Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Diseases, MetabolicMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGranulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 10: A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DioxolesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.OdontoblastsMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.

Characterization of GDF-10 expression patterns and null mice. (1/43)

Growth/differentiation factor-10 (GDF-10) is a TGF-beta family member highly related to bone morphogenetic protein-3. In order to determine the biological function of GDF-10, we carried out a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of GDF-10 and characterized GDF-10-null mice that we generated by gene targeting. During embryogenesis GDF-10 is expressed prominently in developing skeletal structures both in the craniofacial region and in the vertebral column. In adult animals, GDF-10 is expressed at high levels in the brain, where GDF-10 is localized primarily to cells in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, and in the uterus, where the expression levels of GDF-10 are regulated both during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Despite the high levels of GDF-10 expression in these tissues, we found no obvious abnormalities in GDF-10-knockout mice with respect to the development of these tissues. These findings suggest either that GDF-10 plays no regulatory role in these tissues or that its function is redundant with that of other growth factor-like molecules.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins during osteophyte formation in humans. (2/43)

Bone- and cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and CDMPs), which are TGFbeta superfamily members, are growth and differentiation factors that have been recently isolated, cloned and biologically characterized. They are important regulators of key events in the processes of bone formation during embryogenesis, postnatal growth, remodelling and regeneration of the skeleton. In the present study, we used immunohistochemical methods to investigate the distribution of BMP-2, -3, -5, -6, -7 and CDMP-1, -2, -3 in human osteophytes (abnormal bony outgrowths) isolated from osteoarthritic hip and knee joints from patients undergoing total joint replacement surgery. All osteophytes consisted of three different areas of active bone formation: (1) endochondral bone formation within cartilage residues; (2) intramembranous bone formation within the fibrous tissue cover and (3) bone formation within bone marrow spaces. The immunohistochemistry of certain BMPs and CDMPs in each of these three different bone formation sites was determined. The results indicate that each BMP has a distinct pattern of distribution. Immunoreactivity for BMP-2 was observed in fibrous tissue matrix as well as in osteoblasts; BMP-3 was mainly present in osteoblasts; BMP-6 was restricted to young osteocytes and bone matrix; BMP-7 was observed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts and young osteocytes of both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation sites. CDMP-1, -2 and -3 were strongly expressed in all cartilage cells. Surprisingly, BMP-3 and -6 were found in osteoclasts at the sites of bone resorption. Since a similar distribution pattern of bone morphogenetic proteins was observed during embryonal bone development, it is suggested that osteophyte formation is regulated by the same molecular mechanism as normal bone during embryogenesis.  (+info)

The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the bone morphogenetic protein family in rat ovary cell types during the estrous cycle. (3/43)

In the mammalian ovary, great interest in the expression and function of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family has been recently generated from evidence of their critical role in determining folliculogenesis and female fertility. Despite extensive work, there is a need to understand the cellular sites of expression of these important regulatory molecules, and how their gene expression changes within the basic ovary cell types through the cycle. Here we have performed a detailed in situ hybridization analysis of the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the BMP ligands (BMP-2, -3, -3b, -4, -6, -7, -15), receptors (BMPR-IA, -IB, -II), and BMP antagonist, follistatin, in rat ovaries over the normal estrous cycle. We have found that: i) all of the mRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner in the major classes of ovary cell types (oocyte, granulosa, theca interstitial, theca externa, corpora lutea, secondary interstitial, vascular and ovary surface epithelium); and ii) most undergo dynamic changes during follicular and corpora luteal morphogenesis and histogenesis. The general principle to emerge from these studies is that the developmental programs of folliculogenesis (recruitment, selection, atresia), ovulation, and luteogenesis (luteinization, luteolysis) are accompanied by rather dramatic spatial and temporal changes in the expression patterns of these BMP genes. These results lead us to hypothesize previously unanticipated roles for the BMP family in determining fundamental developmental events that ensure the proper timing and developmental events required for the generation of the estrous cycle.  (+info)

Caveolin-1 and caveolin-2,together with three bone morphogenetic protein-related genes, may encode novel tumor suppressors down-regulated in sporadic follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. (4/43)

