Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Diseases, MetabolicMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGranulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 10: A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DioxolesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.OdontoblastsMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.

Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. (1/184)

Cbfa1, a transcription factor that belongs to the runt-domain gene family, plays an essential role in osteogenesis. Cbfa1-deficient mice completely lacked both intramembranous and endochondral ossification, owing to the maturational arrest of osteoblasts, indicating that Cbfa1 has a fundamental role in osteoblast differentiation. However, Cbfa1 was also expressed in chondrocytes, and its expression was increased according to the maturation of chondrocytes. Terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes expressed Cbfa1 extensively. The significant expression of Cbfa1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), and its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes was most prominent at E14.5-16.5. In Cbfa1-deficient mice, whose entire skeleton was composed of cartilage, the chondrocyte differentiation was disturbed. Calcification of cartilage occurred in the restricted parts of skeletons, including tibia, fibula, radius, and ulna. Type X collagen, BMP6, and Indian hedgehog were expressed in their hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and collagenase 3 were not expressed at all, indicating that they are directly regulated by Cbfa1 in the terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes. Chondrocyte differentiation was severely disturbed in the rest of the skeleton. The expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor, Indian hedgehog, type X collagen, and BMP6 was not detected in humerus and femur, indicating that chondrocyte differentiation was blocked before prehypertrophic chondrocytes. These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of SpBMP5-7, a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily expressed in sea urchin embryos. (2/184)

TGF-beta ligands are probably pan-bilaterian in phylogenetic distribution. The family appears to have diversified greatly with the evolution of the vertebrates, but only a few invertebrate deuterostome TGF-beta molecules have so far been isolated. A search for members of this family expressed in sea urchin embryos, using canonical PCR primers, revealed a single-copy gene encoding a new TGF-beta protein. The sequence which it encodes is closely related to those of vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 5-7. No additional TGF-beta family members were uncovered other than univin, which had previously been reported.  (+info)

Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation. (3/184)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-(&bgr;) superfamily, and is most similar to BMP-5, osteogenic protein (OP)-1/BMP-7, and OP-2/BMP-8. In the present study, we characterized the endogenous BMP-6 signaling pathway during osteoblast differentiation. BMP-6 strongly induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in cells of osteoblast lineage, including C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and ROB-C26 cells. The profile of binding of BMP-6 to type I and type II receptors was similar to that of OP-1/BMP-7 in C2C12 cells and MC3T3-E1 cells; BMP-6 strongly bound to activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2 (also termed ActR-I), together with type II receptors, i.e. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) and activin type II receptor (ActR-II). In addition, BMP-6 weakly bound to BMPR-IA (ALK-3), to which BMP-2 also bound. In contrast, binding of BMP-6 to BMPR-IB (ALK-6), and less efficiently to ALK-2 and BMPR-IA, together with BMPR-II was detected in ROB-C26 cells. Intracellular signalling was further studied using C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Among the receptor-regulated Smads activated by BMP receptors, BMP-6 strongly induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad5, and less efficiently those of Smad1. However, Smad8 was constitutively phosphorylated, and no further phosphorylation or nuclear accumulation of Smad8 by BMP-6 was observed. These findings indicate that in the process of differentiation to osteoblasts, BMP-6 binds to ALK-2 as well as other type I receptors, and transduces signals mainly through Smad5 and possibly through Smad1.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-6 and parathyroid hormone-related protein coordinately regulate the hypertrophic conversion in mouse clonal chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. (4/184)

We evaluated the roles of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, BMP-4 and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the hypertrophic conversion using mouse chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. In ATDC5 cells, the expression of BMP-6 and PTHrP receptor mRNAs increased in parallel with the progression of chondrogenic differentiation of these cells, exhibiting a time course similar to that of type II collagen, a phenotypic marker of proliferating chondrocytes, while BMP-4 mRNA was continuously expressed throughout the differentiation processes. The expression of type X collagen mRNA, a phenotypic marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes, was upregulated by BMP-6 and BMP-4, and downregulated by PTHrP(1-141). The expression of BMP-6 mRNA was upregulated while that of BMP-4 mRNA was downregulated by both BMP-6 and BMP-4. Moreover, the expression of BMP-6 mRNA was downregulated by PTHrP(1-141). Furthermore, even in the presence of PTHrP(1-141), BMP-6 increased the transcript level of type X collagen in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that transiently expressed BMP-6 promotes the hypertrophic conversion in association with the augmentation of BMP-6 gene expression by BMP signals and that both BMP-6 and PTHrP coordinately regulate the rate of the hypertrophic conversion of ATDC5 cells.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary gland. (5/184)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6, also known as vegetal-pale-gene-related and decaplentaplegic-vegetal-related) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of multifunctional signaling molecules. BMP-6 appears to play various biological roles in developing tissues, including regulation of epithelial differentiation. To study the possible involvement of BMP-6 in normal and neoplastic human salivary glands, we compared its mRNA and protein expression in 4 fetal and 15 adult salivary glands and in 22 benign and 32 malignant salivary gland tumors. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis indicated that BMP-6 transcripts are expressed at low levels in acinar cells of adult submandibular glands but not in ductal or stromal cells. BMP-6 was immunolocated specifically in serous acini of parotid and submandibular glands. None was found in primitive fetal acini or any other types of cell in adult salivary glands, including mucous acini and epithelial cells of intercalated, striated, and excretory ducts. All 16 cases of acinic cell carcinoma consistently exhibited cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining in the acinar tumor cells. Other cell types in these tumors, including intercalated duct-like cells, clear, vacuolated cells, and nonspecific glandular cells, exhibited no cytoplasmic BMP-6 staining. Other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors lacked BMP-6 immunoreactivity, except in areas of squamous differentiation. The results indicate that in salivary glands, BMP-6 expression is uniquely associated with acinar cell differentiation and suggest that BMP-6 may play a role in salivary gland function. More importantly, our experience of differential diagnostic problems related to salivary gland tumors suggests that the demonstration of consistent and specific BMP-6 immunoreactivity in acinic cell carcinoma is likely to be of clinical value.  (+info)

