Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Breaks in bones.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (1/1473)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (2/1473)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Cloning and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene. (3/1473)

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is involved in bone formation, organogenesis or pattern formation during development. The expression of BMP-2 is regulated accurately and coordinately with that of other transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily members. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the regulation of BMP-2 expression, a 6.7 kb SpeI-SalI fragment, from the P1 phage library, encompassing the 5'-flanking region of the human BMP-2 gene, was isolated and sequenced. Transcription start sites were mapped by the 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. It has been found that the human BMP-2 gene contains, largely, two promoter regions surrounded by GC-rich sequences with several Sp1 consensus motifs. The proximal promoter possesses a single start site, whereas several start sites are clustered in the distal promoter region. Neither TATA nor CAAT consensus sequences are found in the proximity of the start sites for either promoter. Interestingly, in no case is the transcription-initiation site common between the human and mouse BMP-2 genes, although the sequence of the BMP-2 gene is well conserved in the promoter region between two species. Transient transfection experiments with the reporter fused with various lengths of the BMP-2 promoter sequence demonstrated that there exist enhancer elements in an 1.1 kb GC-rich fragment covering both promoter regions. It is noteworthy that the enhancer elements are 5'-flanked by a 790 bp strong repressor element that is characterized by numerous AT stretches. This intriguing organization may be amenable to the tight control of the expression of BMP-2 that is essential for development or bone morphogenesis.  (+info)

Lack of regulation in the heart forming region of avian embryos. (4/1473)

The ability to regenerate a heart after ablation of cardiogenic mesoderm has been demonstrated in early stage fish and amphibian embryos but this type of regulation of the heart field has not been seen in avians or mammals. The regulative potential of the cardiogenic mesoderm was examined in avian embryos and related to the spatial expression of genes implicated in early cardiogenesis. With the identification of early cardiac regulators such as bmp-2 and nkx-2.5, it is now possible to reconcile classical embryological studies with molecular mechanisms of cardiac lineage determination in vivo. The most anterior lateral embryonic cells were identified as the region that becomes the heart and removal of all or any subset of these cells resulted in the loss of corresponding cardiac structures. In addition, removal of the lateral heart forming mesoderm while leaving the lateral endoderm intact also results in loss of cardiac structures. Thus the medial anterior mesoderm cannot be recruited into the heart lineage in vivo even in the presence of potentially cardiac inducing endoderm. In situ analysis demonstrated that genes involved in early events of cardiogenesis such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp-2) and nkx-2.5 are expressed coincidentally with the mapped far lateral heart forming region. The activin type IIa receptor (actR-IIa) is a potential mediator of BMP signaling since it is expressed throughout the anterior mesoderm with the highest level of expression occurring in the lateral prospective heart cells. The posterior boundary of actR-IIa is consistent with the posterior boundary of nkx-2.5 expression, supporting a model whereby ActR-IIa is involved in restricting the heart forming region to an anterior subset of lateral cells exposed to BMP-2. Analysis of the cardiogenic potential of the lateral plate mesoderm posterior to nkx-2.5 and actR-IIa expression demonstrated that these cells are not cardiogenic in vitro and that removal of these cells from the embryo does not result in loss of heart tissue in vivo. Thus, the region of the avian embryo that will become the heart is defined medially, laterally, and posteriorly by nkx-2.5 gene expression. Removal of all or part of the nkx-2.5 expressing region results in the loss of corresponding heart structures, demonstrating the inability of the chick embryo to regenerate cardiac tissue in vivo at stages after nkx-2.5 expression is initiated.  (+info)

A binding site for homeodomain and Pax proteins is necessary for L1 cell adhesion molecule gene expression by Pax-6 and bone morphogenetic proteins. (5/1473)

