Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Diseases, MetabolicMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGranulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 10: A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DioxolesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.OdontoblastsMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (1/1473)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (2/1473)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Cloning and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene. (3/1473)

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is involved in bone formation, organogenesis or pattern formation during development. The expression of BMP-2 is regulated accurately and coordinately with that of other transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily members. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of BMP-2 expression, a 6.7 kb SpeI-SalI fragment, from the P1 phage library, encompassing the 5'-flanking region of the human BMP-2 gene, was isolated and sequenced. Transcription start sites were mapped by the 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It has been found that the human BMP-2 gene contains, largely, two promoter regions surrounded by GC-rich sequences with several Sp1 consensus motifs. The proximal promoter possesses a single start site, whereas several start sites are clustered in the distal promoter region. Neither TATA nor CAAT consensus sequences are found in the proximity of the start sites for either promoter. Interestingly, in no case is the transcription-initiation site common between the human and mouse BMP-2 genes, although the sequence of the BMP-2 gene is well conserved in the promoter region between two species. Transient transfection experiments with the reporter fused with various lengths of the BMP-2 promoter sequence demonstrated that there exist enhancer elements in an 1.1 kb GC-rich fragment covering both promoter regions. It is noteworthy that the enhancer elements are 5'-flanked by a 790 bp strong repressor element that is characterized by numerous AT stretches. This intriguing organization may be amenable to the tight control of the expression of BMP-2 that is essential for development or bone morphogenesis.  (+info)

Lack of regulation in the heart forming region of avian embryos. (4/1473)

The ability to regenerate a heart after ablation of cardiogenic mesoderm has been demonstrated in early stage fish and amphibian embryos but this type of regulation of the heart field has not been seen in avians or mammals. The regulative potential of the cardiogenic mesoderm was examined in avian embryos and related to the spatial expression of genes implicated in early cardiogenesis. With the identification of early cardiac regulators such as bmp-2 and nkx-2.5, it is now possible to reconcile classical embryological studies with molecular mechanisms of cardiac lineage determination in vivo. The most anterior lateral embryonic cells were identified as the region that becomes the heart and removal of all or any subset of these cells resulted in the loss of corresponding cardiac structures. In addition, removal of the lateral heart forming mesoderm while leaving the lateral endoderm intact also results in loss of cardiac structures. Thus the medial anterior mesoderm cannot be recruited into the heart lineage in vivo even in the presence of potentially cardiac inducing endoderm. In situ analysis demonstrated that genes involved in early events of cardiogenesis such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp-2) and nkx-2.5 are expressed coincidentally with the mapped far lateral heart forming region. The activin type IIa receptor (actR-IIa) is a potential mediator of BMP signaling since it is expressed throughout the anterior mesoderm with the highest level of expression occurring in the lateral prospective heart cells. The posterior boundary of actR-IIa is consistent with the posterior boundary of nkx-2.5 expression, supporting a model whereby ActR-IIa is involved in restricting the heart forming region to an anterior subset of lateral cells exposed to BMP-2. Analysis of the cardiogenic potential of the lateral plate mesoderm posterior to nkx-2.5 and actR-IIa expression demonstrated that these cells are not cardiogenic in vitro and that removal of these cells from the embryo does not result in loss of heart tissue in vivo. Thus, the region of the avian embryo that will become the heart is defined medially, laterally, and posteriorly by nkx-2.5 gene expression. Removal of all or part of the nkx-2.5 expressing region results in the loss of corresponding heart structures, demonstrating the inability of the chick embryo to regenerate cardiac tissue in vivo at stages after nkx-2.5 expression is initiated.  (+info)

A binding site for homeodomain and Pax proteins is necessary for L1 cell adhesion molecule gene expression by Pax-6 and bone morphogenetic proteins. (5/1473)

The cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates axonal guidance and fasciculation during development. We previously identified the regulatory region of the L1 gene and showed that it was sufficient for establishing the neural pattern of L1 expression in transgenic mice. In the present study, we characterize a DNA element within this region called the HPD that contains binding motifs for both homeodomain and Pax proteins and responds to signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). An ATTA sequence within the core of the HPD was required for binding to the homeodomain protein Barx2 while a separate paired domain recognition motif was necessary for binding to Pax-6. In cellular transfection experiments, L1-luciferase reporter constructs containing the HPD were activated an average of 4-fold by Pax-6 in N2A cells and 5-fold by BMP-2 and BMP-4 in Ng108 cells. Both of these responses were eliminated on deletion of the HPD from L1 constructs. In transgenic mice, deletion of the HPD from an L1-lacZ reporter resulted in a loss of beta-galactosidase expression in the telencephalon and mesencephalon. Collectively, our experiments indicate that the HPD regulates L1 expression in neural tissues via homeodomain and Pax proteins and is likely to be a target of BMP signaling during development.  (+info)

Type IIA procollagen containing the cysteine-rich amino propeptide is deposited in the extracellular matrix of prechondrogenic tissue and binds to TGF-beta1 and BMP-2. (6/1473)

Type II procollagen is expressed as two splice forms. One form, type IIB, is synthesized by chondrocytes and is the major extracellular matrix component of cartilage. The other form, type IIA, contains an additional 69 amino acid cysteine-rich domain in the NH2-propeptide and is synthesized by chondrogenic mesenchyme and perichondrium. We have hypothesized that the additional protein domain of type IIA procollagen plays a role in chondrogenesis. The present study was designed to determine the localization of the type IIA NH2-propeptide and its function during chondrogenesis. Immunofluorescence histochemistry using antibodies to three domains of the type IIA procollagen molecule was used to localize the NH2-propeptide, fibrillar domain, and COOH-propeptides of the type IIA procollagen molecule during chondrogenesis in a developing human long bone (stage XXI). Before chondrogenesis, type IIA procollagen was synthesized by chondroprogenitor cells and deposited in the extracellular matrix. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed type IIA procollagen fibrils labeled with antibodies to NH2-propeptide at approximately 70 nm interval suggesting that the NH2-propeptide remains attached to the collagen molecule in the extracellular matrix. As differentiation proceeds, the cells switch synthesis from type IIA to IIB procollagen, and the newly synthesized type IIB collagen displaces the type IIA procollagen into the interterritorial matrix. To initiate studies on the function of type IIA procollagen, binding was tested between recombinant NH2-propeptide and various growth factors known to be involved in chondrogenesis. A solid phase binding assay showed no reaction with bFGF or IGF-1, however, binding was observed with TGF-beta1 and BMP-2, both known to induce endochondral bone formation. BMP-2, but not IGF-1, coimmunoprecipitated with type IIA NH2-propeptide. Recombinant type IIA NH2-propeptide and type IIA procollagen from media coimmunoprecipitated with BMP-2 while recombinant type IIB NH2-propeptide and all other forms of type II procollagens and mature collagen did not react with BMP-2. Taken together, these results suggest that the NH2-propeptide of type IIA procollagen could function in the extracellular matrix distribution of bone morphogenetic proteins in chondrogenic tissue.  (+info)

Prospective identification, isolation by flow cytometry, and in vivo self-renewal of multipotent mammalian neural crest stem cells. (7/1473)

Multipotent and self-renewing neural stem cells have been isolated in culture, but equivalent cells have not yet been prospectively identified in neural tissue. Using cell surface markers and flow cytometry, we have isolated neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) from mammalian fetal peripheral nerve. These cells are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from NCSCs previously isolated by culturing embryonic neural tube explants. Moreover, in vivo BrdU labeling indicates that these stem cells self-renew in vivo. NCSCs freshly isolated from nerve tissue can be directly transplanted in vivo, where they generate both neurons and glia. These data indicate that neural stem cells persist in peripheral nerve into late gestation by undergoing self-renewal. Such persistence may explain the origins of some PNS tumors in humans.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced c-fos gene transcription and DNA synthesis in mesangial cells. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase. (8/1473)

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play an important role in nephrogenesis. The biologic effect and mechanism of action of these proteins in the adult kidney has not yet been studied. We investigated the effect of BMP2, a member of these growth and differentiation factors, on mitogenic signal transduction pathways induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in glomerular mesangial cells. PDGF is a growth and survival factor for these cells in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of mesangial cells with increasing concentrations of BMP2 inhibited PDGF-induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner with maximum inhibition at 250 ng/ml. Immune complex tyrosine kinase assay of PDGF receptor beta immunoprecipitates from lysates of mesangial cells treated with PDGF showed no inhibitory effect of BMP2 on PDGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. This indicates that the inhibition of DNA synthesis is likely due to postreceptor events. However, BMP2 significantly inhibited PDGF-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity that phosphorylates the Elk-1 transcription factor, a component of the ternary complex factor. Using a fusion protein-based reporter assay, we also show that BMP2 blocks PDGF-induced Elk-1-mediated transcription. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BMP2 inhibits PDGF-induced transcription of c-fos gene, a natural target of Elk-1 that normally forms a ternary complex that activates the serum response element of the c-fos gene. These data provide the first evidence that in mesangial cells, BMP2 signaling cross-talks with MAPK-based transcriptional events to inhibit PDGF-induced DNA synthesis. One target for this inhibition is the early response gene c-fos.  (+info)

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Increasingly, reports of frequent and occasionally catastrophic complications associated with use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in spinal fusion surgeries are being published. In the original peer review, industry-sponsored publications describing the use of rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion, adverse events of these types and frequency were either not reported at all or not reported to be associated with rhBMP-2 use. Some authors and investigators have suggested that these discrepancies were related to inadequate peer review and editorial oversight. PURPOSE To compare the conclusions regarding the safety and related efficacy published in the original rhBMP-2 industry-sponsored trials with subsequently available Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data summaries, follow-up publications, and administrative and organizational databases. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. METHODS Results and conclusions from original industry-sponsored rhBMP-2 publications regarding
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.3543 To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients ...
