type I and type II receptors was similar to that of OP-1/BMP-7 in C2C12 cells and MC3T3-E1 cells; BMP-6 strongly bound to activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2 (also termed ActR-I), together with type II receptors, i.e. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) and activin type II receptor (ActR-II). In addition, BMP-6 weakly bound to BMPR-IA (ALK-3), to which BMP-2 also bound. In contrast, binding of BMP-6 to BMPR-IB (ALK-6), and less efficiently to ALK-2 and BMPR-IA, together with BMPR-II was detected in ROB-C26 cells. Intracellular signalling was further studied using C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Among the receptor-regulated Smads activated by BMP receptors, BMP-6 strongly induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad5, and less efficiently those of Smad1. However, Smad8 was constitutively phosphorylated, and no further phosphorylation or nuclear accumulation of Smad8 by BMP-6 was observed. These findings indicate that in the process of differentiation to osteoblasts, BMP-6 binds to ALK-2 as well as other type I receptors, and transduces signals mainly through Smad5 and possibly through Smad1.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-6 and parathyroid hormone-related protein coordinately regulate the hypertrophic conversion in mouse clonal chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. (4/184)

We evaluated the roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, BMP-4 and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the hypertrophic conversion using mouse chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. In ATDC5 cells, the expression of BMP-6 and PTHrP receptor mRNAs increased in parallel with the progression of chondrogenic differentiation of these cells, exhibiting a time course similar to that of type II collagen, a phenotypic marker of proliferating chondrocytes, while BMP-4 mRNA was continuously expressed throughout the differentiation processes. The expression of type X collagen mRNA, a phenotypic marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes, was upregulated by BMP-6 and BMP-4, and downregulated by PTHrP(1-141). The expression of BMP-6 mRNA was upregulated while that of BMP-4 mRNA was downregulated by both BMP-6 and BMP-4. Moreover, the expression of BMP-6 mRNA was downregulated by PTHrP(1-141). Furthermore, even in the presence of PTHrP(1-141), BMP-6 increased the transcript level of type X collagen in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that transiently expressed BMP-6 promotes the hypertrophic conversion in association with the augmentation of BMP-6 gene expression by BMP signals and that both BMP-6 and PTHrP coordinately regulate the rate of the hypertrophic conversion of ATDC5 cells.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary gland. (5/184)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6, also known as vegetal-pale-gene-related and decaplentaplegic-vegetal-related) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of multifunctional signaling molecules. BMP-6 appears to play various biological roles in developing tissues, including regulation of epithelial differentiation. To study the possible involvement of BMP-6 in normal and neoplastic human salivary glands, we compared its mRNA and protein expression in 4 fetal and 15 adult salivary glands and in 22 benign and 32 malignant salivary gland tumors. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis indicated that BMP-6 transcripts are expressed at low levels in acinar cells of adult submandibular glands but not in ductal or stromal cells. BMP-6 was immunolocated specifically in serous acini of parotid and submandibular glands. None was found in primitive fetal acini or any other types of cell in adult salivary glands, including mucous acini and epithelial cells of intercalated, striated, and excretory ducts. All 16 cases of acinic cell carcinoma consistently exhibited cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining in the acinar tumor cells. Other cell types in these tumors, including intercalated duct-like cells, clear, vacuolated cells, and nonspecific glandular cells, exhibited no cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining. Other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors lacked BMP-6 immunoreactivity, except in areas of squamous differentiation. The results indicate that in salivary glands, BMP-6 expression is uniquely associated with acinar cell differentiation and suggest that BMP-6 may play a role in salivary gland function. More importantly, our experience of differential diagnostic problems related to salivary gland tumors suggests that the demonstration of consistent and specific BMP-6 immunoreactivity in acinic cell carcinoma is likely to be of clinical value.  (+info)

Tel-2 is a novel transcriptional repressor related to the Ets factor Tel/ETV-6. (6/184)

We report here the isolation of Tel-2, a novel member of the Ets transcription factor family, with high homology to Tel/ETV-6. Tel-2 is the second mammalian member of the Tel Ets family subclass whose prototype Tel is involved in various chromosomal translocations in human cancers. Six differentially expressed alternative splice products of Tel-2 were characterized encoding different Tel-2 isoforms which either contain or lack the amino-terminal Pointed domain and also vary at the carboxyl terminus. In contrast to Tel, which is highly expressed in several different cell types and tissues, Tel-2 is only weakly expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, including placenta, prostate, spleen, liver, and lung. Tel-2 binds to functionally relevant Ets-binding sites of several genes and only the Tel-2 isoform containing the Pointed domain and the DNA-binding domain acts as a strong repressor of transcription. The retinoic acid receptor alpha and bone morphogenetic protein-6B (BMP-6) genes are specifically repressed by Tel-2 indicating a function for Tel-2 as an inhibitor of differentiation. Due to the important involvement of Tel in human cancer and the location of Tel-2 within the MHC cluster region, Tel-2 might be involved in chromosomal translocations in human cancer as well.  (+info)

Skin cell induction of calcitonin gene-related peptide in embryonic sensory neurons in vitro involves activin. (7/184)

Target skin cells induce the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naive embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro, but the molecular basis of that induction is not known. Recombinant activin or bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) dramatically increase the number of sensory neurons with CGRP and substance P in vitro (X. Ai et al., 1999, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 14, 506-518). These experiments were designed to test if activin or BMPs accounted for the CGRP-inductive activity by skin cells. To identify factors from skin that induce CGRP, we developed a bioassay in which embryonic DRG neurons isolated before peripheral target contact in vivo are challenged in vitro with specific factors. Conditioned medium from an embryonic rat skin cell line induced neuronal CGRP expression, and induction was blocked by follistatin, implicating transforming growth factor family members. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the skin cell line medium contained several activin and bone morphogenetic protein moieties. Antibody specific to activin neutralized most of the CGRP-inductive activity in skin conditioned medium. These data indicate that the CGRP-inductive action of skin cells involves activin and establish activin as a candidate regulator of this sensory neuropeptide phenotype during development.  (+info)

Ca2+ and BMP-6 signaling regulate E2F during epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. (8/184)

The epidermis consists of a squamous epithelium continuously replenished by committed stem cells, which can either self-renew or differentiate. We demonstrated previously that E2F genes are differentially expressed in developing epidermis (Dagnino, L., Fry, C. J., Bartley, S. M., Farnham, P., Gallie, B. L., and Phillips, R. A. (1997) Cell Growth Differ. 8, 553-563). Thus, we hypothesized that various E2F proteins likely play distinct growth regulatory roles in the undifferentiated stem cells and in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. To further understand the function of E2F genes in epidermal morphogenesis, we have examined the expression, regulation, and protein-protein interactions of E2F factors in undifferentiated cultured murine primary keratinocytes or in cells induced to differentiate with Ca(2+) or BMP-6 (bone morphogenetic protein 6). We find similar patterns of E2F regulation with both differentiating agents and demonstrate a switch in expression from E2F-1, -2, and -3 in undifferentiated, proliferating cells to E2F-5 in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation by transforming growth factor-beta1 did not enhance E2F-5 protein levels, suggesting that this response is specific to differentiation rather than reversible cell cycle withdrawal. E2F-5 up-regulation is also accompanied by formation of heteromeric nuclear complexes containing E2F5, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1. Overexpression of E2F5 specifically inhibited DNA synthesis in undifferentiated keratinocytes in an HDAC-dependent manner, suggesting that E2F-5.p130.HDAC1 complexes are likely involved in the permanent withdrawal from the cell cycle of keratinocytes responding to differentiation stimuli.  (+info)

Disease-associated impairment/dysfunction of stem cell populations is prominent in chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) where the multifunctional...
Bone engineering strategies often exploit modulation of the extracellular environment, including delivery of cell and growth factors to repair and regenerate damaged tissues. During bone healing, the expression of endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins is an essential component of the healing response. However, in some situations, the inherent reparative capacity available in the local microenvironment is exceeded by the requirements of the defects. Currently, exogenous growth factors, scaffolds and/or cells are applied in repair of such defects. The central approach used in the current project takes a dramatic departure from current strategies by exploiting the specificity of antibodies to capture and make available endogenous osteogenic growth factors. This approach is referred to herein as antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). The experiments outlined in this study were designed to test the hypothesis that anti-BMP-2 antibodies, immobilized on a solid scaffold, mediate osteogenic ...
Babitt, J.L. and Lin, H.Y. (2010) Molecular Mechanisms of Hepcidin Regulation Implications for the Anemia of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 55, 726-741.
Name Designation Contact No. Email ID Vandana Kini Commissioner Off Tel- +91-641-2401001 Res Tel- +91-641-2401201 Mob- +91-9473191433 [email protected][dot]in Sujeet Kumar D.I.G Off- +91-641-2400202 Mob- +91-9431822958 [email protected][dot]in Pranav Kumar District Magistrate Off Tel- +91-641-2402200 Res Tel- +91-641-2402300 Mob- +91-9473191381 Fax- +91-641-2402400 dm-bhagalpur[dot][email protected][dot]in Ashish Bharti S.S.P Off- +91-641-2400103 Res- +91-641-2401003 Mob- +91-9431800003 [email protected][dot]in Swapna G Mesharam S.P […]
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is decreased in pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study. AU - van Santen, Susanne. AU - Kroot, Joyce J. C.. AU - Zijderveld, Gerard. AU - Wiegerinck, Erwin T.. AU - Spaanderman, Marc E. A.. AU - Swinkels, Dorine W.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. KW - hepcidin. KW - iron homeostasis. KW - physiology. KW - pregnancy. U2 - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. DO - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. M3 - Article. C2 - 23241678. VL - 51. SP - 1395. EP - 1401. JO - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. JF - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. SN - 1434-6621. IS - 7. ER - ...
The investigators aim to compare the levels of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -7 (BMP-4 and 7) in blood, follicular fluid and ovarian organ culture s
The Assembly adjourned at 6:13 P.M. to meet again on Monday, February 25, 2008, (QUORUM, Committee Groups A and B scheduled to meet ...