Tel-2 is a novel transcriptional repressor related to the Ets factor Tel/ETV-6. (6/184)

We report here the isolation of Tel-2, a novel member of the Ets transcription factor family, with high homology to Tel/ETV-6. Tel-2 is the second mammalian member of the Tel Ets family subclass whose prototype Tel is involved in various chromosomal translocations in human cancers. Six differentially expressed alternative splice products of Tel-2 were characterized encoding different Tel-2 isoforms which either contain or lack the amino-terminal Pointed domain and also vary at the carboxyl terminus. In contrast to Tel, which is highly expressed in several different cell types and tissues, Tel-2 is only weakly expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, including placenta, prostate, spleen, liver, and lung. Tel-2 binds to functionally relevant Ets-binding sites of several genes and only the Tel-2 isoform containing the Pointed domain and the DNA-binding domain acts as a strong repressor of transcription. The retinoic acid receptor alpha and bone morphogenetic protein-6B (BMP-6) genes are specifically repressed by Tel-2 indicating a function for Tel-2 as an inhibitor of differentiation. Due to the important involvement of Tel in human cancer and the location of Tel-2 within the MHC cluster region, Tel-2 might be involved in chromosomal translocations in human cancer as well.  (+info)

Skin cell induction of calcitonin gene-related peptide in embryonic sensory neurons in vitro involves activin. (7/184)

Target skin cells induce the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naive embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro, but the molecular basis of that induction is not known. Recombinant activin or bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) dramatically increase the number of sensory neurons with CGRP and substance P in vitro (X. Ai et al., 1999, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 14, 506-518). These experiments were designed to test if activin or BMPs accounted for the CGRP-inductive activity by skin cells. To identify factors from skin that induce CGRP, we developed a bioassay in which embryonic DRG neurons isolated before peripheral target contact in vivo are challenged in vitro with specific factors. Conditioned medium from an embryonic rat skin cell line induced neuronal CGRP expression, and induction was blocked by follistatin, implicating transforming growth factor family members. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the skin cell line medium contained several activin and bone morphogenetic protein moieties. Antibody specific to activin neutralized most of the CGRP-inductive activity in skin conditioned medium. These data indicate that the CGRP-inductive action of skin cells involves activin and establish activin as a candidate regulator of this sensory neuropeptide phenotype during development.  (+info)

Ca2+ and BMP-6 signaling regulate E2F during epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. (8/184)

The epidermis consists of a squamous epithelium continuously replenished by committed stem cells, which can either self-renew or differentiate. We demonstrated previously that E2F genes are differentially expressed in developing epidermis (Dagnino, L., Fry, C. J., Bartley, S. M., Farnham, P., Gallie, B. L., and Phillips, R. A. (1997) Cell Growth Differ. 8, 553-563). Thus, we hypothesized that various E2F proteins likely play distinct growth regulatory roles in the undifferentiated stem cells and in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. To further understand the function of E2F genes in epidermal morphogenesis, we have examined the expression, regulation, and protein-protein interactions of E2F factors in undifferentiated cultured murine primary keratinocytes or in cells induced to differentiate with Ca(2+) or BMP-6 (bone morphogenetic protein 6). We find similar patterns of E2F regulation with both differentiating agents and demonstrate a switch in expression from E2F-1, -2, and -3 in undifferentiated, proliferating cells to E2F-5 in terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation by transforming growth factor-beta1 did not enhance E2F-5 protein levels, suggesting that this response is specific to differentiation rather than reversible cell cycle withdrawal. E2F-5 up-regulation is also accompanied by formation of heteromeric nuclear complexes containing E2F5, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1. Overexpression of E2F5 specifically inhibited DNA synthesis in undifferentiated keratinocytes in an HDAC-dependent manner, suggesting that E2F-5.p130.HDAC1 complexes are likely involved in the permanent withdrawal from the cell cycle of keratinocytes responding to differentiation stimuli.  (+info)

*Bone morphogenetic protein 6

2003). "BMPER, a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: BMP6 bone morphogenetic protein 6". Human BMP6 genome location and BMP6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... 1999). "Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary ...