BMP-14 is expressed in long bones during embryonic development and postnatally in articular cartilage. Mutations in the BMP-14 gene have been implicated in Grebe Syndrome, which is characterized by short stature, extra digits, short and deformed extremities, and in Hunter- Thompson type dwarfism. The mature and functional form of BMP-14 is a homodimer of two 120 amino-acid polypeptide chain (monomers) linked by a single disulfide bond. Each BMP-14 monomer is expressed as the C-terminal part of a precursor polypeptide, which also contains a 27 amino-acid signal peptide and a 354 amino-acid propeptide. This precursor undergoes intracellular dimerization, and upon secretion it is processed by a furin-type protease. Recombinant human BMP-14 is a 27.0 kDa homodimeric disulfide-linked protein consisting of two 120 amino acids ...
Treatment with 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in significant growth changes and fusion of the coronal sutures bilaterally, anterior sagittal suture, and frontonasal suture by cephalometric analyses at 42 days postoperatively (p,0.05). Growth changes appeared greatest in the nasal region and less in the bicoronal and anterior sagittal regions. No significant differences in cranial growth were noted with use of 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 when compared to the empty defect group. Qualitative uCT analysis revealed comparable bony defect healing between rhBMP-2 groups. Application of high-dose, 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in pansynostosis upon uCT analysis, further verifying cranial growth restriction. Low-dose, 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 consistently regenerated bone within the surgical defect margin without evidence of extra-sutural invasion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeted delivery system for juxtacrine signaling growth factor based on rhBMP-2-mediated carrier-protein conjugation. AU - Liu, Hsia Wei. AU - Chen, Chih Hwa. AU - Tsai, Ching Lin. AU - Hsiue, Ging Ho. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - We propose a model of artificial juxtacrine signaling for the controlled release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) suitable for guided bone regeneration. A porous three-dimensional scaffold of poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) was fabricated by means of gel molding and particulate leaching. Collagen immobilization onto the scaffold surface was produced by performing photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid, and rhBMP-2 was tethered to the collagenous surface by covalent conjugation. On pharmacokinetic analysis, in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent and alkaline phosphatase assays revealed sustained, slow release of rhBMP-2 over 28 days, with a cumulative release of one third of the initial load diffusing out of the ...
Recombinant Human BMP-10 (carrier-free) - Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP-10) was initially cloned from embryonic heart, and expression data suggests that it plays a key role in the trabeculation of the embryonic heart.
Winner of a World Class Product of Korea award, Novosis is the first South Korean bone graft containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).
The included studies from a systematic review of the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion were used for analysis. For each study, it was investigated in whichc sources they were available and where they were identified. If a study was available on a database but not retrieved by the original search strategy, the bibliographic record was examined to determine why it was not retrieved. The sensitivity, precision, and numbers needed to read for searches in each of the databases was calculated, as well as sensitivity*precision. The minimum combination of sources required to identify all the included publications using the original search strategies used was recorded.. The minimum combination of sources to identify all the publications was Science Citation Index (SCI), Embase, CENTRAL and either MEDLINE or PubMed, in addition to reference checking, contacting authors and using automated current awareness service.. The highest precision was achieved in ...
BACKGROUND: Research has indicated that adverse effects terms are increasingly prevalent in the title, abstract or indexing terms of articles that contain adverse drug effects data in MEDLINE and Embase. However, it is unknown whether adverse effects terms are present in the database records of articles that contain adverse effects data of medical devices, and thus, to what extent the development of an adverse effects search filter for medical devices may be feasible. METHODS: A case study systematic review of a medical device was selected. The included studies from a systematic review of the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion were used in the analysis. For each included study, the corresponding database record on MEDLINE and Embase was assessed to measure the presence or absence of adverse effects terms in the title, abstract or indexing. The performance of each potential adverse effects search term was also measured and compared. RESULTS: There ...
Reporting of industry funded study outcome data: comparison of confidential and published data on the safety and effectiveness of rhBMP-2 for spinal fusion. Rodgers, Mark A.; Brown, Jennifer V. E.; Heirs, Morag K.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Mannion, Richard J.; Simmonds, Mark C.; Stewart, Lesley A. // BMJ: British Medical Journal;7/6/2013, Vol. 347 Issue 7915, p12 The article summarizes a research study which compared confidential and published clinical trials and adverse event data on the safety and effectiveness of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion. An overview of the study participants, setting, design and... ...
Making Recombinant Proteins - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: My boss wants me to make a recombinant protein and this is something that I have never done before. The protein that I want to make is Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 and the product sheet of this compound where we first purchased the protein states that it is a 28.8 kDa homodimer, each subunit contains 116 amino acid residues (corresponding to amino acid residues 316 to 431 of the full-length...
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Bioaim Human BMP-2 EasyTest™ ELISA Kit suitable for Plasma, Serum in human. Reliably quantify 25pg/ml of BMP-2. It takes 2.0 hours.
Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alveolar ridge augmentation using implants coated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. T2 - Histologic observations. AU - Wikesjö, Ulf M E. AU - Qahash, Mohammed. AU - Polimeni, Giuseppe. AU - Susin, Cristiano. AU - Shanaman, Richard H.. AU - Rohrer, Michael D.. AU - Wozney, John M.. AU - Hall, Jan. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Background: Studies using ectopic rodent, orthotopic canine, and non-human primate models show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) coated onto titanium surfaces induce local bone formation. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) coated onto a titanium porous oxide implant surface to stimulate local bone formation including osseointegration and vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Material and Methods: Bilateral, critical-size, 5 mm, supra-alveolar, peri-implant defects were created in 12 young adult Hound Labrador mongrel dogs. Six animals received implants coated ...
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Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family involved in de novo bone induction. Successful use of rhBMP-2 requires implantation with a biomaterial which can act as a scaffold for cell invasion for osteoinduction and retains rhBMP-2 at …
|p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins, plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. It is involved in the hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway, and in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. It is involved also in cardiac cell differentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types.|/p||p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone and recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) and is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States.|/p|
Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMPs in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic)". Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, Buchberg AM (March 1990). "Chromosomal ...
To examine the local effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on diverse skeletal tissues in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells transfected with the murine bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene were implanted into athymic nude mice by injection into the subcutaneous space of the skull, intra- and extraarticular spaces of the knee, paravertebral muscles, and intramedullary space in the femur, to form experimental tumors secreting bone morphogenetic protein-4. As a control, mock vector-transfected Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells were used. Three weeks after injection, the newly formed Chinese hamster ovary tumors together with the skeletal tissues adjacent to the tumor were recovered from each site and processed for histologic examination. On the periosteum of calvaria, new bone, but no cartilage, was observed, and abundant chondrogenic cell proliferation was seen in the apophysis of the spinous process and around Ranviers groove in the knee. There were no apparent reactions to the Chinese hamster
1. Bajaj AK, Wongworawat AA, Punjabi A. Management of alveolar clefts. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:840-46 2. Matic DB, Power SM. Evaluating the success of gingivoperiosteoplasty versus secondary bone grafting in patients with unilateral clefts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1343-353 3. Sato Y, Grayson BH, Garfinkle JS, Barillas I, Maki K, Cutting CB. Success rate of gingivoperiosteoplasty with and without secondary bone grafts compared with secondary alveolar bone grafts alone. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1356-369 4. Levenberg S, Langer R. Advances in tissue engineering. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. (61) 113-134. 2004 5. Ikeuchi M, Dohi Y, Horiuchi K, Ohgushi H, Noshi T, Yoshikawa T, Yamamoto K, Sugimura M. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 promotes osteogensisw withing ateolpeptide type I collagen solution by combination with rat cultured marrow cells. J biomed Mater Res (60) 61-60. 2002 6. Saito N, Okada T. et al. Biodegradable poly-D, L-Lactic acidpolyethlene glycol ...
Gjoksi, B; Ruangsawasdi, N; Ghayor, C; Siegenthaler, B; Zenobi-Wong, M; Weber, Franz E (2017). Influence of N-methyl pyrrolidone on the activity of the pulp-dentine complex and bone integrity during osteoporosis. International Endodontic Journal, 50(3):271-280.. Thoma, D S; Kruse, A; Ghayor, C; Jung, R E; Weber, Franz E (2015). Bone augmentation using a synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based and a xenogenic hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute materials with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 26(5):592-598.. Ghayor, C; Correro, R M; Lange, K; Karfeld-Sulzer, L S; Grätz, K W; Weber, Franz E (2011). Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by N-methylpyrrolidone. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(27):24458-24466.. San Miguel, B; Kriauciunas, R; Tosatti, S; Ehrbar, M; Ghayor, C; Textor, M; Weber, Franz E (2010). Enhanced osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration using surface-modified porous bioactive glass ...
Information about the use of INFUSE® Bone Graft with the LT-CAGE® Lumbar Tapered Fusion Device to treat degenerative disc disease; its estimated that, in 2002, more than 190,000 Americans will undergo lumbar spinal fusion surgeries to ease their debilitating back pain and get them back on their feet. INFUSE® Bone Graft contains recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2), the genetically engineered version of a naturally occurring protein that is capable of initiating bone growth, or bone regeneration, in specific, targeted areas in the spine. Using INFUSE® Bone Graft with the LT-CAGE® device in spine surgery reduces the pain and complications associated with treating degenerative disc disease by eliminating the second surgery required to harvest bone from a patients hip, as is done in traditional spinal fusion procedures ...
