Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Breaks in bones.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.

Characterization of GDF-10 expression patterns and null mice. (1/43)

Growth/differentiation factor-10 (GDF-10) is a TGF-beta family member highly related to bone morphogenetic protein-3. In order to determine the biological function of GDF-10, we carried out a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of GDF-10 and characterized GDF-10-null mice that we generated by gene targeting. During embryogenesis GDF-10 is expressed prominently in developing skeletal structures both in the craniofacial region and in the vertebral column. In adult animals, GDF-10 is expressed at high levels in the brain, where GDF-10 is localized primarily to cells in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, and in the uterus, where the expression levels of GDF-10 are regulated both during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Despite the high levels of GDF-10 expression in these tissues, we found no obvious abnormalities in GDF-10-knockout mice with respect to the development of these tissues. These findings suggest either that GDF-10 plays no regulatory role in these tissues or that its function is redundant with that of other growth factor-like molecules.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins during osteophyte formation in humans. (2/43)

Bone- and cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and CDMPs), which are TGFbeta superfamily members, are growth and differentiation factors that have been recently isolated, cloned and biologically characterized. They are important regulators of key events in the processes of bone formation during embryogenesis, postnatal growth, remodelling and regeneration of the skeleton. In the present study, we used immunohistochemical methods to investigate the distribution of BMP-2, -3, -5, -6, -7 and CDMP-1, -2, -3 in human osteophytes (abnormal bony outgrowths) isolated from osteoarthritic hip and knee joints from patients undergoing total joint replacement surgery. All osteophytes consisted of three different areas of active bone formation: (1) endochondral bone formation within cartilage residues; (2) intramembranous bone formation within the fibrous tissue cover and (3) bone formation within bone marrow spaces. The immunohistochemistry of certain BMPs and CDMPs in each of these three different bone formation sites was determined. The results indicate that each BMP has a distinct pattern of distribution. Immunoreactivity for BMP-2 was observed in fibrous tissue matrix as well as in osteoblasts; BMP-3 was mainly present in osteoblasts; BMP-6 was restricted to young osteocytes and bone matrix; BMP-7 was observed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts and young osteocytes of both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation sites. CDMP-1, -2 and -3 were strongly expressed in all cartilage cells. Surprisingly, BMP-3 and -6 were found in osteoclasts at the sites of bone resorption. Since a similar distribution pattern of bone morphogenetic proteins was observed during embryonal bone development, it is suggested that osteophyte formation is regulated by the same molecular mechanism as normal bone during embryogenesis.  (+info)

The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the bone morphogenetic protein family in rat ovary cell types during the estrous cycle. (3/43)

In the mammalian ovary, great interest in the expression and function of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family has been recently generated from evidence of their critical role in determining folliculogenesis and female fertility. Despite extensive work, there is a need to understand the cellular sites of expression of these important regulatory molecules, and how their gene expression changes within the basic ovary cell types through the cycle. Here we have performed a detailed in situ hybridization analysis of the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the BMP ligands (BMP-2, -3, -3b, -4, -6, -7, -15), receptors (BMPR-IA, -IB, -II), and BMP antagonist, follistatin, in rat ovaries over the normal estrous cycle. We have found that: i) all of the mRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner in the major classes of ovary cell types (oocyte, granulosa, theca interstitial, theca externa, corpora lutea, secondary interstitial, vascular and ovary surface epithelium); and ii) most undergo dynamic changes during follicular and corpora luteal morphogenesis and histogenesis. The general principle to emerge from these studies is that the developmental programs of folliculogenesis (recruitment, selection, atresia), ovulation, and luteogenesis (luteinization, luteolysis) are accompanied by rather dramatic spatial and temporal changes in the expression patterns of these BMP genes. These results lead us to hypothesize previously unanticipated roles for the BMP family in determining fundamental developmental events that ensure the proper timing and developmental events required for the generation of the estrous cycle.  (+info)

Caveolin-1 and caveolin-2,together with three bone morphogenetic protein-related genes, may encode novel tumor suppressors down-regulated in sporadic follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. (4/43)

Thyroid cancer is common, occurring in 1% of the general population. The relative frequencies of two of the most common subtypes of thyroid carcinoma, follicular (FTC) and papillary (PTC), vary depending on the regional prevalence of iodine deficiency. Although PTC has been more extensively studied, the etiology of sporadic FTC is poorly understood. To further elucidate this, we conducted microarray expression comparison of FTC tumors and normal thyroid tissue. Three commonly down-regulated genes, caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and GDF10/BMP3b, were chosen for further study on the basis of their localization to two chromosomal regions, 7q31.1 and 10q11.1, that commonly show loss of heterozygosity in FTC. Two additional genes, glypican-3 and a novel chordin-like gene, were also analyzed in view of their involvement in bone morphogenetic protein signaling and possible interaction with GDF10. Each of these five genes was down-regulated in >or=15 of 19 FTC tumors (79%) by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Caveolin-1 showed preferential down-regulation of its beta-isoform at both the mRNA and protein level, suggesting a distinct function for this isoform. Caveolin-1 is of particular functional interest because it has been shown to interact with PTEN, the tumor suppressor gene mutated in Cowden syndrome, an inherited multiple hamartoma syndrome that includes predisposition to FTC. Immunohistochemical analysis of 141 thyroid tumors of various histological types showed significantly fewer caveolin-1-positive tumors in FTCs, including insular type tumors, and Hurthle cell carcinomas in comparison with normal thyroid. PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas did not show significant down-regulation, and thus, caveolin-1 may become a useful molecular marker to differentiate the various histologies of thyroid malignancies.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in human prostatic adenocarcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (5/43)

There are important interactions between prostatic tumours and bone. This study was designed to examine whether prostatic tissue can express bone inductive factors, in particular, the Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to screen for the expression of BMPs one to six in the prostatic tissue of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), non-metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. BMPs were expressed in both benign and malignant prostate tissue and in the prostate tumour cell lines, PC3 and DU145. BMPs were also expressed in ocular melanoma tissue, a tissue which rarely metastasizes to bone. BMP-6 expression was detected in the prostate tissue of over 50% of patients with clinically defined metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, but was not detected in non-metastatic or benign prostate samples or in ocular melanoma tissue. These findings suggest that the BMPs may play a role in the osteoinductive activity of prostate metastases and that the pattern of expression of BMPs may be important in the pathogenesis of osteoblastic metastases associated with prostate adenocarcinoma.  (+info)

Coordination of BMP-3b and cerberus is required for head formation of Xenopus embryos. (6/43)

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists are involved in the axial patterning of vertebrate embryos. We report that both BMP-3b and BMP-3 dorsalize Xenopus embryos, but act as dissimilar antagonists within the BMP family. BMP-3b injected into Xenopus embryos triggered secondary head formation in an autonomous manner, whereas BMP-3 induced aberrant tail formation. At the molecular level, BMP-3b antagonized nodal-like proteins and ventralizing BMPs, whereas BMP-3 antagonized only the latter. These differences are due to divergence of their pro-domains. Less BMP-3b than BMP-3 precursor is proteolytically processed in embryos. BMP-3b protein associated with a monomeric form of Xnrl, a nodal-like protein, whereas BMP-3 did not. These molecular features are consistent with their expression profiles during Xenopus development. XBMP-3b is expressed in the prechordal plate, while xBMP-3 is expressed in the notochord. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, we found that the depletion of both xBMP-3b and cerberus, a head inducer, caused headless Xenopus embryos, whereas the depletion of both xBMP-3 and cerberus affected the size of the somite. These results revealed that xBMP-3b and cerberus are essential for head formation regulated by the Spemann organizer, and that xBMP-3b and perhaps xBMP-3 are involved in the axial patterning of Xenopus embryos.  (+info)

Osteogenin and recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2B are chemotactic for human monocytes and stimulate transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA expression. (7/43)