*Nuclear receptor coactivator 3

"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 also known as NCOA3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the NCOA3 gene. NCOA3 is ... The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. ... Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massagué J (1995). "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the ...

*BMPR1A

The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... Yamada N, Kato M, ten Dijke P, Yamashita H, Sampath TK, Heldin CH, Miyazono K, Funa K (1996). "Bone morphogenetic protein type ...

*ACVR2A

"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... "Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... Activin receptor type-2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2A gene. ACVR2A is an activin type 2 receptor. This ... Barbara NP, Wrana JL, Letarte M (1999). "Endoglin is an accessory protein that interacts with the signaling receptor complex of ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein

Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ... Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 15

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. It's mainly involved in ... "Entrez Gene: BMP15 bone morphogenetic protein 15". Persani, L.; Rossetti, R.; Di Pasquale, E.; Cacciatore, C.; Fabre, S. (2014 ... 2001). "Bone morphogenetic protein-15. Identification of target cells and biological functions". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (50): 39523 ... Moore RK, Otsuka F, Shimasaki S (2003). "Molecular basis of bone morphogenetic protein-15 signaling in granulosa cells". J. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 3

... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 7

... or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 (11 ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) BMP7 as Molecule of the ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 10

... (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ... bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse BMP-10 a ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 1

... , also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ... "Post-translational modification of bone morphogenetic protein-1 is required for secretion and stability of the protein". J. ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 2

... has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... bone morphogenetic protein 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human BMP2 genome location ... Gilboa L, Nohe A, Geissendörfer T, Sebald W, Henis YI, Knaus P (March 2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 4

"Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ... "Effect of extracellular calcium on the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 of normal human bone cells". J. ...

*Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 6

Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S (2001). "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through ... It acts as a regulator of TGFβ family (such as bone morphogenetic proteins) activity by competing with SMAD4 and preventing the ... There are two known isoforms of this protein. The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD6 gene. SMAD6 is a protein that, as its name describes, is a homolog of the ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 5

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: BMP5 bone morphogenetic protein 5". Human BMP5 genome location and BMP5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta ... Beck HN, Drahushuk K, Jacoby DB, Higgins D, Lein PJ (Mar 2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) promotes dendritic growth ...

*SULF1

... an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), allowing cells to become BMP-4 responsive. Therefore, this directly links ... "Domain-specific modification of heparan sulfate by Qsulf1 modulates the binding of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist ... Although the core protein is important, the large heparan sulfate (HS) chains extending from the core are responsible for most ... In contrast to Sulf1, Sulf2 was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissue in two mammary carcinoma mouse ...

*Growth differentiation factor-9

2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/ ... Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... Vitt UA, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh AJ (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2). ...

*BMPR1B

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B also known as CDw293 (cluster of differentiation w293) is a protein that in humans ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein receptor". Mishina Y, Starbuck MW, Gentile MA, Fukuda T, Kasparcova V, Seedor JG, Hanks ... BMPR1B is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ...

*Gremlin (protein)

"The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein". BMC ... "Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor ... Gremlin1 (Grem1) is known for its antagonistic interaction with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the TGF beta signaling ... 12, 23 GREM1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GREM2 protein, human at the ...

*BMP2K

Arikawa T, Omura K, Morita I (Sep 2004). "Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression by endogenous prostaglandin E2 ... Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in ... BMP-2-inducible protein kinase is an enzyme in humans encoded by the BMP2K gene. This gene is the human homolog of mouse BMP-2- ... Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is ...

*DMP1

2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-1/Tolloid-like proteinases process dentin matrix protein-1". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2): 980-6. ... This protein, which is critical for proper mineralization of bone and dentin, is present in diverse cells of bone and tooth ... 2004). "Dentin matrix protein 1 is expressed in human lung cancer". J. Bone Miner. Res. 18 (8): 1506-12. doi:10.1359/jbmr. ... 2006). "A chondroitin sulfate chain attached to the bone dentin matrix protein 1 NH2-terminal fragment". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (12 ...

*Sclerostin

... family of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists. Sclerostin is produced by the osteocyte and has anti-anabolic effects ... An antibody for sclerostin is being developed because of the protein's specificity to bone. Its use has increased bone growth ... "Noggin and sclerostin bone morphogenetic protein antagonists form a mutually inhibitory complex". The Journal of Biological ... was originally believed to be a non-classical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. More recently sclerostin has been ...

*HOXC8

Shi X, Yang X, Chen D, Chang Z, Cao X (1999). "Smad1 interacts with homeobox DNA-binding proteins in bone morphogenetic protein ... Wan M, Shi X, Feng X, Cao X (2001). "Transcriptional mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteoprotegrin gene ... "Smad1 interacts with homeobox DNA-binding proteins in bone morphogenetic protein signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (19): 13711-7. ... Homeobox protein Hox-C8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXC8 gene. This gene belongs to the homeobox family of ...