Ivković, Alan and Franić, Miljenko and Bojanić, Ivan and Pećina, Marko (2007) Overuse injuries in female athletes. Croatian medical journal, 48 (6). pp. 767-778. ISSN 0353-9504 (Print) 1332-8166 (Electronic) Pećina, Marko and Vukičević, Slobodan (2007) Biological aspects of bone, cartilage and tendon regeneration. International Orthopaedics, 31 (6). pp. 719-720. ISSN 0341-2695 (Print) 1432-5195 (Electronic) Pećina, Marko and Đapić, Tomislav (2007) More than 20-year follow-up Harrington instrumentation in the treatment of severe idiopathic scoliosis. European spine journal, 16 (2). pp. 299-300. ISSN 0940-6719 (Print) 1432-0932 (Electronic) Smoljanović, Tomislav and Grgurević, Lovorka and Jelić, Mislav and Kreszinger, Mario and Hašpl, Miroslav and Matičić, Dražen and Vukičević, Slobodan and Pećina, Marko (2007) Regeneration of the skeleton by recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins. Collegium antropologicum, 31 (3). pp. 923-932. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print) ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), their structure, action and detailed description of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7.
The investigators aim to compare the levels of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -7 (BMP-4 and 7) in blood, follicular fluid and ovarian organ culture s
RPA013Hu01, Recombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2), Homo sapiens (Human), Recombinant protein, BMP2A, BMP-2A, Hemochromatosis Modifier, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) offered by Overland Park KS Oral Surgeon to produce new bone & start the healing process. 913-469-8895
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provid...
Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: Bone morphogenetic pr
A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: roles of animal pole tissue in the development of vent
Bone morphogenetic protein signalling dynamics in hFOBs under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. (a) hFOBs in two-dimensional monolayer c
Purified BMP-16 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. DNA molecules encoding the BMP-16 proteins are also disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone, cartilage, other connective tissue defects and disorders, including tendon, ligament and meniscus, in wound healing and related tissue repair, as well as for treatment of disorders and defects to tissues which include epidermis, nerve, muscle, including cardiac muscle, and other tissues and wounds, and organs such as liver, lung, cardiac, pancreas and kidney tissue. The proteins may also be useful for the induction of growth and/or differentiation of undifferentiated embryonic and stem cells.
Research proven goat polyclonal BMP-4 antibody. Initiates, promotes and regulates bone development, growth, remodeling and repair. Smad1 translocation to the nucleus is observed after the addition of BMP4. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting and related applications.
When using the Xenbase gene expression search we felt it would be most valufuable if high quality images appeared near the top of your search results. That is why we have developed a way to allow Xenbase users to vote on the quality of an image. You can change your vote for a given image as many times as you want, but only your last vote is counted. Additionally,weve provided a comment box if you want to tell us why you think a specific image is good or bad ...
Inspite of doing extensive research work, cancer is still the leading cause of deaths. Its associated cost accounts a largest economic burden worldwide...
Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years ...
Defendants received payments and/or other consideration, directly or indirectly, from Medicare after submitting false claims for payment, including facts that the use of BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) for this surgery was approved and proper, and that [the patient] was informed, and in fact, knowingly consented to the use of BMP-2 on this spinal surgery, which he did not," the complaint states ...
As part of a continuing investigation into a bone morphogenetic protein-2 product marketed as Infuse, the |em|Milwaukee Journal Sentinel/MedPage Today|/em| describe a first-hand account of early signs
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic pathological process involving inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Pharmacological intervention for prevention of CAVD progression remains unavailable. Calcified aortic valves display higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and oxLDL has the potential to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and has been shown to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. We tested the hypotheses that oxLDL induces the osteogenic responses in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) via TLRs and that IL-37 suppresses the responses and may have therapeutic potential for suppression of CAVD progression.. Methods and Results: Human AVICs from normal valves were treated with oxLDL (20-80 μg/ml) for 72 hours in vitro. OxLDL up-regulated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in a dose-dependent fashion. Further, oxLDL induced NF-κB ...
Looking for online definition of bone morphogenetic protein 2B in the Medical Dictionary? bone morphogenetic protein 2B explanation free. What is bone morphogenetic protein 2B? Meaning of bone morphogenetic protein 2B medical term. What does bone morphogenetic protein 2B mean?
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene.[1][2][3] The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is member of the TGFβ superfamily. Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in certain cancers. Like other BMPs BMP5 is inhibited by chordin and noggin. It is expressed in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head and may have a role in the development and normal function. It is also expressed in the lung and liver. This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. The superfamily includes large families of growth and differentiation factors. Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This ...
thoroughly and pour plates. YEPD (YPD) PLATES: Agar 20 g. Peptone 10 g. Yeast Extract 900 ml distilled water: 5 ml of 1 M HCl (do not mouth pipette) 20 g. Agar Autoclave.Préparation de membranes pour. Ampicilline A~P 100 Carbeniciline Cb 40 Kanam ycine Km 20. - Milieu LB agar:.Lb agar with ampicillin, ampicillin agar plates - wwgcsa. What is the best ampicillin to chloramphenicol ratio for.. TP biorad (B)TP sauce Paul Éluard (PE) Jour 1 Préparation de 8 milieux LB (B)Couler. Ampicilline et Arabinose. de soja 5 g Chlorure de sodium 5 g Agar.Periplasmic Expression of a Novel Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Mutant in. of a Novel Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Mutant in. in LB agar and LB Broth.Préparation de la recette: Râpez la plaquette de chocolat blanc en fins copeaux ou hachez-la à laide dun couteaux-scie. Rassemblez les copeaux dans un saladier.Inoculum and plasmid preparation. [LB] medium) overnight,. (LB medium containing, per liter, ampicillin, 100 mg;.Préparation du milieu ...
In drug repositioning research, a new concept in drug discovery and new therapeutic opportunities have been identified for existing drugs. Midazolam (MDZ) is an anesthetic inducer used for general anesthesia. Here, we demonstrate the combined effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and MDZ on osteogenic differentiation. An immortalized mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12 cell) was cultured in the combination of BMP-2 and MDZ (BMP-2+MDZ). The differentiation and signal transduction of C2C12 cells into osteoblasts were investigated at biological, immunohistochemical, and genetic cell levels. Mineralized nodules formed in C2C12 cells were characterized at the crystal engineering level. BMP-2+MDZ treatment decreased the myotube cell formation of C2C12 cells, and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes. The precipitated nodules consisted of randomly oriented hydroxyapatite nanorods and nanoparticles. BMP-2+MDZ treatment reduced the
Dr Edmond Bedrossian uses bone morphogenic protein to stimulate the cells to produce new bone during bone grafting surgery in San Francisco. 415-956-6610
Buy anti-BMP7 antibody, Mouse anti-Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7) Monoclonal Antibody-NP_001710.1 (MBS2090573) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunoprecipitation (IP)
Purpose.: There are limited studies on the factors that regulate the processing of TGF-β2 and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins into their mature form. Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1) is an enzyme responsible for the cleavage and maturation of growth factors and ECM proteins. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells express BMP1, BMP1 expression is regulated by TGF-β2, BMP1 is biologically active, and BMP1 regulates LOX activity. Methods.: Primary human TM cells were isolated and subjected to quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western immunoblotting (WB) for BMP1. BMP1 immunolocalization was performed in TM tissues. qPCR was used to determine BMP1 mRNA expression and WB results were used to determine BMP1 protein expression. BMP1 activity was measured in TM cells treated with TGF-β2 or with a combination of TGF-β2/UK383367. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme activity was evaluated by WB in TM cells treated with BMP1 or with a combination of ...
Noggin protein is a potent bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist capable of inhibiting vasculogenesis even in the presence of provasculogenic VEGF and FGF-2. We found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) do not express Noggin in culture and used these cells for modeling of antivasculogenesis. We hypothesized that high-efficiency transduction of HUVECs with bicistronic lentiviral vector encoding Noggin and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) enables direct visualization of Noggin effects in homogenous primary cell populations in vitro and in vivo. By comparing HUVECs transduced with a control GFP and GFP/Noggin expression cassettes, we showed that constitutive and orthotopic Noggin protein expression did not influence cell proliferation, down-regulated BMP-2 expression, and showed no effect on BMP receptor transcripts. We demonstrated that in contrast to GFP-only control, Noggin expression in endothelial cells abrogated endothelial migration in response to monolayer injury,
Gene silencing of noggin by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach for the treatment of bone defects, because noggin deactivates bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and suppresses osteogenic differentiation. Here, we demonstrated the silencing of the noggin gene by siRNA polyplexes composed o
BMP compositions including the human factor and bovine factor thereof, the process of isolating BMP compositions and factors, and the use of such factors and compositions to induce bone formation in animals.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
Pediatric neuroblastoma in its advanced stage (st. IV) is usually lethal. 70% of the affected children die. 50% of the children show upon diagnosis metastasis or a genetic amplification of the oncogene N-myc. This group has a poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 33%. A drawback of the current standard therapy is the poor efficacy accompanied with severe side effects. Therefore a new treatment of neuroblastoma with a different antitumoral mode of action than the traditional cytotoxics is urgently required ...
Carragee and colleagues recently published an analysis of publicly available raw data from the Medtronic sponsored AMPLIFY study (a randomized controlled trial
Video articles in JoVE about bone morphogenetic protein 6 include Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks.