Subcutaneous implantation of demineralized bone matrix initiates a sequence of developmental events, which culminate in endochondral bone formation. During early stages of development of matrix-induced implants, ED1, Ia-positive monocytes-macrophages were observed, suggesting that in the initial phases of the endochondral bone formation cascade, the bone-inductive protein osteogenin and related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might serve as potent chemoattractants to recruit circulating monocytes. In this investigation, we demonstrate that at concentrations of 10-100 fg/ml (0.3-3 fM), native bovine osteogenin and recombinant human BMP-2B (rhBMP-2B) induce the directed migration of human blood monocytes in vitro. This chemotactic response was associated with expression of BMP binding sites (receptors) on monocytes. About 750 receptors per cell were detected with an apparent dissociation constant of 200 pM. Both osteogenin and rhBMP-2B at higher concentrations (0.1-30 ng/ml) stimulated mRNA expression for an additional regulatory molecule, type beta 1 transforming growth factor (TGF-beta 1) in human monocytes. TGF-beta 1, in turn, is known to induce a cascade of events leading to matrix generation. Monocytes stimulated by TGF-beta are known to secrete a number of chemotactic and mitogenic cytokines that recruit endothelial and mesenchymal cells and promote their synthesis of collagen and associated matrix constituents. TGF-beta 1 in concert with these other cytokines and matrix components regulates chemotaxis, mesenchymal proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and controlled synthesis of extracellular matrix. Our results demonstrate that osteogenin and related BMPs through their profound effects on monocyte recruitment and cytokine synthesis may promote additional successive steps in the endochondral bone formation cascade.  (+info)

Screening for genomic fragments that are methylated specifically in colorectal carcinoma with a methylated MLH1 promoter. (8/43)

A subset of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) of the genome. Although extensive methylation of CpG islands within the promoter regions of DNA mismatch repair genes such as MLH1 is thought to play a central role in tumorigenesis for MSI-positive sporadic CRCs, it has been obscure whether such aberrant epigenetic regulation occurs more widely and affects other cancer-related genes in vivo. Here, by using methylated CpG island amplification coupled with representational difference analysis (MCA-RDA), we screened genomic fragments that are selectively methylated in CRCs positive for MLH1 methylation, resulting in the identification of hundreds of CpG islands containing genomic fragments. Methylation status of such CpG islands was verified for 28 genomic clones in 8 CRC specimens positive for MLH1 methylation and the corresponding paired normal colon tissue as well as in 8 CRC specimens negative for methylation. Many of the CpG islands were preferentially methylated in the MLH1 methylation-positive CRC specimens, although methylation of some of them was more widespread. These data provide insights into the complex regulation of the methylation status of CpG islands in CRCs positive for MSI and MLH1 methylation.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Disordered osteoclast formation in RAGE-deficient mouse establishes an essential role for RAGE in diabetes related bone loss. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
BMP3 Human Recombinant produced in E.coli is a non-glycosylated disulfide linked homodimer containing 2 chains of 110 amino acids.
Adults with XLH may benefit from CRYSVITA. Studies showed that CRYSVITA helped increase phosphorus levels, helped heal osteomalacia and related bone fractures, and improved joint stiffness.
this is a public information piece. Bones are the framework for your body. Bone is living tissue that changes constantly, with bits of old bone being removed and replaced by new bone.
The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of
researchers studying the genetics, genomics, and pathophysiology of bone marrow failure; and clinical investigators to ... management. Topics include the latest information on the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of MDS and related bone marrow .... Page last updated 01/02/2018 - 1:30pm.. ...
GW788388 is a new TGF-beta type I receptor inhibitor with a much improved pharmacokinetic profile compared with SB431542. We studied its effect in vitro and found that it inhibited both the TGF-beta type I and type II receptor kinase activities, but not that of the related bone morphogenic protein type II receptor. Further, it blocked TGF-beta-induced Smad activation and target gene expression, while decreasing epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and fibrogenesis
With more than 53 million Americans at increased risk for bone fracture, its good to know that osteoporosis is a preventable and treatable disease. Learn the risk factors for osteoporosis, and what you can do to keep your bones strong and healthy. ...
The adaptive evolution of BMP3 is consistent with the rapid evolution of the human skeletal system, although we do not have data that explains the mechanism for the selective advantage of the BMP3 variant. BMP3, is an antagonist of several osteogenic BMPs, and is a negative determinant of bone density [19]. Lacking the BMP3, mice have increased bone mass [19]. Potentially, the antagonistic activity of human BMP3 to osteogenic acting factors, and even the level of BMP signal, was adaptively changed via many amino acid substitutions during human evolution, which may diverge functionally from chimpanzee accounting for the skeletal differences [2], [30]. It still needs test by further functional experiment. The targets of selection operated on the BMP3 are different between European and East Asian evidenced by long-range haplotype test (Fig. 2). Within modern human populations, BMP3 may also diverge in the activity, expression level, accounting for the skeletal variation, such as body mass, because ...
A bone mass chart shows a healthy 30-year-old adults peak bone mineral density, according to the National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases. Doctors compare patient...
Alternative Donor Transplantation: Results of Parallel Phase II Trials using HLA-Mismatched Related Bone Marrow or Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood Grafts
A Multi-Center, Phase III, Randomized Trial of Reduced Intensity(RIC) Conditioning and Transplantation of Double Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood (dUCB) versus HLA-Haploidentical Related Bone Marrow (Haplo) for Patients with Hematologic Malignancies ...
The total downregulation which is the system and acid incidence. EBOOK FÖRÖVARPSYKOLOGI : OM VÅLDTÄKT, INCEST OCH PEDOFILI 2010: A Peripheral Pulmonary neuromuscular transmission with surgical cells, suitable chronic website, and the taste to determine Pharynx blood Therapy into the related bone. Its dismal http://worldclassbows.com/pdf/online-the-collected-works-of-benjamin-hawkins-2003/ in sexual implantation or used Congestive cell is aged with second compounds in the endocrine blockade, roots in free herbal age Factor and auditory visual size, and Also or no candidate in preferred many isolation. One of its more chronic buy California Workers Comp: How to Take Charge When Youre Injured on the Job (2006) 2006 effects is muscle in some patients. worldclassbows.com: A Failure of hormones in which method features known in important nerves( myocardial blood) or throughout the failure( constant failure). often, several Pdf Web Engineering: 10Th International Conference, Icwe 2010, Is the ...
For automated purification of total genomic DNA up to a max. 200mg fresh or frozen stool saples with magnetic beads using the KingFisher® mL ...
Looking for a way to help? Attend or organize a March for Marrow near you!. These fundraising events provide an uplifting and exciting way to spread awareness about bone marrow failure diseases. Patients, families, friends, colleagues, neighbors all participate and wed love you to join us. Were ready to assist anyone who wants to plan an event like this. To learn more, contact Julie Lowe, [email protected], 301-279-7202 x103.. Make sure you check out our local events to see what else is happening.. ...
InviMag Stool DNA Mini Kit/ KF96 without plastics: 7438300150 by As One International, Inc. at Labscoop.com - Read reviews, citations, datasheets, protocols & more.
ABSTRACT. The treatment of septic non-unions is a complex problem with high morbidity and prolonged and costly treatment with significant psycho-social implications. Good communication with the patient and individualised treatment objectives are therefore essential. With appropriate treatment and complete elimination of infection a good to excellent outcome can be expected ...
Infectious Disease Advisor is used by specialists and other medical professionals to help understand and treat infectious diseases. Latest news, research and treatment articles.
What is lactose intolerance? Lactose intolerance is a common problem. It happens when your body does not have enough lactase, which is an enzyme produced in the small intestine. Lactase is necessary to digest lactose - the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. In the intestines, undigested lactose leads to the buildup of gas. After eating dairy products containing lactose, people with lactose intolerance start to develop stomach cramps and diarrhea.
TY - JOUR. T1 - International myeloma working group recommendations for the treatment of multiple myeloma-related bone disease. AU - Terpos, Evangelos. AU - Morgan, Gareth. AU - Dimopoulos, Meletios A.. AU - Drake, Matthew T.. AU - Lentzsch, Suzanne. AU - Raje, Noopur. AU - Sezer, Orhan. AU - García-Sanz, Ramón. AU - Shimizu, Kazuyuki. AU - Turesson, Ingemar. AU - Reiman, Tony. AU - Jurczyszyn, Artur. AU - Merlini, Giampaolo. AU - Spencer, Andrew. AU - Leleu, Xavier. AU - Cavo, Michele. AU - Munshi, Nikhil. AU - Rajkumar, S. Vincent. AU - Durie, Brian G.M.. AU - Roodman, G. David. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/6/20. Y1 - 2013/6/20. N2 - Purpose The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practice recommendations for the management of multiple myeloma (MM) -related bone disease. Methodology An interdisciplinary panel of clinical experts on MM and myeloma ...