*TWF1

2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this protein may be an actin monomer-binding protein, and its localization to ... Twinfilin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TWF1 gene. This gene encodes twinfilin, an actin monomer-binding ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) "Entrez Gene: TWF1 twinfilin, actin-binding protein, homolog 1 (Drosophila)". " ...

*GDF6

1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to form heterodimers that may work to regulate neural induction and ... 2002). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1 and -2 are endogenously expressed in healthy and osteoarthritic human ...

*Repulsive guidance molecule B

There is a potential association between RGMs and cancer bone metastasis, as RGMs coordinate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ... is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor of the repulsive guidance molecule family. In humans this protein is encoded ... Li J, Ye L, Kynaston HG, Jiang WG (February 2012). "Repulsive guidance molecules, novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors ... a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (14): 14122-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M410034200. PMID 15671031. Severyn ...

*Spinal cord

Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ... Between the dura mater and the surrounding bone of the vertebrae is a space called the epidural space. The epidural space is ... the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone where it passes through the foramen magnum, and meets and enters the spinal canal ... causing the spinal cord to be punctured by a sharp fragment of bone. Usually, victims of spinal cord injuries will suffer loss ...
Disease-associated impairment/dysfunction of stem cell populations is prominent in chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) where the multifunctional...
Bone engineering strategies often exploit modulation of the extracellular environment, including delivery of cell and growth factors to repair and regenerate damaged tissues. During bone healing, the expression of endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins is an essential component of the healing response. However, in some situations, the inherent reparative capacity available in the local microenvironment is exceeded by the requirements of the defects. Currently, exogenous growth factors, scaffolds and/or cells are applied in repair of such defects. The central approach used in the current project takes a dramatic departure from current strategies by exploiting the specificity of antibodies to capture and make available endogenous osteogenic growth factors. This approach is referred to herein as "antibody mediated osseous regeneration" (AMOR). The experiments outlined in this study were designed to test the hypothesis that anti-BMP-2 antibodies, immobilized on a solid scaffold, mediate osteogenic ...
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The investigators aim to compare the levels of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -7 (BMP-4 and 7) in blood, follicular fluid and ovarian organ culture s
The Assembly adjourned at 6:13 P.M. to meet again on Monday, February 25, 2008, (QUORUM, Committee Groups A and B scheduled to meet ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), their structure, action and detailed description of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provid...
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Bone morphogenetic protein signalling dynamics in hFOBs under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. (a) hFOBs in two-dimensional monolayer c
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Carragee and colleagues recently published an analysis of publicly available raw data from the Medtronic sponsored AMPLIFY study (a randomized controlled trial
Bmp4 - Bmp4 (untagged) - Mouse bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
As part of a continuing investigation into a bone morphogenetic protein-2 product marketed as Infuse, the |em|Milwaukee Journal Sentinel/MedPage Today|/em| describe a first-hand account of early signs
Looking for online definition of bone morphogenetic protein 2B in the Medical Dictionary? bone morphogenetic protein 2B explanation free. What is bone morphogenetic protein 2B? Meaning of bone morphogenetic protein 2B medical term. What does bone morphogenetic protein 2B mean?
Mutations in HFE are the most common cause of the iron-overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. Levels of the main iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, are inappropriately low in hereditary hemochromatosis mouse models and patients with HFE mutations, indicating that HFE regulates hepcidin. The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)-SMAD signaling pathway is an important endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression. We investigated whether HFE is involved in BMP6-SMAD regulation of hepcidin expression. METHODS: The BMP6-SMAD pathway was examined in Hfe knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type (WT) mice as controls. Mice were placed on diets of varying iron content. Hepcidin induction by BMP6 was examined in primary hepatocytes from Hfe KO mice; data were compared with those of WT mice. RESULTS: Liver levels of Bmp6 messenger RNA (mRNA) were higher in Hfe KO mice; these were appropriate for the increased hepatic levels of iron in these mice, compared with WT mice. However, levels of hepatic ...
|p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins, plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. It is involved in the hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway, and in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. It is involved also in cardiac cell differentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types.|/p||p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone and recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) and is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States.|/p|
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Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) offered by Overland Park KS Oral Surgeon to produce new bone & start the healing process. 913-469-8895
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Video articles in JoVE about bone morphogenetic protein 6 include Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks.
Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair.
Instrumentation et méthodes pour lastrophysique [astro-ph.IM]. Université de Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 2010. Français - tel-00667559. Determination of the radiative heating rates of dust over West Africa and their impact on the atmospherical dynamics using satellite observations during the AMMA campaign ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMPs in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, Buchberg AM (March 1990). "Chromosomal ...
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Market Research Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) market...
To examine the local effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on diverse skeletal tissues in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells transfected with the murine bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene were implanted into athymic nude mice by injection into the subcutaneous space of the skull, intra- and extraarticular spaces of the knee, paravertebral muscles, and intramedullary space in the femur, to form experimental tumors secreting bone morphogenetic protein-4. As a control, mock vector-transfected Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells were used. Three weeks after injection, the newly formed Chinese hamster ovary tumors together with the skeletal tissues adjacent to the tumor were recovered from each site and processed for histologic examination. On the periosteum of calvaria, new bone, but no cartilage, was observed, and abundant chondrogenic cell proliferation was seen in the apophysis of the spinous process and around Ranviers groove in the knee. There were no apparent reactions to the Chinese hamster