Další analýzy (2007) přiřadily dovnitř chromist/chromalveolát i Rhizaria (ještě v r. 2005 považovaná za samostatnou superskupinu vedle chromalveolát), do příbuznosti skrytěnek a haptofytů se pak dnes řadí i Katablepharida, Telonemea, Centrohelida a Picobiliphyta.[8][9][10] Nepodařilo se však prokázat přirozenost takto posílené říše Chromista jako celku. Sice se původně zdálo, že je tvořena dvěma liniemi, dodnes v některých systémech udržovaných jako podříše, a sice SAR (Stramenopiles + Alveolata + Rhizaria) a Hacrobia (Haptophyta + Cryptophyta + Katablepharida + Centrohelida + Telonemea + Picobiliphyta). Zatímco přirozenost SAR je s vysokou věrohodností prokázána, nové analýzy ukazují nepřirozenost hacrobií jako celku. Haptofyta, centrohelidní slunivky a Telonemea by se podle nich odvětvovala na bázi holofyletických SAR, umístění skrytěnek (s plastidem morfologicky podobným haptofytům), katablefarid a pikobilifyt by mělo být na ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric ...
Successful adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) requires the ability to activate tumor-specific T cells with the ability to traffic to the tumor site and effectively kill their target as well as persist over time. We hypothesized that ACT using marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) in multiple myeloma (MM) could impart greater antitumor immunity in that they were obtained from the tumor microenvironment. We describe the results from the first clinical trial using MILs in MM. Twenty-five patients with either newly diagnosed or relapsed disease had their MILs harvested, activated and expanded, and subsequently infused on the third day after myeloablative therapy. Cells were obtained and adequately expanded in all patients with anti-CD3/CD28 beads plus interleukin-2, and a median of 9.5 × 108 MILs were infused. Factors indicative of response to MIL ACT included (i) the presence of measurable myeloma-specific activity of the ex vivo expanded product, (ii) low endogenous bone marrow T cell interferon-γ ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Molecular basis of bone morphogenetic protein-15 signaling in granulosa cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
/PRNewswire/ -- Protagonist Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:PTGX) today announced that a Phase 2 study of its novel hepcidin mimetic PTG-300 in patients with...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 reduces ischemia-induced brain damage in rats. AU - Wang, Yun. AU - Chang, Chen Fu. AU - Morales, Marisela. AU - Chou, Jenny. AU - Chen, Hui Ling. AU - Chiang, Yung Hsiao. AU - Lin, Shinn Zong. AU - Cadet, Jean Lud. AU - Deng, Xiaolin. AU - Wang, Jia Yi. AU - Chen, Su Yu. AU - Kaplan, Paul L.. AU - Hoffer, Barry J.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Background and Purpose - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6) and its receptors are expressed in adult and fetal brain. Receptors for BMP6 are upregulated in adult brain after injury, leading to the suggestion that BMP6 is involved in the physiological response to neuronal injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a neuroprotective effect of BMP6 in vivo and in vitro. Methods - Lactate dehydrogenase and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) activities were used to determine the protective effect of BMP6 against H2O2 in primary cortical cultures. The neuroprotective effects of BMP6 ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), their structure, action and detailed description of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provid...
Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: Bone morphogenetic pr
Bone morphogenetic protein signalling dynamics in hFOBs under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. (a) hFOBs in two-dimensional monolayer c
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Inspite of doing extensive research work, cancer is still the leading cause of deaths. Its associated cost accounts a largest economic burden worldwide...
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Intaglio Printmaker, 9 Playhouse Court, 62 Southwark Bridge Road, London, SE1 OAT tel- 020 7928 2633 Smiths Metal Centre, 42-56 Tottenham Rd, London N1 4BZ. 0207 2412430 (also plastics and stainless steel) Forward Metals Ltd., Saxon Way, Chelmsley Wood, Birmingham, B37 5AY tel- 0121 779 4888 Dore Metal Services, 46 Imex Business Park, Flaxley Rd, Birmingham B33 9AL. 0121 6245750 Builders Iron and Zinc, Millmarsh Land, Enfield En3 7QA. 020 8443300. ...
Carragee and colleagues recently published an analysis of publicly available raw data from the Medtronic sponsored AMPLIFY study (a randomized controlled trial
Bmp4 - Bmp4 (untagged) - Mouse bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-7 signaling via upregulation of Ski-related novel protein N (SnoN): possible mechanism for the failure of BMP therapy? ...
As part of a continuing investigation into a bone morphogenetic protein-2 product marketed as Infuse, the |em|Milwaukee Journal Sentinel/MedPage Today|/em| describe a first-hand account of early signs
Hyundai Motor Co. expected problems finding enough trained technicians to tend its army of robots when it began building a massive assembly plant in Alabama five years ago. So Hyundai did something it had never done before: It trained its own robotics experts.
Looking for online definition of bone morphogenetic protein 2B in the Medical Dictionary? bone morphogenetic protein 2B explanation free. What is bone morphogenetic protein 2B? Meaning of bone morphogenetic protein 2B medical term. What does bone morphogenetic protein 2B mean?
Mutations in HFE are the most common cause of the iron-overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. Levels of the main iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, are inappropriately low in hereditary hemochromatosis mouse models and patients with HFE mutations, indicating that HFE regulates hepcidin. The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)-SMAD signaling pathway is an important endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression. We investigated whether HFE is involved in BMP6-SMAD regulation of hepcidin expression. METHODS: The BMP6-SMAD pathway was examined in Hfe knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type (WT) mice as controls. Mice were placed on diets of varying iron content. Hepcidin induction by BMP6 was examined in primary hepatocytes from Hfe KO mice; data were compared with those of WT mice. RESULTS: Liver levels of Bmp6 messenger RNA (mRNA) were higher in Hfe KO mice; these were appropriate for the increased hepatic levels of iron in these mice, compared with WT mice. However, levels of hepatic ...
|p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins, plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. It is involved in the hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway, and in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. It is involved also in cardiac cell differentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types.|/p||p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone and recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) and is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States.|/p|
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A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: roles of animal pole tissue in the development of vent
This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer. This protein regulates a wide range of biological processes including iron homeostasis, fat and bone development, and ovulation. Differential expression of this gene may be associated with progression of breast and prostate cancer. Mutations in this gene may be associated with iron overload in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016 ...
C3H10T1/2 cells are an established mesenchymal stem cell line which can differentiate into muscle, fat and cartilage cells when treated with azacytidine. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) caused a dose dependent differentiation of these cells into fat, cartilage and bone cells-low concentrations …
Hepcidin, presumed to be a potential link in the mutual relationship between thyrometabolic and haematologic status, is a liver-derived protein encoded by the HAMP gene, responsible mainly for bodily Fe distribution (9). The mechanism of hepcidin response to inflammatory stimuli comprises two possible pathways: one through bone morphogenetic protein-mothers against decapentaplegic (BMP-SMAD) and more specifically via Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The latter axis is triggered by cytokines, mainly IL-6, which activates JAK2 and leads to phosphorylation of STAT3, enabling its translocation to the nucleus and upregulation of HAMP gene transcription. IL-6 also contributes to hepcidin regulation via the BMD pathway (14). Cross-talk between two presented pathways has been postulated (15). Stimulated hepcidin affects ferroportin, which is a cellular iron transporter, causing its internalization and degradation, thus retaining Fe absorption from a lumen of ...
Video articles in JoVE about bone morphogenetic protein 6 include Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks.
Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair.
A sandwich CLIA kit for quantitative measurement of Rat BMP-5 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5) in samples from Serum, Plasma, Cell supernatant
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Instrumentation et méthodes pour lastrophysique [astro-ph.IM]. Université de Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 2010. Français - tel-00667559. Determination of the radiative heating rates of dust over West Africa and their impact on the atmospherical dynamics using satellite observations during the AMMA campaign ...
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Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMPs in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic). Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, Buchberg AM (March 1990). Chromosomal ...
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Market Research Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) market...
To examine the local effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on diverse skeletal tissues in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells transfected with the murine bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene were implanted into athymic nude mice by injection into the subcutaneous space of the skull, intra- and extraarticular spaces of the knee, paravertebral muscles, and intramedullary space in the femur, to form experimental tumors secreting bone morphogenetic protein-4. As a control, mock vector-transfected Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells were used. Three weeks after injection, the newly formed Chinese hamster ovary tumors together with the skeletal tissues adjacent to the tumor were recovered from each site and processed for histologic examination. On the periosteum of calvaria, new bone, but no cartilage, was observed, and abundant chondrogenic cell proliferation was seen in the apophysis of the spinous process and around Ranviers groove in the knee. There were no apparent reactions to the Chinese hamster
Bone metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors within the bone of cancer patients, is a debilitating and incurable disease. Despite its morbidity, the biology of bone metastasis represents one of the most complex and intriguing of all oncogenic processes. This complexity derives from the intricately organized bone microenvironment in which the various stages of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and osteolysis are jointly regulated but spatially restricted. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from various common malignancies such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancers or myeloma are uniquely primed to subvert these endogenous bone stromal elements to grow into pathological osteolytic or osteoblastic lesions ...
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Sample request, please email : [email protected] Summary Report Summary The United States Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Industry 2017 Market
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 opposes Shh-mediated proliferation in cerebellar granule cells through a TIEG-1-based regulation of Nmyc.
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a staged fashion by the activin-like kinase receptor 1 (ALK1) after stimulation by BMP-9. In this study, however, we show that CV2 preferentially binds and inhibits BMP-9 thereby providing strong feedback inhibition for BMP-9/ALK1 signaling rather than for BMP-4/ALK2 signaling. CV2 disrupts complex formation by ALK2, ALK1, BMP-4 and BMP-9 required for the induction of both BMP antagonists. It also limits VEGF expression and proliferation of ALK1-expressing endothelial cells. In vivo, CV2 deficiency translates into a dysregulation of vascular BMP signaling, resulting in a thickened, abnormal endothelium with increased markers of endothelial differentiation. Thus, mutual regulation by BMP-9 and CV2 is essential in regulating the development of the ...