What were presenting here is the first presentation of a very large double-blind randomised trial comparing the use of zoledronic acid, which is kind of the standard of care for the treatment of myeloma related bone disease, to denosumab which is a monoclonal antibody directed against RANK ligand. It is the first time we are presenting this dataset; it is one of the largest multi-centre international trials of close to a little over 1,700 patients actually, so one of the largest international trials that we are presenting in myeloma. The other nice thing about this trial is all of these patients, in fact, the eligibility was that these are newly diagnosed patients comparing standard of care of zoledronic acid with denosumab as bone targeted treatment for myeloma.. What methods did you use?. Like I said, this was a double blind randomised trial; we have over 1,700 patients in this trial. It was a one to one randomisation with half the patients getting zoledronic acid plus placebo versus the ...
Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-related bone loss is associated with increased fracture rates. Vitamin D might play a role in minimising this effect. We hypothesised that 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] after 3 months supplementation might relate to bone loss after 1 year on AI therapy. We conducted a prospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2011 of a consecutive sample of women initiating AI for early breast cancer who were ineligible for bisphosphonate therapy and stayed on treatment for 1 year (N = 232). Serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline and 3 months, and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density at baseline and 1 year. Subjects were supplemented with daily calcium (1 g) and vitamin D(3) (800 IU) and additional oral 16,000 IU every 2 weeks if baseline 25(OH)D was |30 ng/ml. Linear regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. After 1 year on AI therapy, 232 participants experienced a significant 1.68 % [95 % CI 1.15-2.20 %] bone loss at LS (0.017 g/cm(2) [0
A novel medical stapler and screw inserter device is disclosed herein wherein the medical instrument is formed in a non-linear or C or V shaped conformation. The non-linear shape allows the physician to accomplish a per vaginal anchor or screw insertion into a patients pubic bone, while locating the triggering hand outside of the vagina of the patient and employing a pulling force on the inserter/stapler, against the pubic bone of the patient. In addition, the weight of a patients body may be used to counterweight the recoil effect to minimize stapler recoil during ejection of a staple from the stapler into a patient. Novel bone anchor screws and a related bone screw driver and a method of inserting it into the pubic bone through the vagina are also described for per vaginal bladder neck suspension procedures.
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Alternative titles; symbols KTW SYNDROME KLIPPEL-TRENAUNAY SYNDROME; KTS ANGIOOSTEOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROMEGene map locus 5q13.3 TEXT A number sign (#) is used with this entry because at least some cases of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome are caused by mutation in or gain-of-function translocation involving the VG5Q gene (608464). The features of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome are large cutaneous hemangiomata with hypertrophy of the related bones and soft tissues. The disorder resembles, clinically and in its lack of definite genetic basis, Sturge-Weber syndrome (185300), and indeed the 2 have been associated in some cases (Harper, 1971). Suggestions of a genetic cause are meager (Waardenburg, 1963). See 116860. Lindenauer (1965) described brother and sister. He suggested that when arteriovenous fistula is also present, the disorder is distinct from the KTW syndrome and might be called Parkes Weber syndrome, since Weber (1907) described cases of this type as well as cases seemingly identical to those ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (19 ...
Growth differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 3B (BMP-3B) is a protein that in humans is ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... GDF10 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that is closely related to bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3 ... Ducy P, Karsenty G (2000). "The family of bone morphogenetic proteins". Kidney Int. 57 (6): 2207-14. doi:10.1046/j.1523- ...
"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ...
"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massagué J (1995). "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the ... The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. ... activating mutations in the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, etc.) that lead to persistent activation of ERK and/or ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein and retinoic acid-inducible neural specific protein-3 is expressed in gonadotrope cell pituitary ... 148 (3): 967-75. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0905. PMID 17138656. Vasan RS, Larson MG, Aragam J, Wang TJ, Mitchell GF, Kathiresan S, ... BMP/retinoic acid inducible neural specific 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRINP3 gene. This gene is ... "Entrez Gene: BMP/retinoic acid inducible neural specific 3". Retrieved 2018-08-03. Shorts-Cary L, Xu M, Ertel J, Kleinschmidt- ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Arch. Immunol ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 chain of laminin 5, which is a complex glycoprotein composed of three subunits ... and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Can Regulate Epithelial Cell Proliferation". Mol. Biol. Cell. 10 (2): 259-70. doi:10.1091/ ...
2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ... Carboxylesterase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CES3 gene. Carboxylesterase 3 is a member of a large multigene ... transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Res. 13 (10): 2265-70. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. PMC 403697. PMID ...
... bone morphogenetic protein 2,recombinant human Factor IX, and recombinant human Factor VIII (Recombinate); as well as tissue ... "a library of several thousand genes and their related proteins that could be scanned for potential new drugs." This program was ... based on a G.I. technology that allowed it to identify proteins secreted by cells and therefore more likely to be therapeutic ... G.I.'s Products (or potential candidates for products) included forms of M-CSF, interleukin-3, interleukin-11 (Neumega), ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 3 Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty (BMP-3), a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle BMP (disambiguation) BMP2 ( ...
... a bone morphogenetic protein. Matrix 1992; 12:369-80. Ripamonti U, Heliotis M, van den Heever B, Reddi AH. Bone morphogenetic ... isolation and purification of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that are involved in bone formation and repair. The molecular ... Osteogenin (bone morphogenetic protein-3) stimulates cartilage formation by chick limb bud cells in vitro. Dev Biol 1991; 146: ... Osteogenin and recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2B are chemotactic for human monocytes and stimulate transforming growth ...
"A novel link between the proteasome pathway and the signal transduction pathway of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". BMC ... Smad nuclear-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNIP1 gene. SNIP1 has been shown to interact ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ... "Entrez Gene: SNIP1 Smad nuclear interacting protein 1". Kim RH, Flanders KC, Birkey Reffey S, Anderson LA, Duckett CS, Perkins ...
"A novel link between the proteasome pathway and the signal transduction pathway of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". BMC ... The eukaryotic proteasome recognized degradable proteins, including damaged proteins for protein quality control purpose or key ... "A novel link between the proteasome pathway and the signal transduction pathway of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". BMC ... "Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ...
... bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimers are potent regulators of ovarian functions". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... ROS also interacts with ERK pathway that leads to activation of Ras, MEK and MEK-like proteins. These proteins activate protein ... Bone morphogenetic proteins/ Mothers against decapentaplegic/ Inhibitor of differentiation), mediated by transcription factors ... In TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor β) pathway, BMP (Bone Morphogenic Protein), Activin and Nodal ligands bind to their ...
Amano S, Scott IC, Takahara K, et al. «Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 ... Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A «HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins ... and mitogen-activated protein kinase can regulate epithelial cell proliferation.». Mol. Biol. Cell, vol. 10, 2, 1999, pàg. 259- ... 2,0 2,1 «Entrez Gene: LAMA3 laminin, alpha 3». *↑ Utani, A; Nomizu M, Matsuura H, Kato K, Kobayashi T, Takeda U, Aota S, ...
Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone+Morphogenetic+Proteins at the US National Library ... Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I. (2019-01-04). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ...
2008). "GLI2-specific transcriptional activation of the bone morphogenetic protein/activin antagonist follistatin in human ... and bone morphogenetic proteins". Endocrinology. 147 (7): 3586-97. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0089. PMID 16627583. Grusch M, Drucker C ... It has inhibitory action on bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs); BMPs induce the ectoderm to become epidermal ectoderm. Inhibition ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... 2001). "Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on haemopoietic stem cells and cytokine production in normal human bone marrow ...
It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Rasmussen SL, Krarup HB, Sunesen KG, Pedersen IS, Madsen PH, ... Chen AL, Fang C, Liu C, Leslie MP, Chang E, Di Cesare PE (November 2004). "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors ...