Abstract:. The morbidity of bone fractures and defects is steadily increasing due to changes in the age pyramid. As such, novel biomaterials that are able to promote the healing and regeneration of injured bones are needed to overcome the limitations of auto-, allo-, and xenografts, while providing a ready-To-use product that may help to minimize surgical invasiveness and duration. In this regard, recombinant biomaterials, such as elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), are very promising as their design can be tailored by genetic engineering, thus allowing scalable production and batch-To-batch consistency, among others. Furthermore, they can self-Assemble into physically crosslinked hydrogels above a certain transition temperature, in this case body temperature, but are injectable below this temperature, thereby markedly reducing surgical invasiveness. In this study, we have developed two bioactive hydrogel-forming ELRs, one including the osteogenic and osteoinductive bone morphogenetic protein-2 ...
Complete information for BMP8B gene (Protein Coding), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 8b, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Bmp4 - Bmp4 (untagged) - Mouse bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Rafael MS, Laizé V, M. Cancela L. Identification of Sparus aurata bone morphogenetic protein 2: molecular cloning, gene expression and in silico analysis of protein conserved features in vertebrates. Bone. 2006;39(6):1373-81. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2006.06.021 ...
BMP4 antibody [10F4B4] (bone morphogenetic protein 4) for ELISA, WB. Anti-BMP4 mAb (GTX83027) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
J:74189 Walker L, Carlson A, Tan-Pertel HT, Weinmaster G, Gasson J, The notch receptor and its ligands are selectively expressed during hematopoietic development in the mouse. Stem Cells. 2001;19(6):543-52 ...
J:56303 Hollnagel A, Oehlmann V, Heymer J, Ruther U, Nordheim A, Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 9;274(28):19838-45 ...
Laura Geller Ballerina Baked Gelato Swirl Illuminator Laura Geller Ballerina Baked Gelato Swirl Illuminator ($24.00 for 0.16 oz.) is a softened, medium ros
In dental or orthopedic surgery, bone substitutes are inserted with implants to promote osteogenesis and enhance osseointegration. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of rhBMP-2 (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2) loaded hydrogel composite for bone formation around dental implant in minipig mandible bone defect models. We made bone defects with a diameter of 4 mm in minipig mandibles and inserted implants of the same size, to mimic the cases of inserting the screws in the bone defect or poor-quality bone. The rhBMP-2 (300 μg) loaded hydrogel composite (0.5 cc) inserted in the bone defect with the implant in the rhBMP-2 group. After 4 weeks, the mandibles were harvested to evaluate the new bone mass around implants using plain radiographs, micro-CT, and histology. The micro-CT analysis result showed that the quantity of new bone generation around the implant in the rhBMP-2 group was greater than that in the other groups. Comparing the ratios of bone to implant area in
Qinge formula (QEF), prepared from an ancient Chinese recipe, was previously suggested to regulate bone metabolism and improve bone mineral density in patients with osteoporosis. To study the effects of medicated serum containing QEF on the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from the proximal femurs of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) mice. Using an established mouse model of PMOP, mononuclear cells were isolated from the bone marrow present in the proximal femurs and cultured. PMOP mice were also randomly divided into four groups: the untreated group (Group A) and the groups treated with respectively low (Group B), medium (Group C), and high (Group D) concentrations of QEF. Serum was isolated from each and used to treat the cultured BMSCs in conjunction with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Cell morphology, proliferation rates, intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of osteoblast functions by sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from heparin-coated chitosan scaffold. AU - Yun, Young Pil. AU - Lee, Su Young. AU - Kim, Hak Jun. AU - Song, Jae-Jun. AU - Kim, Sung Eun. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in osteoblast functions by using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized heparin-coated chitosan scaffolds and comparing it with that using chitosan scaffold or BMP-2/chitosan scaffold in vitro. BMP-2 was released from the heparin-coated chitosan scaffold in a sustained manner compared to that released from the chitosan scaffold. The osteoblast functions of MG-63 cells grown on the chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/Hep/chitosan scaffold were investigated by assessing cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The results of the in vitro studies demonstrated that MG-63 ...
(HealthDay)-For patients with lumbar spondylosis or spondylolisthesis of the lowest lumbar levels who undergo open anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) ...
Reconstruction of the mandible following various mandibulectomy procedures has been an area of interest in both cats and dogs. There are six published case reports on reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects in dogs with autografts (rib or ulna, and with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 [rhBMP-2]) or absorpbable compression resistant matrix with rhBMP-2. However, dogs typically have few complications following mandibulectomy and the need to reconstruct a segmental defect is really aimed at preventing mandibular drift which is usually a cosmetic rather than a functional problem.. In contrast, cats have a high complication rate following any type of mandibulectomy. Eating difficulties are seen in 72% cats and the median time to return to voluntary eating is 4 weeks following surgery, which means these cats require supplemental nutrition via either a esophagostomy or gastrostomy tube until voluntary eating returns. Furtnerore, 12% of cats never eat again. There are a ...
A scandal involving Medtronic Inc.s <"http://www.yourlawyer.com/topics/overview/Medtronic_Infuse_Bone_Graft">Infuse Bone Graft has erupted in the U.S. Army. According to The Wall Street Journal, "a number of serious questions" have been raised about an Infuse study conducted by Dr. Timothy R. Kuklo, former surgeon at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C.. Infuse Bone Graft contains recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein (rhBMP-2), a protein released naturally by the body. It is approved to treat a spinal condition called Degenerative Disc Disease, as well as open fractures of the tibia. It is also approved for use in two dental bone grafting procedures: sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. In July, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) warned that the use of Infuse Bone Graft and similar products had caused serious problems when they were used off-label in cervical spine (neck) surgeries. Patients reported difficulty swallowing, breathing and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of steroidogenesis by bone morphogenetic proteins in granulosa cells. T2 - Involvement of extracellularly regulated kinase signaling and oocyte actions in follicle-stimulating hormone-induced estrogen production. AU - Miyoshi, Tomoko. AU - Otsuka, Fumio. AU - Inagaki, Kenichi. AU - Otani, Hiroyuki. AU - Takeda, Masaya. AU - Suzuki, Jiro. AU - Goto, Junko. AU - Ogura, Toshio. AU - Makino, Hirofumi. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which oocytes and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) govern FSH-induced steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. BMP-6 and BMP-7 both inhibited FSH- and forskolin (FSK)-induced progesterone synthesis and reduced cAMP synthesis independent of the presence or absence of oocytes. BMP-7 also increased FSH-induced estradiol production, and the response was further augmented in the presence of oocytes. In contrast, BMP-6 had no impact on estradiol synthesis regardless ...
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Market Research Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) market...
BACKGROUND: Differences in duration of bone healing in various parts of the human skeleton are common experience for orthopaedic surgeons. The reason for these differences is not obvious and not clear.METHODS: In this paper we decided to measure by the use of real-time RT-PCR technique the level of expression of genes for some isoforms of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), whose role is proven in bone formation, bone induction and bone turnover. Seven bone samples recovered from various parts of skeletons from six cadavers of young healthy men who died in traffic accidents were collected. Activity of genes for BMP-2, -4 and -6 was measured by the use of fluorescent SYBR Green I.RESULTS: It was found that expression of m-RNA for BMP-2 and BMP-4 is higher in trabecular bone in epiphyses of long bones, cranial flat bones and corpus mandibulae then in the compact bone of diaphyses of long bones. In all samples examined the expression of m-RNA for BMP-4 was higher than for BMP-2.CONCLUSION: It was ...
Objective: Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is reported to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signal transduction. MGP deficiency is associated with medial calcification of the arterial wall, in a process that involves both osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and mesenchymal transition of endothelial cells (EndMT). In this study, we investigated the contribution of BMP signal transduction to the medial calcification that develops in MGP-deficient mice. Approach and Results MGP-deficient mice (MGP-/-) were treated with one of two BMP signaling inhibitors, LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc, beginning one day after birth. Aortic calcification was assessed in 28-day-old mice by measuring the uptake of a fluorescent bisphosphonate probe and by staining tissue sections with Alizarin red. Aortic calcification was 80% less in MGP-/- mice treated with LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc compared with vehicle-treated control animals (P,0.001 for both). LDN-193189-treated MGP-/- mice survived ...
0061]In certain embodiments, a device of the invention will include one or more substances, additional to the osteoinductive DBM material that induces or generates the formation of bone. Suitable osteogenic materials may include a growth factor that is effective in inducing formation of bone. Desirably, the growth factor will be from a class of proteins known generally as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and may in certain embodiments be recombinant human (rh) BMPs. These BMP proteins, which are known to have osteogenic, chondrogenic and other growth and differentiation activities, include rhBMP-2, rhBMP-3, rhBMP4 (also referred to as rhBMP-2B), rhBMP-5, rhBMP-6, rhBMP-7 (rhOP-1), rhBMP-8, rhBMP-9, rhBMP-12, rhBMP-13, rhBMP-15, rhBMP-16, rhBMP-17, rhBMP-18, rhGDF-1, rhGDF-3, rhGDF-5, rhGDF-6, rhGDF-7, rhGDF-8, rhGDF-9, rhGDF-10, rhGDF-11, rhGDF-12, rhGDF-14. For example, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6 and BMP-7, disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,108,922; 5,013,649; 5,116,738; 5,106,748; ...