Thyroid cancer is common, occurring in 1% of the general population. The relative frequencies of two of the most common subtypes of thyroid carcinoma, follicular (FTC) and papillary (PTC), vary depending on the regional prevalence of iodine deficiency. Although PTC has been more extensively studied, the etiology of sporadic FTC is poorly understood. To further elucidate this, we conducted microarray expression comparison of FTC tumors and normal thyroid tissue. Three commonly down-regulated genes, caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and GDF10/BMP3b, were chosen for further study on the basis of their localization to two chromosomal regions, 7q31.1 and 10q11.1, that commonly show loss of heterozygosity in FTC. Two additional genes, glypican-3 and a novel chordin-like gene, were also analyzed in view of their involvement in bone morphogenetic protein signaling and possible interaction with GDF10. Each of these five genes was down-regulated in >or=15 of 19 FTC tumors (79%) by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Caveolin-1 showed preferential down-regulation of its beta-isoform at both the mRNA and protein level, suggesting a distinct function for this isoform. Caveolin-1 is of particular functional interest because it has been shown to interact with PTEN, the tumor suppressor gene mutated in Cowden syndrome, an inherited multiple hamartoma syndrome that includes predisposition to FTC. Immunohistochemical analysis of 141 thyroid tumors of various histological types showed significantly fewer caveolin-1-positive tumors in FTCs, including insular type tumors, and Hurthle cell carcinomas in comparison with normal thyroid. PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas did not show significant down-regulation, and thus, caveolin-1 may become a useful molecular marker to differentiate the various histologies of thyroid malignancies.  (+info)

Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in human prostatic adenocarcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (5/43)

There are important interactions between prostatic tumours and bone. This study was designed to examine whether prostatic tissue can express bone inductive factors, in particular, the Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to screen for the expression of BMPs one to six in the prostatic tissue of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), non-metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. BMPs were expressed in both benign and malignant prostate tissue and in the prostate tumour cell lines, PC3 and DU145. BMPs were also expressed in ocular melanoma tissue, a tissue which rarely metastasizes to bone. BMP-6 expression was detected in the prostate tissue of over 50% of patients with clinically defined metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, but was not detected in non-metastatic or benign prostate samples or in ocular melanoma tissue. These findings suggest that the BMPs may play a role in the osteoinductive activity of prostate metastases and that the pattern of expression of BMPs may be important in the pathogenesis of osteoblastic metastases associated with prostate adenocarcinoma.  (+info)

Coordination of BMP-3b and cerberus is required for head formation of Xenopus embryos. (6/43)

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists are involved in the axial patterning of vertebrate embryos. We report that both BMP-3b and BMP-3 dorsalize Xenopus embryos, but act as dissimilar antagonists within the BMP family. BMP-3b injected into Xenopus embryos triggered secondary head formation in an autonomous manner, whereas BMP-3 induced aberrant tail formation. At the molecular level, BMP-3b antagonized nodal-like proteins and ventralizing BMPs, whereas BMP-3 antagonized only the latter. These differences are due to divergence of their pro-domains. Less BMP-3b than BMP-3 precursor is proteolytically processed in embryos. BMP-3b protein associated with a monomeric form of Xnrl, a nodal-like protein, whereas BMP-3 did not. These molecular features are consistent with their expression profiles during Xenopus development. XBMP-3b is expressed in the prechordal plate, while xBMP-3 is expressed in the notochord. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, we found that the depletion of both xBMP-3b and cerberus, a head inducer, caused headless Xenopus embryos, whereas the depletion of both xBMP-3 and cerberus affected the size of the somite. These results revealed that xBMP-3b and cerberus are essential for head formation regulated by the Spemann organizer, and that xBMP-3b and perhaps xBMP-3 are involved in the axial patterning of Xenopus embryos.  (+info)

Osteogenin and recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2B are chemotactic for human monocytes and stimulate transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA expression. (7/43)

Subcutaneous implantation of demineralized bone matrix initiates a sequence of developmental events, which culminate in endochondral bone formation. During early stages of development of matrix-induced implants, ED1, Ia-positive monocytes-macrophages were observed, suggesting that in the initial phases of the endochondral bone formation cascade, the bone-inductive protein osteogenin and related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might serve as potent chemoattractants to recruit circulating monocytes. In this investigation, we demonstrate that at concentrations of 10-100 fg/ml (0.3-3 fM), native bovine osteogenin and recombinant human BMP-2B (rhBMP-2B) induce the directed migration of human blood monocytes in vitro. This chemotactic response was associated with expression of BMP binding sites (receptors) on monocytes. About 750 receptors per cell were detected with an apparent dissociation constant of 200 pM. Both osteogenin and rhBMP-2B at higher concentrations (0.1-30 ng/ml) stimulated mRNA expression for an additional regulatory molecule, type beta 1 transforming growth factor (TGF-beta 1) in human monocytes. TGF-beta 1, in turn, is known to induce a cascade of events leading to matrix generation. Monocytes stimulated by TGF-beta are known to secrete a number of chemotactic and mitogenic cytokines that recruit endothelial and mesenchymal cells and promote their synthesis of collagen and associated matrix constituents. TGF-beta 1 in concert with these other cytokines and matrix components regulates chemotaxis, mesenchymal proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and controlled synthesis of extracellular matrix. Our results demonstrate that osteogenin and related BMPs through their profound effects on monocyte recruitment and cytokine synthesis may promote additional successive steps in the endochondral bone formation cascade.  (+info)