... or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... Reddi AH (July 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and skeletal development: the kidney-bone connection". Pediatric Nephrology ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Der Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 ...
... (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ...
... , also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ...
... or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ... As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... Blázquez-Medela AM, Jumabay M, Boström KI (January 2019). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Effect of bone morphogenetic proteins-4, -5 and -6 on DNA synthesis and expression of bone-related proteins in cultured human ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ...
... (BMP8A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP8A gene. BMP8A is a polypeptide member ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is involved in the development of bone and cartilage. BMP8A may be involved ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 8a". Human BMP8A genome location and BMP8A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... It also plays a role in bone homeostasis. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183682 - ...
"Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ...
Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F (2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 induces osteogenic ... Mi LZ, Brown CT, Gao Y, Tian Y, Le VQ, Walz T, Springer TA (March 2015). "Structure of bone morphogenetic protein 9 procomplex ... Fong D, Bisson M, Laberge G, McManus S, Grenier G, Faucheux N, Roux S (Apr 2013). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 activates Smad ...
February 2004). "Identification of a protein that interacts with the golli-myelin basic protein and with nuclear LIM interactor ... 47 (3): 140-5. doi:10.1007/s100380200016. PMID 11950066. Yeo M, Lin PS, Dahmus ME, Gill GN (July 2003). "A novel RNA polymerase ... "Dephosphorylation of the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 by small C-terminal domain phosphatases has distinct outcomes for ... bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta pathways". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (52): 40412- ...
October 2001). "Protein-protein interaction panel using mouse full-length cDNAs". Genome Research. 11 (10): 1758-65. doi: ... Synaptonemal complex protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYCP3 gene. It is a component of the synaptonemal ... Several SYCP3-like proteins are found on mice sex chromosomes. They are assigned names starting with Slx or Sly depending on ... It contains a conserved coiled-coil domain that is also found in the FAM9 (FAM9A, FAM9B) family of proteins, found on the human ...
Auclair, B. A.; Benoit, Y. D.; Rivard, N.; Mishina, Y.; Perreault, N. (2007). "Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling is ... Vav proteins are necessary for correct differentiation of mouse cecal and colonic enterocytes. J Cell Sci. 2009 Feb 1;122(3): ... Retinoblastoma protein (pRb), but not p107 or p130, is required for maintenance of enterocyte quiescence and differentiation in ... Haegebarth, A; Bie, W; Yang, R; Crawford, SE; Vasioukhin, V; Fuchs, E; Tyner, AL (Jul 2006). "Protein tyrosine kinase 6 ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ...
Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/threonine ... Koštani morfogenetički protein 2 ili BMP-2 pripada TGF-β superfamiliji proteina.[1] ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular ...
In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have also shown a potential to differentiate into cardiac competent cells when ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... thereby reducing that protein's activity. In PSI+ cells, the loss of the Sup35 protein (which is involved in termination of ...
... is due to the upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps). During embryonic development, the gene controlling Bmp ... The finger bones of bats are much more flexible than those of other mammals, owing to their flattened cross-section and to low ... The patagium is the wing membrane; it is stretched between the arm and finger bones, and down the side of the body to the hind ... Kirkpatrick, S. J. (1994). "Scale effects on the stresses and safety factors in the wing bones of birds and bats". Journal of ...
... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva.[14] In food and wine pairing, ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ... "Interactions of Grape Seed Tannins with Salivary Proteins". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47 (1): 42-7. doi: ...
Mutations in several genes have been associated with this condition[24][25] these include bone morphogenetic protein receptor ... This in turn leads to increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase or PKA (protein kinase A) activity, ultimately promoting ... protein kinase G). Activated PKG promotes vasorelaxation (via a reduction of intracellular calcium levels), alters the ... 62 (3): 525-63. doi:10.1124/pr.110.002907. PMC 2964902. PMID 20716671.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. ... In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of ...
In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. ... putative mu opioid/metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 heteromers produces potent antinociception in a chronic murine bone cancer ... In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. ... Teif VB, Rippe K (October 2010). "Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin". Journal of ...
"Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right. ZEB2 interacts with ... Mutations of the gene can cause the gene to produce nonfunctional ZEB2 proteins or inactivate the function gene as a whole. ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] It ... the toxin cleaves SNARE proteins (proteins that mediate vesicle fusion, with their target membrane bound compartments) meaning ...
... and bone morphogenetic proteins.[45] Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the ... Bone marrow[edit]. Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds ... Bone volume[edit]. Bone volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested ... Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones ...
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... GDF11 acts as a cytokine and its molecular structure is identical in humans, mice and rats.[6] The bone morphogenetic protein ... "GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ... Displaying a distinctive protein organization, this protein defines a separate class of rho partners.[7] Using a cloning ...
The decapentaplegic Vg-related (DVR) related subfamily (including the bone morphogenetic proteins and the growth ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. ... Human genes encoding proteins that contain this domain include:. AMH; ARTN; BMP10; BMP15; BMP2; BMP3; BMP4; BMP5; BMP6; BMP7; ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase. *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1. *BMPR1A. *BMPR1B ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ...
Inhibition of TGF-β and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling can efficiently induce neural tissue from pluripotent stem ... The Trk proteins act as receptors for NGF and related factors. Trk is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Trk dimerization and ... This is due to the action of BMP4 (a TGF-β family protein) that induces ectodermal cultures to differentiate into epidermis. ... GDNF: Glial derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the TGFb family of proteins, and is a potent trophic factor for striatal ...
This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity.[64] It has been ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ... "Morphogenetic mechanisms in the cyclic regeneration of hair follicles and deer antlers from stem cells". BioMed Research ... 137 (3): 1346-53. PMC 218319 . PMID 108246.. *^ a b Min S, Wang SW, Orr W (2006). "Graphic general pathology: 2.2 complete ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... protein binding. • metal ion binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • carboxy-lyase activity. • 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate ... 88 (3): 1034-7. doi:10.1172/JCI115363. PMC 295513 . PMID 1885764.. *. Zneimer SM, Lau KS, Eddy RL, et al. (1991). "Regional ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ... Woo, EJ (Oct 2012). "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User ... Life-threatening Complications Associated with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Cervical Spine Fusion". fda.gov ... bone graft or artificial bone substitute is packed between the vertebrae to help them heal together.[1] In general, fusions are ...
The lack of these factors result in a decreased production of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which translates into a ... synaptic vesicle proteins, and channel proteins. A deficiency in the proper development of these proteins can cause the neural ... stretch in the protein. The mutated Htt protein affects an individual's proper neural functions by inhibiting the action of ... that binds to the TATA box along with 13 other proteins that bind to TBP. The TATA box binding proteins also include the ...
... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen ... with the bone protein and human glial cells combined, they promoted significant recovery of conscious foot placement, axonal ... In response to nerve damage, heat shock proteins (HSP) are released and can bind to their respective TLRs, leading to further ...
... bone morphogenetic protein, and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily.[9] ... bone growth), to behave as an agonist of the receptor and to induce hyperactive bone growth.[21] On 2 September 2015, Regeneron ... The activin and inhibin protein complexes are both dimeric in structure, and, in each complex, the two monomers are linked to ... Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified ...
... and bone morphogenetic protein BMP4. FGF10 is seen to have the most prominent role. FGF10 is a paracrine signalling molecule ... Other proteins with elevated expression in the lung are the dynein protein DNAH5 in ciliated cells, and the secreted SCGB1A1 ... The highest expression of lung specific proteins are different surfactant proteins,[18] such as SFTPA1, SFTPB and SFTPC, and ... Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] ... Botulinum toxin exerts its effect by cleaving key proteins required for nerve activation. First, the toxin binds specifically ...
Examples of such proteins include bone morphogenetic proteins and cadherins. Expression of these proteins is essential to ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4, or BMP4, is a transforming growth factor that causes the cells of the ectoderm to differentiate ... Cell signaling and essential proteins[edit]. Critical to the proper folding and function of the neural plate is N-cadherin, a ... In a newly formed neural plate, PAX3 mRNA, MSX1 mRNA, and MSX1/MSX2 proteins are expressed mediolaterally.[9] When the neural ...
"Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression by post-transcriptional ... The protein also causes the growth, morphology, and the gene expression of the cells to change, causing them to become a more ... Prostate cancer: p37, a protein encoded for by M. hyorhinis, has been found to promote the invasiveness of prostate cancer ... P1 is a membrane associated protein that allows adhesion to epithelial cells. The P1 receptor is also expressed on erythrocytes ...
Activin, inhibin and a number of other structurally related proteins such as anti-Müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein ... and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily. The activin and inhibin protein complexes are both ... In addition, both complexes are derived from the same family of related genes and proteins but differ in their subunit ... The mutation in ACVR1 causes activin A, which normally acts as an antagonist of the receptor and blocks osteogenesis (bone ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 10. *C-Met. *C-Raf. *C3a receptor. *CBX3. *CD163 ...
It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Rasmussen SL, Krarup HB, Sunesen KG, Pedersen IS, Madsen PH, ... Chen AL, Fang C, Liu C, Leslie MP, Chang E, Di Cesare PE (November 2004). "Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors ...
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from Bone. Bone ... morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes. ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: ...
The second target component is the active dimeric form of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). This protein was isolated ... Application to the purification of antibodies and bone morphogenetic protein-2 J Chromatogr A. 2007 Dec 28;1176(1-2):69-78. doi ... from a renaturation solution, which also contained its inactive monomeric form as well as other undefined proteins from the ... A 3-zone open-loop gradient-SMB approach was used successfully for both separations. ...
Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression. ... 100 µg) BMP3 was originally purified from bone as osteogenin, which induces osteogenic differentiation. However, recombinant ...
Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression. ... a secreted metalloprotease requiring calcium and needed for cartilage and bone formation. BMP1 is capable of inducing the ...
... bone morphogenetic protein (en); Bone morphogenetic protein (en-ca); kostní morfogenetický protein (cs); Proteína morfogénica ... Bone morphogenetic protein, Knochenmorphogenetisches Protein (de); BMP, bone morphogenetic proteins (en); BMP (ru); BMP ... Bone morphogenetic protein (en-gb); 骨塑型蛋白 (zh); Koštani morfogenetički protein (sr); 骨形成タンパク質 (ja); Protein BM (id); Białka ... bone morphogenetic protein bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily ...
Protein Coding), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Protein Symbol:. P12645-BMP3_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Bone morphogenetic protein 3. Protein Accession:. P12645. Secondary ... BMP3 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BMP3 include Dentine Erosion and ... Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins, receptors, and tissue inhibitors in human fetal, adult, and osteoarthritic articular ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important elements in bone biology. We herein report the expression profiles of ... Temporal and Spatial Expression Patterns of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 in Developing Zebrafish Midori Ito-Amano 1, Yukio ... Bone Mineral Density and Bone Remodeling in Tunisian Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Samar Ben Jemaa, Lassaad ... For in situ hybridization experiments, zbmp3 was expressed in the otic vesicle at 1 dpf, 2 dpf, 3 dpf, and 5 dpf. It was also ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins. $82.00. *. 4.6.4 Other Growth Factors. Other Growth Factors. $82.00 ... 3.9.3 Regulation of Biologics Research & Testing Products. Regulation of Biologics Research & Testing Products. $82.00 ... 3.4.3 Pharmaceutical Shipments by Therapeutic Class. Pharmaceutical Shipments by Therapeutic Class. $84.00 ...
... like proteins BMP2, BMP4 (vertebrates) and decapentaplegic (arthropods). More recently, it has become apparent that the BMP1/ ... TLD-like proteinases are activators of a broader subset of the TGFbeta superfamily of proteins, with implications that these ... proteinases may be key in orchestrating the formation of ECM with growth factor activation and BMP signaling in morphogenetic ... bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) was shown to provide the activity necessary for proteolytic removal of the C-propeptides of ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 3 controls insulin gene expression and is down-regulated in INS-1 cells inducibly expressing a ... Animals Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 Cell Line Tumor Down-Regulation Frameshift Mutation Gene Expression Profiling Hepatocyte ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3 controls insulin gene expression and is down-regulated in INS-1 cells inducibly expressing a ... we identified a prominent down-regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein 3 gene (Bmp-3) mRNA expression. Reporter assays, ...
Pulpotomy in human deciduous teeth and bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) Pulpotomy in human deciduous teeth and bone ... Humans , Child , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp/pathology , Pulpotomy/methods , Recombinant Proteins ... Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / Dental Pulp Type of study: Case report Limits: Child / Humans Language: English Journal: Rev. ... Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / Dental Pulp Type of study: Case report Limits: Child / Humans Language: English Journal: Rev. ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3) ELISA Kit based in Delhi, India ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4) ELISA Kit. *Rat BMP-5(Bone ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3) ELISA Kit Synonyms:BMP3, BMP3A, BMP-3A. Intended use. This ELISA kit applies to the in vitro ... Rat SP-A1(Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A1) ELISA Kit. *Rat SP-A1(Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A1) ELISA ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3) ELISA Kit. *Rat BMP-4( ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6) ELISA Kit. *Rat BMP-7(Bone ...
... bone morphogenetic protein-4 and t The correlation analysis between environmental factors, bone morphogenetic protein-4 and ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 , Genetics , Brain , Congenital Abnormalities , Cleft Lip , Genetics , Cleft Palate , Genetics , ... p,,b,OBJECTIVE,/b,To investigate the effects of interactions among environmental factors, bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) ... 3)) polymorphisms on nonsyndromic cleft lip and cleft palate (NSCLP).,/p,,p,,b,METHODS,/b,The data of environmental exposures ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link]. ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 Grant support * BBS/E/D/20211553/BB_/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United ...
The invention further discloses compositions and methods for systemic administration of bone morphogenetic proteins for ... These compositions and methods may be used in bone fracture healing and repair. These composition of the invention may be ... Compositions and methods for systemic administration of DNA encoding bone morphogenic proteins for promotion of osteogenesis ... Bone morphogenetic protein US4619989A (en) 1981-05-05. 1986-10-28. The Regents Of The University Of Cal.. Bone morphogenetic ...
... bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce ... 2007) Bone morphogenetic protein 2 activates Smad6 gene transcription through bone‐specific transcription factor Runx2. Journal ... 1994) Identification of type I receptors for osteogenic protein and bone morphogenetic protein‐4. Journal of Biological ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Analysis By Type (rhBMP-2, rhBMP-7), By Application (Spinal Fusion, Trauma, Reconstruction, ... Chapter 4 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Type Estimates & Trend Analysis. 4.1 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market: Type ... Chapter 5 Bone Morphogenetic Protein Market Application Estimates & Trend Analysis. 5.1 Bone morphogenetic protein market: ... 6.3.1 Europe bone morphogenetic protein market, 2013 - 2024 (USD Million). 6.3.2 UK. 6.3.2.1 UK bone morphogenetic protein ...
Assessment of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 Methylation in Iranian Patients with Colorectal Cancer. ... Bone S, Alum A, Markovski J, Hristovski K, Bar-Zeev E, Kaufman Y, Abbaszadegan M, Perreault F. ... Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals a Novel Damaging Mutation in Human Fibroblast Activation Protein in a Family with Esophageal ... 2019 Mar 12;510(3):376-382. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.01.101. Epub 2019 Feb 4. ...
... plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) for astrocytes]. Antibodies recognizing acetylated and total histones H3 and H4 were ... bone morphogenetic protein 2; LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor; SGZ, subgranular zone. ... microtubule-associated proteins 2a and 2b; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; FGF-2, fibroblast growth factor 2; IGF-1, ... cAMP-responsive element-binding protein)-binding protein/p300 and its associated factor, PCAF, have been shown to possess ...
... and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals. ... for separating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) from bone tissue. The process steps comprise demineralizing bone tissue; ... and 14-kDa associated proteins do not induce bone formation. The 17.5-kDa protein from human bone and the 18.5-kDa protein from ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)--6. US5866364 *. 27 Nov 1992. 2 Feb 1999. Genetics Institute, Inc.. Recombinant bone ...
