Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Diseases, MetabolicMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGranulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 10: A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DioxolesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.OdontoblastsMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.

Ectopic bone morphogenetic proteins 5 and 4 in the chicken forebrain lead to cyclopia and holoprosencephaly. (1/42)

Proper dorsal-ventral patterning in the developing central nervous system requires signals from both the dorsal and ventral portions of the neural tube. Data from multiple studies have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Sonic hedgehog protein are secreted factors that regulate dorsal and ventral specification, respectively, within the caudal neural tube. In the developing rostral central nervous system Sonic hedgehog protein also participates in ventral regionalization; however, the roles of BMPs in the developing brain are less clear. We hypothesized that BMPs also play a role in dorsal specification of the vertebrate forebrain. To test our hypothesis we implanted beads soaked in recombinant BMP5 or BMP4 into the neural tube of the chicken forebrain. Experimental embryos showed a loss of the basal telencephalon that resulted in holoprosencephaly (a single cerebral hemisphere), cyclopia (a single midline eye), and loss of ventral midline structures. In situ hybridization using a panel of probes to genes expressed in the dorsal and ventral forebrain revealed the loss of ventral markers with the maintenance of dorsal markers. Furthermore, we found that the loss of the basal telencephalon was the result of excessive cell death and not a change in cell fates. These data provide evidence that BMP signaling participates in dorsal-ventral patterning of the developing brain in vivo, and disturbances in dorsal-ventral signaling result in specific malformations of the forebrain.  (+info)

Early embryonic lethality in Bmp5;Bmp7 double mutant mice suggests functional redundancy within the 60A subgroup. (2/42)

Members of the BMP family of signaling molecules display a high conservation of structure and function, and multiple BMPs are often coexpressed in a variety of tissues during development. Moreover, distinct BMP ligands are capable of activating common pathways. Here we describe the coexpression of two members of the 60A subfamily of BMPs, Bmp5 and Bmp7, at a number of different sites in the embryo from gastrulation onwards. Previous studies demonstrate that loss of either Bmp5 or Bmp7 has negligible effects on development, suggesting these molecules functionally compensate for each other at early stages of embryonic development. Here we show this is indeed the case. Thus we find that Bmp5;Bmp7 double mutants die at 10.5 dpc and display striking defects primarily affecting the tissues where these factors are coexpressed. The present analysis also uncovers novel roles for BMP signaling during the development of the allantois, heart, branchial arches, somites and forebrain. Bmp5 and Bmp7 do not appear to be involved in establishing pattern in these tissues, but are instead necessary for the proliferation and maintenance of specific cell populations. These findings are discussed with respect to potential mechanisms underlying cooperative signaling by multiple members of the TGF-beta superfamily.  (+info)

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of SpBMP5-7, a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily expressed in sea urchin embryos. (3/42)

TGF-beta ligands are probably pan-bilaterian in phylogenetic distribution. The family appears to have diversified greatly with the evolution of the vertebrates, but only a few invertebrate deuterostome TGF-beta molecules have so far been isolated. A search for members of this family expressed in sea urchin embryos, using canonical PCR primers, revealed a single-copy gene encoding a new TGF-beta protein. The sequence which it encodes is closely related to those of vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 5-7. No additional TGF-beta family members were uncovered other than univin, which had previously been reported.  (+info)

Efficient studies of long-distance Bmp5 gene regulation using bacterial artificial chromosomes. (4/42)

The regulatory regions surrounding many genes may be large and difficult to study using standard transgenic approaches. Here we describe the use of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to rapidly survey hundreds of kilobases of DNA for potential regulatory sequences surrounding the mouse bone morphogenetic protein-5 (Bmp5) gene. Simple coinjection of large insert clones with lacZ reporter constructs recapitulates all of the sites of expression observed previously with numerous small constructs covering a large, complex regulatory region. The coinjection approach has made it possible to rapidly survey other regions of the Bmp5 gene for potential control elements, to confirm the location of several elements predicted from previous expression studies using regulatory mutations at the Bmp5 locus, to test whether Bmp5 control regions act similarly on endogenous and foreign promoters, and to show that Bmp5 control elements are capable of rescuing phenotypic effects of a Bmp5 deficiency. This rapid approach has identified new Bmp5 control regions responsible for controlling the development of specific anatomical structures in the vertebrate skeleton. A similar approach may be useful for studying complex control regions surrounding many other genes important in embryonic development and human disease.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) promotes dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons. (5/42)