Screening for genomic fragments that are methylated specifically in colorectal carcinoma with a methylated MLH1 promoter. (8/43)

A subset of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) of the genome. Although extensive methylation of CpG islands within the promoter regions of DNA mismatch repair genes such as MLH1 is thought to play a central role in tumorigenesis for MSI-positive sporadic CRCs, it has been obscure whether such aberrant epigenetic regulation occurs more widely and affects other cancer-related genes in vivo. Here, by using methylated CpG island amplification coupled with representational difference analysis (MCA-RDA), we screened genomic fragments that are selectively methylated in CRCs positive for MLH1 methylation, resulting in the identification of hundreds of CpG islands containing genomic fragments. Methylation status of such CpG islands was verified for 28 genomic clones in 8 CRC specimens positive for MLH1 methylation and the corresponding paired normal colon tissue as well as in 8 CRC specimens negative for methylation. Many of the CpG islands were preferentially methylated in the MLH1 methylation-positive CRC specimens, although methylation of some of them was more widespread. These data provide insights into the complex regulation of the methylation status of CpG islands in CRCs positive for MSI and MLH1 methylation.  (+info)

*Bone morphogenetic protein 3

... , also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ...

*Growth differentiation factor

Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link]. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (19 ... a new member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily related to bone morphogenetic protein-3". Growth Factors. 12 (2 ...

*GDF10

Growth differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 3B (BMP-3B) is a protein that in humans is ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... GDF10 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that is closely related to bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP3 ... 1996). "cDNA cloning and genomic structure of human bone morphogenetic protein-3B (BMP-3b)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 223 ...

*A. Hari Reddi

... a bone morphogenetic protein. Matrix 1992; 12:369-80. Ripamonti U, Heliotis M, van den Heever B, Reddi AH. Bone morphogenetic ... Osteogenin (bone morphogenetic protein-3) stimulates cartilage formation by chick limb bud cells in vitro. Dev Biol 1991; 146: ... Osteogenin and recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2B are chemotactic for human monocytes and stimulate transforming growth ... Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2B stimulates PC12 cell differentiation: potentiation and binding to type IV ...

*BMP3

Bone morphogenetic protein 3 Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty (BMP-3), a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle BMP (disambiguation) BMP2 ( ...

*BMPR1A

The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... Yamada N, Kato M, ten Dijke P, Yamashita H, Sampath TK, Heldin CH, Miyazono K, Funa K (1996). "Bone morphogenetic protein type ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 7

... or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 (11 ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) BMP7 as Molecule of the ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein

Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ... Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 5

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: BMP5 bone morphogenetic protein 5". Human BMP5 genome location and BMP5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta ... Beck HN, Drahushuk K, Jacoby DB, Higgins D, Lein PJ (Mar 2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5) promotes dendritic growth ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 6

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... 2001). "Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on haemopoietic stem cells and cytokine production in normal human bone marrow ... 2003). "BMPER, a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and ... "Entrez Gene: BMP6 bone morphogenetic protein 6". Human BMP6 genome location and BMP6 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 15

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. It's mainly involved in ... "Entrez Gene: BMP15 bone morphogenetic protein 15". Persani, L.; Rossetti, R.; Di Pasquale, E.; Cacciatore, C.; Fabre, S. (2014 ... 2001). "Bone morphogenetic protein-15. Identification of target cells and biological functions". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (50): 39523 ... Moore RK, Otsuka F, Shimasaki S (2003). "Molecular basis of bone morphogenetic protein-15 signaling in granulosa cells". J. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 10

... (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ... bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse BMP-10 a ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 2

... has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... bone morphogenetic protein 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human BMP2 genome location ... Gilboa L, Nohe A, Geissendörfer T, Sebald W, Henis YI, Knaus P (March 2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 8A

... (BMP8A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP8A gene. BMP8A is a polypeptide member ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is involved in the development of bone and cartilage. BMP8A may be involved ... bone morphogenetic protein 8a". Human BMP8A genome location and BMP8A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Davila S, ... It also plays a role in bone homeostasis. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183682 - ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 4

"Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23 BMP4 is ... "Effect of extracellular calcium on the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 of normal human bone cells". J. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 1

... , also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ... "Post-translational modification of bone morphogenetic protein-1 is required for secretion and stability of the protein". J. ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ...

*Nuclear receptor coactivator 3

"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. ... Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massagué J (1995). "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the ... NCOA3 is a transcriptional coactivator protein that contains several nuclear receptor interacting domains and an intrinsic ...