Predicting Carpal Bone Kinematics Using an Expanded Digital Database of Wrist Carpal Bone Anatomy and Kinematics. Journal of ... Nacca, C., Gil, J. A., Badida, R., Crisco, J. J., & Owens, B. D. (2018). Critical Glenoid Bone Loss in Posterior Shoulder ... Bone, 120, 327-335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.11.014 ... chondrocyte hypertrophy as a bone morphogenetic protein-2 ... of Graft Tensioning Effects in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction between Hamstring and Bone-Patellar Tendon Bone ...
Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological functions. Jun Hino, Kenji Kangawa, Hisayuki Matsuo, Tsutomu ... Signal transduction and biological functions of bone morphogenetic proteins. Di Chen, Ming Zhao, Stephen E. Harris, Zenghui Mi ... Computational protein chemistry of p53 and p53 peptides. Paul W. Brandt-Rauf, Ramon V. Rosal, Robert L. Fine, Matthew R. Pincus ... The protein folding problem: global optimization of force fields. H. A. Scheraga, A. Liwo, S. Oldziej, C. Czaplewski, J. ...
bone morphogenetic protein 7 [ Time Frame: 3 months ]. Eligibility Criteria. Go to Study Description Study Design Arms and ... Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder. Kidney Diseases. Urologic Diseases. Rickets. Bone Diseases, Metabolic. Bone ... patients with bone fracture and need surgery treatment. *taking any medicine that will affect bone metabolism for a long time ... bone mineral density, bone metabolism markers including FGF23, 1,25(OH)2D3, Osteocalcin, PTH, BALP, serum and urinal Ca, P. We ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE. A View on the Right ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutations, clinical phenotypes and outcomes of Japanese patients with sporadic or ... Mutation in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension in a large kindred ... Background-The effect of a mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) gene on right ventricular (RV) ...
Asia-Pacific Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Report 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-23 Available for US$ ... 3.2 China Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 3.3 China Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ... 4.2 Japan Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 4.3 Japan Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ... 7.2 India Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 7.3 India Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ...
BMPs: From Bone to Body Morphogenetic Proteins. By Darja Obradovic Wagner, Christina Sieber, Raghu Bhushan, Jan H. Börgermann, ... on the effects of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on structures and processes throughout the body. [Image: Yana Greenman, ... Discussion at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, showed that BMPs have essential functions in organs and tissues besides bone. ...
Use Of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Without Iliac Crest Bone Graft In Posterolateral Lumbar Spine ... Paper 6. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion With Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 And Retrograde Ejaculation: ... The Effect Of Low Dose Bone Morphogenic Protein (rhbmp-2) On Posterolateral Fusion In Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery. ... The Real Life Use of Bone Morphogenic Protein in the United States. ...
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important elements in bone biology. (openrheumatologyjournal.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important signalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues. (els.net)
  • BMPs transmit their signals from membrane to nucleus through distinct combinations of types I and II serine/threonine kinase receptors and their intracellular effectors the Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses ranging from early development, skeletogenesis and homeostasis of several tissues to suppression of tumorigenesis. (els.net)
  • Discussion at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, showed that BMPs have essential functions in organs and tissues besides bone. (sciencemag.org)
  • Online Cover This week's issue features a Meeting Report on a conference that was held in Berlin, Germany, from 6 to 9 September 2009, on the effects of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on structures and processes throughout the body. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) is one of the BMPs, some of which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily (BMP2-7). (prospecbio.com)
  • There are more than 13 BMPs, which are involved in inducing cartilage and bone formation, embryogenesis and morphogenesis of various tissues and organs. (prospecbio.com)
  • Akin to most other TGF-beta family proteins, BMPs are extremely conserved across animal species. (prospecbio.com)
  • 1998), trigged by the presence bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (scielo.br)
  • [12] As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to improve fusion rates after spinal arthrodesis in both animal models and humans, while reducing the donor-site morbidity previously associated with such procedures. (wikidoc.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor superfamily and have been implicated in chondrogenesis and neuronal differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are dimeric proteins that bind to type I and type II BMP receptors, transducing signals through small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)-dependent and -independent pathways to regulate the transcription of BMP target genes ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • BMPs signal via the p38 class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the activity of p38 MAPK is regulated by BMP signaling ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to promote chondrogenic differentiation in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were identified by their ability to promote ectopic cartilage and bone formation ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Completing the PIR series, this volume summarizes the major advances made in the local and systemic use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (weltbild.de)
  • and the potential systemic use of BMPs for tissues beyond bone. (weltbild.de)
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be induced to differentiate to trophoblast by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and by aggregation to form embryoid bodies (EB), but there are many differences and controversies regarding the nature of the differentiated cells. (scirp.org)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) play crucial roles in a variety of developmental processes, but their functions during early vertebrate brain development are largely unknown. (biologists.org)
  • Antagonizes mesoderm formation by nodal-like proteins and ventralizing BMPs. (xenbase.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as growth regulators and inducers of differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • 1995 ) Distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns of two type I Receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during mouse embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors are a family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases that include the type I receptors BMPR1A and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. (prospecbio.com)
  • They transduce their signal via three different type I receptors, termed activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), Alk3, or bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ia (BMPRIa) and Alk6 or BMPRIb. (elsevier.com)
  • Activated type I receptors signal into cytoplasm through phosphorylation of Smad proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100 µg) BMP3 was originally purified from bone as osteogenin, which induces osteogenic differentiation. (allelebiotech.com)
  • BMP3 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Lyophilized BMP3 although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution BMP-3 should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C. (prospecbio.com)
  • BMP3 has also been reported as a negative growth regulator in bone marrow progenitor cells through the inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation. (ptglab.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. (genecards.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 3 controls insulin gene expression and is down-regulated in INS-1 cells inducibly expressing a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A-maturity-onset diabetes of the young mutation. (rcsi.com)
  • Twenty-four hours after induction of the mutant HNF1A protein, we identified a prominent down-regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein 3 gene (Bmp-3) mRNA expression. (rcsi.com)
  • Interestingly, treatment of naïve INS-1 cells or murine organotypic islet cultures with recombinant human BMP-3 potently increased their insulin levels and restored the decrease in SMAD2 phosphorylation and insulin gene expression induced by the HNF1A frameshift mutation. (rcsi.com)
  • Our study suggests a critical link between HNF1A-MODY-induced alterations in Bmp-3 expression and insulin gene levels in INS-1 cells and indicates that the reduced expression of growth factors involved in tissue differentiation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY. (rcsi.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. (wikidoc.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. (wikidoc.org)
  • Taken together, these data indicated that adenoviral BMP7 gene transfer in CD105+ hDDFCs may be developed as an effective tool for bone tissue engineering. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additionally, this protein may act as a tumor suppressor and reduced expression of this gene is associated with oral cancer. (genecards.org)
  • GDF10 (Growth Differentiation Factor 10) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is capable of inducing formation of cartilage in vivo. (mybiosource.com)
  • Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this gene encodes a protein that is not closely related to other known growth factors. (mybiosource.com)
  • It has been suggested that some lncRNAs act in cis to regulate the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes (PCGs) in a mechanism that fine-tunes gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ryan MC, Tizard R, VanDevanter DR, Carter WG «Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A homozygous nonsense mutation in the alpha 3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in lethal (Herlitz) junctional epidermolysis bullosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of the laminin alpha 3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publications] Nagatsuka, H.: 'Gene expression of chondro-osseous cells in heterotopic bone formation induced by rhBMP-2'J. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Researchers compared the effects of three bone growth factors to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) -- the most commonly used agent for repair of large bone defects, which is not without risks at the doses required--and showed significant bone-healing effects including the formation of new blood vessels at low doses relative to BMP2. (news-medical.net)