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling cascade is aberrantly activated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but not in normal lung epithelial cells, suggesting that obstructing BMP signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer. cascades would become ideal for anticancer drug development. In a zebrafish embryo-based structure and activity study, we previously recognized a group of highly selective small molecule inhibitors specifically antagonizing the intracellular kinase website of BMP type I receptors. In the present study, we shown that DMH1, one of such inhibitors, potently reduced lung cell expansion, advertised cell death, and decreased cell migration and attack in NSCLC cells by obstructing BMP signaling, as indicated PD318088 by suppression of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and gene appearance of Identification1, Id2 and Id3. Additionally, DMH1 treatment significantly PD318088 reduced the tumor growth in human being lung malignancy xenograft model. In ...
Sample request, please email : [email protected] Summary Report Summary The United States Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Industry 2017 Market
Asia-Pacific Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Report 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-23 Available for US$ 4000 at Researchmoz.us
Ye, Minglu. Noggin - an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein - is crucial for tooth hard tissue and periodontium development. 2015, University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a staged fashion by the activin-like kinase receptor 1 (ALK1) after stimulation by BMP-9. In this study, however, we show that CV2 preferentially binds and inhibits BMP-9 thereby providing strong feedback inhibition for BMP-9/ALK1 signaling rather than for BMP-4/ALK2 signaling. CV2 disrupts complex formation by ALK2, ALK1, BMP-4 and BMP-9 required for the induction of both BMP antagonists. It also limits VEGF expression and proliferation of ALK1-expressing endothelial cells. In vivo, CV2 deficiency translates into a dysregulation of vascular BMP signaling, resulting in a thickened, abnormal endothelium with increased markers of endothelial differentiation. Thus, mutual regulation by BMP-9 and CV2 is essential in regulating the development of the ...
FGF-10 is involved in the initial budding as well as the continuous outgrowth of vertebrate limbs, FGF10 mRNA is expressed preferentially in neurons but not in glial cells and may have a distinct role in the brain. human FGF-10 is mitogenic for fetal rat keratinizing epidermal cells but not for NIH 3T3 cells.Recombinant FGF10 induces the proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and induces the proliferation of transitional epithelium. FGF-10 is secreted by cultured mouse pre-adipocytes, prevention of FGF-10 signaling inhibits subsequent differentiation. The ability of embryonic fibroblasts derived from FGF-10 knock-out mice to differentiate into adipocytes is also impaired.
In the present study, we explored the correlations of the BMP4 gene polymorphisms and the serum BMP4 levels with the development of LVH among Chinese EH patients. We found that the 6007C , T polymorphism of the BMP4 gene and the serum BMP4 level were significantly associated with the risk to develop LVH. Our in vitro study shows that the BMP4 inhibition in cardiomyocyte by si-RNA technique significantly decreased the Ang II induced cardiomyocyte size and protein content per cell, indicating the importance of BMP4 in the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Collectively, our data suggest that both the 6007C , T of the BMP4 gene and the serum BMP4 level may be used as potential marker for LVH incidence among the EH patients.. Bone morphogenetic proteins are osteoinductive growth factors that play a key role in cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, development, and apoptosis. BMP4 has been linked to the receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) mediated calcification in vessel smooth ...
Medtronic, Inc. [NYSE: MDT] announced today that it has provided a grant to Yale University to conduct two fully independent, third-party systematic r
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) is used clinically to promote bone repair. However, the high BMP2 concentrations required to stimulate bone growth in humans may produce life-threatening adverse effects, a problem that prompted an FDA warning in 2008. Now, a team of clinicians and engineers has shown that adding the protein kinase C-binding protein NELL-1 (Nel-like molecule-1) to BMP2 therapy may allow clinicians to achieve better results at lower -- and safer -- BMP2 doses.
Non-healing skeletal defects are addressed in over 2.2 million surgical cases each year. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), the main growth factor for bone re...
BMP Signaling in Regenerative Medicine: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3604-0.ch064: More than 40 years after the discovery of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) as bone inducers, a whole protein family of growth factors connected to a wide
Developmental Signals - Bone Morphogenetic Protein,Bmp]],noinclude>[[Category:Template]][[Category:Term Link]][[Category:Molecular]][[Category:BMP]],/noinclude ...
Thickvein C, 0.1 mg. Thickvein is a (Drosophila spp) type I transmembrane receptor that mediates signaling by decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subgroup of TGF beta-type factors.
Yang L, Yamasaki K, Shirakata Y, Dai X, Tokumaru S, Yahata Y, Tohyama M, Hanakawa Y, Sayama K, Hashimoto K (May 2006). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2 modulates Wnt and frizzled expression and enhances the canonical pathway of Wnt signaling in normal keratinocytes". Journal of Dermatological Science. 42 (2): 111-9. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2005.12.011. PMID 16442268 ...
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Several models have been proposed to explain the anti- and pro-Bmp mechanisms of Bmper (Coles et al., 2004). Recently, a paper using biochemical and genetic studies in Drosophila proposes a model where Cv-2 can enhance and inhibit Bmp signaling at low and high concentrations, respectively (Serpe et al., 2008). Dependency on concentration and proteolytic cleavage have also been reported for other extracellular modulators of Bmp activity (Larrain et al., 2001). Our data provide an additional mechanism whereby proteolysis and concentration dependency fine-tune Bmp signaling through interactions with secreted proteins.. Although both proteolytic activation and inactivation have been described for several Bmp factors, the degradation of secreted Bmps are incompletely understood. To date, limited data are available describing Bmp degradation (Entchev et al., 2000; Degnin et al., 2004). Lysosomal- and proteasomal-dependent degradation of Bmp4 within the presecretory pathway was shown to occur after the ...
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.te07 This case report presents the clinical application and outcomes of the use of a combined approach to treat a patient with a severe alveolar defect. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier, along with autogenous bone graft, bovine bone mineral, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration, were used simultaneous with nonsubmerged implant placement. At 1 year postsurgery, healthy peri-implant soft tissues and radiographically stable peri-implant crestal bone levels were observed along with locally increased radiographic bone density. In addition, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan demonstrated apparent supracrestal peri-implant bone augmentation with the appearance of normal alveolar ridge contours, including the facial bone wall ...
Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic ...
article{68313ef7-27fc-4663-8f97-88e1ccb5049b, abstract = {The central role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the remodelling process of the human skeleton has been identified in numerous experimental and clinical studies. BMPs appear to be key agents in the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, and more recent evidence implicates them with the cells of the osteoclastic lineage. BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6 and BMP-7 have been studied in the context of osteoporosis and have been associated with its pathophysiological pathways. The theoretical advantages of local or systemic treatment of osteoporotic fractures with BMPs include the potential of inducing a rapid increase in bone strength locally at the fractured area and systemically in the entire skeleton, as well as accelerating the bone-healing period. Animal models of osteoporotic fractures suggested that the induction of new bone by local or systemic use of BMP-7 should be investigated as potential bone augmentation therapy to ...
Aim: Effective treatment of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is lacking. We hypothesize that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a ligand of the TGF-β family that binds to the activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1)-BMP receptor type 2 (BMPR2) receptor complex, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD. Therefore, we investigated the cardiopulmonary effects of BMP9 in neonatal Wistar rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Methods: Directly after birth Wistar rat pups were exposed to 100% oxygen for 10 days. From day 2 rat pups received BMP9 (2.5 µg/kg, twice a day) or 0.9% NaCl by subcutaneous injection. Beneficial effects of BMP9 on aberrant alveolar development, lung inflammation and fibrosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were investigated by morphometric analysis and cytokine production. In addition, differential mRNA expression of BMP9 and its receptor complex: ALK1, BMPR2 and Endoglin, and of the ALK1 downstream target transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) were studied
TY - GEN. T1 - Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and pulsed electromagnetic field stimulate osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation. AU - Partridge, Nicola. AU - Selvamurugan, Nagarajan. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 38. EP - 45. BT - Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-Engineering 2010. ER - ...
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Notch signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in MSCs, and the possible mechanism underlying this process. Our findings suggested that Notch signaling can enhance the activity of BMP9 to induce osteogenic differentiation in MSCs, and this effect may be partly mediated by upregulation of ALK2.. BMP9, also called GDF-2, is one of the least studied BMPs (44). Numerous studies have indicated that BMP9 has pivotal biological functions in the areas of liver fibrosis, iron metabolism, cartilage formation and angiopoiesis, and recent studies have shown that BMP9 is the strongest inducer of osteogenic differentiation, which has been regarded as a potential factor in tissue engineering (45). The studies concerning BMP9-induced osteogenesis mechanism are conducive to its application in bone-related diseases. Previous research has indicated that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) inhibits BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation by blocking ...
The adult mammalian dermis contains a subpopulation of precursor cells that possess the capacity to differentiate into different lineages (16-18). These fibroblastic MSCs have attracted attention for their plasticity and, therefore, their potential therapeutic applications, including in transplantation for bone formation (19). In the present study, the role of BMP7 in the osteogenic differentiation of CD105+ hDDFCs was examined in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying Smad-dependent and -independent mechanisms were identified.. Conflicting reports exist on the differentiation potential of dermal fibroblasts, with certain studies suggesting limited potential and others demonstrating adipocytic, osteocytic and chondrocytic differentiation capacities (20-23). One reason for these controversial results is the heterogeneity of isolated dermal fibroblasts, which include populations with different differentiation capacities (5,13). Although dermal fibroblasts have a surface antigen profile similar to ...