Bone metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors within the bone of cancer patients, is a debilitating and incurable disease. Despite its morbidity, the biology of bone metastasis represents one of the most complex and intriguing of all oncogenic processes. This complexity derives from the intricately organized bone microenvironment in which the various stages of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and osteolysis are jointly regulated but spatially restricted. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from various common malignancies such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancers or myeloma are uniquely primed to subvert these endogenous bone stromal elements to grow into pathological osteolytic or osteoblastic lesions ...
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a staged fashion by the activin-like kinase receptor 1 (ALK1) after stimulation by BMP-9. In this study, however, we show that CV2 preferentially binds and inhibits BMP-9 thereby providing strong feedback inhibition for BMP-9/ALK1 signaling rather than for BMP-4/ALK2 signaling. CV2 disrupts complex formation by ALK2, ALK1, BMP-4 and BMP-9 required for the induction of both BMP antagonists. It also limits VEGF expression and proliferation of ALK1-expressing endothelial cells. In vivo, CV2 deficiency translates into a dysregulation of vascular BMP signaling, resulting in a thickened, abnormal endothelium with increased markers of endothelial differentiation. Thus, mutual regulation by BMP-9 and CV2 is essential in regulating the development of the ...
Purpose.: There are limited studies on the factors that regulate the processing of TGF-β2 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into their mature form. Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1) is an enzyme responsible for the cleavage and maturation of growth factors and ECM proteins. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells express BMP1, BMP1 expression is regulated by TGF-β2, BMP1 is biologically active, and BMP1 regulates LOX activity. Methods.: Primary human TM cells were isolated and subjected to quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western immunoblotting (WB) for BMP1. BMP1 immunolocalization was performed in TM tissues. qPCR was used to determine BMP1 mRNA expression and WB results were used to determine BMP1 protein expression. BMP1 activity was measured in TM cells treated with TGF-β2 or with a combination of TGF-β2/UK383367. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme activity was evaluated by WB in TM cells treated with BMP1 or with a combination of ...
Research proven goat polyclonal BMP-4 antibody. Initiates, promotes and regulates bone development, growth, remodeling and repair. Smad1 translocation to the nucleus is observed after the addition of BMP4. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting and related applications.
BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals.
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Pediatric neuroblastoma in its advanced stage (st. IV) is usually lethal. 70% of the affected children die. 50% of the children show upon diagnosis metastasis or a genetic amplification of the oncogene N-myc. This group has a poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 33%. A drawback of the current standard therapy is the poor efficacy accompanied with severe side effects. Therefore a new treatment of neuroblastoma with a different antitumoral mode of action than the traditional cytotoxics is urgently required ...
|p|LDN-212854 is a selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling with IC50 value of 1.2nM [1].|/p||p|In the kinase assay, LDN-212854 shows inhibitory activities against caALK2 and caALK5 with IC50 values of 16nM and 2μM, respectively.
Developmental Signals - Bone Morphogenetic Protein,Bmp]],noinclude>[[Category:Template]][[Category:Term Link]][[Category:Molecular]][[Category:BMP]],/noinclude ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neogenin inhibits HJV secretion and regulates BMP-induced hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis. AU - Lee, Dai Hoon. AU - Zhou, Li Juau. AU - Zhou, Zheng. AU - Xie, Jiau Xiu. AU - Jung, Ji Ung. AU - Liu, Yu. AU - Xi, Cai Xia. AU - Mei, Lin. AU - Xiong, Wen Cheng. PY - 2010/4/15. Y1 - 2010/4/15. N2 - Neogenin, a deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) family member, has been identified as a receptor for the neuronal axon guidance cues netrins and repulsive guidance molecules repulsive guidance molecules (RGM). RGMc, also called hemojuvelin (HJV), is essential for iron homeostasis. Here we provide evidence that neogenin plays a critical role in iron homeostasis by regulation of HJV secretion and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Livers of neogenin mutant mice exhibit iron overload, low levels of hepcidin, and reduced BMP signaling. Mutant hepatocytes in vitro show impaired BMP2 induction of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and hepcidin expression. Neogenin is expressed in liver ...
BACKGROUND: Differences in duration of bone healing in various parts of the human skeleton are common experience for orthopaedic surgeons. The reason for these differences is not obvious and not clear.METHODS: In this paper we decided to measure by the use of real-time RT-PCR technique the level of expression of genes for some isoforms of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), whose role is proven in bone formation, bone induction and bone turnover. Seven bone samples recovered from various parts of skeletons from six cadavers of young healthy men who died in traffic accidents were collected. Activity of genes for BMP-2, -4 and -6 was measured by the use of fluorescent SYBR Green I.RESULTS: It was found that expression of m-RNA for BMP-2 and BMP-4 is higher in trabecular bone in epiphyses of long bones, cranial flat bones and corpus mandibulae then in the compact bone of diaphyses of long bones. In all samples examined the expression of m-RNA for BMP-4 was higher than for BMP-2.CONCLUSION: It was ...
Dr Edmond Bedrossian uses bone morphogenic protein to stimulate the cells to produce new bone during bone grafting surgery in San Francisco. 415-956-6610
Asia-Pacific Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Report 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-23 Available for US$ 4000 at Researchmoz.us
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The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a morphogenic protein stimulatory factor (MPSF) for improving the tissue inductive activity of morphogenic proteins, particularly
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Recombinant Human BMP-10 (carrier-free) - Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP-10) was initially cloned from embryonic heart, and expression data suggests that it plays a key role in the trabeculation of the embryonic heart.
Complete information for BMP8B gene (Protein Coding), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 8b, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years ...
Defendants received payments and/or other consideration, directly or indirectly, from Medicare after submitting false claims for payment, including facts that the use of BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) for this surgery was approved and proper, and that [the patient] was informed, and in fact, knowingly consented to the use of BMP-2 on this spinal surgery, which he did not," the complaint states ...
BMP4 antibody [10F4B4] (bone morphogenetic protein 4) for ELISA, WB. Anti-BMP4 mAb (GTX83027) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Thickvein C, 0.1 mg. Thickvein is a (Drosophila spp) type I transmembrane receptor that mediates signaling by decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup of TGF beta-type factors.
Straw bales were installed is a semi-circle around the down-slope side of the area to be excavated. BMPs installed 9/30/96 (V. Hesch, 4/98). BMPs inspected: 9/30/96 (V. Hesch, 4/98 ...