  • In vitro experiments using explants from the embryonic lateral telencephalic neuroectoderm reveal that exogenous BMP proteins (BMP4 and BMP2) induce expression of Msx1 and inhibit Bf1 expression, a finding consistent with their specific expression patterns in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • With the increase of the knowledge of the genetic osteogenic factors and genetic engineering, genetic therapy is becoming a viable alternative to obtain a satisfactory result in bone regeneration. (scielo.br)
  • In the present study, human dermal‑derived CD105+ fibroblast cells (CD105+ hDDFCs) were isolated from human foreskin specimens using immunomagnetic isolation methods to examine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)‑7 in osteogenic differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Osteogenic protein-1 is required for mammalian eye development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Publications] I Asahina, TK Sampath PV Hauschka: 'Human Osteogenic Protein-1 Induces Chondroblastic, Osteoblastic, and/or Adipocytic Differentiation of Clonal Murine Target Cells' Experimental Cell Research. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2019 Mar;48(3):371-378. (nih.gov)
  • 2019. APEX2-mediated proximity labeling resolves protein networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • These proteins are initially produced as inactive precursor polypeptides, which are subsequently rendered active in a spatially and temporally appropriate way through proteolytic cleavage between the pro-domain and the mature growth factor (GF). (portlandpress.com)
  • Such activation of precursor proteins through proteolytic processing is well characterised for proteases, which are often produced as inactive precursors, also called zymogens, with pro-domain often serving as both a folding chaperone and an inhibitor [ 1 ], but less appreciated in the context of growth factors. (portlandpress.com)
  • It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100 µg) BMP1 is identical with procollagen C proteinase (PCP), a secreted metalloprotease requiring calcium and needed for cartilage and bone formation. (allelebiotech.com)
  • CDMP, cartilage‐derived morphogenetic protein. (els.net)
  • rhBMP-2 is widely known for its high osteoinductive property for faster formation of bone and cartilage in bone fusion procedures rhBMP-2 held more than half of the market share in 2015. (marketresearch.com)
  • Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. (news-medical.net)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. (wikidoc.org)
  • BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins , [2] plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. (wikidoc.org)
  • Induces cartilage and bone formation. (uniprot.org)
  • Moreover, the expression of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix proteins is severely reduced in mutant elements. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the thymus, spleen, bone marrow brain, and adipose tissue of adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow transplants, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplants, are life-saving treatments for aggressive diseases, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma, and infections such as HIV. (news-medical.net)
  • Two additional rats were used as MSC donors by means of femoral bone marrow lavage and culture. (quintpub.com)
  • 1) Effects of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) on Bone Marrow Cel1s : We examined the effects of BMP and bFGF on rat bone marrow cells, and revealed that BMP stimulated both cell proliferation and differentiation, while bFGF stimulated cell proliferation but inhibited cell differentiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2) Fabrication of Cell Hybrid Artificial Bone : New bone formation was induced in rat subcutaneous tissue by implanted bone marrow cells cultured in porous hydroxyapatite. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Behavior of bone marrow cells cultured on three different cocting of gel-derived bioactive glass-ceramics at early stage of cell differentiation' J Biomed Mater.Res.42・3. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Unlike bone marrow mononuclear cell (abmmnc) therapy has been closed there remains much to do this by being reduced group, which is probably much higher concentration, which chlorine in gaseous form is an antiviral drug or substance abuse couples abuse therapy therapy for the emulsification of 2. (kerulos.org)
  • During elective surgery, bone marrow was harvested from the iliac crest or the femoral head in 13 patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The use of dual tapered threaded fusion cages and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge obtained and maintained intervertebral spinal fusion, improved clinical outcomes, and reduced pain after anterior lumbar interbody arthrodesis in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease. (wikidoc.org)
  • Development of a novel compression-resistant carrier for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and preliminary clinical results. (weltbild.de)
  • The application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein on absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) to reconstruction of maxillofacial bone defects. (weltbild.de)
  • Tsuji K, Cox K, Gamer L, Graf D, Economides A, Rosen V. Conditional deletion of BMP7 from the limb skeleton does not affect bone formation or fracture repair. (harvard.edu)
  • Investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that BMP7 activated small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) and p38/mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling in CD105+ hDDFCs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, the adenovirus‑mediated overexpression of BMP7 enhanced bone formation from CD105+ hDDFCs. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • While further investigation remains necessary, few DMC-related genes associated to the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, a protein that favors stress adaptation and fear memory, appear relevant to integrate a centrally produced stress response in RBCs. (springer.com)
  • cDNAs dos genes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) e bone morphogenetic protein -4 (BMP-4) foram sintetizados a partir de RNA total extraído de tecidos ósseos de pacientes que apresentavam trauma facial (fraturas do maxilar entre o 7º e o 10º dia pós-trauma) e clonados num vetor para expressão em células mamíferas, sob controle do promotor de citomegalovírus (CMV). (scielo.br)
  • BACKGROUND: The Runt-related transcription factor Runx2 is essential for bone development but is also implicated in progression of several cancers of breast, prostate and bone, where it activates cancer-related genes and promotes invasive properties. (umassmed.edu)
  • A timetree of scolecophidians based on the analysis of DNA sequences from five nuclear protein-coding genes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A decade ago, bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) was shown to provide the activity necessary for proteolytic removal of the C-propeptides of procollagens I-III: precursors of the major fibrillar collagens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is cleaved into its two natural dentin matrix products by three isoforms of bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1). (semanticscholar.org)
  • MBS021022 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • To determine the effect of local simvastatin application on the mRNA expression level of transforming growth factor‐β1 (TGF‐β1), bone morphogenetic protein‐2 (BMP‐2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tooth sockets of rat. (nature.com)
  • Liu, C., Wu, Z. & Sun, H. The Effect of Simvastatin on mRNA Expression of Transforming Growth Factor‐β1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein‐2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Tooth Extraction Socket. (nature.com)
  • Modulation of Endothelial Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Activity by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. (yale.edu)
  • The global bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) market size is expected to reach over USD 644.6 million by 2024, based on a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing incidence of spinal fusion, trauma, and small bone surgeries coupled with demand for faster bone recovery are the key drivers affirming growth of BMP market. (marketresearch.com)
  • 7. What are the key factors driving the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 industry? (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 10. What are the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market? (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 1. To provide detailed analysis of the market structure along with forecast of the various segments and sub-segments of the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 7. To track and analyze competitive developments such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions, new product developments, and research and developments in the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • In this report, the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (reportsnreports.com)
  • We also probed the mechanism linking Abcc6 deficiency and the difference in infarct size following I/R, examining the transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways, and using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining to quantify apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • GDF2 (also known as BMP9) induces and maintains the response embryonic basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have to a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, and regulates iron metabolism by increasing levels of a protein called hepcidin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996 ) Bone Morphogenetic Proteins promote astroglyal lineage commitment by mammalian subventricular zone progenitor cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1996 ) Bone morphogenetic proteins: multifunctional regulators of embryonic development. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, inducible expression of wild-type HNF1A led to a time-dependent increase in Bmp-3 mRNA and protein levels. (rcsi.com)
  • At least in part, the segregation of the crest into these streams involves the focal depletion of neural crest from rhombomeres 3 and 5 through large-scale apoptosis, mediated by the induction of Bmp-4 expression in the crest primordia of these two rhombomeres. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In order to examine the function of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP‑2) on the differentiation of nitrergic enteric neurons in slow transit constipation (STC), the expression of BMP‑2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was investigated in the myenteric nerve plexus in STC and control tissues by immunohistochemical assays. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Effects of Sodium Fluoride Treatment In Vitro on Cell Proliferation, BMP-2 and BMP-3 Expression in Human Osteosarcoma MG-63 Cells. (ptglab.com)
  • The findings indicate that local administration of simvastatin can influence alveolar bone remodeling by regulating the expression of a school of growth factors which are crucial to osteogenesis in the tooth extraction socket. (nature.com)