The cell adhesion molecule L1 regulates axonal guidance and fasciculation during development. We previously identified the regulatory region of the L1 gene and showed that it was sufficient for establishing the neural pattern of L1 expression in transgenic mice. In the present study, we characterize a DNA element within this region called the HPD that contains binding motifs for both homeodomain and Pax proteins and responds to signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). An ATTA sequence within the core of the HPD was required for binding to the homeodomain protein Barx2 while a separate paired domain recognition motif was necessary for binding to Pax-6. In cellular transfection experiments, L1-luciferase reporter constructs containing the HPD were activated an average of 4-fold by Pax-6 in N2A cells and 5-fold by BMP-2 and BMP-4 in Ng108 cells. Both of these responses were eliminated on deletion of the HPD from L1 constructs. In transgenic mice, deletion of the HPD from an L1-lacZ reporter resulted in a loss of beta-galactosidase expression in the telencephalon and mesencephalon. Collectively, our experiments indicate that the HPD regulates L1 expression in neural tissues via homeodomain and Pax proteins and is likely to be a target of BMP signaling during development.  (+info)

Type IIA procollagen containing the cysteine-rich amino propeptide is deposited in the extracellular matrix of prechondrogenic tissue and binds to TGF-beta1 and BMP-2. (6/1473)

Type II procollagen is expressed as two splice forms. One form, type IIB, is synthesized by chondrocytes and is the major extracellular matrix component of cartilage. The other form, type IIA, contains an additional 69 amino acid cysteine-rich domain in the NH2-propeptide and is synthesized by chondrogenic mesenchyme and perichondrium. We have hypothesized that the additional protein domain of type IIA procollagen plays a role in chondrogenesis. The present study was designed to determine the localization of the type IIA NH2-propeptide and its function during chondrogenesis. Immunofluorescence histochemistry using antibodies to three domains of the type IIA procollagen molecule was used to localize the NH2-propeptide, fibrillar domain, and COOH-propeptides of the type IIA procollagen molecule during chondrogenesis in a developing human long bone (stage XXI). Before chondrogenesis, type IIA procollagen was synthesized by chondroprogenitor cells and deposited in the extracellular matrix. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed type IIA procollagen fibrils labeled with antibodies to NH2-propeptide at approximately 70 nm interval suggesting that the NH2-propeptide remains attached to the collagen molecule in the extracellular matrix. As differentiation proceeds, the cells switch synthesis from type IIA to IIB procollagen, and the newly synthesized type IIB collagen displaces the type IIA procollagen into the interterritorial matrix. To initiate studies on the function of type IIA procollagen, binding was tested between recombinant NH2-propeptide and various growth factors known to be involved in chondrogenesis. A solid phase binding assay showed no reaction with bFGF or IGF-1, however, binding was observed with TGF-beta1 and BMP-2, both known to induce endochondral bone formation. BMP-2, but not IGF-1, coimmunoprecipitated with type IIA NH2-propeptide. Recombinant type IIA NH2-propeptide and type IIA procollagen from media coimmunoprecipitated with BMP-2 while recombinant type IIB NH2-propeptide and all other forms of type II procollagens and mature collagen did not react with BMP-2. Taken together, these results suggest that the NH2-propeptide of type IIA procollagen could function in the extracellular matrix distribution of bone morphogenetic proteins in chondrogenic tissue.  (+info)

Prospective identification, isolation by flow cytometry, and in vivo self-renewal of multipotent mammalian neural crest stem cells. (7/1473)

Multipotent and self-renewing neural stem cells have been isolated in culture, but equivalent cells have not yet been prospectively identified in neural tissue. Using cell surface markers and flow cytometry, we have isolated neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) from mammalian fetal peripheral nerve. These cells are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from NCSCs previously isolated by culturing embryonic neural tube explants. Moreover, in vivo BrdU labeling indicates that these stem cells self-renew in vivo. NCSCs freshly isolated from nerve tissue can be directly transplanted in vivo, where they generate both neurons and glia. These data indicate that neural stem cells persist in peripheral nerve into late gestation by undergoing self-renewal. Such persistence may explain the origins of some PNS tumors in humans.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced c-fos gene transcription and DNA synthesis in mesangial cells. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase. (8/1473)

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play an important role in nephrogenesis. The biologic effect and mechanism of action of these proteins in the adult kidney has not yet been studied. We investigated the effect of BMP2, a member of these growth and differentiation factors, on mitogenic signal transduction pathways induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in glomerular mesangial cells. PDGF is a growth and survival factor for these cells in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of mesangial cells with increasing concentrations of BMP2 inhibited PDGF-induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner with maximum inhibition at 250 ng/ml. Immune complex tyrosine kinase assay of PDGF receptor beta immunoprecipitates from lysates of mesangial cells treated with PDGF showed no inhibitory effect of BMP2 on PDGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. This indicates that the inhibition of DNA synthesis is likely due to postreceptor events. However, BMP2 significantly inhibited PDGF-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity that phosphorylates the Elk-1 transcription factor, a component of the ternary complex factor. Using a fusion protein-based reporter assay, we also show that BMP2 blocks PDGF-induced Elk-1-mediated transcription. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BMP2 inhibits PDGF-induced transcription of c-fos gene, a natural target of Elk-1 that normally forms a ternary complex that activates the serum response element of the c-fos gene. These data provide the first evidence that in mesangial cells, BMP2 signaling cross-talks with MAPK-based transcriptional events to inhibit PDGF-induced DNA synthesis. One target for this inhibition is the early response gene c-fos.  (+info)