BACKGROUND: BMP-5 is expressed in the nervous system throughout development and into adulthood. However its effects on neural tissues are not well defined. BMP-5 is a member of the 60A subgroup of BMPs, other members of which have been shown to stimulate dendritic growth in central and peripheral neurons. We therefore examined the possibility that BMP-5 similarly enhances dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons. RESULTS: Sympathetic neurons cultured in the absence of serum or glial cells do not form dendrites; however, addition of BMP-5 causes these neurons to extend multiple dendritic processes, which is preceded by an increase in phosphorylation of the Smad-1 transcription factor. The dendrite-promoting activity of BMP-5 is significantly inhibited by the BMP antagonists noggin and follistatin and by a BMPR-IA-Fc chimeric protein. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analyses indicate that BMP-5 mRNA and protein are expressed in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) during times of initial growth and rapid expansion of the dendritic arbor. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a role for BMP-5 in regulating dendritic growth in sympathetic neurons. The signaling pathway that mediates the dendrite-promoting activity of BMP-5 may involve binding to BMPR-IA and activation of Smad-1, and relative levels of BMP antagonists such as noggin and follistatin may modulate BMP-5 signaling. Since BMP-5 is expressed at relatively high levels not only in the developing but also the adult nervous system, these findings suggest the possibility that BMP-5 regulates dendritic morphology not only in the developing, but also the adult nervous system.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-5 gene during chick heart development: possible roles in valvuloseptal endocardial cushion formation. (6/42)

The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, comprising multifunctional peptide growth factors, regulates many developmental processes in a variety of tissues. We examined the spatiotemporal expression of BMP5 by in situ hybridization in chick embryonic hearts from stages 5 to 33. The BMP5 gene was first expressed in the endoderm underlying the precardiac mesoderm at stages 5 to 8. Thereafter, BMP5 expression was restricted to the myocardium of the atrioventricular (AV) canal and outflow tract (OT) regions, where the valvuloseptal endocardial cushion tissue is induced. These results suggest that BMP5 may play important roles not only in myocardial differentiation, but also in the formation and maintenance of endocardial cushion tissue.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic proteins promote cartilage differentiation and protect engineered artificial cartilage from fibroblast invasion and destruction. (7/42)

OBJECTIVE: An important role in joint and cartilage homeostasis in adults has been demonstrated recently for morphogenetic factors of the transforming growth factor beta family. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the potential of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in chondrocyte differentiation using current technologies of tissue engineering. METHODS: Complementary DNAs of recombinant human BMPs 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 were transfected into primary bovine articular chondrocytes. Transgenic chondrocytes were assembled 3-dimensionally in alginate or in bioresorbable co-polymer fleeces of vicryl and polydioxanon embedded in low-melting-point agarose. Redifferentiation and formation of cartilage tissue in vitro or after subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice were assayed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, histology, and in situ hybridization, and findings were compared with those in unmodified or control-transfected primary chondrocytes. RESULTS: Compared with other BMPs and control vector, BMP-7 induced a decrease in type I collagen expression in artificial cartilage, while transcription of the cartilage-specific type II collagen remained stable. In transplantation experiments, BMP-7 transgenic cartilage revealed the greatest amount of matrix synthesis, and BMP-7 was the only morphogen to suppress the infiltrative response of mouse fibroblastic cells into engineered cartilage, thereby preventing transplant destruction. CONCLUSION: Cartilage differentiation and matrix maturation are promoted by BMPs in cartilage engineering. The inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on a nonspecific infiltrative response in immunocompromised nude mice further suggests that individual morphogens not only may contribute to cartilage maturation, but also may protect it from nonspecific inflammation and invasive destruction. These properties advance BMPs as promising tools for engineering of cartilaginous joint bioprostheses and as candidate biologic agents or genes for cartilage stabilization in arthritis.  (+info)

The specification of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurones depends on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (8/42)