Purpose.: There are limited studies on the factors that regulate the processing of TGF-β2 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into their mature form. Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1) is an enzyme responsible for the cleavage and maturation of growth factors and ECM proteins. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells express BMP1, BMP1 expression is regulated by TGF-β2, BMP1 is biologically active, and BMP1 regulates LOX activity. Methods.: Primary human TM cells were isolated and subjected to quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western immunoblotting (WB) for BMP1. BMP1 immunolocalization was performed in TM tissues. qPCR was used to determine BMP1 mRNA expression and WB results were used to determine BMP1 protein expression. BMP1 activity was measured in TM cells treated with TGF-β2 or with a combination of TGF-β2/UK383367. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme activity was evaluated by WB in TM cells treated with BMP1 or with a combination of ...
Research proven goat polyclonal BMP-4 antibody. Initiates, promotes and regulates bone development, growth, remodeling and repair. Smad1 translocation to the nucleus is observed after the addition of BMP4. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting and related applications.
Hemojuvelin turns out to be a co-receptor, acting at the plasma membrane, for the BMP signaling pathway, which is necessary for the secretion of hepcidin from hepatocytes. As elevated hepcidin levels are associated with anemia of chronic disease and decreased access to reticuloendothelial stores, it stands to reason that inhibitors of the BMP pathway-either small molecule BMP inhibitors such as this, or a soluble form of hemojuvelin such as this-might be successfully used to decrease hepcidin expression and therefore treat anemia of chronic kidney disease ...
BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals.
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Pediatric neuroblastoma in its advanced stage (st. IV) is usually lethal. 70% of the affected children die. 50% of the children show upon diagnosis metastasis or a genetic amplification of the oncogene N-myc. This group has a poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 33%. A drawback of the current standard therapy is the poor efficacy accompanied with severe side effects. Therefore a new treatment of neuroblastoma with a different antitumoral mode of action than the traditional cytotoxics is urgently required ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins. New members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily predominantly expressed in long bones during human embryonic development. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
|p|LDN-212854 is a selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling with IC50 value of 1.2nM [1].|/p||p|In the kinase assay, LDN-212854 shows inhibitory activities against caALK2 and caALK5 with IC50 values of 16nM and 2μM, respectively.
Developmental Signals - Bone Morphogenetic Protein,Bmp]],noinclude>[[Category:Template]][[Category:Term Link]][[Category:Molecular]][[Category:BMP]],/noinclude ...
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Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... 2010). "Mutation of the bone morphogenetic protein GDF3 causes ocular and skeletal anomalies". Hum. Mol. Genet. 19 (2): 287-98 ... Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the brain, thymus, spleen, bone marrow and ... Chen C, Ware SM, Sato A, Houston-Hawkins DE, Habas R, Matzuk MM, Shen MM, Brown CW (January 2006). "The Vg1-related protein ...
Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... Growth differentiation factor 1 (GDF1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF1 gene. GDF1 belongs to the ... 4 (4): 381-6. doi:10.1038/ng0893-381. PMID 8401586. S2CID 33426184. v t e. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and is a member of the TGF- ... 1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ... Reddi AH (1997). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ...
Growth differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 3B (BMP-3B) is a protein that in humans is ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... GDF10 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that is closely related to bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3 ... Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ...
"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massagué J (1995). "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the ... The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 also known as NCOA3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the NCOA3 gene. NCOA3 is ... The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. ...
"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ...
"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... "Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... Activin receptor type-2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2A gene. ACVR2A is an activin type 2 receptor. This ... Barbara NP, Wrana JL, Letarte M (1999). "Endoglin is an accessory protein that interacts with the signaling receptor complex of ...
Her research indicated that transduction of BMDMSC with bone morphogenetic proteins‐2 or ‐6 can accelerate osteogenic ... bone morphogenetic protein6 (BMP‐6) vector. She found BMP‐6 to be osteo-inductive in vivo resulting in acceleration of bone ... "Mesenchymal Stem Cell-mediated Gene Delivery of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in an Articular Fracture Model". Molecular Therapy ... mediated osteogenic differentiation of stem cells by bone morphogenetic proteins‐2 or ‐6". Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 24 ...
A. Hari Reddi entitled Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine.). Reddi AH, Reddi A (2009). "Bone ... Babitt JL, Huang FW, Xia Y, Sidis Y, Andrews NC, Lin HY (2007). "Modulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in vivo ... Based on this definition, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are metabologens, since they are involved in iron homeostasis, ... Schulz TJ, Tseng YH (2009). "Emerging Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Adipogenesis and Energy Metabolism". Cytokine ...
... an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), allowing cells to become BMP-4 responsive. Therefore, this directly links ... "Domain-specific modification of heparan sulfate by Qsulf1 modulates the binding of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... Although the core protein is important, the large heparan sulfate (HS) chains extending from the core are responsible for most ...
Other bone morphogenetic proteins are also known to impact corticogenesis. Bmp2, 4, 5, and 6 are expressed during the process ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp-7), is an important regulator in corticogenesis, though it is not understood whether it ... a motor protein that affects intercellular movement such as protein sorting and the process of cell division. Another protein ... DAB1 is a regulator protein downstream of the reelin receptors. This protein is located inside cells residing in the ...
2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/ ... Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... Vitt UA, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh AJ (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2). ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein 8B promotes the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis". Nature Metabolism. 2 (6): 514-531. ... Because the liver is important for making proteins used in blood clotting, coagulation-related studies are often carried out, ... Protein & Cell. 9 (2): 164-177. doi:10.1007/s13238-017-0436-0. PMC 5818366. PMID 28643267. Bagherniya M, Nobili V, Blesso CN, ... or a low-carbohydrate ketogenic or high-protein diet such as the Mediterranean diet, and avoiding all beverages and food ...
Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone+Morphogenetic+Proteins at the US National Library ... Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I. (2019-01-04). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... 2003). "BMPER, a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
... (BMP-15) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. It is involved in ... Bragdon B, Moseychuk O, Saldanha S, King D, Julian J, Nohe A (April 2011). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: a critical review". ... Persani L, Rossetti R, Di Pasquale E, Cacciatore C, Fabre S (2014-11-01). "The fundamental role of bone morphogenetic protein ... de Castro FC, Cruz MH, Leal CL (August 2016). "Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in ...
... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Rasmussen SL, Krarup HB, Sunesen KG, Pedersen IS, Madsen PH, ...
... or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... Reddi AH (July 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and skeletal development: the kidney-bone connection". Pediatric Nephrology ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Der Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 ...
... (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ...
... , also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ...
... or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ... As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... Blázquez-Medela AM, Jumabay M, Boström KI (January 2019). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ...
"Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ...
... which is an antagonistic protein to bone morphogenic protein 4. This gene encodes an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4 ... Kane R, Godson C, O'Brien C (June 2008). "Chordin-like 1, a bone morphogenetic protein-4 antagonist, is upregulated by hypoxia ... Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors. 22 (4): 233-41. doi:10.1080/ ... Gazzerro E, Canalis E (June 2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists". Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link]. ...
Through the stimulation of growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (6-BMP- ... Although this decreased bone density is also seen in anorexia nervosa, the severity of peak bone density loss is less in FHA ... Bone loss is best treated by correction of the underlying cause. Patients should undergo evaluation of bone marrow density ... Lower strength estimates, abnormal bone microarchitectures, and deficient volumetric bone density has been found in young adult ...
When stimulating alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt, expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-6 in the dental ... Therefore, it is only when concurrent bone deposition can be confirmed at the base of the crypt and inhibition of such bone ... In many studies, with the usage of tetracyclines as indicators of bone deposition have proven that bone resorption is principal ... The balance between tissue formation of bone, periodontal ligament and root, and tissue destruction of bone, connective tissue ...
... fibroblast growth factor 8 and bone morphogenetic protein), transcription factors (T-box, Pax, Nkx2-5, GATA-6, and Forkhead), ... and gap junction proteins (Connexin). The cardiac neural crest also contributes the smooth muscle of the great arteries.[ ...
Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F (2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 induces osteogenic ... Mi LZ, Brown CT, Gao Y, Tian Y, Le VQ, Walz T, Springer TA (March 2015). "Structure of bone morphogenetic protein 9 procomplex ... Fong D, Bisson M, Laberge G, McManus S, Grenier G, Faucheux N, Roux S (Apr 2013). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 activates Smad ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ...
Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/threonine ... Koštani morfogenetički protein 2 ili BMP-2 pripada TGF-β superfamiliji proteina.[1] ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular ...
In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have also shown a potential to differentiate into cardiac competent cells when ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... thereby reducing that protein's activity. In PSI+ cells, the loss of the Sup35 protein (which is involved in termination of ...
... is due to the upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps). During embryonic development, the gene controlling Bmp ... The finger bones of bats are much more flexible than those of other mammals, owing to their flattened cross-section and to low ... The patagium is the wing membrane; it is stretched between the arm and finger bones, and down the side of the body to the hind ... Kirkpatrick, S. J. (1994). "Scale effects on the stresses and safety factors in the wing bones of birds and bats". Journal of ...
... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva.[14] In food and wine pairing, ... ISBN 0-19-860990-6 *^ a b c J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 24 Oxford University Press 2006 ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ...
Mutations in several genes have been associated with this condition[24][25] these include bone morphogenetic protein receptor ... This in turn leads to increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase or PKA (protein kinase A) activity, ultimately promoting ... protein kinase G). Activated PKG promotes vasorelaxation (via a reduction of intracellular calcium levels), alters the ... 20 (6): 461-5. PMID 3103045.. *^ Ghofrani HA, Pepke-Zaba J, Barbera JA, Channick R, Keogh AM, Gomez-Sanchez MA, et al. (June ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. ... In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of ...
In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. ... putative mu opioid/metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 heteromers produces potent antinociception in a chronic murine bone cancer ... In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. ... Teif VB, Rippe K (October 2010). "Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin". Journal of ...
"Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right. ZEB2 interacts with ... Mutations of the gene can cause the gene to produce nonfunctional ZEB2 proteins or inactivate the function gene as a whole. ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] It ... the toxin cleaves SNARE proteins (proteins that mediate vesicle fusion, with their target membrane bound compartments) meaning ...
... and bone morphogenetic proteins.[45] Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the ... Bone marrow[edit]. Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds ... Bone volume[edit]. Bone volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested ... Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones ...
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... The bone morphogenetic protein group is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site, which is cleaved to produce a ... "GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ... Displaying a distinctive protein organization, this protein defines a separate class of rho partners.[7] Using a cloning ...
The decapentaplegic Vg-related (DVR) related subfamily (including the bone morphogenetic proteins and the growth ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. ... Human genes encoding proteins that contain this domain include:. AMH; ARTN; BMP10; BMP15; BMP2; BMP3; BMP4; BMP5; BMP6; BMP7; ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase. *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1. *BMPR1A. *BMPR1B ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ...
Inhibition of TGF-β and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling can efficiently induce neural tissue from pluripotent stem ... The Trk proteins act as receptors for NGF and related factors. Trk is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Trk dimerization and ... This is due to the action of BMP4 (a TGF-β family protein) that induces ectodermal cultures to differentiate into epidermis. ... GDNF: Glial derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the TGFb family of proteins, and is a potent trophic factor for striatal ...
This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity.[64] It has been ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ... "Morphogenetic mechanisms in the cyclic regeneration of hair follicles and deer antlers from stem cells". BioMed Research ... regeneration has been observed in the tails and maxillary bone of crocodiles and adult neurogenesis has also been noted.[99][ ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... protein binding. • metal ion binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • carboxy-lyase activity. • 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate ... 264 (6): 3448-53. PMID 2914958.. *. Zhang B, Crabb DW, Harris RA (1989). "Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the E1 ...
2008). "GLI2-specific transcriptional activation of the bone morphogenetic protein/activin antagonist follistatin in human ... and bone morphogenetic proteins". Endocrinology. 147 (7): 3586-97. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0089. PMID 16627583. Grusch M, Drucker C ... It has inhibitory action on bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs); BMPs induce the ectoderm to become epidermal ectoderm. Inhibition ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ... Woo, EJ (Oct 2012). "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User ... Life-threatening Complications Associated with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Cervical Spine Fusion". fda.gov ... bone graft or artificial bone substitute is packed between the vertebrae to help them heal together.[1] In general, fusions are ...
This involves cutting bone and moving ends apart incrementally to allow new bone to form in the gap. This consists of several ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ... The development of the face is coordinated by complex morphogenetic events and rapid proliferative expansion, and is thus ... Orthognathic surgery - surgical cutting of bone to realign the upper jaw (osteotomy). The bone is cut then re-positioned and ...
The lack of these factors result in a decreased production of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which translates into a ... synaptic vesicle proteins, and channel proteins. A deficiency in the proper development of these proteins can cause the neural ... stretch in the protein. The mutated Htt protein affects an individual's proper neural functions by inhibiting the action of ... that binds to the TATA box along with 13 other proteins that bind to TBP. The TATA box binding proteins also include the ...
... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen ... with the bone protein and human glial cells combined, they promoted significant recovery of conscious foot placement, axonal ... In response to nerve damage, heat shock proteins (HSP) are released and can bind to their respective TLRs, leading to further ...
... bone morphogenetic protein, and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily.[9] ... bone growth), to behave as an agonist of the receptor and to induce hyperactive bone growth.[21] On 2 September 2015, Regeneron ... The activin and inhibin protein complexes are both dimeric in structure, and, in each complex, the two monomers are linked to ... Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified ...
... and bone morphogenetic protein BMP4. FGF10 is seen to have the most prominent role. FGF10 is a paracrine signalling molecule ... 978-0-06-350729-6. .. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Britton, edited by Brian R. Walker, Nicki R. Colledge, Stuart H. Ralston ... Other proteins with elevated expression in the lung are the dynein protein DNAH5 in ciliated cells, and the secreted SCGB1A1 ... The highest expression of lung specific proteins are different surfactant proteins,[18] such as SFTPA1, SFTPB and SFTPC, and ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] ... 124 (6): 455e-56e. doi:10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181bf7f11. PMID 19952618.. *^ a b c d Felber ES (October 2006). "Botulinum toxin in ...
Examples of such proteins include bone morphogenetic proteins and cadherins. Expression of these proteins is essential to ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4, or BMP4, is a transforming growth factor that causes the cells of the ectoderm to differentiate ... Cell signaling and essential proteins[edit]. Critical to the proper folding and function of the neural plate is N-cadherin, a ... In a newly formed neural plate, PAX3 mRNA, MSX1 mRNA, and MSX1/MSX2 proteins are expressed mediolaterally.[9] When the neural ...
"Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression by post-transcriptional ... The protein also causes the growth, morphology, and the gene expression of the cells to change, causing them to become a more ... Prostate cancer: p37, a protein encoded for by M. hyorhinis, has been found to promote the invasiveness of prostate cancer ... P1 is a membrane associated protein that allows adhesion to epithelial cells. The P1 receptor is also expressed on erythrocytes ...
Activin, inhibin and a number of other structurally related proteins such as anti-Müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein ... and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily. The activin and inhibin protein complexes are both ... In addition, both complexes are derived from the same family of related genes and proteins but differ in their subunit ... The mutation in ACVR1 causes activin A, which normally acts as an antagonist of the receptor and blocks osteogenesis (bone ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... 2003). "BMPER, a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. bone morphogenetic protein 6. Names. VG-1-R. VG-1- ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001718.6 → NP_001709.1 bone morphogenetic protein 6 preproprotein ... bone morphogenetic protein 6provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:1073 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000153162 MIM:112266 ... Antiviral activity of bone morphogenetic proteins and activins. Eddowes LA, et al. Nat Microbiol, 2019 Feb. PMID 30510168, Free ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Inhibits the Immunomodulatory Property of BMMSCs via Id1 in Sjögrens Syndrome. Yingying Su,1 Yi ... Elevated expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) was recently reported in the epithelia of SS patients, and ... H. Yin, J. Cabrera-Perez, Z. Lai et al., "Association of bone morphogenetic protein 6 with exocrine gland dysfunction in ... "Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein-6," Journal of Cellular ...
... bone morphogenetic protein 6 include Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks. ... A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of Bone formation. It plays additional roles in regulating Cell ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: ...
Key words: Granulosa cell, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing ... level in both transcript and protein levels; however, BMP6 upregulated LHR transcript and protein level in goat granulosa cells ... In this study, we examined the effects of BMP2, 4, 6 and 7 on goat granulosa cells by in vitro culture. The results showed that ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, are crucial factors in follicular ...
Osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7) reduces severity of injury after ischemic acute renal failure in rat. J ... Role of bone morphogenetic protein receptors in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Adv Exp Med Biol 661: 251- ... Emerging role of bone morphogenetic proteins in adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 20: 523-531, ... The role of bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) in human nephrosclerosis. J Nephrol 24: 647-655, 2011. ...
... DSpace/Manakin Repository. ... In this thesis, we focus on the role of the antifibrotic bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, particularly BMP-6) and the ... At 3 and 12 months after transplantation, there was a correlation between the low molecular weight proteins α1 and β2- ... with upregulation of genes and proteins involved in matrix formation. There was also increased tubulointerstitial damage and an ...
Simic P, Grgurevic L, Orlic I, Kufner V, Spaventi R, Vukicevic S. The unique role of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in ... 7th International Conference on Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Lake Tahoe, US, 9/7/2008-14/7/2008. 3rd Skeletal Biology and ... "Unique role of BMP-6 in bone biology". Conferences:. ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are used locally for treating bone defects in men. We have recently demonstrated that ... Since, PTH is the only approved bone anabolic drug, but with serious side-effects, there is a great need for new bone forming ... MSC and subsequently serum bone turnover markers. The results will disclose the BMP-6 anabolic effect on bone with a potential ... Crosstalk with antiresorptive and anabolic signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling will be tested by estradiol (E2), ...
Catalog no: RS01P1655Application: SDS-PAGE; WB; ELISA; IP.Organism: HumanPurity: | 95%Host: E.coliExpression System: Prokaryotic expression
... Mol Cell ... Activin or bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, or 6 stimulated CGRP expression in 60% of DRG neurons. Brief BMP4 ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors * Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / pharmacology* * Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide / ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 * Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 * Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. The signaling cascade is similar to that ... Kodach LL, Wiercinska E, de Miranda NF et al (2008) The bone morphogenetic protein pathway is inactivated in the majority of ... Kodach LL, Wiercinska E, de Miranda NF et al (2008) The bone morphogenetic protein pathway is inactivated in the majority of ... Hardwick JC, Kodach LL, Offerhaus GJ, van den Brink GR (2008) Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer. Nat ...
VG-1-related protein, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp. ... Polyclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) VGR ... Polyclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6), Rattus norvegicus (Rat), Polyclonal antibody, VGR, VGR1, Vegetal ... Immunogen RPA646Ra01-Recombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) *Buffer Formulation0.01M PBS, pH7.4, containing 0.05% ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6-a possible new player in pathophysiology of heart failurepubmed:27592865 ...
Bone morphogenetic protein-4 regulates embryonic tongue morphogenesis Bone morphogenetic protein-4 regulates embryonic tongue ... To analyze the effect of Bone morphogenesis 4 and its antagonist Noggin on morphogenesis of tongue.. Methods:. Dissected rats ...
... general Apoptosis Bone morphogenetic proteins Analysis Physiological aspects Cytokines Evaluation Inflammation Osteoarthritis ... Osteoartritte kemik morfogenik protein duzeyleri.(Original Article/Orijinal Makale, Report) by Turkish Journal of Physical ... Osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7) in the treatment of tibial nonunions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001;83:151-8. ( ... APA style: Bone morphogenetic protein levels in osteoarthritis/ Osteoartritte kemik morfogenik protein duzeyleri.. (n.d.) >The ...