*Laminin, alpha 3

"Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 chain of laminin 5, which is a complex glycoprotein composed of three subunits ... Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A (1998). "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix ... and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Can Regulate Epithelial Cell Proliferation". Mol. Biol. Cell. 10 (2): 259-70. doi:10.1091/ ...

*Genetics Institute, Inc.

... bone morphogenetic protein 2,recombinsnyt human FactOR IX, and recombinant human Factor VIII (Recombinate); as well as tissue ... G.I.'s Products (or potential candidates for products) included forms of M-CSF, interleukin-3, interleukin-11 (Neumega), ... ISBN 0-521-83898-3. "Genetics Institute Inc". Retrieved 2009-01-01. The Business of Healthcare Innovation. p. 124. "Genetics ...

*Carboxylesterase 3

2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and ... Carboxylesterase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CES3 gene. Carboxylesterase 3 is a member of a large multigene ... "Entrez Gene: CES3 carboxylesterase 3 (brain)". Lee CV, Hymowitz SG, Wallweber HJ, et al. (2006). "Synthetic anti-BR3 antibodies ...

*GDF2

Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F (2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 induces osteogenic ... Mi LZ, Brown CT, Gao Y, Tian Y, Le VQ, Walz T, Springer TA (March 2015). "Structure of bone morphogenetic protein 9 procomplex ... Fong D, Bisson M, Laberge G, McManus S, Grenier G, Faucheux N, Roux S (Apr 2013). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 activates Smad ...

*Noggin (protein)

BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Noggin publications, gene expression data, sequences and interactants from ... and bone morphogenetic protein binding". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 ( ... and bone morphogenetic protein binding". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 ( ... such as bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more efficiently than members of the ...

*SYCP3

Suzuki H, Fukunishi Y, Kagawa I, Saito R, Oda H, Endo T, Kondo S, Bono H, Okazaki Y, Hayashizaki Y (October 2001). "Protein- ... Synaptonemal complex protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYCP3 gene. It is a component of the synaptonemal ... Lee J, Iwai T, Yokota T, Yamashita M (July 2003). "Temporally and spatially selective loss of Rec8 protein from meiotic ... "Entrez Gene: SYCP3 synaptonemal complex protein 3". Syrjänen JL, Pellegrini L, Davies OR (2014). "A molecular model for the ...

*BMPR1B

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-1B also known as CDw293 (cluster of differentiation w293) is a protein that in humans ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein receptor". Mishina Y, Starbuck MW, Gentile MA, Fukuda T, Kasparcova V, Seedor JG, Hanks ... BMPR1B is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ...

*List of intestinal epithelial differentiation genes

Auclair, B. A.; Benoit, Y. D.; Rivard, N.; Mishina, Y.; Perreault, N. (2007). "Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling is ... Retinoblastoma protein (pRb), but not p107 or p130, is required for maintenance of enterocyte quiescence and differentiation in ... Protein tyrosine kinase 6 negatively regulates growth and promotes enterocyte differentiation in the small intestine. Mol Cell ... Epub 2008 Nov 3. van Es JH, van Gijn ME, Riccio O, van den Born M, Vooijs M, Begthel H, Cozijnsen M, Robine S, Winton DJ, ...