The role of BMPs in the development of the major noradrenergic centre of the brain, the locus coeruleus (LC), was investigated. LC generation is reflected by initial expression of the transcription factors Phox2a and Phox2b in dorsal rhombomere1 (r1), followed by expression of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase. Bmp5 is expressed in the dorsal neuroepithelium in proximity to Phox2-expressing cells. BMP inhibition in stage 10 chick embryos resulted in the lack of LC neurones or in their generation at the dorsal midline, and loss of roof plate and rhombic lip, but it did not affect neural crest development. These results reveal late essential BMP functions in the specification of dorsal neuronal phenotypes in r1, including LC neurones, and in the development of dorsal midline structures.  (+info)

*Laminin, gamma 2

2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... Laminin subunit gamma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMC2 gene. Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix ... Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. ... 2001). "Involvement of activator protein 1 complexes in the epithelium-specific activation of the laminin gamma2-chain gene ...

*Laminina, alfa 3 - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure

Amano S, Scott IC, Takahara K, et al. «Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 ... Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A «HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins ... and mitogen-activated protein kinase can regulate epithelial cell proliferation.». Mol. Biol. Cell, vol. 10, 2, 1999, pàg. 259- ... DOI: 10.1016/S0955-0674(96)80102-5. PMID: 8939648.. *Kivirikko S, McGrath JA, Baudoin C, et al. «A homozygous nonsense mutation ...

*Metabologen

A. Hari Reddi entitled Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine.). Reddi AH, Reddi A (2009). "Bone ... Babitt JL, Huang FW, Xia Y, Sidis Y, Andrews NC, Lin HY (2007). "Modulation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in vivo ... Based on this definition Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are metabologens since they are involved in iron homeostasis, brown ... Schulz TJ, Tseng YH (2009). "Emerging Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Adipogenesis and Energy Metabolism". Cytokine ...

*Laminin, alpha 3

"Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Arch. Immunol ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 chain of laminin 5, which is a complex glycoprotein composed of three subunits ... Laminin subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA3 gene. Laminins are basement membrane components ...

*Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 5

SMAD5 is a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) and is activated by bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor kinase. It may play ... Like many other TGFβ family members SMAD5 is involved in cell signalling and modulates signals of bone morphogenetic proteins ( ... It belongs to the SMAD family of proteins, which belong to the TGFβ superfamily of modulators. ... BMP's). The binding of ligands causes the oligomerization and phosphorylation of the SMAD5 protein. ...

*Development of the human cortex

Bmp-7, or bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an important regulator in corticogenesis, though it is not understood whether it ... Other bone morphogenetic proteins are also known to impact corticogenesis. Bmp2, 4, 5, and 6 are expressed during the process ... a motor protein that affects intercellular movement such as protein sorting and the process of cell division. Another protein ... DAB1 is a regulator protein downstream of the reelin receptors. This protein is located inside cells residing in the ...

*Hepcidin

Core, AB; Canali, S; Babitt, JL (2014). "Hemojuvelin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in iron homeostasis". ... heriditrary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, bone morphogenic protein 6 (BMP6), matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP ... Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene. Hepcidin is a key regulator of the entry of iron into the ... NMR studies showed a new model for hepcidin: at ambient temperatures, the protein interconverts between two conformations, ...

*Gelatin microparticle

"Biodegradable Gelatin Microparticles as Delivery Systems for the Controlled Release of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2". Acta ... 5 (4): 1126-1138. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2008.04.002. Retrieved 4 June 2017. Tzouanas, S; Ekenseair, A; Kasper, F; Mikos, A (2014 ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein

Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ... "Osteogenic activity of the fourteen types of human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. ...