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family proteins exhibit differential binding kinetics for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) ... bone morphogenetic proteins, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, hepcidin, iron, iron homeostasis, liver, mice, polymerase chain ... bone morphogenetic proteins, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, hepcidin, iron, iron homeostasis, liver, mice, polymerase chain ... Endothelial cells produce bone morphogenetic protein 6 required for iron homeostasis in mice Susanna Canali , Susanna Canali ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 5, and 6 in combination stimulate osteoblasts but not osteoclasts in vitro.. Wutzl A, Rauner M, ... Various procedures have been used to promote osteogenesis with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). We assessed the effects of ... orfoundation.org/publication/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-2-5-6-combination-stimulate-osteoblasts-not-osteoclasts-vitro/ ... Repair of critical-sized long bone defects using dipyridamole-augmented 3D-printed bioactive ceramic scaffolds. J Orthop Res. ...
... bone morphogenetic protein) is upregulated in NAFLD but not in other liver diseases. In the study in vitro, it is found that ... Fructose can increase the expression of CD36 and is associated with de novo lipid synthesis-related proteins such as ChREBP to ... Acute liver failure can result in OS (oxidative stress), which brings about changes in mitochondrial structural proteins and ... Excess accumulation of ROS can induce a shift in JNK proteins in mitochondria, which are responsible for mitochondrial ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins , Physiology , Odontogenesis , Signal ... Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 / Odontogenesis Language: Chinese ... The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family is an important factor in the regulation of cell ular life activities and in the ... The role of bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway in tooth root development / 华西口腔医学杂志 ...
... of genes for some isoforms of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), whose role is proven in bone formation, bone induction and ... bone in epiphyses of long bones, cranial flat bones and corpus mandibulae then in the compact bone of diaphyses of long bones. ... Expression of genes for bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-6 in various parts of the human skeleton. Kochanowska ... Expression of genes for bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-6 in various parts of the human skeleton. DSpace/ ...
Haplotype-based gene-gene interaction of bone morphogenetic protein 4 and interferon regulatory factor 6 in the etiology of non ... bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) in Chile. Here, we analyzed the haplotype- ... 6. Unidad de Genética, Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río, Santiago, Chile.. 7. Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Odontológicas, ... Blanco R1, Colombo A2,3, Pardo R4,5,6, Suazo J7. ... Proteins*BioSystems. *BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) ...
Hence, the present study aims to investigate the association of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-V152A (rs17563), and SIX ... b and d) shows electropherogram confirming all the three possible genotypes of bone morphogenetic protein 4-V152A and SIX ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; SIX homeobox 6; haplotype; transcription factors ... Evaluating the association of bone morphogenetic protein 4-V152A and SIX homeobox 6-H141N polymorphisms with congenital ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ...
bone morphogenetic protein 6. MGI:88182 Reference. J:88817 Smits P, Dy P, Mitra S, Lefebvre V, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to ...
bone morphogenetic protein 6. MGI:88182 Reference. J:60594 Lee KJ, Dietrich P, Jessell TM, Genetic ablation reveals that the ...
BMPs: From Bone to Body Morphogenetic Proteins. By Darja Obradovic Wagner, Christina Sieber, Raghu Bhushan, Jan H. Börgermann, ... BMPs: From Bone to Body Morphogenetic Proteins. By Darja Obradovic Wagner, Christina Sieber, Raghu Bhushan, Jan H. Börgermann, ... Discussion at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, showed that BMPs have essential functions in organs and tissues besides bone. ... Discussion at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, showed that BMPs have essential functions in organs and tissues besides bone. ...
Protein related to DAN and cerberus is a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist that participates in ovarian paracrine ... Vitt, U. A., Mazerbourg, S., Klein, C. and Hsueh, A. J. (2002). Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for ... Dudley, A. T., Lyons, K. M. and Robertson, E. J. (1995). A requirement for bone morphogenetic protein-7 during development of ... Lee, W. S., Otsuka, F., Moore, R. K. and Shimasaki, S. (2001). Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 on folliculogenesis and ...
The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. Many ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6, VG-1-related protein, VGR1, VG-1-R, VGR, Vg1, Vg1-related sequence, VGR-1. ... In addition, the fact that this BMP is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 has lead to speculation of possible bone inductive ... BMPs were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an ...
Change in bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) and clinical response. The line plots show the changes in a) 6-min walk ... Change in bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) biomarkers. a) Overview of downstream and upstream targets of BMPR2 ... et al. Familial primary pulmonary hypertension (gene PPH1) is caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II ... Activation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) signalling by FK506 (tacrolimus) reverses occlusive vasculopathy in ...
Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on macrophages. Immunology 2009;128 1 Suppl:e442-e450. ... Increased CD36 protein as a response to defective insulin signaling in macrophages. J Clin Invest 2004;113(5):764-773. ... C) The expression levels of transcripts encoding for PPARγ, PPARδ, and the coactivator protein PGC-1β show that WT-NeMφ express ... Nevertheless, our data suggest cooperative interactions between AAMφ-derived protein and lipid mediators ensure robust, tightly ...
  • The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMPs were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, are crucial factors in follicular growth and development in the mammalian ovary. (academicjournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) represent a large subgroup of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily. (physiology.org)
  • In this thesis, we focus on the role of the antifibrotic bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, particularly BMP-6) and the profibrotic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in renal fibrogenesis, via experimental and human studies. (uu.nl)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are used locally for treating bone defects in men. (weebly.com)
  • Activin or bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, or 6 stimulated CGRP expression in 60% of DRG neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Various procedures have been used to promote osteogenesis with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (orfoundation.org)
  • Thus, the synergistic use of various BMPs might improve effective bone regeneration in the clinical setting. (orfoundation.org)
  • The reason for these differences is not obvious and not clear.METHODS: In this paper we decided to measure by the use of real-time RT-PCR technique the level of expression of genes for some isoforms of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), whose role is proven in bone formation, bone induction and bone turnover. (ucd.ie)
  • It is postulated that differences in the level of activation of genes for BMPs is one of the important factors which determine the differences in duration of bone healing of various parts of the human skeleton. (ucd.ie)
  • Discussion at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, showed that BMPs have essential functions in organs and tissues besides bone. (sciencemag.org)
  • Growth differentiation factor 5 ( GDF5 ) is a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and is related to the subfamily of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (bmj.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important signalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues. (els.net)
  • BMPs transmit their signals from membrane to nucleus through distinct combinations of types I and II serine/threonine kinase receptors and their intracellular effectors the Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses ranging from early development, skeletogenesis and homeostasis of several tissues to suppression of tumorigenesis. (els.net)
  • Several factors regulating the proliferation and differentiation of GCs have been reported, most of which belong to the transforming growth factor superfamily, for instance the group of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) ( 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Abnormal expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) which play critical role in embryogenesis, cartilage, and bone formation have been found in various types of cancers, which have been linked with tumorigenesis and metastasis of many cancer types [11-15]. (omicsonline.org)
  • BMPs are a group of proteins which are known to be potent growth factors and morphogens of the TGFβ superfamily. (omicsonline.org)
  • In canonical pathway, BMPs transduce their signals by binding with serine/threonine protein kinase receptors, followed by forming heterotetrameric complex of receptor type 1 and 2. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are dimeric proteins that bind to type I and type II BMP receptors, transducing signals through small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)-dependent and -independent pathways to regulate the transcription of BMP target genes ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • BMPs signal via the p38 class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the activity of p38 MAPK is regulated by BMP signaling ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor superfamily and have been implicated in chondrogenesis and neuronal differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • [12] As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to improve fusion rates after spinal arthrodesis in both animal models and humans, while reducing the donor-site morbidity previously associated with such procedures. (wikidoc.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association analysis of polymorphisms rs12997 in ACVR1 and rs1043784 in BMP6 genes involved in bone morphogenic protein signaling pathway in primary angle-closure and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma patients of Saudi origin. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanistically, BMP6 downregulated PGE2 and upregulated IFN-gamma via Id1 (inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1). (hindawi.com)
  • Elevated expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) was recently reported in the epithelia of SS patients, and hypofunction and increased lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary gland were induced by the overexpression of BMP6 in normal mice [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • however, BMP6 upregulated LHR transcript and protein level in goat granulosa cells, whereas it had no effect on FSHR level. (academicjournals.org)
  • These results are the first to demonstrate that oocyte-secreted factors, and particularly BMP15 and BMP6, maintain the low incidence of cumulus cell apoptosis by establishing a localized gradient of bone morphogenetic proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, the fact that the BMP6 is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 leads to an assumption of possible bone inductive activity. (prospecbio.com)
  • Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human BMP6 protein. (abnova.com)
  • BMP6 (AAI60106.1, 1 a.a. ~ 513 a.a) full-length human protein. (abnova.com)
  • Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases Acquire Resistance to Androgen Deprivation via WNT5A Mediated BMP6 Induction. (cinj.org)
  • In the form of a freeze dried coprecipitate with calcium phosphate, 1 to 50 milligram of BMP (depending on the size of the defect) is implanted in a bone defect in which it stimulates differentiation of connective tissue into bone and thereby repairs the defect. (google.ca)
  • Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family are multifunctional proteins that regulate various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, motility, and extracellular matrix production, and thus play essential roles in embryonic development and the pathogenesis of various diseases ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • 2007) Bone morphogenetic protein(BMP)-4 and BMP-6 may reduce plasma cell differentiation in B cells. (ntnu.edu)