Osterix, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation during embryonic development. The c-Src of tyrosine kinase is involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, leading to the induction of DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal reorganization. Src activity is tightly regulated and its dysregulation leads to constitutive activation and cellular transformation. The function of Osterix can be also modulated by post-translational modification. But the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and c-Src are not known. In this study we investigated the potential regulation of Osterix function by c-Src in osteoblast differentiation. We found that c-Src activation increases protein stability, osteogenic activity and transcriptional activity of Osterix. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Src decreased the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Osterix. Conversely, Src specific inhibitor, SU6656, decreased ...
BMP2: Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (osteoblast differentiation). *BPIFB1: encoding protein BPI fold containing family B, member ... encoding protein Transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein. *TTPAL: encoding protein Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein- ... YTHDF1: encoding protein YTH domain family, member 1. *ZFP64 encoding protein Zinc finger protein 64 homolog, isoforms 1 and 2 ... FASTKD5: encoding protein FAST kinase domain-containing protein 5 (FASTKD5). *FITM2: encoding protein Fat storage-inducing ...
"Regulation of growth plate chondrogenesis by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Endocrinology. 142 (1): 430-436. doi:10.1210/en. ... The bones found in their forelimbs are reduced to achieve a light body weight required for flight. In particular, their ulna is ... Another good candidate for bat bone reduction is Hox-d13, a gene belonging to the Hox gene family. In situ hybridization ... and reduction in bone thickness. Recently, there have been comparative studies of mouse and bat forelimb development to ...
... a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and endothelial cell ... "BMPER is an endothelial cell regulator and controls bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent angiogenesis". Circulation Research ... BMP binding endothelial regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMPER gene. KLF15 is a strong and direct ... The complete sequences of 50 new cDNA clones which code for large proteins". DNA Research. 8 (6): 319-27. doi:10.1093/dnares/ ...
More specifically, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) acts on the cementoblasts in the periodontal tissue. The effect of BMP- ... Osteocalcin and sialoprotein are bone morphogenetic proteins (also known as BMPs) that are often linked to the development and ... Zhao, M.; Berry, J.E.; Somerman, M.J. (1 January 2003). "Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Inhibits Differentiation and ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization of Cementoblasts in vitro". Journal of Dental Research ...
The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 (BMPR2). They are involved in a multitude of cellular functions ... Bone morphogenetic proteins cause the transcription of mRNAs involved in osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and ventral mesoderm ... The TGF beta superfamily of ligands include: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), ... "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads". EMBO J. 20 (15): 4132-42. doi: ...
"Differentiation of human pluripotent teratocarcinoma stem cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Reproduction, ... Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that ... Perry SS, Wang H, Pierce LJ, Yang AM, Tsai S, Spangrude GJ (April 2004). "L-selectin defines a bone marrow analog to the thymic ... Stahl J, Wobus AM, Ihrig S, Lutsch G, Bielka H (September 1992). "The small heat shock protein hsp25 is accumulated in P19 ...
"Biodegradable Gelatin Microparticles as Delivery Systems for the Controlled Release of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2". Acta ... as was done through varied release groups of BMP-2 over four week intervals. Gelatin microparticles also serve as enhancers of ...
Arikawa T, Omura K, Morita I (Sep 2004). "Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression by endogenous prostaglandin E2 ... Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is ... Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in ... Kearns AE, Donohue MM, Sanyal B, Demay MB (Nov 2001). "Cloning and characterization of a novel protein kinase that impairs ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Arch. Immunol ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 chain of laminin 5, which is a complex glycoprotein composed of three subunits ... Laminin subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA3 gene. Laminins are basement membrane components ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ... Woo, EJ (Oct 2012). "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User ... Life-threatening Complications Associated with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Cervical Spine Fusion". fda.gov ... bone graft or artificial bone substitute is packed between the vertebrae to help them heal together.[1] In general, fusions are ...
"Butyrate response factor 1 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in osteoblastic cells". Biochem ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... This RNA binding protein most likely functions in regulating the response to growth factors. ZFP36L1 has been shown to interact ... Butyrate response factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZFP36L1 gene. This gene is a member of the TIS11 ...
... also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF2 gene. GDF2 belongs to the ... Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F (2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 induces osteogenic ... Mi LZ, Brown CT, Gao Y, Tian Y, Le VQ, Walz T, Springer TA (March 2015). "Structure of bone morphogenetic protein 9 procomplex ... Fong D, Bisson M, Laberge G, McManus S, Grenier G, Faucheux N, Roux S (Apr 2013). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 activates Smad ...
It induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 ... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... N. A. Tyukavkina, S. A. Medvedeva and S. Z. Ivanova, Chemistry of Natural Compounds, Volume 10, Number 2 / march 1974 ...
"Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression by post-transcriptional ... The protein also causes the growth, morphology, and the gene expression of the cells to change, causing them to become a more ... Hu X, Yu J, Zhou X, Li Z, Xia Y, Luo Z, Wu Y (Jan 2014). "A small GTPase-like protein fragment of Mycoplasma promotes tumor ... Prostate cancer: p37, a protein encoded for by M. hyorhinis, has been found to promote the invasiveness of prostate cancer ...
Amano S, Scott IC, Takahara K, et al. «Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 ... Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A «HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins ... and mitogen-activated protein kinase can regulate epithelial cell proliferation.». Mol. Biol. Cell, vol. 10, 2, 1999, pàg. 259- ... 2,0 2,1 «Entrez Gene: LAMA3 laminin, alpha 3». *↑ Utani, A; Nomizu M, Matsuura H, Kato K, Kobayashi T, Takeda U, Aota S, ...
"HIV-1 Tat interaction with cyclin T1 represses mannose receptor and the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 transcription". ... "Entrez Gene: HTATIP2 HIV-1 Tat interactive protein 2, 30kDa". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to ... King FW, Shtivelman E (2004). "Inhibition of nuclear import by the proapoptotic protein CC3". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (16): 7091- ... a protein associated with metastasis suppression". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57 (5): 851-8. doi:10.1007/s000180050047. PMID 10892349 ...
... inactivation sensitizes osteoblasts to bone morphogenetic protein-2, but nov is dispensable for skeletal homeostasis". ... These proteins, together with WISP1 (CCN4), WISP2 (CCN5), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in vertebrates ... The human NOV protein contains 357 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... Perbal B, Martinerie C, Sainson R, Werner M, He B, Roizman B (Feb 1999). "The C-terminal domain of the regulatory protein NOVH ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ... Woo, EJ (Oct 2012). "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User ... That can be a bone graft, taken from the pelvis or cadaveric bone; or an artificial implant. The slow process of the bone graft ... Life-threatening Complications Associated with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Cervical Spine Fusion". fda.gov ...
Wang, YK; Yu, X; Cohen, DM; Wozniak, MA; Yang, MT; Gao, L; Eyckmans, J; Chen, CS (1 May 2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2- ... For example, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) - a growth factor - is unable to induce osteogenesis under insufficient ... However, focal adhesions are quite more than simple anchors - their proteins have many roles in signaling. These proteins, such ... Elastin - as its name suggests - is a highly elastic protein with an important role in tissues that need to return to their ...
"Assessment of gene regulation by bone morphogenetic protein 2 in human marrow stromal cells using gene array technology". ... ZEB1 protein has 7 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right. Mutations of the gene ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB1 gene. ZEB1 (previously known as TCF8) ... Postigo AA (May 2003). "Opposing functions of ZEB proteins in the regulation of the TGFbeta/BMP signaling pathway". The EMBO ...
Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/threonine ... Koštani morfogenetički protein 2 ili BMP-2 pripada TGF-β superfamiliji proteina.[1] ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein-2 modulates Wnt and frizzled expression and enhances the canonical pathway of Wnt signaling in ... gene family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for Wnt signaling proteins. The FZD1 protein contains a ... Frizzled-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZD1 gene. Members of the 'frizzled' ... pharmacological properties of a unique G protein-linked receptor". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 365 (5): 341 ...
Park GT, Morasso MI (January 2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transactivates Dlx3 through Smad1 and Smad4: ... Homeobox protein DLX-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLX3 gene. Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle ... 2005). "Increased bone density associated with DLX3 mutation in the tricho-dento-osseous syndrome". Bone. 35 (4): 988-97. doi: ... Park GT, Denning MF, Morasso MI (2001). "Phosphorylation of murine homeodomain protein Dlx3 by protein kinase C". FEBS Lett. ...
Park, G. T.; Morasso, M. I. (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transactivates Dlx3 through Smad1 and Smad4: ... This phase lasts for about 2-3 weeks while the hair converts to a club hair. A club hair is formed during the catagen phase ... Scalp hair stays in this active phase of growth for 2-7 years; this period is genetically determined. At the end of the anagen ... Normally up to 90% of the hair follicles are in anagen phase, while 10-14% are in telogen and 1-2% in catagen. The cycle's ...
GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins to regulate ectoderm patterning, and controls eye development. GDF8 is now ... Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological ... Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link]. ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE. A View on the Right ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutations, clinical phenotypes and outcomes of Japanese patients with sporadic or ... Mutation in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension in a large kindred ... Background-The effect of a mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) gene on right ventricular (RV) ...
As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ... bone morphogenetic protein 2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human BMP2 genome location ...
The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair. ... Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. ... wherein BMP is bone morphogenic protein) proteins and processes for obtaining them. These proteins may be used to induce bone ... Pharmaceutical compositions comprising bone morphogenetic protein monomers for inhibiting bone formation. US7371377. Jun 19, ...
See also: Bone morphogenetic protein § Clinical uses. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone ... As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A.[4][5][6][7] ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins.[1] ...