*SCUBE1

"Electrostatics and N-glycan-mediated membrane tethering of SCUBE1 is critical for promoting bone morphogenetic protein ... This protein is expressed in platelets and endothelial cells and may play an important role in vascular biology. GRCh38: ... Chen QH, Lin D, Zhou J, Deng G (2016). "Role of signal peptide-Cub-Egf domain-containing protein-1 in serum as a predictive ... Signal peptide, CUB domain and EGF like domain containing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCUBE1 gene. This ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 6

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... 2001). "Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on haemopoietic stem cells and cytokine production in normal human bone marrow ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 15

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. It's mainly involved in ... "Entrez Gene: BMP15 bone morphogenetic protein 15". Persani, L.; Rossetti, R.; Di Pasquale, E.; Cacciatore, C.; Fabre, S. (2014 ... 2001). "Bone morphogenetic protein-15. Identification of target cells and biological functions". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (50): 39523 ... Moore RK, Otsuka F, Shimasaki S (2003). "Molecular basis of bone morphogenetic protein-15 signaling in granulosa cells". J. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 3

... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ... Chen AL, Fang C, Liu C, Leslie MP, Chang E, Di Cesare PE (November 2004). "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 7

... or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... Reddi AH (2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and skeletal development: the kidney-bone connection". Pediatr. Nephrol. 14 (7): ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 (11 ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 10

... (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ... bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse BMP-10 a ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 2

... or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ... As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... bone morphogenetic protein 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human BMP2 genome location ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 5

The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ... "Entrez Gene: BMP5 bone morphogenetic protein 5". Human BMP5 genome location and BMP5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 8A

... (BMP8A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP8A gene. BMP8A is a polypeptide member ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is involved in the development of bone and cartilage. BMP8A may be involved ... bone morphogenetic protein 8a". Human BMP8A genome location and BMP8A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Davila S, ... It also plays a role in bone homeostasis. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183682 - ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 4

"Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ...

*Stem cell marker

"Differentiation of human pluripotent teratocarcinoma stem cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Reproduction, ... Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that ... Perry SS, Wang H, Pierce LJ, Yang AM, Tsai S, Spangrude GJ (April 2004). "L-selectin defines a bone marrow analog to the thymic ... Stahl J, Wobus AM, Ihrig S, Lutsch G, Bielka H (September 1992). "The small heat shock protein hsp25 is accumulated in P19 ...

*Hemojuvelin

However it has been demonstrated that hemojuvelin interacts with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), possibly as a co-receptor, ... Li J, Ye L, Kynaston HG, Jiang WG (February 2012). "Repulsive guidance molecules, novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors ... "Bone morphogenetic protein signaling by hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression". Nat. Genet. 38 (5): 531-9. doi:10.1038/ ... "Pro-protein convertases control the maturation and processing of the iron-regulatory protein, RGMc/hemojuvelin". BMC Biochem. 9 ...

*GDF11

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... GDF11 acts as a cytokine and its molecular structure is identical in humans, mice and rats.[6]The bone morphogenetic protein ... "GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. ...

*Growth differentiation factor-9

2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/ ... Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... Vitt UA, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh AJ (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2). ...

*Mammary gland

"Conversion of the Nipple to Hair-Bearing Epithelia by Lowering Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway Activity at the Dermal- ... "Rescue of the parathyroid hormone-related protein knockout mouse demonstrates that parathyroid hormone-related protein is ... Male lactation occurs infrequently in some species, including humans.[citation needed] Mammary glands are true protein ... milk protein production, and regulates osmotic balance and tight junction function. Laminin and collagen in myoepithelial ...

*House mouse

"Conversion of the nipple to hair-bearing epithelia by lowering bone morphogenetic protein pathway activity at the dermal- ... The tear fluid and urine of male mice also contains pheromones, such as major urinary proteins. Mice detect pheromones mainly ... In the house mouse, the major urinary protein (MUP) gene cluster provides a highly polymorphic scent signal of genetic identity ... "Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour". Nature. 450 (7171): 899-902. Bibcode:2007Natur.450.. ...

*BMPR1A

"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ...

*Pleiotropy

This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ...

*GDF2

Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F (2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 induces osteogenic ... Mi LZ, Brown CT, Gao Y, Tian Y, Le VQ, Walz T, Springer TA (March 2015). "Structure of bone morphogenetic protein 9 procomplex ... Fong D, Bisson M, Laberge G, McManus S, Grenier G, Faucheux N, Roux S (Apr 2013). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 activates Smad ...
The AUAs Clinical Practice Guidelines provide evidence-based guidance with an explicit clinical scope and purpose. AUA also provides Policy Statements, Best Practice Statements, Position Statements and White Papers to provide urology professionals with the best in peer-reviewed treatment recommendations and research.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), their structure, action and detailed description of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7.
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provid...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Kamiya \ Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Clone 3H2 \ MC-124 for more molecular products just contact us
Bone morphogenetic protein signalling dynamics in hFOBs under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. (a) hFOBs in two-dimensional monolayer c
Inspite of doing extensive research work, cancer is still the leading cause of deaths. Its associated cost accounts a largest economic burden worldwide...
Tight linkage of Or4 allelic expression and sulcatone sensitivity to preference for humansa, Protein haplotype network showing seven Or4 alleles segregating wit

Pediatric Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (Myositis Ossificans) Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care,...Pediatric Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (Myositis Ossificans) Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care,...