Follistatin-Related Proteins
     Summary Report | CureHunterFollistatin-Related Proteins Summary Report | CureHunter

Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 3. Interleukin-18 (Interleukin 18) 4. Cytokines 5. Interleukin-6 (Interleukin 6) ... FLRG Protein; FSTL1 Gene Product; FSTL3 Gene Product; Follistatin Secreted Related Protein; Follistatin-Like Protein 1; ... Follistatin-Like Protein 3; Follistatin-Like Secreted Glycoprotein; Follistatin-Related Protein 1; Follistatin Like Protein 1; ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD038702-FSTL1-Gene-Product.do

Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full TextBiological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full Text

Paresis of a bone morphogenetic protein-antagonist response in a genetic disorder of heterotopic skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint ... Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains ... Olmsted EA, Kaplan FS, Shore EM: Bone morphogenetic protein-4 regulation in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Clin Orthop ... Differential gene expression and regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonists follistatin and gremlin in normal and ...
more infohttps://head-face-med.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-160X-5-6

bone morphogenetic protein 6 Protocols and Video...'bone morphogenetic protein 6' Protocols and Video...

... bone morphogenetic protein 6 include Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks. ... A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of Bone formation. It plays additional roles in regulating Cell ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: ...
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Bone morphogenetic protein 6 - WikipediaBone morphogenetic protein 6 - Wikipedia

2003). "BMPER, a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "Entrez Gene: BMP6 bone morphogenetic protein 6". Human BMP6 genome location and BMP6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... 1999). "Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_morphogenetic_protein_6

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Inhibits the Immunomodulatory Property of BMMSCs via Id1 in Sjögrens SyndromeBone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Inhibits the Immunomodulatory Property of BMMSCs via Id1 in Sjögren's Syndrome

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 Inhibits the Immunomodulatory Property of BMMSCs via Id1 in Sjögrens Syndrome. Yingying Su,1 Yi ... Elevated expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) was recently reported in the epithelia of SS patients, and ... H. Yin, J. Cabrera-Perez, Z. Lai et al., "Association of bone morphogenetic protein 6 with exocrine gland dysfunction in ... "Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein-6," Journal of Cellular ...
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Dissemination - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 in osteoporosisDissemination - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 in osteoporosis

Simic P, Grgurevic L, Orlic I, Kufner V, Spaventi R, Vukicevic S. The unique role of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in ... 7th International Conference on Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Lake Tahoe, US, 9/7/2008-14/7/2008. 3rd Skeletal Biology and ... "Unique role of BMP-6 in bone biology". Conferences:. ...
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Summary - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 in osteoporosisSummary - Bone morphogenetic protein-6 in osteoporosis

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are used locally for treating bone defects in men. We have recently demonstrated that ... Since, PTH is the only approved bone anabolic drug, but with serious side-effects, there is a great need for new bone forming ... MSC and subsequently serum bone turnover markers. The results will disclose the BMP-6 anabolic effect on bone with a potential ... Crosstalk with antiresorptive and anabolic signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling will be tested by estradiol (E2), ...
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Recombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) - Human - BioTecNika PrimeRecombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) - Human - BioTecNika Prime