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Increasingly, reports of frequent and occasionally catastrophic complications associated with use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in spinal fusion surgeries are being published. In the original peer review, industry-sponsored publications describing the use of rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion, adverse events of these types and frequency were either not reported at all or not reported to be associated with rhBMP-2 use. Some authors and investigators have suggested that these discrepancies were related to inadequate peer review and editorial oversight. PURPOSE To compare the conclusions regarding the safety and related efficacy published in the original rhBMP-2 industry-sponsored trials with subsequently available Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data summaries, follow-up publications, and administrative and organizational databases. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. METHODS Results and conclusions from original industry-sponsored rhBMP-2 publications regarding
Enhanced osteoinductivity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in combination with epidermal growth factor in a rabbit tibial defect model ...
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.3543 To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients ...
BMP-14 is expressed in long bones during embryonic development and postnatally in articular cartilage. Mutations in the BMP-14 gene have been implicated in Grebe Syndrome, which is characterized by short stature, extra digits, short and deformed extremities, and in Hunter- Thompson type dwarfism. The mature and functional form of BMP-14 is a homodimer of two 120 amino-acid polypeptide chain (monomers) linked by a single disulfide bond. Each BMP-14 monomer is expressed as the C-terminal part of a precursor polypeptide, which also contains a 27 amino-acid signal peptide and a 354 amino-acid propeptide. This precursor undergoes intracellular dimerization, and upon secretion it is processed by a furin-type protease. Recombinant human BMP-14 is a 27.0 kDa homodimeric disulfide-linked protein consisting of two 120 amino acids ...
Treatment with 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in significant growth changes and fusion of the coronal sutures bilaterally, anterior sagittal suture, and frontonasal suture by cephalometric analyses at 42 days postoperatively (p,0.05). Growth changes appeared greatest in the nasal region and less in the bicoronal and anterior sagittal regions. No significant differences in cranial growth were noted with use of 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 when compared to the empty defect group. Qualitative uCT analysis revealed comparable bony defect healing between rhBMP-2 groups. Application of high-dose, 0.4mg/mL rhBMP-2 resulted in pansynostosis upon uCT analysis, further verifying cranial growth restriction. Low-dose, 100-ug/mL biopatterned rhBMP-2 consistently regenerated bone within the surgical defect margin without evidence of extra-sutural invasion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeted delivery system for juxtacrine signaling growth factor based on rhBMP-2-mediated carrier-protein conjugation. AU - Liu, Hsia Wei. AU - Chen, Chih Hwa. AU - Tsai, Ching Lin. AU - Hsiue, Ging Ho. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - We propose a model of artificial juxtacrine signaling for the controlled release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) suitable for guided bone regeneration. A porous three-dimensional scaffold of poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) was fabricated by means of gel molding and particulate leaching. Collagen immobilization onto the scaffold surface was produced by performing photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid, and rhBMP-2 was tethered to the collagenous surface by covalent conjugation. On pharmacokinetic analysis, in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent and alkaline phosphatase assays revealed sustained, slow release of rhBMP-2 over 28 days, with a cumulative release of one third of the initial load diffusing out of the ...
Recombinant Human BMP-10 (carrier-free) - Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP-10) was initially cloned from embryonic heart, and expression data suggests that it plays a key role in the trabeculation of the embryonic heart.
Winner of a World Class Product of Korea award, Novosis is the first South Korean bone graft containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).