... phenotypes are caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ACVR1. Hum Mutat. 2009 Mar. 30(3): ... Attempts to surgically remove heterotopic bone risks provoking explosive and painful new bone growth. Biopsies of ... Robert J Pignolo, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Director, Ralston-Penn Clinic for Osteoporosis and Related Bone ... American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, American Society of Human Genetics, Royal Society of Medicine. Disclosure: ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1007104-treatment

Follistatin-Related Proteins
     Summary Report | CureHunterFollistatin-Related Proteins Summary Report | CureHunter

These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes. ... Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 3. Interleukin-18 (Interleukin 18) 4. Cytokines 5. Interleukin-6 (Interleukin 6) ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Carrier Proteins: 11456*Follistatin-Related Proteins: 14*human FSTL1 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD038702-FSTL1-Gene-Product.do

Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full TextBiological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full Text

Paresis of a bone morphogenetic protein-antagonist response in a genetic disorder of heterotopic skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint ... Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains ... Olmsted EA, Kaplan FS, Shore EM: Bone morphogenetic protein-4 regulation in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Clin Orthop ... The influence of bone morphogenetic proteins on this disorder seems to be evident [5-8]. ...
more infohttps://head-face-med.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-160X-5-6

Penn Study Provides First Clear Idea of How Rare Bone Disease Progresses - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comPenn Study Provides First Clear Idea of How Rare Bone Disease Progresses - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

The linchpin of the cellular signaling gone awry is a receptor for a bone morphogenetic protein, or BMP. ... Home Bones and Muscles Penn Study Provides First Clear Idea of How Rare Bone Disease Progresses ... forming extra-skeletal bone either spontaneously or as a result of trauma. The bone formation then progresses in a series of ... and then is eventually replaced by bone. In the case of FOP, that normal process of bone formation occurs inappropriately in ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/bones-muscles/3974-penn-study-provides-first-clear-idea-of-how-rare-bone-disease-progresses.html

Bone morphogenetic protein 5 - WikipediaBone morphogenetic protein 5 - Wikipedia

The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ... "Entrez Gene: BMP5 bone morphogenetic protein 5". Human BMP5 genome location and BMP5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_morphogenetic_protein_5

Bmp5 bone morphogenetic protein 5 [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBIBmp5 bone morphogenetic protein 5 [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI

mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_007555.4 → NP_031581.2 bone morphogenetic protein 5 preproprotein ... bone morphogenetic protein 5provided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:88181 See related. Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000032179 Gene type. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 regulates the number of keratinocyte stem cells from the skin of mice. Kangsamaksin T, et al. J ... Bone morphogenetic protein-5, a key molecule that mediates differentiation in MC3T3E1 osteoblast cell line. Vijayan V, et al. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/12160

Bone morphogenetic protein 5 - wikidocBone morphogenetic protein 5 - wikidoc

The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/BMP5

Bone morphogenetic protein 5 - wikidocBone morphogenetic protein 5 - wikidoc

The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] ... "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), BMP receptors, and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Bone_morphogenetic_protein_5&printable=yes

BMP5 (Bone morphogenetic protein 5) AntibodyBMP5 (Bone morphogenetic protein 5) Antibody

Bone morphogenetic protein-5) antibody. Designed for immunohistochemsity, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and ... BMPs were originally identified as protein regulators of cartilage and bone formation. They are also involved in embryogenesis ... Similar to other TGF-beta family proteins, BMPs are highly conserved across animal species. ... BMP-5 promotes dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons and is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the ...
more infohttps://www.neuromics.com/GT15054

Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Transcription through Novel Phosphorylated Smad1/5...Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Transcription through Novel Phosphorylated Smad1/5...

Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Transcription through Novel Phosphorylated Smad1/5- ... Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Transcription through Novel Phosphorylated Smad1/5- ... Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Transcription through Novel Phosphorylated Smad1/5- ... Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Transcription through Novel Phosphorylated Smad1/5- ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/32/14/2904?ijkey=e321a8f4592ab7e12e9dec70efde1b889908f831&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Bone morphogenetic protein-5 and early endothelial outgrowth cells (eEOCs) in acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) and 5/6...Bone morphogenetic protein-5 and early endothelial outgrowth cells (eEOCs) in acute ischemic kidney injury (AKI) and 5/6...

Osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7) reduces severity of injury after ischemic acute renal failure in rat. J ... Role of bone morphogenetic protein receptors in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Adv Exp Med Biol 661: 251- ... Emerging role of bone morphogenetic proteins in adipogenesis and energy metabolism. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 20: 523-531, ... The role of bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) in human nephrosclerosis. J Nephrol 24: 647-655, 2011. ...
more infohttp://ajprenal.physiology.org/content/305/3/F314

Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation through enhanced low-density-lipoprotein...Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation through enhanced low-density-lipoprotein...

... bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA and IB (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IA), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), and transcription ... such as Wnts and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulating chondrocyte activity in the growth plate, may play a key role in ... Low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP-5) and 6, BMP-2, -4, and -7, ... and LEF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were found to be significantly upregulated in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared ...
more infohttps://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar3805

Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5...Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5...

Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been identified as important morphogens with pleiotropic functions in regulating the ... Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid ... BMP-4 and BMP-5 are expressed in normal synovial tissue and were found decreased in OA and RA. This may suggest a role of ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/decrease-in-expression-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-4-and-5-in-synovial-tissue-of-patients-with-osteoarthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis

Proprotein convertase 5/6A is associated with bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced squamous cell differentiation | Clinical and...Proprotein convertase 5/6A is associated with bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced squamous cell differentiation | Clinical and...

Histologic analysis and immunohistochemistry for PCs and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were performed in ALI cultures, ... Clinical and Translational Allergy volume 5, Article number: P20 (2015) Cite this article ... Proprotein convertase 5/6A is associated with bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced squamous cell differentiation. *Joo-Heon ... Taken together, PC5/6A is involved in squamous differentiation of HNECs, possibly through up-regulation of the BMP-2/pSmad1/5/8 ...
more infohttps://ctajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2045-7022-5-S4-P20

BMP5 ELISA Kits from Abbexa Ltd | Biocompare.comBMP5 ELISA Kits from Abbexa Ltd | Biocompare.com

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5. *. Detection Range: 62.5 pg/ml - 4000 pg/ml ... Watch Webinar: How To Get Speed and Depth in your Host Cell Protein (HCP) Analysis ... Select up to 5 products from below to compare or request more information. * ... Select up to 5 products from above to compare or request more information. * ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-314531/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_BMP5?vids=105293

ATP and UTP stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2,-4 and -5 gene expression and mineralization by rat primary osteoblasts...ATP and UTP stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2,-4 and -5 gene expression and mineralization by rat primary osteoblasts...

On the other hand, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate the ... ATP and UTP stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2,-4 and -5 gene expression and mineralization by rat primary osteoblasts ... ATP and UTP stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2,-4 and -5 gene expression and mineralization by rat primary osteoblasts ... Furthermore, bone mineralization enhance 1 and 1.5 fold after culturing osteoblasts in the presence of 100 μM ATP or UTP, ...
more infohttps://ri.conicet.gov.ar/handle/11336/12398

TGF-ß signaling and biologyTGF-ß signaling and biology

Smad proteins are classified in different groups based on their functions in mediating transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) ... Smad proteins are the intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. Smads function as ...
more infohttps://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/tgf-beta

Blood atlas - BMP5 - The Human Protein AtlasBlood atlas - BMP5 - The Human Protein Atlas