Catalog no: RS01P1655Application: SDS-PAGE; WB; ELISA; IP.Organism: HumanPurity: | 95%Host: E.coliExpression System: Prokaryotic expression
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Polyclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6), Polyclonal antibody, CLOUD-CLONE CORP.(CCC)Polyclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6), Polyclonal antibody, CLOUD-CLONE CORP.(CCC)

VG-1-related protein, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp. ... Polyclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) VGR ... Polyclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6), Rattus norvegicus (Rat), Polyclonal antibody, VGR, VGR1, Vegetal ... Immunogen RPA646Ra01-Recombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) *Buffer Formulation0.01M PBS, pH7.4, containing 0.05% ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6-a possible new player in pathophysiology of heart failurepubmed:27592865 ...
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BMP6 - LSBioBMP6 - LSBio

bone morphogenetic protein 6. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6, VG-1-related protein, VGR1, VG-1-R, VGR, Vg1, Vg1-related sequence, VGR-1. ... In addition, the fact that this BMP is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 has lead to speculation of possible bone inductive ... BMPs were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/targets/bmp6/g700

Gene Expression Literature DetailGene Expression Literature Detail

bone morphogenetic protein 6. MGI:88182 Reference. J:88817 Smits P, Dy P, Mitra S, Lefebvre V, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/gxdlit/key/36627

Gene Expression Literature DetailGene Expression Literature Detail

bone morphogenetic protein 6. MGI:88182 Reference. J:60594 Lee KJ, Dietrich P, Jessell TM, Genetic ablation reveals that the ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/gxdlit/key/16418

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: structure, protein interactions and cell signaling. - Semantic ScholarHeparan sulfate proteoglycans: structure, protein interactions and cell signaling. - Semantic Scholar

This review will focus on the structural characteristics of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans related to protein interactions ... regarding both the fine structure of the polysaccharide chain as well precise protein motifs. Heparan sulfates play a role in ... Exogenous heparin binds and inhibits bone morphogenetic protein 6 biological activity. *Jelena Brkljacić, Martina Pauk, +5 ... This review will focus on the structural characteristics of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans related to protein interactions ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans%3A-structure%2C-protein-Dreyfuss-Regatieri/0fe4a872f955fe5f44d8c622892644de7bfbbb80

bmp6 Expression [Xenopus] - Xenbase Gene Catalog
	bmp6 Expression [Xenopus] - Xenbase Gene Catalog

Gene Name: bone morphogenetic protein 6 Anatomy terms distal tubule early distal tubule early proximal tubule head mesenchyme ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/gene/expression.do?method=displayGenePageExpression&geneId=479133

Anti-Cow (Bovine) BMP6 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p))Anti-Cow (Bovine) BMP6 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p))

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 (BMP6) Antibodies show synonyms for this antigen * BMP6 ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6, VG-1-related protein, VGR1, VG-1-R, VGR, Vg1, Vg1-related sequence, VGR-1 ... 6 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody 1 antibody ... 6), AA 375-502. (5), AA 375-513. (5), AA 382-513. (4), AA 40-55. (3), Center. (3), AA 1-29. (2), AA 103-152. (2), Middle Region ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/regulation-of-hormone-metabolic-process-pathway-46/bmp6-antibody-2295/cow-ihc-p-198144/

The biology of nematode- and IL4Rα-dependent murine macrophage polarization in vivo as defined by RNA-Seq and targeted...The biology of nematode- and IL4Rα-dependent murine macrophage polarization in vivo as defined by RNA-Seq and targeted...

Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on macrophages. Immunology 2009;128 1 Suppl:e442-e450. ... Increased CD36 protein as a response to defective insulin signaling in macrophages. J Clin Invest 2004;113(5):764-773. ... C) The expression levels of transcripts encoding for PPARγ, PPARδ, and the coactivator protein PGC-1β show that WT-NeMφ express ... Nevertheless, our data suggest cooperative interactions between AAMφ-derived protein and lipid mediators ensure robust, tightly ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/120/25/e93?ijkey=408186e72daa3c0c9fff859bd8a37407ce8b6f64&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

Eosinophilic Fasciitis disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsEosinophilic Fasciitis disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6. 17.7. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) 3. IFNG ... Affiliated tissues include skin, bone and thyroid, and related phenotypes are neoplasm and reproductive system Wikipedia : 72 ... 6. Shulman Fasciitis Prevalence Study in Alsace. Recruiting. NCT02829112 Search. NIH Clinical Center for Eosinophilic Fasciitis ... L-N-[p-[[(2-Amino-5-formyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-Glutamic acid ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/eosinophilic_fasciitis

BMP6 Human | ProSpecBMP6 Human | ProSpec

Bone morphogenetic protein 6, BMP-6, VG-1-related protein, VG-1-R, VGR-1, BMP6, VGR, VGR1. ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules, which can induce ectopic bone growth. ... Moreover, the fact that the BMP6 is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 leads to an assumption of possible bone inductive activity ... For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/BMP6_Human

Ghent University HospitalGhent University Hospital

Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) modulates lung function, pulmonary iron levels and cigarette smoke-induced inflammation ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/organization/UZGent?start=30&limit=10&sort=year.desc&sort=datecreated.desc

KAKEN - Research Projects | A STUDY OF THE REGULATORY MECHANISM OF CYTOKINES ON OSTEOCLASTIC BONE RESORPTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL...KAKEN - Research Projects | A STUDY OF THE REGULATORY MECHANISM OF CYTOKINES ON OSTEOCLASTIC BONE RESORPTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL...