Purpose: This study compares the bone formation ability of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and assesses TCP as a carrier of rhBMP-2. Methods: Bilateral round defects (diameter: 8.0 mm) were formed in the cranium of eight New Zealand white rabbits. The defects were grafted with TCP only (control group) or with rhBMP-2-coated TCP (experimental group). The animals were sacrificed at 1st week, 2nd week, 4th week, and 8th week postoperatively; two rabbits sacrificed each time. The skulls were harvested and subjected to radiographic and histological examination. Results: Radiologic evaluation showed faster bone remodeling in the experimental group than in the control group. Histologic evaluation (H&E, Massons trichrome stain) showed rapid bone formation, remodeling and calcification in the 1st and 2nd week in the experimental group. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed higher expression rate of osteoprotegerin, receptor activator ...
The included studies from a systematic review of the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion were used for analysis. For each study, it was investigated in whichc sources they were available and where they were identified. If a study was available on a database but not retrieved by the original search strategy, the bibliographic record was examined to determine why it was not retrieved. The sensitivity, precision, and numbers needed to read for searches in each of the databases was calculated, as well as sensitivity*precision. The minimum combination of sources required to identify all the included publications using the original search strategies used was recorded.. The minimum combination of sources to identify all the publications was Science Citation Index (SCI), Embase, CENTRAL and either MEDLINE or PubMed, in addition to reference checking, contacting authors and using automated current awareness service.. The highest precision was achieved in ...
BACKGROUND: Research has indicated that adverse effects terms are increasingly prevalent in the title, abstract or indexing terms of articles that contain adverse drug effects data in MEDLINE and Embase. However, it is unknown whether adverse effects terms are present in the database records of articles that contain adverse effects data of medical devices, and thus, to what extent the development of an adverse effects search filter for medical devices may be feasible. METHODS: A case study systematic review of a medical device was selected. The included studies from a systematic review of the safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion were used in the analysis. For each included study, the corresponding database record on MEDLINE and Embase was assessed to measure the presence or absence of adverse effects terms in the title, abstract or indexing. The performance of each potential adverse effects search term was also measured and compared. RESULTS: There ...
Reporting of industry funded study outcome data: comparison of confidential and published data on the safety and effectiveness of rhBMP-2 for spinal fusion. Rodgers, Mark A.; Brown, Jennifer V. E.; Heirs, Morag K.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Mannion, Richard J.; Simmonds, Mark C.; Stewart, Lesley A. // BMJ: British Medical Journal;7/6/2013, Vol. 347 Issue 7915, p12 The article summarizes a research study which compared confidential and published clinical trials and adverse event data on the safety and effectiveness of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) for spinal fusion. An overview of the study participants, setting, design and... ...
Making Recombinant Proteins - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: My boss wants me to make a recombinant protein and this is something that I have never done before. The protein that I want to make is Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 and the product sheet of this compound where we first purchased the protein states that it is a 28.8 kDa homodimer, each subunit contains 116 amino acid residues (corresponding to amino acid residues 316 to 431 of the full-length...
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C3H10T1/2 cells are an established mesenchymal stem cell line which can differentiate into muscle, fat and cartilage cells when treated with azacytidine. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) caused a dose dependent differentiation of these cells into fat, cartilage and bone cells-low concentrations …
BMP stands for bone morphogenetic protein. Human BMP-6 is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. | 中国
Bioaim Human BMP-2 EasyTest™ ELISA Kit suitable for Plasma, Serum in human. Reliably quantify 25pg/ml of BMP-2. It takes 2.0 hours.
Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of a fibrin-fibronectin sealing system as a carrier for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-4 on bone formation in rat calvarial defects. AU - Han, Dong Kwan. AU - Kim, Chang Sung. AU - Jung, Ui Won. AU - Chai, Jung Kiu. AU - Choi, Seong Ho. AU - Kim, Chong Kwan. AU - Cho, Kyoo Sung. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - Background: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been shown to play an important role in bone formation during development and wound healing. Despite there being good prospects for BMP applications, an ideal carrier system for BMPs has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of a fibrin -fibronectin sealing system (FFSS) as a carrier for recombinant human BMP-4 (rhBMP-4) and to evaluate the genuine osteoconductive potential of the FFSS in a rat calvarial defect model. Methods: An 8-mm, calvarial, critical-size osteotomy defect was created in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alveolar ridge augmentation using implants coated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. T2 - Histologic observations. AU - Wikesjö, Ulf M E. AU - Qahash, Mohammed. AU - Polimeni, Giuseppe. AU - Susin, Cristiano. AU - Shanaman, Richard H.. AU - Rohrer, Michael D.. AU - Wozney, John M.. AU - Hall, Jan. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Background: Studies using ectopic rodent, orthotopic canine, and non-human primate models show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) coated onto titanium surfaces induce local bone formation. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) coated onto a titanium porous oxide implant surface to stimulate local bone formation including osseointegration and vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Material and Methods: Bilateral, critical-size, 5 mm, supra-alveolar, peri-implant defects were created in 12 young adult Hound Labrador mongrel dogs. Six animals received implants coated ...