  • Their treatment potential is increased when used in combination with proteins that induce osteogenic differentiation. (medsci.org)
  • The resulting protein expression profiles and osteogenic markers of PDLSCs revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway might play an important role in the process of BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. (medsci.org)
  • In the present study, human dermal‑derived CD105+ fibroblast cells (CD105+ hDDFCs) were isolated from human foreskin specimens using immunomagnetic isolation methods to examine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)‑7 in osteogenic differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In bone engineering, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells rely on signaling from chemico-physical structure of the substrate, therefore prompting the design of mimetic "extracellular matrix"-like scaffolds. (mdpi.com)
  • Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were derived from the femur of orthopaedic patients, seeded on the scaffolds and cultured under osteogenic induction up to differentiation and mineralization. (mdpi.com)
  • Growth differentiation factor-3 (GDF3), also known as Vg-related gene 2 (Vgr-2) is protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF3 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • In order to examine the function of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP‑2) on the differentiation of nitrergic enteric neurons in slow transit constipation (STC), the expression of BMP‑2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was investigated in the myenteric nerve plexus in STC and control tissues by immunohistochemical assays. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Growth factor that controls proliferation and cellular differentiation in the retina and bone formation. (uniprot.org)
  • CIZ deficiency enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow cells in cultures, indicating that BMP is the target of CIZ action. (rupress.org)
  • Like many other proteins from the BMP family, BMP-2 has been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types. (wikidoc.org)
  • Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein 6 receptors ameliorates Sjogren's syndrome in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Triglycerides are delivered to the liver for lipid metabolism and absorbed by liver cells, which is regulated by LDL (low density lipoprotein) receptors and LRP (LDL receptor-related proteins) [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chronic Ang II exposure decreased cellular expression levels of BMP-6 and its receptors mRNAs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, the mechanisms and identity of the receptors involved remain unclear, even though studies have suggested that estrogen G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is linked to protection against ischemic injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • TGF-β transduces signals through heteromeric complexes of type I (TβR-I) and type II (TβR-II) serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad proteins ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling pathway has a central role in hepcidin transcriptional regulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, better understanding of the role of increased JAK-STAT signaling [either through activating mutations (JAK2, MPL515L/K) within the signaling pathway, or mutations involving CALR], the role of deregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and the impaired bone marrow microenvironment is transforming the treatment approach for MF. (haematologica.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair. (google.com)
  • These proteins may be used to induce bone and/or cartilage formation and in wound healing and tissue repair. (google.com)
  • Human BMP-2 may be further characterized by the ability to demonstrate cartilage and/or bone formation activity in the rat bone formation assay described below. (google.com)
  • T to C) near the GDF5 gene has been associated with height and osteoarthritis (OA), but debate exists about whether its primary biological action is directed to cartilage or bone. (bmj.com)
  • 2 3 In the human embryo, GDF5 is expressed in the primordial cartilage of long bones and in areas of active cartilage degradation and bone matrix formation, but shows no expression in the axial skeleton. (bmj.com)
  • 1 GDF5 can induce ectopic cartilage and bone formation in vivo and in vitro 4 and is present in adult human cartilage, 5 implying that GDF5 also exerts its effects later in life. (bmj.com)
  • rhBMP-2 is widely known for its high osteoinductive property for faster formation of bone and cartilage in bone fusion procedures rhBMP-2 held more than half of the market share in 2015. (marketresearch.com)
  • CDMP, cartilage‐derived morphogenetic protein. (els.net)
  • 10. A composition of claim 9 further comprising a matrix for supporting said composition and providing a surface for bone and/or cartilage growth. (google.com)
  • BMP-2 proteins are further characterized by the ability to induce the formation of cartilage and/or bone. (google.com)
  • Cartilage, but not bone, will form in pieces of muscle grown directly upon demineralized bone matrix. (google.com)
  • Induces cartilage and bone formation. (abcam.com)
  • BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins , [2] plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. (wikidoc.org)
  • BMP‑6 protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress‑induced injury by inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Crosstalk with antiresorptive and anabolic signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling will be tested by estradiol (E2), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and BMP-6 treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) Bmp-6 -/- and wild type (WT) mice and potential requirement of endogenous BMP-6 for treatment of osteoporosis will be disclosed. (weebly.com)
  • Although ion-specific transporters and metal-binding proteins exist, absorption/excretion pathways are highly interconnected and interdependent among different ionic species. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review examines the current status of hepcidin and ferroportin agonists and antagonists, as well as inducers and inhibitors of these proteins and their regulatory pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • These studies may clarify molecular pathways that link damage signal transduction through Dbf4/Cdc7 to the effector proteins to regulate the S-phase checkpoint. (scripps.edu)
  • 2004, "BMP4 Supports Self-Renewal of Embryonic Stem Cells by Inhibiting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways," PNAS, 101(16):6027-6032. (patentgenius.com)
  • Induction of IL-6 expression by BMP-6 in macrophages requires both Smad and p38 signaling pathways. (cinj.org)
  • Estrogen inhibits phorbol ester-induced I k B transcription and protein degradation. (umich.edu)
  • Impaired immunoregulatory activities of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are found in both SS patients and animal models, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. (hindawi.com)
  • In 5/6-nephrectomized animals, percentages of anti-smooth muscle actin+/CD31+ cells increased, indicating endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). (physiology.org)
  • The interplay between E2, PTH and BMP-6 will be further investigated by protein profiling of WT and Bmp-6 -/- mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). (weebly.com)
  • These methods are similar to those published for chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells but distinct because of the unique nature of ASCs. (nih.gov)
  • Most poorly differentiated cancer cells express many embryonic transcription factors such as Snail, Twist, Zeb1, Sox2 and also modulate expressions of many microRNAs (such as miR-200c, miR-34a, miR-302-367, let-7a) which play crucial role in embryogenesis, and they undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and regain at least in part their embryonic features [6,9,10]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Increased mesenchymal features in epithelial cancer cells make them more invasive, survival during transportation through blood circulation, extravasation from blood vessels, and survival at premalignant sites [6]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The purification process is monitored at various stages by bioassaying the bone protein for chondrogenic activity in embryonic limb bud mesenchymal cell cultures. (google.com)
  • Demineralized bone matrix or bone matrix gelatin implanted in muscle pouches in vivo or implanted in diffusion chambers in muscle pouches in vivo is capable of recruiting native mesenchymal cells and inducing bone formation (Urist et al, Arch. (google.com)
  • BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals. (google.ca)
  • Human BMP-2 is characterized by the ability to induce bone formation. (google.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 6 affects cell-cell communication by altering the expression of Connexin43 in human granulosa-lutein cells. (nih.gov)
  • Exploring the mechanisms by which BMP-6 deficiency exerts its harmful effects, we noticed increased levels of circulating myofibroblast progenitor cells and increased renal iron deposition with increased oxidative stress responsive gene expression. (uu.nl)
  • However, the combined use of BMP-2, BMP-5, and BMP-6 had an additive effect on matrix mineralization and osterix expression in osteoblasts. (orfoundation.org)
  • Activity of genes for BMP-2, -4 and -6 was measured by the use of fluorescent SYBR Green I.RESULTS: It was found that expression of m-RNA for BMP-2 and BMP-4 is higher in trabecular bone in epiphyses of long bones, cranial flat bones and corpus mandibulae then in the compact bone of diaphyses of long bones. (ucd.ie)
  • In all samples examined the expression of m-RNA for BMP-4 was higher than for BMP-2.CONCLUSION: It was shown that m-RNA for BMP-6 is not expressed in the collected samples at all. (ucd.ie)
  • While we observed that some patients responded with a pronounced increase in BMPR2 expression as well as improvement in 6-min walk distance, and serological and echocardiographic parameters of heart failure, these changes were not significant. (ersjournals.com)
  • Modulation of prostate cancer cell gene expression by cell-to-cell contact with bone marrow stromal cells or osteoblasts. (springer.com)
  • However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • To assess the expression of cytokines and genes invloved in osteoclastogenesis on the bone tissues, we set up the system of in situ hybridization using decalcified bone specimen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Many transcription factors have been shown to cooperate with the Smad2/3 proteins in regulating the transcription of target genes, enabling appropriate gene expression by cells. (asm.org)
  • The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) in primary osseous tumors (n=15) with a potential of osteogenesis and/or chondrogenesis was re-evaluated by using a recently characterized monoclonal antibody raised by using rhBMP-2 as an immunogen in a streptavidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, lysyl oxidase, transforming growth factor-β, impaired megakaryocyte function, and aberrant JAK-STAT signaling have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow fibrosis. (haematologica.org)
  • The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment . (wikidoc.org)
  • Alterations in gap junction protein expression in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • SIRT1 protein expression of cultured cells and luteinized human granulosa cells was investigated by Western blot. (springermedizin.de)
  • In laying hens, the small yellow follicle (6-8 mm in diameter) with the highest expression of FSHR will be recruited into the preovulatory hierarchy during ovarian follicle development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the brain , thymus , spleen , bone marrow and adipose tissue of adults. (wikidoc.org)
  • A process of extracting and purifying a bone protein capable of stimulating chondrogenic expression in undifferentiated cells in culture. (google.com)
  • CIZ deficiency enhanced the levels of mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to osteoblastic phenotypes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as osterix mRNA expression in whole long bones. (rupress.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 6-induced interleukin-1β expression in macrophages requires PU.1/Smad1 interaction. (cinj.org)
  • In Xenopus embryos, the dorsal half is self-regulated without BMP4/7 expression, as the BMP activity gradient is re-established through increased anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (ADMP) activity ( Reversade and De Robertis, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • We assessed the effects of BMP-2, BMP-5, and BMP-6 in isolated and combined use on the generation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts by comparing the osteoclastic potency of each on osteoclasts of primary murine bone marrow cells. (orfoundation.org)