*Atrioventricular node

BMP (Bone morphogenetic protein) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm). The AV node lies at the lower back section of the interatrial septum near the ... The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm). It is located at the center of Koch's triangle-a triangle enclosed by the septal ... 19 (3): e75-8. doi:10.1016/j.carpath.2008.10.011. PMID 19144541. Anatomy figure: 20:06-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY ...
BMP3 Human Recombinant produced in E.coli is a non-glycosylated disulfide linked homodimer containing 2 chains of 110 amino acids.
The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of
researchers studying the genetics, genomics, and pathophysiology of bone marrow failure; and clinical investigators to ... management. Topics include the latest information on the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of MDS and related bone marrow .... Page last updated 01/02/2018 - 1:30pm.. ...
The adaptive evolution of BMP3 is consistent with the rapid evolution of the human skeletal system, although we do not have data that explains the mechanism for the selective advantage of the BMP3 variant. BMP3, is an antagonist of several osteogenic BMPs, and is a negative determinant of bone density [19]. Lacking the BMP3, mice have increased bone mass [19]. Potentially, the antagonistic activity of human BMP3 to osteogenic acting factors, and even the level of BMP signal, was adaptively changed via many amino acid substitutions during human evolution, which may diverge functionally from chimpanzee accounting for the skeletal differences [2], [30]. It still needs test by further functional experiment. The targets of selection operated on the BMP3 are different between European and East Asian evidenced by long-range haplotype test (Fig. 2). Within modern human populations, BMP3 may also diverge in the activity, expression level, accounting for the skeletal variation, such as body mass, because ...
A bone mass chart shows a healthy 30-year-old adults peak bone mineral density, according to the National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases. Doctors compare patient...
Alternative Donor Transplantation: Results of Parallel Phase II Trials using HLA-Mismatched Related Bone Marrow or Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood Grafts
For automated purification of total genomic DNA up to a max. 200mg fresh or frozen stool saples with magnetic beads using the KingFisher® mL ...
ABSTRACT. The treatment of septic non-unions is a complex problem with high morbidity and prolonged and costly treatment with significant psycho-social implications. Good communication with the patient and individualised treatment objectives are therefore essential. With appropriate treatment and complete elimination of infection a good to excellent outcome can be expected ...
Infectious Disease Advisor is used by specialists and other medical professionals to help understand and treat infectious diseases. Latest news, research and treatment articles.
TY - JOUR. T1 - International Myeloma Working Group recommendations for the treatment of multiple myeloma-related bone disease.. AU - Terpos, Evangelos. AU - Morgan, Gareth. AU - Dimopoulos, Meletios A.. AU - Drake, Matthew M. AU - Lentzsch, Suzanne. AU - Raje, Noopur. AU - Sezer, Orhan. AU - García-Sanz, Ramón. AU - Shimizu, Kazuyuki. AU - Turesson, Ingemar. AU - Reiman, Tony. AU - Jurczyszyn, Artur. AU - Merlini, Giampaolo. AU - Spencer, Andrew. AU - Leleu, Xavier. AU - Cavo, Michele. AU - Munshi, Nikhil. AU - Rajkumar, S Vincent. AU - Durie, Brian G M. AU - Roodman, G. David. PY - 2013/6/20. Y1 - 2013/6/20. N2 - The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practice recommendations for the management of multiple myeloma (MM) -related bone disease. An interdisciplinary panel of clinical experts on MM and myeloma bone disease developed recommendations based on published data through August 2012. Expert consensus was used to propose additional recommendations in situations ...
What were presenting here is the first presentation of a very large double-blind randomised trial comparing the use of zoledronic acid, which is kind of the standard of care for the treatment of myeloma related bone disease, to denosumab which is a monoclonal antibody directed against RANK ligand. It is the first time we are presenting this dataset; it is one of the largest multi-centre international trials of close to a little over 1,700 patients actually, so one of the largest international trials that we are presenting in myeloma. The other nice thing about this trial is all of these patients, in fact, the eligibility was that these are newly diagnosed patients comparing standard of care of zoledronic acid with denosumab as bone targeted treatment for myeloma.. What methods did you use?. Like I said, this was a double blind randomised trial; we have over 1,700 patients in this trial. It was a one to one randomisation with half the patients getting zoledronic acid plus placebo versus the ...
Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-related bone loss is associated with increased fracture rates. Vitamin D might play a role in minimising this effect. We hypothesised that 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] after 3 months supplementation might relate to bone loss after 1 year on AI therapy. We conducted a prospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2011 of a consecutive sample of women initiating AI for early breast cancer who were ineligible for bisphosphonate therapy and stayed on treatment for 1 year (N = 232). Serum 25(OH)D was measured at baseline and 3 months, and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density at baseline and 1 year. Subjects were supplemented with daily calcium (1 g) and vitamin D(3) (800 IU) and additional oral 16,000 IU every 2 weeks if baseline 25(OH)D was |30 ng/ml. Linear regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. After 1 year on AI therapy, 232 participants experienced a significant 1.68 % [95 % CI 1.15-2.20 %] bone loss at LS (0.017 g/cm(2) [0
A novel medical stapler and screw inserter device is disclosed herein wherein the medical instrument is formed in a non-linear or C or V shaped conformation. The non-linear shape allows the physician to accomplish a per vaginal anchor or screw insertion into a patients pubic bone, while locating the triggering hand outside of the vagina of the patient and employing a pulling force on the inserter/stapler, against the pubic bone of the patient. In addition, the weight of a patients body may be used to counterweight the recoil effect to minimize stapler recoil during ejection of a staple from the stapler into a patient. Novel bone anchor screws and a related bone screw driver and a method of inserting it into the pubic bone through the vagina are also described for per vaginal bladder neck suspension procedures.
Buy Rebagen Otic Capsule - strip of 10 capsules at online at 1mg.com. Know the uses, side effects, price, composition, substitutes, How it works, Precautions and Expert Advice for Rebagen Otic Capsule manufactured by Macleods Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd
Alternative titles; symbols KTW SYNDROME KLIPPEL-TRENAUNAY SYNDROME; KTS ANGIOOSTEOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROMEGene map locus 5q13.3 TEXT A number sign (#) is used with this entry because at least some cases of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome are caused by mutation in or gain-of-function translocation involving the VG5Q gene (608464). The features of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome are large cutaneous hemangiomata with hypertrophy of the related bones and soft tissues. The disorder resembles, clinically and in its lack of definite genetic basis, Sturge-Weber syndrome (185300), and indeed the 2 have been associated in some cases (Harper, 1971). Suggestions of a genetic cause are meager (Waardenburg, 1963). See 116860. Lindenauer (1965) described brother and sister. He suggested that when arteriovenous fistula is also present, the disorder is distinct from the KTW syndrome and might be called Parkes Weber syndrome, since Weber (1907) described cases of this type as well as cases seemingly identical to those ...

Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE | CirculationBone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE | Circulation

Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE. A View on the Right ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutations, clinical phenotypes and outcomes of Japanese patients with sporadic or ... Mutation in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension in a large kindred ... Background-The effect of a mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) gene on right ventricular (RV) ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/133/18/1747

The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult...The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult...

T1 - The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult ... The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult ... The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult ... The bone morphogenetic protein type Ib receptor is a major mediator of glial differentiation and cell survival in adult ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-type-ib-receptor-is-a-major-mediat-3

Pediatric Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (Myositis Ossificans) Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care,...Pediatric Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (Myositis Ossificans) Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care,...

... phenotypes are caused by mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ACVR1. Hum Mutat. 2009 Mar. 30(3): ... Attempts to surgically remove heterotopic bone risks provoking explosive and painful new bone growth. Biopsies of ... Robert J Pignolo, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Director, Ralston-Penn Clinic for Osteoporosis and Related Bone ... American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, American Society of Human Genetics, Royal Society of Medicine. Disclosure: ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1007104-treatment

Follistatin-Related Proteins
     Summary Report | CureHunterFollistatin-Related Proteins Summary Report | CureHunter

Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 3. Interleukin-18 (Interleukin 18) 4. Cytokines 5. Interleukin-6 (Interleukin 6) ... FLRG Protein; FSTL1 Gene Product; FSTL3 Gene Product; Follistatin Secreted Related Protein; Follistatin-Like Protein 1; ... Follistatin-Related Protein 1; Follistatin Like Protein 1; Follistatin Like Protein 3; Follistatin Like Secreted Glycoprotein; ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD038702-FSTL1-Gene-Product.do

Penn Study Provides First Clear Idea of How Rare Bone Disease Progresses - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comPenn Study Provides First Clear Idea of How Rare Bone Disease Progresses - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

The linchpin of the cellular signaling gone awry is a receptor for a bone morphogenetic protein, or BMP. ... forming extra-skeletal bone either spontaneously or as a result of trauma. The bone formation then progresses in a series of ... and then is eventually replaced by bone. In the case of FOP, that normal process of bone formation occurs inappropriately in ... People with FOP have a mostly normal skeleton and no evidence of extra-skeletal bone at birth; after birth it can be several ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/bones-muscles/3974-penn-study-provides-first-clear-idea-of-how-rare-bone-disease-progresses.html

bone morphogenetic protein 3 Protocols and Video...'bone morphogenetic protein 3' Protocols and Video...

A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from Bone. Bone ... morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes. ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/bone+morphogenetic+protein+3

Bone morphogenetic protein 3 - WikipediaBone morphogenetic protein 3 - Wikipedia

Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_morphogenetic_protein_3

Bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) polyclonal antibody - Allele BiotechBone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) polyclonal antibody - Allele Biotech

100 µg) BMP3 was originally purified from bone as osteogenin, which induces osteogenic differentiation. However, recombinant ...
more infohttp://www.allelebiotech.com/bone-morphogenetic-protein-3-bmp3-polyclonal-antibody/

Temporal and Spatial Expression Patterns of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 in Developing Zebrafish [Abstract]Temporal and Spatial Expression Patterns of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 in Developing Zebrafish [Abstract]

Temporal and Spatial Expression Patterns of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 in Developing Zebrafish Midori Ito-Amano 1, Yukio ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important elements in bone biology. We herein report the expression profiles of ... Bone Mineral Density and Bone Remodeling in Tunisian Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Samar Ben Jemaa, Lassaad ... For in situ hybridization experiments, zbmp3 was expressed in the otic vesicle at 1 dpf, 2 dpf, 3 dpf, and 5 dpf. It was also ...
more infohttps://openrheumatologyjournal.com/VOLUME/8/PAGE/69/ABSTRACT/