title: Biologic modification of ligamentum flavum cells by marker gene transfer and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, doi: 10.1097/00007632-200405010-00003, category: Article
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Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family involved in de novo bone induction. Successful use of rhBMP-2 requires implantation with a biomaterial which can act as a scaffold for cell invasion for osteoinduction and retains rhBMP-2 at …
|p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic proteins, plays an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. It is involved in the hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway, and in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. It is involved also in cardiac cell differentiation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types.|/p||p|Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone and recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) and is currently available for orthopaedic usage in the United States.|/p|
Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a disulfide-linked homodimer. It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMPs in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It is highly expressed in fractured tissues. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000152785 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029335 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: BMP3 bone morphogenetic protein 3 (osteogenic). Human BMP3 genome location and BMP3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Dickinson ME, Kobrin MS, Silan CM, Kingsley DM, Justice MJ, Miller DA, Ceci JD, Lock LF, Lee A, Buchberg AM (March 1990). Chromosomal ...
To examine the local effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on diverse skeletal tissues in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells transfected with the murine bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene were implanted into athymic nude mice by injection into the subcutaneous space of the skull, intra- and extraarticular spaces of the knee, paravertebral muscles, and intramedullary space in the femur, to form experimental tumors secreting bone morphogenetic protein-4. As a control, mock vector-transfected Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells were used. Three weeks after injection, the newly formed Chinese hamster ovary tumors together with the skeletal tissues adjacent to the tumor were recovered from each site and processed for histologic examination. On the periosteum of calvaria, new bone, but no cartilage, was observed, and abundant chondrogenic cell proliferation was seen in the apophysis of the spinous process and around Ranviers groove in the knee. There were no apparent reactions to the Chinese hamster
1. Bajaj AK, Wongworawat AA, Punjabi A. Management of alveolar clefts. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:840-46 2. Matic DB, Power SM. Evaluating the success of gingivoperiosteoplasty versus secondary bone grafting in patients with unilateral clefts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1343-353 3. Sato Y, Grayson BH, Garfinkle JS, Barillas I, Maki K, Cutting CB. Success rate of gingivoperiosteoplasty with and without secondary bone grafts compared with secondary alveolar bone grafts alone. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1356-369 4. Levenberg S, Langer R. Advances in tissue engineering. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. (61) 113-134. 2004 5. Ikeuchi M, Dohi Y, Horiuchi K, Ohgushi H, Noshi T, Yoshikawa T, Yamamoto K, Sugimura M. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 promotes osteogensisw withing ateolpeptide type I collagen solution by combination with rat cultured marrow cells. J biomed Mater Res (60) 61-60. 2002 6. Saito N, Okada T. et al. Biodegradable poly-D, L-Lactic acidpolyethlene glycol ...
Gjoksi, B; Ruangsawasdi, N; Ghayor, C; Siegenthaler, B; Zenobi-Wong, M; Weber, Franz E (2017). Influence of N-methyl pyrrolidone on the activity of the pulp-dentine complex and bone integrity during osteoporosis. International Endodontic Journal, 50(3):271-280.. Thoma, D S; Kruse, A; Ghayor, C; Jung, R E; Weber, Franz E (2015). Bone augmentation using a synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based and a xenogenic hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute materials with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 26(5):592-598.. Ghayor, C; Correro, R M; Lange, K; Karfeld-Sulzer, L S; Grätz, K W; Weber, Franz E (2011). Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by N-methylpyrrolidone. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(27):24458-24466.. San Miguel, B; Kriauciunas, R; Tosatti, S; Ehrbar, M; Ghayor, C; Textor, M; Weber, Franz E (2010). Enhanced osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration using surface-modified porous bioactive glass ...