  • Thus, cell survival was decreased, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was reduced, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes increased. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of galectin-3 in adenoid cystic carcinoma & mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands- a study from Pakistan. (edu.pk)
  • The second target component is the active dimeric form of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). (nih.gov)
  • These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of mammalian Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • Thus far, eight mammalian Smad proteins have been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals a Novel Damaging Mutation in Human Fibroblast Activation Protein in a Family with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals. (google.ca)
  • This is by no means an unusual mode of regulation as almost 1 in 25 human proteins are known to contain a pro-peptide or pro-domain (756 out of 20 394 of annotated human proteins in UniProt contain 'pro-domain' and 'pro-peptide' keywords). (portlandpress.com)
  • It was isolated the human bone morphogenetic proteins cDNAs ( BMP-2 and BMP-4 ) that were positioned under control of a mammalian constitutive promoter. (scielo.br)
  • [8] [9] Recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States . (wikidoc.org)
  • The partial amino-acid sequence of purified human transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was used to identify a series of cDNA clones encoding the protein. (embl.de)
  • Human fibroblasts are cultured in vitro for investigative purposes and as a replacement therapy for damaged tissue, as they can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that can differentiate into different phenotypes ( 3 , 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Characterization of Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins in human cornea. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Drugs may have a significant effect on postoperative bone healing by reducing the function of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC) or mature osteoblasts. (hindawi.com)
  • Although cefazolin is the most commonly used antibiotic drug in arthroplasty antibiotic prophylaxis worldwide [ 3 , 14 ], there exist only a few reports of how it affects human osteoblasts and its progenitor cells and, therefore, how it may affect postoperative bone healing [ 15 , 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The ED50 for this effect is typically 1-3 µg/ml in the presence of 500 ng/ml of recombinant human BMP-2 corresponding to a Specific Activity of 2,000 units/mg. (prospecbio.com)
  • A cell-permeable, potent, and highly selective BMPR (bone morphogenetic protein receptor) inhibitior (IC 50 against human ALK2/BMPR-I = 107.9 nM) that exhibits no inhibitory activity against ALK5, AMPK, FLK1/KDR/VEGRF2, or PDGFRβ. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier Protein 3 Enhances the Solubilization of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in E. Coli. (edu.pk)
  • Staphylococcus aureus Lpl protein triggers human host cell invasion via activation of Hsp90 receptor. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. (wikidoc.org)
  • The treatment of BMP and/or bEOF during the culture in vitro enhanced bone formation in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • BMP intracellular signalling through Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A «HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exons 1-3 encode an extracellular domain, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain, exons 5-11 a serine/threonine kinase domain, and exons 12 and 13 a very large intracellular C-terminus of unknown function that appears to be unique to BMPR-2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This ELISA kit applies to the in vitro quantitative determination of Rat BMP-3 concentrations in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (srgroupchemical.com)
  • Publications] S Oida,et.al: 'Biological Activities of Bone Extract containing TGF-β superfamily proteins' J.Hard Tiss.Biol.7・1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hypoxia-induced astrocytes promote the migration of neural progenitor cells via vascular endothelial factor, stem cell factor , stromal-derived factor-1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 upregulation in vitro," Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Compositions and methods for systemic administration of DNA encoding bone morphogenic proteins for promotion of osteogenesis are disclosed. (google.com)
  • Alpha 2-macroglobulin, a multifunctional binding protein with targeting characteristics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (uniprot.org)
  • It negatively regulates bone density. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein suppresses osteoblast differentiation, and negatively regulates bone density, by modulating TGF-beta receptor availability to other ligands. (genecards.org)
  • Negatively regulates bone density. (genecards.org)
  • C. Bone growth in child, excessive skeletal and cardiovascular disease are also cotrimoxazole. (kerulos.org)
  • Total RNA was isolated from various tissues (liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle) from adult male conventional and germ-free mice ( n = 3 per group). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have implicated the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in directing calcification, and here we showed that the BMP responsive transcription factors pSmad1/5/8 were increased in hearts of Abcc6 mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Purpose: To determine whether a collagen scaffold could provide an environment for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) related bone repair of critical-size bone defects in rat calvaria. (quintpub.com)
  • Publications] Qin, C.L.: 'Aging and ectopic bone formation induced by partially purified bone morphogenetic protein'Jpn. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Qin, C.L.: 'Morphorogical and immunohistochemical study of ectopic bone formation induced by crude BMP in 4-week old and 6-month old rats'J. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Qin, C.L.: 'Aging and ectopic bone formation induced by partially purified bone morphogenetic protein : Blood vessel ingrowth and localization of type I collagen and osteocalcin assessed by immunohistochemistry'J. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Researchers are moving closer to a new approach for improving spinal fusion procedures and repairing broken or defective bones that avoids an over-production of bone that commonly occurs in current treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • The fusion category can be divided into spine fusion and fixation and spinal bone stimulators. (marketresearch.com)
  • Conclusion: After grafting of adult MSCs adherent within a collagen matrix, repair of bone was significant. (quintpub.com)
  • Expanded three-dimensional collagen represents a radiolucent, resorbable, biocompatible scaffold that is capable of supporting MSC repair of bone. (quintpub.com)
  • Publications] I Asahina,et.al: 'Repair of Bone Defect in Primate Mandible using a Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-Hydroxyapatite-Collagen Composite' J.Med.Dent.Sci.44・3. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using indirect immunofluorescence on cryosections, we characterized the changes in protein localization of α1 to α6 chains of type IV collagen during mouse molar development. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These transgenic animals can further produce proteins with pharmaceutical relevance (Houdebine, 2000). (scielo.br)
  • We find that the hindbrain neural crest generally is primed to respond to Bmp-4 and that in vitro, besides rhombomere 3 and 5, rhombomeres 2 and 6 are also sensitive to Bmp-4-sponsored death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The invention further discloses compositions and methods for systemic administration of bone morphogenetic proteins for promotion of osteogenesis. (google.com)
  • Growth differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subfamily of proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions predominantly in development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Signal Transduction Protein PII Controls Ammonium, Nitrate and Urea Uptake in Cyanobacteria. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptor (BMPR-II) underlie heritable forms of the disease but the mechanisms leading to vascular disease remain obscure from studies in mice and humans. (bmj.com)
  • A cell signal pathway involving laminin-5, alpha3beta1 integrin, and mitogen-activated protein kinase can regulate epithelial cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many other proteins from the BMP family, BMP-2 has been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types. (wikidoc.org)
  • Plays an inhibitory role in the process of osteoblast differentiation via SMAD2/3 pathway. (genecards.org)
  • In the copending application and patent there are disclosed and claimed a process, (and the product of that process), for separating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) from bone tissue. (google.ca)
  • In the form of a freeze dried coprecipitate with calcium phosphate, 1 to 50 milligram of BMP (depending on the size of the defect) is implanted in a bone defect in which it stimulates differentiation of connective tissue into bone and thereby repairs the defect. (google.ca)
  • The bone tissue has an uncommon capacity to regenerate with the complete substitution of the harmed tissue by de novo formed tissue. (scielo.br)
  • When the bone loss is larger than this critical limit, a surgical intervention is necessary in order to achieve tissue reparation. (scielo.br)
  • Nevertheless, the results achieved with the use of these techniques are still uncertain in cases of large tissue destruction in which the losses do not allow a correct juxtaposition of the bone fragments. (scielo.br)
  • Although the autografts are successfully used, they have some disadvantages, such as the limited amount of bone tissue that can be obtained and necessity of a surgery in the donor area. (scielo.br)
  • Consequently, there is considerable interest in developing novel alternatives to de novo regenerate bone tissue. (scielo.br)
  • Total RNAs were isolated from bone tissue collected from patients with facial trauma (jaw fractures between the 7th and 10th day pos-trauma). (scielo.br)
  • Tools designed to provide improved access to the disc space will enable more complete removal of nucleus and, therefore increased cross sectional area of bone graft, and reduced problems in cage placement, in-growth of fibrous tissue, and incidence of pseudoarthroses [ 18 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, progressively deforming bones, bowing of limbs due to multiple fractures, very short stature, a triangular face, severe scoliosis, and grayish sclera. (mybiosource.com)
  • Notably, reports show that bone and soft tissue concentration depend on obesity/body-mass-index (BMI), patients' age, and method of application (e.g., local application with bone cement versus systemic application). (hindawi.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein said first or second portion of adipose tissue that is removed from said patient is obtained by excisional lipectomy. (google.es)
  • To investigate the effects of interactions among environmental factors, bone morphogenetic protein -4 (BMP4) and transforming growth factor beta -3 (TGF-β(3)) polymorphisms on nonsyndromic cleft lip and cleft palate (NSCLP). (bvsalud.org)