Bone morphogenetic protein 5. Predicted locationi. All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed regarding the location(s) of ... PROTEIN DETECTED IN PLASMA - PROXIMITY EXTENSION ASSAYi. The protein profiling results based on proximity extension assays ( ... PROTEIN CONCENTRATION IN PLASMA - MASS SPECTROMETRYi. The protein concentration in blood is quantified by mass spectrometry- ... Protein expression levels are reported as Normalized Protein Expression (NPX).. Read more ...
more infohttp://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000112175-BMP5/blood

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Bone morphogenetic protein 6. NM_001718. Gene Info. BMPR2. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4. NM_001202. NM_130851. NM_130850. Gene Info. ... Ring finger protein 169. NM_001098638. Gene Info. RNF8. Ring finger protein 8, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. NM_003958. NM_ ... Protein kinase C, gamma. NM_002739. Gene Info. PRKD2. Protein kinase D2. NM_016457. NM_001079880. NM_001079881. NM_001079882. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0051052

Patent US4789732 - Bone morphogenetic protein composition - Google PatentsPatent US4789732 - Bone morphogenetic protein composition - Google Patents

... and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals. ... for separating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) from bone tissue. The process steps comprise demineralizing bone tissue; ... and 14-kDa associated proteins do not induce bone formation. The 17.5-kDa protein from human bone and the 18.5-kDa protein from ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)--6. US5866364 *. 27 Nov 1992. 2 Feb 1999. Genetics Institute, Inc.. Recombinant bone ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US4789732

WO2002099037A3 - Compositions and methods for systemic administration of sequences encoding bone morphogenetic proteins 
      ...WO2002099037A3 - Compositions and methods for systemic administration of sequences encoding bone morphogenetic proteins ...

The invention further discloses compositions and methods for systemic administration of bone morphogenetic proteins for ... These compositions and methods may be used in bone fracture healing and repair. These composition of the invention may be ... Compositions and methods for systemic administration of DNA encoding bone morphogenic proteins for promotion of osteogenesis ... Bone morphogenetic protein US4619989A (en) 1981-05-05. 1986-10-28. The Regents Of The University Of Cal.. Bone morphogenetic ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2002099037A3/en

Characterization of Proprotein Convertases and Their Involvement in Virus Propagation | SpringerLinkCharacterization of Proprotein Convertases and Their Involvement in Virus Propagation | SpringerLink

SPC4, SPC6, and the novel protease SPC7 are coexpressed with bone morphogenetic proteins at distinct sites during embryogenesis ... that generate bioactive proteins and peptides, such as hormones, receptors, and growth factors by cleaving precursor proteins ... Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83- ... Cleavage of protein prM is necessary for infection of BHK-21 cells by tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84(Pt 1 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-75474-1_9

Bone Morphogenetic Protein News, ResearchBone Morphogenetic Protein News, Research

Researchers compared the effects of three bone growth factors to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) -- the most commonly used ... in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery with the bone-promoting growth factor recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein ... TMDU researchers inject gelatin-based gel carrying protein/peptide drugs to trigger bone augmentation The part of the jawbone ... Protein signaling in embryos is far more complex than previously thought How cells in developing embryos communicate depends a ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Bone+Morphogenetic+Protein

Similar articles for PubMed (Select 24076600) - PubMed - NCBISimilar articles for PubMed (Select 24076600) - PubMed - NCBI

Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation.. Watanabe Y, Papoutsoglou P, Maturi V, Tsubakihara Y, ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Is Required for Aortic Valve Calcification.. Gomez-Stallons MV, Wirrig-Schwendeman EE, ... An atypical canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1) expression during ... The bone morphogenetic protein axis is a positive regulator of skeletal muscle mass. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=24076600
  • Heterotopic ossification is a pathological, non neoplastic process of bone formation at ectopic sites, especially inside mesenchymal soft tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Attempts to surgically remove heterotopic bone risks provoking explosive and painful new bone growth. (medscape.com)
  • PHILADELPHIA - An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine , is taking the first step in developing a treatment for a rare genetic disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), in which the body's skeletal muscles and soft connective tissue turns to bone, immobilizing patients over a lifetime with a second skeleton. (healthcanal.com)
  • As expected, the BMP-2 loaded implants showed a typical heterotopic bone formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dose dependent influence on heterotopic bone formation by preventing rhBMP-2 induced osteoinduction suggests a competitive receptor antagonism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mutation is mildly activating, and so it may take time or the right tissue environment to allow the signal to tip the balance to induce bone formation, explains Shore. (healthcanal.com)
  • A homozygous nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in lethal (Herlitz) junctional epidermolysis bullosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rousselle P, Golbik R, van der Rest M, Aumailley M «Structural requirement for cell adhesion to kalinin (laminin-5). (wikipedia.org)
  • The laminin alpha chains: expression, developmental transitions, and chromosomal locations of alpha1-5, identification of heterotrimeric laminins 8-11, and cloning of a novel alpha3 isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural requirement of carboxyl-terminal globular domains of laminin alpha 3 chain for promotion of rapid cell adhesion and migration by laminin-5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aumailley M, El Khal A, Knoss N, Tunggal L (2003) Laminin 5 processing and its integration into the ECM. (springer.com)
  • Bachy S, Letourneur F, Rousselle P (2008) Syndecan-1 interaction with the LG4/5 domain in laminin-332 is essential for keratinocyte migration. (springer.com)
  • Baker SE, Hopkinson SB, Fitchmun M, Andreason GL, Frasier F, Plopper G, Quaranta V, Jones JC (1996) Laminin-5 and hemidesmosomes: role of the alpha 3 chain subunit in hemidesmosome stability and assembly. (springer.com)
  • In this report, the Asia-Pacific Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (researchmoz.us)
  • During the forecast period covered by this report, the combined U.S. market for osteobiologic and bone growth stimulation products for spine surgery is projected to increase at a compound annual rate of 2.8%, reaching an estimated $2,110.5 million in the year 2016. (giiresearch.com)
  • ATP, ATPγS and UTP also increase the mRNA levels of ALP, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5 and BSP. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Drosophila javelin-like encodes a novel microtubule-associated protein and is required for mRNA localization during oogenesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • Bone marrow transplants, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplants, are life-saving treatments for aggressive diseases, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma, and infections such as HIV. (news-medical.net)
  • GDF5 / GDF-5 antibody was raised against e. coli-derived monomeric rmGDF-5. (lsbio.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Male C57/Bl6N mice were either subjected to unilateral renal artery clamping postuninephrectomy or to 5/6-nephrectomy. (physiology.org)
  • 5 The common pathogenic mechanism responsible for these iron disorders, as demonstrated in humans and mice, is hepcidin deficiency. (haematologica.org)
  • ABD produced in mice with CKD in the absence of hyperparathyroidism was successfully reversed with a bone anabolic, BMP-7, associated with a reduction in plasma phosphorus. (asnjournals.org)
  • Work with BMP material isolated from rabbit dentin matrix protein fraction, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) has been assigned a molecular weight of about 23,000. (google.ca)
  • The internal standards (NSO, A317-H454) and your samples are measured with a biotin conjugated polyclonal from goat specific for BMP-5 will than be washed with PBS. (gentaur.com)
  • BMP-4 and BMP-5 are expressed in normal synovial tissue and were found decreased in OA and RA. (mysciencework.com)
  • In the copending application and patent there are disclosed and claimed a process, (and the product of that process), for separating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) from bone tissue. (google.ca)
  • In the form of a freeze dried coprecipitate with calcium phosphate, 1 to 50 milligram of BMP (depending on the size of the defect) is implanted in a bone defect in which it stimulates differentiation of connective tissue into bone and thereby repairs the defect. (google.ca)
  • Sample Type cell culture supernates, serum and bone tissue. (gentaur.com)
  • Periodontitis is a very common chronic bacterial infection that mainly involves periodontal supporting tissue (i.e., periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, and cementum). (medsci.org)
  • Several methods have been developed to treat periodontitis, such as guided tissue regeneration, scaling and root planning, demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts, autografts, and the use of bioactive materials [ 4 - 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The periodontal ligament is a special layer of connective tissue located between the root surface cementum and alveolar bone, and it plays important roles in attaching teeth to the alveolar bone, nutrition of teeth, and repair of damaged tissue [ 8 - 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Pathogenic rearrangements which include 6p12.1 microduplications in 5 patients covering a total region of 99.9kb and 7q32.3 microdeletions in 3 patients covering a total region of 63.9kb were detected. (biomedcentral.com)