Information about the use of INFUSE® Bone Graft with the LT-CAGE® Lumbar Tapered Fusion Device to treat degenerative disc disease; its estimated that, in 2002, more than 190,000 Americans will undergo lumbar spinal fusion surgeries to ease their debilitating back pain and get them back on their feet. INFUSE® Bone Graft contains recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2), the genetically engineered version of a naturally occurring protein that is capable of initiating bone growth, or bone regeneration, in specific, targeted areas in the spine. Using INFUSE® Bone Graft with the LT-CAGE® device in spine surgery reduces the pain and complications associated with treating degenerative disc disease by eliminating the second surgery required to harvest bone from a patients hip, as is done in traditional spinal fusion procedures ...
Youn Y. H., Lee S. J., Choi G. R., Lee H. R., Lee D. H., Heo D. N., Kim B. S., Bang J. B., Hwang Y. S., Correlo V. M., Reis R. L., Im S. G., and Kwon I. K., Simple and facile preparation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized titanium implant via initiated chemical vapor deposition technique to promote osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering application, Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 100, pp. 949-958, doi:10.1016/j.msec.2019.03.048, 2019. ...
Ivković, Alan and Franić, Miljenko and Bojanić, Ivan and Pećina, Marko (2007) Overuse injuries in female athletes. Croatian medical journal, 48 (6). pp. 767-778. ISSN 0353-9504 (Print) 1332-8166 (Electronic) Pećina, Marko and Vukičević, Slobodan (2007) Biological aspects of bone, cartilage and tendon regeneration. International Orthopaedics, 31 (6). pp. 719-720. ISSN 0341-2695 (Print) 1432-5195 (Electronic) Pećina, Marko and Đapić, Tomislav (2007) More than 20-year follow-up Harrington instrumentation in the treatment of severe idiopathic scoliosis. European spine journal, 16 (2). pp. 299-300. ISSN 0940-6719 (Print) 1432-0932 (Electronic) Smoljanović, Tomislav and Grgurević, Lovorka and Jelić, Mislav and Kreszinger, Mario and Hašpl, Miroslav and Matičić, Dražen and Vukičević, Slobodan and Pećina, Marko (2007) Regeneration of the skeleton by recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins. Collegium antropologicum, 31 (3). pp. 923-932. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print) ...
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), their structure, action and detailed description of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7.
The investigators aim to compare the levels of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -7 (BMP-4 and 7) in blood, follicular fluid and ovarian organ culture s
RPA013Hu01, Recombinant Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2), Homo sapiens (Human), Recombinant protein, BMP2A, BMP-2A, Hemochromatosis Modifier, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
Stimulate bone and cartilage growth with bone morphogenetic protein surgery offered by oral surgeon Drs. Moya and Maida in Houston, Bellaire & Katy TX.
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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are importantsignalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provid...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Molecular basis of bone morphogenetic protein-15 signaling in granulosa cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) offered by Coeur DAlene and Ponderay ID Oral Surgeon to produce new bone & start the healing process.
Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: Bone morphogenetic pr
A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: roles of animal pole tissue in the development of vent
Bone morphogenetic protein signalling dynamics in hFOBs under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. (a) hFOBs in two-dimensional monolayer c
Purified BMP-16 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. DNA molecules encoding the BMP-16 proteins are also disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone, cartilage, other connective tissue defects and disorders, including tendon, ligament and meniscus, in wound healing and related tissue repair, as well as for treatment of disorders and defects to tissues which include epidermis, nerve, muscle, including cardiac muscle, and other tissues and wounds, and organs such as liver, lung, cardiac, pancreas and kidney tissue. The proteins may also be useful for the induction of growth and/or differentiation of undifferentiated embryonic and stem cells.
エストロゲン・グルココルチコイドによる骨芽細胞の分化調節と炎症性サイトカインTNF-αに対する抑制機序の解 ...
Research proven goat polyclonal BMP-4 antibody. Initiates, promotes and regulates bone development, growth, remodeling and repair. Smad1 translocation to the nucleus is observed after the addition of BMP4. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting and related applications.
When using the Xenbase gene expression search we felt it would be most valufuable if high quality images appeared near the top of your search results. That is why we have developed a way to allow Xenbase users to vote on the quality of an image. You can change your vote for a given image as many times as you want, but only your last vote is counted. Additionally,weve provided a comment box if you want to tell us why you think a specific image is good or bad ...