Publications] Tamada H: Molecular cloning and analysis of the human bone morphogenetic protein-6(BMP-6) BBA. (in press). ( ... Publications] Tamada H: Molecular cloning and analysis of the human bone morphogenetic protein-6(BMP-6) BBA. (in press). ( ... flanking region of the human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6). BBA. (in press).. *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(欧文)」より ... Publications] Morito Sakaue: Molecular cloning and characterization of human bone morphogenic protein(BMP)-5 gene promotor ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08670250/

BMP 6 Human Hek | ProSpecBMP 6 Human Hek | ProSpec

BMP-6 Human Recombinant produced in HEK cells is a glycosylated disulfide linked homodimer of two 139 amino acid polypeptide ... The BMP-6 which has a total molecular weight of 26.2kDa is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6, BMP-6, VG-1-related protein, VG-1-R, VGR-1, BMP6, VGR, VGR1. ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules, which can induce ectopic bone growth. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/bmp_6_human_hek

Insights in to the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathy based on gene expression profiles | Arthritis Research & Therapy |...Insights in to the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathy based on gene expression profiles | Arthritis Research & Therapy |...

In accord with the bone pathology component of SpA, we also found that expression levels of transcripts reflecting bone ... that are clearly related to the immune or inflammatory response and a group of 4 transcripts that have a strong role in bone ... secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 1.5 2.4 1.7 1.5 Involved in ossification, osteoblast differentiation ...
more infohttps://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar2855/tables/5

OriGene -Protein Listing By Pathway/FamilyOriGene -Protein Listing By Pathway/Family

Transient overexpression lysate of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) In Stock. LY400647. NM_001719. BMP7. Transient ... overexpression lysate of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) 5 days. LY400668. NM_001773. CD34. Transient overexpression lysate ... Transient overexpression lysate of GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1) (GATA1) In Stock. ... Transient overexpression lysate of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) In Stock. ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/protein/listByPathways.aspx?p=2&Fk=F12&d=1&d=1

OriGene -Protein Listing By Pathway/FamilyOriGene -Protein Listing By Pathway/Family

Transient overexpression lysate of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) In Stock. LY400647. NM_001719. BMP7. Transient ... overexpression lysate of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) 5 days. LY400668. NM_001773. CD34. Transient overexpression lysate ... Glucose-regulated protein 78 autoantibody associates with blood-brain barrier disruption in neuromyelitis optica Sci Transl Med ... Transient overexpression lysate of GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1) (GATA1) In Stock. ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/protein/listByPathways.aspx?p=2&Fk=F12
  • Crosstalk with antiresorptive and anabolic signalling pathways involved in bone remodelling will be tested by estradiol (E2), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and BMP-6 treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) Bmp-6 -/- and wild type (WT) mice and potential requirement of endogenous BMP-6 for treatment of osteoporosis will be disclosed. (weebly.com)
  • Publications] Kitazawa R: 'In situ detection of parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP)in ovarian clear cell carcinoma' Human Pathol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Different cellular developmental histories, 5 microenvironmental cues, and factor-dependent polarization 6 vastly increase the complexity of macrophage phenotypes in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • MSCs treatment can suppress autoimmunity and restore salivary and lacrimal gland secretory function in both animal models and SS patients [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of renal function and morphology was performed at 48 h and at 6 wk (AKI) or at 8 wk (5/6 model). (physiology.org)
  • Renal function was improved at 48 h and at 6 wk after cell therapy. (physiology.org)
  • In 5/6-nephrectomy, the cells failed to protect renal function, but proteinuria was reduced after administering untreated eEOCs. (physiology.org)
  • The BMP-6 which has a total molecular weight of 26.2kDa is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (prospecbio.com)
  • De Novo Protein Synthesis Mediated by the Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Is Required for the Anxiolytic Effect of Oxytocin. (nih.gov)
  • Male C57/Bl6N mice were either subjected to unilateral renal artery clamping postuninephrectomy or to 5/6-nephrectomy. (physiology.org)
  • The aim of the curent study was to analyze effects of BMP-5 treatment in an eEOC-based therapy of murine AKI and 5/6-nephrectomy. (physiology.org)
  • Impaired immunoregulatory activities of MSCs are found in both SS patients and animal models [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The loss rate was determined by accelerated thermal degradation test, that is, incubate the protein at 37°C for 48h, and no obvious degradation and precipitation were observed. (cloud-clone.us)