A Novel Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mutant Mouse, , Displays Impaired Intracellular Handling in Skeletal Muscle. Laura C. ... digital calipers were used to measure bone dimensions on skeletal preparations of wild type and mutant male mice. Measurements ... 2Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA. 3Department of ... Bridgewater,1 Jaime L. Mayo,1 Bradley G. Evanson,2 Megan E. Whitt,1 Spencer A. Dean,1 Joshua D. Yates,1 Devin N. Holden,1 Alina ...
C. C. Rider and B. Mulloy, "Bone morphogenetic protein and growth differentiation factor cytokine families and their protein ... A Novel Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mutant Mouse, , Displays Impaired Intracellular Handling in Skeletal Muscle. Laura C. ... J. M. Wozney, "Bone morphogenetic proteins," Progress in Growth Factor Research, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 267-280, 1989. View at ... J. E. Felin, J. L. Mayo, T. J. Loos et al., "Nuclear variants of bone morphogenetic proteins," BMC Cell Biology, vol. 11, no. 1 ...
... tissue engineering approaches are being developed that combine growth factors such as Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) with ... the area of bone formed, and bone maturity at the site of injection. Our results suggest that bifunctional peptides that can ... Using a rat ectopic bone formation model, we have injected rhBMP-2 into a collagen matrix with or without a bifunctional BMP-2 ... Using phage display techniques, we have identified peptides that bind with high affinity to BMP-2. The peptides that bind to ...
... bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP‐2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tooth sockets of rat. Forty‐eight ... The findings indicate that local administration of simvastatin can influence alveolar bone remodeling by regulating the ... The expression of TGF‐β1, BMP‐2 and VEGF mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization in the tooth extraction socket at five ... The fusiform stroma cells in the tooth extraction socket began to express TGF‐β1, BMP‐2 and VEGF mRNA in both experimental and ...
In this study we compared the effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 on the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces differentiation of multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and ... BMP-2 also induced differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells but not MC3T3-E1 cells into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Reverse ... The transplanted C3H10T1/2 cells formed mineralized bone containing chondrocytes and adipocytes, whereas MC3T3-E1 created only ...
2011 Feb 2;6(2):e16155. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016155. Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research ... Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of ... Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the pathophysiology of obesity. ... Genetic and Evolutionary Analyses of the Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the Pathophysiology of Obesity ...
bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA. C, D. 135. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BMPR1A, ACVRLK3, ALK3. EC: 2.7 ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily regulate the development, maintenance and ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily regulate the development, maintenance and ... Structural refinement of the complex of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and its type IA receptor. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1REW/pdb ...
Anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 antibody produced in goat for your research needs. Find product specific information ... Anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 antibody produced in goat affinity isolated antibody, lyophilized powder Synonym: ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the members of the TGF-β superfamily and are identified as the critical factors for ... Anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 (BMP R2) antibody may be used in indirect ELISA at a working antibody concentration ...
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The report on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market also offers the market players as well as the new entrants a complete view of ... Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market 2020-2029 attempts to offer significant and thoughtful insights into the current ... The report on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market also offers the market players as well as the new entrants a complete view of ... The bone morphogenetic protein 2 market has provided every measly data in a crystal clear context in the report. The crisp data ...
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is used as a bone graft substitute in spinal fusion, which unites ( ... Meta-analysis of trials of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: what should spine surgeons and their patients do ... Effectiveness and harms of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in spine fusion: a systematic review and meta- ... Closing in on the truth about recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: evidence synthesis, data sharing, peer review, ...
Here, we demonstrate the combined effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and MDZ on osteogenic differentiation. An ... BMP-2+MDZ treatment reduced the immunostaining for both α1 and γ2 subunits antigens on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A ( ... BMP-2+MDZ treatment decreased the myotube cell formation of C2C12 cells, and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and ... Our investigation showed that BMP-2+MDZ has a strong ability to induce the differentiation of C2C12 cells into osteoblasts and ...
... Journal. Cell ... Roles of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) remain ambiguous. In ... Also, we examined ectopic bone formation in nude mice by using soft X-ray, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses ... Heterodimeric BMP-2/7 significantly promoted osteogenesis of hASCs in vitro and in vivo. However, BMP-2/7 was not found to be a ...
... Jaques Luiz, DDS, MSc/Luis Eduardo ... An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration ... Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has ... To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. ...
... have been used as a new therapeutic strategy to heal non-union bone... ... Aono, A., et al. Potent ectopic bone-inducing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4/7 heterodimer. Biochem Biophys Res ... Haidar, Z. S., Hamdy, R. C., Tabrizian, M. Delivery of recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins for bone regeneration and repair ... Implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins with biomaterial carriers: A correlation between protein ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos. William P Dunworth, ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos ...
Characterization of receptors for osteogenic protein-1/bone morphogenetic protein-7 (OP-1/BMP-7) in rat kidneys. Kidney Int. 58 ... Dudley, A. T., Lyons, K. M. and Robertson, E. J. (1995). A requirement for bone morphogenetic protein-7 during development of ... Francis, P. H., Richardson, M. K., Brickell, P. M. and Tickle, C. (1994). Bone morphogenetic proteins and a signalling pathway ... Zou, H., Wieser, R., Massague, J. and Niswander, L. (1997). Distinct roles of type I bone morphogenetic protein receptors in ...
Key words: Granulosa cell, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing ... level in both transcript and protein levels; however, BMP6 upregulated LHR transcript and protein level in goat granulosa cells ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, are crucial factors in follicular ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, are crucial factors in follicular ...
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Executive Summary:. The report offers the deep-dive vision of the bone morphogenetic ... The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support ... Worldwide Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Is Growing at a Swift Pace at a CAGR by 2029 ...
Growth factor gene expression profiles of bone morphogenetic protein-2-treated human adipose stem cells seeded on calcium ... expression of factors associated with angiogenesis and bone remodeling by hASCs, future bone regeneration studies should focus ... and bone remodeling.. Human ASCs were treated for 15 min with BMP-2 (10 ng/ml) to enhance osteogenic differentiation, or with ... BMP-2-treatment increased the expression of ∼30 factors by hASCs seeded on BCP, while it decreased the expression of only PGF, ...
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized ... BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a ... Abstract 210: Crossveinless 2 Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 in Human and Mouse Vascular Endothelium. Yucheng Yao, ... Abstract 210: Crossveinless 2 Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 in Human and Mouse Vascular Endothelium ...
  • The fusiform stroma cells in the tooth extraction socket began to express TGF‐β1, BMP‐2 and VEGF mRNA in both experimental and control groups from one week after tooth extraction until the end of experiment. (nature.com)
  • mRNA levels of ALP, COL1 alpha 2, and ANGPT1 are signifi cantly upregulating in the nDP+BMP-2 scaffolds at week 1 with ectopic bone seen at week 8. (diva-portal.org)
  • Expressions of osteocalcin and BMP-2 mRNA were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (elsevier.com)
  • ATP, ATPγS and UTP also increase the mRNA levels of ALP, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5 and BSP. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • For lumbar spine fusion, rhBMP-2 and iliac crest bone graft were similar in overall success, fusion, and other effectiveness measures and in risk for any adverse event, although rates were high across interventions (77% to 93% at 24 months from surgery). (nih.gov)
  • In spinal fusion, rhBMP-2 has no proven clinical advantage over bone graft and may be associated with important harms, making it difficult to identify clear indications for rhBMP-2. (nih.gov)
  • Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. (quintpub.com)
  • For both lumbar and cervical fusions, rhBMP-2 and iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) had similar results for fusion. (spinesection.org)
  • BMP has reported outstanding results over bone graft, such as lack of donor morbidity, extensive surgical procedure, higher recovery time, pain & numbness, and high cost. (marketresearch.com)
  • Regarding the surface fraction of the HA/TCP graft particles covered with newly formed bone the addition of rhBMP-2 revealed a more than two-fold increase compared with cylinders containing HA/TCP granules without rhBMP-2. (uzh.ch)
  • Until the development of BMP-2, arthrodesis was mainly performed using bone graft, typically harvested from the iliac crest of the same patient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Purpose: To evaluate bone graft substitutes used in spine fusion surgery and determine the feasibility of studying the use of adult stem cells. (unt.edu)
  • Hypothesis: Using a well designed, randomized clinical trial to compare bone graft substitutes used in spine fusion surgery will help determine the best alternative to autologous bone graft. (unt.edu)
  • Design: Retrospective data on two bone graft substitutes will be evaluated. (unt.edu)
  • Although the use of tricortical iliac crest bone graft in ACFs is associated with the excellent outcomes, the risk of donor site related complications have always incited the spine surgeon to use various contemporary graft substitutes. (e-neurospine.org)
  • In many cases, after removal of the cyst, bone grafting is performed using a particle-type bone graft material. (springeropen.com)
  • Although many studies have already shown the bone regenerative effects of rhBMP-2, most of these were in vitro or animal studies in which rhBMP-2 was added to other bone graft materials, and some of the clinical reports involved non-quantitative methods. (springeropen.com)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Increase as Substitute for Autologous Bone Graft After Ilizarow Treatment for Arthritis and Degenerative Bones. (springer.com)
  • Also in the treatment of tibial non-union, frequently in cases where a bone graft has failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional hardware (screws, plates, or cages) is often used to hold the bones in place while the graft fuses the two vertebrae together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maxillary sinus floor augmentation (also termed sinus lift, sinus graft, sinus augmentation or sinus procedure) is a surgical procedure which aims to increase the amount of bone in the posterior maxilla (upper jaw bone), in the area of the premolar and molar teeth, by lifting the lower Schneiderian membrane (sinus membrane) and placing a bone graft. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of the sinus lift is to graft extra bone into the maxillary sinus, so more bone is available to support a dental implant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane is separated from the bone, and bone graft material is placed into the newly created space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periodontitis may cause the inflammation of the periodontal supporting tissues, formation of periodontal pocket, progressive attachment loss and alveolar bone absorption, which finally result in loose and loss of teeth. (medsci.org)