  • Epoetin alfa (EPO) robustly induced bone marrow erythroferrone ( Fam132b ) mRNA in control and Smad1 fl/fl ;Smad5 fl/fl ;Cre + mice but suppressed hepcidin only in control mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Bone marrow fibrosis is a central pathological feature and World Health Organization major diagnostic criterion of myelofibrosis. (haematologica.org)
  • Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. (haematologica.org)
  • A number of studies indicate that bone marrow fibrosis is an adverse prognostic variable in myeloproliferative neoplasms. (haematologica.org)
  • However, modern myelofibrosis prognostication systems utilized in risk-adapted treatment approaches do not include bone marrow fibrosis as a prognostic variable. (haematologica.org)
  • The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. (haematologica.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. (haematologica.org)
  • Here we review the pathogenesis, biological consequences, and prognostic impact of bone marrow fibrosis. (haematologica.org)
  • Bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) is characterized by the increased deposition of reticulin fibers and in some cases collagen fibers. (haematologica.org)
  • 6 Causes of early death include leukemic transformation, complications arising from progressive bone marrow failure, portal/pulmonary hypertension, infections, thrombosis and bleeding. (haematologica.org)
  • Less well understood, but of growing interest, is the interaction between cells in the bone marrow during the initiation, maintenance and treatment of hematologic neoplasms. (haematologica.org)
  • This review summarizes the emerging concepts of the normal and leukemic hematopoietic bone marrow niche. (haematologica.org)
  • Furthermore, it reviews current models of how the microenvironment of the bone marrow may contribute to or be modified by leukemogenesis. (haematologica.org)
  • Interest in the leukemic stem-like cell (LSC) niche in the bone marrow (BM) developed due to the major advances made in the understanding of the normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche over the last 15 years. (haematologica.org)
  • Given that leukemia does not propagate just anywhere in the body and is difficult to grow ex vivo , it was thought that leukemia cells depend on the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM). (haematologica.org)
  • The concept that vascular structures support HSPC has long been proposed and is in keeping with the growing idea that definitive hematopoiesis and establishment of a HSPC pool exists well before bone or bone marrow formation. (haematologica.org)
  • Bone marrow cells obtained from the femora of CIZ-deficient mice revealed higher ALP activity in culture and formed more mineralized nodules than wild-type cells. (rupress.org)
  • CIZ deficiency increased newly formed bone mass after femoral bone marrow ablation in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Ethanol activates the interleukin-6 promoter in a human bone marrow stromal cell line. (umich.edu)
  • Orchiectomy increases bone-marrow interleukin-6 levels in mice. (umich.edu)
  • Here we report that this process partially recapitulates embryonic endochondral bone formation in a spontaneous model of arthritis in DBA/1 mice. (jci.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGFβ superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Haplotype-based gene-gene interaction of bone morphogenetic protein 4 and interferon regulatory factor 6 in the etiology of non-syndromic cleft lip. (cdc.gov)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publications] Morito Sakaue: 'Molecular cloning and characterization of human bone morphogenic protein(BMP)-5 gene promotor' BBRC. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 also known as NCOA3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the NCOA3 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Taken together, these data indicated that adenoviral BMP7 gene transfer in CD105+ hDDFCs may be developed as an effective tool for bone tissue engineering. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • 1990 ) Chromosomal localization of seven members of the murine TGF-superfamily suggests close linkage to several morphogenetic mutant loci. (biologists.org)
  • GDF3 is a bi-functional protein that has some intrinsic activity and also modulate other TGF-β superfamily members, e.g. potentiates the activity of NODAL . (wikidoc.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins . (wikidoc.org)
  • BMP10 is a polypeptide belonging to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins . (wikidoc.org)
  • Male C57/Bl6N mice were either subjected to unilateral renal artery clamping postuninephrectomy or to 5/6-nephrectomy. (physiology.org)
  • early endothelial outgrowth cells (eEOCs), a major subpopulation of so-called endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) ( 1 , 6 , 19 , 33 ), have been shown to protect mice reliably from acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) ( 19 , 20 , 23 ). (physiology.org)
  • The impact of BMP-6 knockdown on renal fibrosis was studied by implementing unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in BMP-6 null and wild-type mice. (uu.nl)
  • To study the effects of genetic CTGF attenuation on fibrosis in the context of chronic and severe renal injury, transgenic CTGF+/- and wild-type CTGF+/+ mice were subjected to models of long-term diabetes (6 months), UUO and aristolochic acid nephropathy. (uu.nl)
  • The function of endogenous BMP-6 will be explained by using BMP-6 knock-out ( Bmp-6 -/- ) mice that spontaneously develop osteoporosis ( preliminary data ). (weebly.com)
  • To investigate the potential role of CIZ in regulating adult bone mass, we examined the bones in CIZ-deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • Bone volume was increased and the rates of bone formation were increased in CIZ-deficient mice, whereas bone resorption was not altered. (rupress.org)
  • To obtain insights into the role of CIZ in bone in vivo, we investigated the bone in the CIZ-deficient mice. (rupress.org)
  • Evaluation of ovariectomy and dehydro-epiandrosterone sulfate administration on interleukin-6 levels and B16 melanoma growth in mice. (umich.edu)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of BMP2, 4, 6 and 7 on goat granulosa cells by in vitro culture. (academicjournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 5, and 6 in combination stimulate osteoblasts but not osteoclasts in vitro. (orfoundation.org)
  • 4 Several in vitro 5 , 6 and in vivo 7 , 8 models support the notion that sinusoidal endothelial cells regulate hematopoiesis, in part by soluble factors 9 , 10 and by anatomic proximity of CD150 + CD244 − CD48 − lineage-(SLAM marker + ) HSC to BM sinusoidal vessels. (haematologica.org)
  • Abcam's Human BMP2 in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of Human BMP2 in bone tissue, cell culture supernatants and serum. (abcam.com)
  • Effect of IL-6 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotide in vitro proliferation of myeloma cells. (umich.edu)
  • Different cellular developmental histories, 5 microenvironmental cues, and factor-dependent polarization 6 vastly increase the complexity of macrophage phenotypes in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Acceleration of human prostate cancer growth in vivo by factors produced by prostate and bone fibroblasts. (springer.com)
  • In an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, the adenovirus‑mediated overexpression of BMP7 enhanced bone formation from CD105+ hDDFCs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Finally, BMP-2-induced bone formation on adult mouse calvariae in vivo was enhanced by CIZ deficiency. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, in vivo physiological function of CIZ in bone has not yet been determined. (rupress.org)
  • These results establish that CIZ suppresses the levels of adult bone mass through inhibition of BMP-induced activation of osteoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition of NFkB through maintenance of IkB levels contributes to dihydrotestosterone-mediated inhibition of the interleukin-6 promoter. (umich.edu)
  • Our data provided the first evidence that BMP2, 4, 6 and 7 may inhibit granulosa cell apoptosis through the regulation of FSHR and/or LHR level. (academicjournals.org)
  • These findings provided new insight into the biological functions of BMP2, 4, 6 and 7 for follicular development in goat ovary. (academicjournals.org)
  • Erythroferrone lowers hepcidin by sequestering BMP2/6 heterodimer from binding to the BMP type I receptor ALK3. (harvard.edu)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling network, comprising evolutionary conserved BMP2/4/Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Chordin/Short gastrulation (Sog), is widely utilized for dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning during animal development. (biologists.org)
  • Sequence analysis indicates that the Scw ligand contains two N-glycosylation motifs: one being highly conserved between BMP2/4- and BMP5/6/7/8-type ligands, and the other being Scw ligand specific. (biologists.org)
  • Dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning during early embryogenesis in Bilateria and directed axis formation in Cnidaria, an outgroup of Bilateria, are regulated by a conserved BMP network comprising BMP2/4/Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and the BMP binding proteins Chordin/Short gastrulation (Sog) ( De Robertis, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • This protein regulates a wide range of biological processes including iron homeostasis, fat and bone development, and ovulation. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, dysregulation of such protein, which regulates embryogenesis or organogenesis may cause tumorigenesis and metastasis. (omicsonline.org)
  • Publications] Riko Kitazawa: 'In situ demonstration of parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP)mRNA in human normal parathyroid and secondary hyperplasia' Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The cells were treated with increasing doses of resveratrol, and subsequently harvested to determine mRNA levels and protein levels. (springermedizin.de)
  • Compositions and methods for systemic administration of DNA encoding bone morphogenic proteins for promotion of osteogenesis are disclosed. (google.com)
  • The invention further discloses compositions and methods for systemic administration of bone morphogenetic proteins for promotion of osteogenesis. (google.com)
  • In addition, the fact that this BMP is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 has led to speculation of possible bone inductive activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that BMP7 activated small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) and p38/mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling in CD105+ hDDFCs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 1992 ) Bone morphogenetic protein 4: a ventralizing factor in early Xenopus development. (biologists.org)
  • J Vet Int Med 6:198-199, 1992. (umich.edu)
  • Biology of bone metastases in prostate cancer. (springer.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-6: potential mediator of osteoblastic metastases in prostate. (springer.com)
  • The phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3) proteins then form oligomers with or without Smad4 that translocate to the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of target genes. (asm.org)
  • 4 1 HSC regulate development 6 5 and undergo important changes during aging. (haematologica.org)
  • Osteoblasts attach to bone and regulate extracellular environment, while they are also controlled by bone via membrane-bound attachment proteins, which form adhesion plaques in these cells. (rupress.org)
  • These molecules are one of the candidates to regulate osteoblasts by conveying attachment signals from bone ( 7 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • 1997). In mouse development, GATA-4 and - GATA-6 were found to specifically regulate BMP4 transcription to mediate endoderm-mesoderm signalling and early vasculogenesis (Nemer et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • For example, bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP9) has been found to have potent osteogenic activity. (medsci.org)
  • We previously reported haplotype associations for polymorphic variants of interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) in Chile. (cdc.gov)
  • Hence, the present study aims to investigate the association of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-V152A (rs17563), and SIX homeobox 6 (SIX6)-H141N (rs33912345) polymorphisms with congenital cataract and microphthalmia in Western Indian cohorts. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, it was discovered that PCa-induced aberrant bone formation is due, in part, from tumor-associated endothelial cells that were converted into osteoblasts through endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion by tumor-secreted BMP4. (springer.com)
  • 1995). Deletion analysis of the mouse BMP4 promoter in MC3T3E1 cells identified a cis-acting E-box element proximal to the transcriptional start site that is bound by upstream regulatory factor ( USF ), a member of the helix-loop-helix family of regulatory proteins (Ebara et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with their roles in post-mitotic neuronal development and synaptic modulation, the ligands and signaling components of the BMP and Activin/TGF-β subfamilies are widely expressed in the mammalian adult brain and components of both subfamilies are often co-expressed in multiple sectors of the brain with particular enrichment found in the CA and DG hippocampal subregions [6] - [10] . (plos.org)