Bone morphogenetic protein 1 isoform 3 (BMP1) polyclonal antibody - Allele BiotechBone morphogenetic protein 1 isoform 3 (BMP1) polyclonal antibody - Allele Biotech

... a secreted metalloprotease requiring calcium and needed for cartilage and bone formation. BMP1 is capable of inducing the ...
more infohttp://www.allelebiotech.com/bone-morphogenetic-protein-1-isoform-3-bmp1-polyclonal-antibody/

BMP3 Gene - GeneCards | BMP3 Protein | BMP3 AntibodyBMP3 Gene - GeneCards | BMP3 Protein | BMP3 Antibody

Protein Coding), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Protein Symbol:. P12645-BMP3_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Bone morphogenetic protein 3. Protein Accession:. P12645. Secondary ... BMP3 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BMP3 include Dentine Erosion and ... bone morphogenetic protein 3 (Drosophila decapentaplegic-Vg-related,DVR family;TGFB superfamily) *BMP3 ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BMP3

Growth differentiation factor - WikipediaGrowth differentiation factor - Wikipedia

Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link]. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (19 ... a new member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily related to bone morphogenetic protein-3". Growth Factors. 12 (2 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_differentiation_factor

BMP3 - PCR Primer Pair - Probe | PrimePCR | Bio-RadBMP3 - PCR Primer Pair - Probe | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad

Bone morphogenetic protein 3 precursor Aliases:. Not Available. RefSeq:. NM_001034819. Ensembl:. ENSGALG00000010898 ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/assay/qggacep0008216-primepcr-probe-assay-bmp3-chicken

Frontiers in Bioscience: A virtual library of medicineFrontiers in Bioscience: A virtual library of medicine

Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological functions. Jun Hino, Kenji Kangawa, Hisayuki Matsuo, Tsutomu ... Signal transduction and biological functions of bone morphogenetic proteins. Di Chen, Ming Zhao, Stephen E. Harris, Zenghui Mi ... Computational protein chemistry of p53 and p53 peptides. Paul W. Brandt-Rauf, Ramon V. Rosal, Robert L. Fine, Matthew R. Pincus ... The protein folding problem: global optimization of force fields. H. A. Scheraga, A. Liwo, S. Oldziej, C. Czaplewski, J. ...
more infohttps://www.bioscience.org/landmark/9l/2004

Abbaszadegan M[au] - PubMed - NCBIAbbaszadegan M[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Assessment of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 Methylation in Iranian Patients with Colorectal Cancer. ... Bone S, Alum A, Markovski J, Hristovski K, Bar-Zeev E, Kaufman Y, Abbaszadegan M, Perreault F. ... Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals a Novel Damaging Mutation in Human Fibroblast Activation Protein in a Family with Esophageal ... 2019 Mar 12;510(3):376-382. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.01.101. Epub 2019 Feb 4. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Abbaszadegan+M%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

WO2002099037A3 - Compositions and methods for systemic administration of sequences encoding bone morphogenetic proteins 
      ...WO2002099037A3 - Compositions and methods for systemic administration of sequences encoding bone morphogenetic proteins ...

The invention further discloses compositions and methods for systemic administration of bone morphogenetic proteins for ... These compositions and methods may be used in bone fracture healing and repair. These composition of the invention may be ... Compositions and methods for systemic administration of DNA encoding bone morphogenic proteins for promotion of osteogenesis ... Bone morphogenetic protein US4619989A (en) 1981-05-05. 1986-10-28. The Regents Of The University Of Cal.. Bone morphogenetic ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2002099037A3/en

BMP3 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-RadBMP3 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad

bone morphogenetic protein 3 Assay Type: EvaGreen Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dHsaEG5015799 Info: EG; Same ... bone morphogenetic protein 3 Assay Type: Probe Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dHsaCPE5048058 Info: FAM; Same ... bone morphogenetic protein 3 Assay Type: Probe Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dHsaCPE5048059 Info: HEX; Same ... bone morphogenetic protein 3 Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: Intron-spanning Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/gene/bmp3-human

BMP-3 | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYBMP-3 | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

BMP-3 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... Precursor protein name. Synonyms. BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 Human prepro-bone morphogenic protein 3 bone morphogenetic ...
more infohttp://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=4882

BMP3 Antibody 22188-1-AP  | ProteintechBMP3 Antibody 22188-1-AP | Proteintech

... bone morphogenetic protein 3, Bone morphogenetic protein 3A, Osteogenin ... Recombinant protein were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 22188-1-AP( BMP3 Antibody) at dilution of 1:1000 ... Recombinant protein were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 22188-1-AP( BMP3 Antibody) at dilution of 1:1000 ... BMP3 has also been reported as a negative growth regulator in bone marrow progenitor cells through the inhibition of DNA ...
more infohttps://www.ptglab.com/products/BMP3-Antibody-22188-1-AP.htm