  • In 1965, Urist 14) discovered a subset of protein extract, which had a significant potential of inducing new bone formation even at the non-osseous tissues. (e-neurospine.org)
  • Elastin - as its name suggests - is a highly elastic protein with an important role in tissues that need to return to their original positions after deformation, such as skin, blood vessels, and lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fibrin scaffold is a network of protein that holds together and supports a variety of living tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein, which is critical for proper mineralization of bone and dentin, is present in diverse cells of bone and tooth tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • We addressed whether induction of Cbfa1 in response to BMP-2 results in the transcriptional activation of the OC promoter which contains three enhancer Cbfa1 elements. (nih.gov)
  • Cerberus (Cer) is a gene that encodes a cytokine (a secreted signaling protein) important for induction and formation of the heart and head in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene binds to the SH3 domain of the signal-transducing adaptor molecule, and plays a critical role in cytokine-mediated signaling for MYC induction and cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Posterior lumbar interbody fusion use was associated with radiculitis, ectopic bone formation, osteolysis, and poorer global outcomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market 2020-2029 attempts to offer significant and thoughtful insights into the current market situation and emerging growth dynamics. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market report aims to analyze market opportunities and risks in the global bone morphogenetic protein 2 industry. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 industry is highly fragmented and the market leaders/key players/major manufacturers have used various strategies such as product launches, acquisitions, agreements, expansions, partnerships, joint ventures, and others to increase their domination over this market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provided precise information and detailed data on the Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The report furnishes players with useful information and advises result-oriented ideas to gain a competitive edge in the Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The global bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) market size is expected to reach over USD 644.6 million by 2024, based on a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing incidence of spinal fusion, trauma, and small bone surgeries coupled with demand for faster bone recovery are the key drivers affirming growth of BMP market. (marketresearch.com)
  • 7. What are the key factors driving the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 industry? (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 10. What are the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market? (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 1. To provide detailed analysis of the market structure along with forecast of the various segments and sub-segments of the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 7. To track and analyze competitive developments such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions, new product developments, and research and developments in the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2018 Report gift ideas comprehensive analysis of their present trends, market size, market share, drivers, and opportunities, challenges, and issues in addition to key market segments. (thewomenssecrets.com)
  • A study in skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells and the effects of dantrolene and verapamil," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 741-748, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • Incubation of these cells with BMP-2 resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, but the increase in MC3T3-E1 cells was much higher than that in C3H10T1/2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • BMP-2+MDZ treatment reduced the immunostaining for both α1 and γ2 subunits antigens on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor in C2C12 cells, but enhanced that for BMP signal transducers. (mdpi.com)
  • however, BMP6 upregulated LHR transcript and protein level in goat granulosa cells, whereas it had no effect on FSHR level. (academicjournals.org)
  • Transfection studies show BMP-2 suppresses OC promoter activity in C2C12, but not in osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cells were treated with 10 ng/mL recombinant BMP-2 and phosphorylated mTOR ( p-mTOR ) was determined by Western blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • C. A549 cells were pretreated for 1 hour with PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002 (20 μmol/L), before incubation with BMP-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • E. Immunoblot of cyclin D1 of A549 cells treated with 10 ng/mL BMP-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin E immunoblot of A549 ( F ) and H1299 ( G ) cells treated with rapamycin (1 μg/mL) 2 hours before being treated with 10 ng/mL BMP-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • H. Cyclin E immunoblot of A549 cells pretreated with wortmannin (100 nmol/L) before BMP-2 (10 ng/mL) treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B. A549/Tob3SA cells cultured in DMEM/5% FCS were treated with 10 ng/mL BMP-2 and immunoblots for cyclin E and phosphorylated mTOR were done. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Limiting dilution cloning assay of A549/Vector ( C ) and A549/BMP-2 ( D ) cells treated with (+) and without (-) rapamycin (1 μg/mL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells were pre-treated with vehicle control (Group A) or rhBMP-2 (Group B) prior to implantation. (northwestern.edu)
  • BMP-2 has been proven to be effective in stimulating proteoglycan synthesis in articular chondrocytes and IVD cells from the NP. (elsevier.com)
  • Nevertheless, the effect of BMP-2 on cells from different regions of the IVD has not yet been thoroughly elucidated. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells from the AF responded to BMP-2 with mitogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Only cells from the NP showed a significant increase in newly synthesized proteoglycan in response to BMP-2. (elsevier.com)
  • BMP-2 clearly exerted a mitogenic effect on AF cells, and stimulated proteoglycan synthesis in NP cells. (elsevier.com)
  • About half of the mutations involved in this condition disrupt the assembly of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2, reducing the amount of this protein in cells. (nih.gov)
  • Activins bind and signal via bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) in immortalized gonadotrope-like cells. (nih.gov)
  • Chromosome 20 spans around 63 million base pairs (the building material of DNA ) and represents between 2 and 2.5 percent of the total DNA in cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of the in vitro studies demonstrated that MG-63 cells grown on the BMP-2/Hep/chitosan scaffold showed a significant increment in ALP activity, and calcium deposition as compared to those grown on the chitosan scaffold by sustained release of BMP-2 due to the influence of heparin. (elsevier.com)
  • The initially formed cementum in coronal two-thirds of the root is acellular, but when the cementoblasts get trapped in lacunae in their own matrix like bone cells (see further discussion below), the cementum is called cellular or secondary cementum and is present only in the apical third of the root. (wikipedia.org)
  • P1 is a membrane associated protein that allows adhesion to epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gamma 2 chain together with alpha 3 and beta 3 chains constitute laminin 5 (earlier known as kalinin), which is an integral part of the anchoring filaments that connect epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor A. Hari Reddi and Anand Reddi in Cytokine Growth Factor Rev were the first to propose the term metabologen (as reviewed in a special issue of Cytokine Growth Factor Review guest edited by Dr. A. Hari Reddi entitled Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein may be secreted by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This program was based on a G.I. technology that allowed it to identify proteins secreted by cells and therefore more likely to be therapeutic in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research shows that the SKI protein in cancerous cells acts as a suppressor, inhibiting transforming growth factor β (TGF- β) signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the membrane-spanning protein, neogenin, a receptor for the related molecule, RGMa, preferentially bound membrane-associated heterodimeric RGMc and was able to interact on cells only with wild-type RGMc and G92V. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noggin proteins play a role in germ layer-specific derivation of specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is expressed in platelets and endothelial cells and may play an important role in vascular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are held together by cadherins (specifically E and N-cadherin), types of intercellular binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor is normally triggered via direct cell-to-cell contact, in which the transmembrane proteins of the cells in direct contact form the ligands that bind the notch receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notch and most of its ligands are transmembrane proteins, so the cells expressing the ligands typically must be adjacent to the notch expressing cell for signaling to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 10 days of exposure, astroglial cells can be detected using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is a specific marker of glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than into neurons and astrocytes, P19 cells can also differentiate to oligodendrocytes, which can be detected using the specific markers, myelin-associated glycoprotein and 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytonemes are thin, cellular projections that are specialized for exchange of signaling proteins between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytonemes emanate from cells that make signaling proteins, extending directly to cells that receive signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a combination of biochemical and cell-based approaches, it has demonstrated that BMP-2 could interact in biochemical assays with the single-chain HJV species, and also could bind to cell-associated HJV. (wikipedia.org)
  • For anterior cervical spine fusion, rhBMP-2 was associated with increased risk for wound complications and dysphagia. (nih.gov)
  • Owing to this advantage, rhBMP-2 is being implanted with increasing frequency in the lumbar spine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Statement of Clinical Significance: The data support the notion that exposure to rhBMP-2 does not promote the growth of A549 lung cancer spine lesions. (northwestern.edu)
  • The osteoinductive properties of BMP-2 prompted its development into clinical use to promote bone growth and fracture healing, including arthrodesis (spine fusion). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2008 the FDA issued a warning about life threatening complications associated with off-label use of rhBMP-2 in the anterior cervical spine [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, rhBMP-2 is still widely used in the lumbar spine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study is to share our experience with low-dose rhBMP-2 in anterior cervical spine. (e-neurospine.org)
  • From this review, we suggest an estimate of adverse events associated with rhBMP-2 use in spine fusion ranging from 10% to 50% depending on approach. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The use of bone morphogenetic protein in thoracolumbar spine procedures: analysis of the MarketScan longitudinal database. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Safety profile for the clinical use of bone morphogenetic proteins in the spine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scheuermann's disease) Spondylolisthesis Spondylosis Posterior rami syndrome Other degenerative spinal conditions Any condition that causes instability of the spine Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a Phase I study, a single dose of anti-sclerostin antibody from Amgen (Romosozumab) increased bone density in the hip and spine in healthy men and postmenopausal women and the drug was well tolerated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monthly treatments of the antibody for one year increased the bone mineral density of the spine and hip by 18 percent and 6 percent, respectively, compared to the placebo group. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also increased the bone mineral density in the lumbar spine (13.3% versus 0.0%), femoral neck (5.2% versus -0.7%) and total hip (6.8% versus 0.0%) compared to the placebo group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the gene-encoding SERCA1, the fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase, are associated with Brody disease," Nature Genetics , vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 191-194, 1996. (hindawi.com)