  • In Drosophila , BMP5/6/7/8-type ligands, Screw (Scw) and Glass bottom boat (Gbb), form heterodimers with Dpp for DV patterning and PCV development, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • These results suggest that tolerance for structural changes of BMP5/6/7/8-type ligands is dependent on developmental constraints. (biologists.org)
  • Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. (curehunter.com)
  • The breakthrough phenomenon was attenuated by neutralization of endogenous BMP-6 and activin receptor-like kinase-2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of mammalian Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • BMP intracellular signalling through Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • High-penetrance tumor susceptibility genes account for at most 3-6% of all colorectal cancer cases and the remainder of the unexplained risk is likely due to a combination of low to moderate penetrance genes. (springer.com)
  • The tumor-induced bone can cause complications that significantly hamper the quality of life of patients. (springer.com)
  • Prostate cancer-induced bone was shown to enhance tumor growth and confer therapeutic resistance in bone metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Clinically, Radium-223, an alpha emitter that selectively targets bone, was shown to improve overall survival in patients, supporting a role of tumor-induced bone in prostate cancer progression in bone. (springer.com)
  • Therapies that incorporate targeting the tumor-induced osteoblasts or EC-to-OSB conversion mechanism may reduce tumor-induced bone formation and improve therapy outcomes. (springer.com)
  • The bone microenvironment: a fertile soil for tumor growth. (springer.com)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase activity, bone matrix turnover, and tumor cell proliferation in prostate cancer bone metastasis. (springer.com)
  • The molecules in these toolkits include several growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Hedgehog, Notch and Wnt/wingless (Wg). (biologists.org)
  • Prostate cancer bone metastasis is the lethal progression of the disease. (springer.com)
  • The unique bone-forming phenotype of prostate cancer bone metastasis plays a role in prostate cancer progression in bone and therapy resistance. (springer.com)
  • Mechanisms of bone metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Coevolution of prostate cancer and bone stroma in three-dimensional coculture: implications for cancer growth and metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Use of the stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 pathway in prostate cancer metastasis to bone. (springer.com)
  • Osteonectin promotes prostate cancer migration and invasion: a possible mechanism for metastasis to bone. (springer.com)
  • Stromal factors involved in prostate carcinoma metastasis to bone. (springer.com)
  • In fact, disseminated cancer cells at premalignant site need to adjust with the new environment by accepting circumstantial signaling which may lead to develop a distinct type of epigenetic switching, resulting in conversion of EMT to MET, and eventually develop macro-metastasis [6]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors associated with complex genetic and epigenetic alterations that allow tumors to disseminate throughout lymphatics or blood vessels, giving rise to the colonization and growth of metastatic cells in distant organs [ 4 - 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) with bone morphogenic ability are used to treat diseases such as periodontitis. (medsci.org)
  • The presence of bone morphogenetic proteins as well as stem cells has also been documented. (scielo.org.za)
  • Ekstedt M and Angulo P found that fibrosis contributed to the development of chronic liver disease in patients with NAFLD [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Publications] Kitazawa R: 'In situ detection of parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP)in ovarian clear cell carcinoma' Human Pathol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SIRT1 protein was expressed in the human ovarian tissues and human luteinized granulosa cells. (springermedizin.de)
  • In 5/6-nephrectomy, the cells failed to protect renal function, but proteinuria was reduced after administering untreated eEOCs. (physiology.org)
  • Cell effects in 5/6-nephrectomy are heterogenous, but untreated cells act antiproteinurically and antifibrotically without any impact on EnMT. (physiology.org)
  • We recently reported that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 enhances Ang II-induced aldosterone production in human adrenocortical cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Roles of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in aldosterone regulation by adrenocortical cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Functional relationship between fibroblast growth factor-8 and bone morphogenetic proteins in regulating steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Enhancement of aldosterone-induced catecholamine production by bone morphogenetic protein-4 through activating Rho and SAPK/JNK pathway in adrenomedullar cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Finally, it provides the rationale for a "two-pronged" approach, directly targeting cancer cells themselves while also targeting the bone microenvironment to make it inhospitable to malignant cells and, ultimately, eradicating cancer stem-like cells. (haematologica.org)
  • 2013) Membrane bound and soluble endoglin protects myeloma cells from bone morphogenetic protein 9 induced apoptosis. (ntnu.edu)
  • In the course of periodontal wound healing, progenitor cells in the periodontal ligament can migrate to the defect region and form alveolar bone tissue [ 10 , 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Some bone matrix proteins stimulate or inhibit the replication of bone cells (Farley et al Biochem. (google.com)
  • Other bone matrix proteins stimulate collagen synthesis in bone cells (Canalis et al, Science 210: 1021-1023, 1980). (google.com)
  • Thus, bone matrix could give signals from outside the body to the cells ( 9 , 10 ) either through matrix-residing cytokines, through these attachment machineries, or both. (rupress.org)
  • At 3 and 12 months after transplantation, there was a correlation between the low molecular weight proteins α1 and β2-microglobulin and uCTGF, reflecting tubular dysfunction. (uu.nl)
  • Work with BMP material isolated from rabbit dentin matrix protein fraction, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) has been assigned a molecular weight of about 23,000. (google.ca)
  • The BMP-6 which has a total molecular weight of 26.2kDa is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (prospecbio.com)
  • Publications] Tamada H: 'Molecular cloning and analysis of the human bone morphogenetic protein-6(BMP-6)' BBA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • investigated the role of PS in mediating responses to several molecular cues using outgrowth, turning and growth cone collapse assays, and concluded that axon guidance mechanisms do not require protein synthesis, despite replicating findings showing that semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) activates PS. (jneurosci.org)
  • He is investigating the molecular mechanisms that lead to hepcidin upregulation after stimulation with IL-6, bone morphogenetic protein 9, or iron. (scripps.edu)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling appears to be a key molecular pathway involved in this pathological cascade. (jci.org)
  • The molecular and cellular biology of interleukin-6 and the interleukin-6 receptor. (umich.edu)
  • As there is currently no known export mechanism for excess iron, its metabolism is tightly regulated through transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational mechanisms to prevent toxic iron excess while maintaining the metabolic needs of the organism [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 2002) Generation and functional characterization of human toll-like (TLR) 6. (ntnu.edu)
  • The Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3) proteins are principally involved in the transmission of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • The partial amino-acid sequence of purified human transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was used to identify a series of cDNA clones encoding the protein. (embl.de)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) and transforming growth factor-b3 (TGF-b3) were delivered at 5 ng/day at highly bioactive states. (ozon.ru)
  • [8] [9] Recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States . (wikidoc.org)
  • The use of dual tapered threaded fusion cages and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge obtained and maintained intervertebral spinal fusion, improved clinical outcomes, and reduced pain after anterior lumbar interbody arthrodesis in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease. (wikidoc.org)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Most of the individuals with this syndrome carry a terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p) with a breakpoint within the 6p25.3p23 region. (springer.com)
  • Evaluating the association of bone morphogenetic protein 4-V152A and SIX homeobox 6-H141N polymorphisms with congenital cataract and microphthalmia. (cdc.gov)
  • a and c) agarose gel electrophoresis shows polymerase chain reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism patterns for bone morphogenetic protein 4-V152A after digesting with HphI restriction enzyme and allele specific oligonucleotide-polymerase chain reaction pattern for SIX homeobox 6-H141N, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • b) recovering and purifying from said culture medium a protein comprising amino acids #283-#396 of FIG. 2. (google.com)
  • b) recovering and purifying from said culture medium a protein comprising amino acids #283 to #396 of FIG. 2. (google.com)
  • 7. A composition comprising a purified protein characterized by amino acids #283 to #396 of FIG. 2. (google.com)
  • Antiviral activity of bone morphogenetic proteins and activins. (nih.gov)
  • However, mechanisms of both the endogenous and systemically administrated BMP-6 in bone formation have not been fully elucidated. (weebly.com)
  • These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, the mechanisms regulating adult bone mass are poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • However, limitation in the knowledge on the molecules acting as signaling factors to determine adult bone mass has hampered the progress in understanding the mechanisms that control adult bone mass levels. (rupress.org)
  • In the copending application and patent there are disclosed and claimed a process, (and the product of that process), for separating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) from bone tissue. (google.ca)
  • These destructive ROS have the potential to damage proteins, lipid membranes and nucleic acids and result in tissue damage [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Periodontitis is a very common chronic bacterial infection that mainly involves periodontal supporting tissue (i.e., periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, and cementum). (medsci.org)
  • Several methods have been developed to treat periodontitis, such as guided tissue regeneration, scaling and root planning, demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts, autografts, and the use of bioactive materials [ 4 - 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The periodontal ligament is a special layer of connective tissue located between the root surface cementum and alveolar bone, and it plays important roles in attaching teeth to the alveolar bone, nutrition of teeth, and repair of damaged tissue [ 8 - 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Since the fractures are frequent features of osteoporosis, the effect of BMP-6 on fracture healing will be studied in OVX Bmp-6 -/- and WT femoral fracture model. (weebly.com)
  • Bone regeneration is required for fracture healing. (orfoundation.org)
  • To study the association between genetic variation in the GDF5 region and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) susceptibility, height, bone size parameters and fracture risk in a large population-based cohort of Caucasian elderly subjects. (bmj.com)
  • CTX-II levels, height, bone mineral density (BMD), bone size and fracture risk were also assessed. (bmj.com)
  • rs143383 and three highly correlated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GDF5 region were found to be independently associated with OA, height, bone size and fracture risk in women. (bmj.com)
  • These compositions and methods may be used in bone fracture healing and repair. (google.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone. (wikidoc.org)
  • The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • Histopathological assessment of prostate cancer bone osteoblastic metastases. (springer.com)