BMP3 Protein Human Recombinant | Osteogenin Antigen | ProSpecBMP3 Protein Human Recombinant | Osteogenin Antigen | ProSpec

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) is one of the BMPs, some of which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily (BMP2-7). There ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3, Osteogenin, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (Osteogenic), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3A, BMP-3A, BMP ... For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles. ... BMP-3 protein was lyophilized from a 0.2µm filtered concentrated solution in 30% Acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/bmp3_human

Ahlquist D[au] - PubMed - NCBIAhlquist D[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Methylated Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) Gene: Evaluation of Tumor Suppressor Function and Biomarker Potential in Biliary ... 3.. Alaska Native Patient and Provider Perspectives on the Multitarget Stool DNA Test Compared With Colonoscopy for Colorectal ... 2016 Mar;150(3):599-607.e7; quiz e14-5. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.11.040. Epub 2015 Nov 24. Review. ... 2018 Sep;88(3):413-426. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2018.04.2352. Epub 2018 Apr 27. Review. No abstract available. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Ahlquist+D%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Chromosome 4q21 Deletion Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsChromosome 4q21 Deletion Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3. Protein Coding. 15.86. DISEASES inferred 15 GeneCards inferred via :. DISEASES inferred (show ... Protein Kinase CGMP-Dependent 2. Protein Coding. 17.86. DISEASES inferred 15 GeneCards inferred via :. DISEASES inferred (show ... Long Intergenic Non-Protein Coding RNA 575. RNA Gene. 8.15. DISEASES inferred 15 ...
more infohttps://www.malacards.org/card/chromosome_4q21_deletion_syndrome

Runx2 mediates epigenetic silencing of the bone morphogenetic protein- by Manish Tandon, Karthiga Devi Gokul et al."Runx2 mediates epigenetic silencing of the bone morphogenetic protein-" by Manish Tandon, Karthiga Devi Gokul et al.

The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family member bone morphogenetic protein-3B (BMP-3B/GDF10) is regarded as a ... prostate and bone, where it activates cancer-related genes and promotes invasive properties. ... The Runt-related transcription factor Runx2 is essential for bone development but is also implicated in progression of several ... The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family member bone morphogenetic protein-3B (BMP-3B/GDF10) is regarded as a ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/2320/

BMP-3 | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYBMP-3 | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

BMP-3 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... Precursor protein name. Synonyms. BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 Human prepro-bone morphogenic protein 3 bone morphogenetic ...
more infohttp://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=4882

HGMD® gene resultHGMD® gene result

Bone morphogenetic protein 3. 1. If you are already a registered HGMD user, please log in using the button above to access this ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3. 2. If you are already an HGMD Professional subscriber, please log in using the button above to ...
more infohttp://www.hgmd.cf.ac.uk/ac/gene.php?gene=BMP3
  • Thus, cell survival was decreased, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was reduced, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes increased. (elsevier.com)
  • Attempts to surgically remove heterotopic bone risks provoking explosive and painful new bone growth. (medscape.com)
  • Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the thymus, spleen, bone marrow brain, and adipose tissue of adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike bone marrow mononuclear cell (abmmnc) therapy has been closed there remains much to do this by being reduced group, which is probably much higher concentration, which chlorine in gaseous form is an antiviral drug or substance abuse couples abuse therapy therapy for the emulsification of 2. (kerulos.org)
  • Western Blot: Approximately 29 kDa band in human bone marrow lysates after 1 μg/mL antibody staining. (vwr.com)
  • At day 90, in implants of Og S-200, Og Hep-HA, and DBM, bone and marrow formation was extensive, culminating in complete regeneration of the craniotomies. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals a Novel Damaging Mutation in Human Fibroblast Activation Protein in a Family with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • By day 42, bone formation in the rat blast model appeared similar in radiographs compared to human patients who progressed to develop post-traumatic HO. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human musculoskeletal injury is commonly associated with trauma and is followed by either a robust healing response involving tissue regeneration or fibrosis [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. Bone growth in child, excessive skeletal and cardiovascular disease are also cotrimoxazole. (kerulos.org)
  • These composition of the invention may be further utilized in increasing bone mineral density. (google.com)
  • In many instances, for example, this healing program results in the creation of functional tissue (e.g. muscle and/or bone regeneration) or can result in the formation of scar tissue [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Defects also were grafted with corticocancellous bone harvested from the iliac crest or left ungrafted to monitor the spontaneous regeneration potential of the adult baboon calvaria. (coventry.ac.uk)