Inspite of doing extensive research work, cancer is still the leading cause of deaths. Its associated cost accounts a largest economic burden worldwide...
Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-7 signaling via upregulation of Ski-related novel protein N (SnoN): possible mechanism for the failure of BMP therapy? ...
Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years ...
Defendants received payments and/or other consideration, directly or indirectly, from Medicare after submitting false claims for payment, including facts that the use of BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) for this surgery was approved and proper, and that [the patient] was informed, and in fact, knowingly consented to the use of BMP-2 on this spinal surgery, which he did not, the complaint states ...
As part of a continuing investigation into a bone morphogenetic protein-2 product marketed as Infuse, the |em|Milwaukee Journal Sentinel/MedPage Today|/em| describe a first-hand account of early signs
In some cases mice injected with cells transfected with industrial non distinct shRNA showed mixed responses, while these cells had been efficiently applied in vitro. Certainly, even further analysis of this RNA sequence exposed some similarity together with the RNA sequences of bone morphogenic protein two and SMAD5, the two of which are involved in TGF B signaling, which may well make clear the source of these spurious effects. Inhibiting stromal TGF B by intraperitoneal administration of P144 greater the survival rates in all groups irrespective of regardless of whether the cells injected had been untreated or pretreated with TGF B. Tumor histology was analyzed soon after sacrificing the mice, revealing that H157 tumor cells pretreated with TGF B formed greater tumors than untreated cells.. Additionally, this growth was abrogated when mice were handled together with the inhibitory peptide P144, whilst the smallest tumors were detected in animals injected with integrin B3 silenced cells. These ...
BMP2: Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (osteoblast differentiation). *BPIFB1: encoding protein BPI fold containing family B, member ... encoding protein Transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein. *TTPAL: encoding protein Tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein- ... YTHDF1: encoding protein YTH domain family, member 1. *ZFP64 encoding protein Zinc finger protein 64 homolog, isoforms 1 and 2 ... FASTKD5: encoding protein FAST kinase domain-containing protein 5 (FASTKD5). *FITM2: encoding protein Fat storage-inducing ...
"Regulation of growth plate chondrogenesis by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Endocrinology. 142 (1): 430-436. doi:10.1210/en. ... The bones found in their forelimbs are reduced to achieve a light body weight required for flight. In particular, their ulna is ... Another good candidate for bat bone reduction is Hox-d13, a gene belonging to the Hox gene family. In situ hybridization ... and reduction in bone thickness. Recently, there have been comparative studies of mouse and bat forelimb development to ...
... a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and endothelial cell ... "BMPER is an endothelial cell regulator and controls bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent angiogenesis". Circulation Research ... BMP binding endothelial regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMPER gene. KLF15 is a strong and direct ... The complete sequences of 50 new cDNA clones which code for large proteins". DNA Research. 8 (6): 319-27. doi:10.1093/dnares/ ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 2, which had $274 million in 2020 revenues; Sutent (sunitinib), used to treat cancer, which had $819 ... SUGEN, a company focused on protein kinase inhibitors, was founded in 1991 in Redwood City, California, and acquired by ... a rare type of leukemia and a blood and bone marrow disease that affects primarily older adults. In November 2012, Pfizer ... Meier, Barry (July 2, 1994). "Pfizer Unit to Settle Charges Of Lying About Heart Valve". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link ...
"Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization of Cementoblasts in vitro". Journal of Dental Research ... Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals ... Thus cementoblasts resemble bone-forming osteoblasts but differ functionally and histologically. The cells of cementum are the ... Each cementocyte lies in its lacuna (plural, lacunae), similar to the pattern noted in bone. These lacunae also have canaliculi ...
The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 (BMPR2). They are involved in a multitude of cellular functions ... Bone morphogenetic proteins cause the transcription of mRNAs involved in osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and ventral mesoderm ... The TGF beta superfamily of ligands include: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), ... "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads". The EMBO Journal. 20 (15): ...
Zhao, M.; Berry, J. E.; Somerman, M. J. (2003-01-01). "Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Inhibits Differentiation and Mineralization ... is not exclusive to the mandible as it can infrequently occur in the maxilla and other parts of the body such as the long bones ... 3 (2): 133-135. doi:10.1007/s12105-008-0099-5. ISSN 1936-055X. PMC 2715464. PMID 19644548. "Benign Cementoblastoma , Mouth ...
"Differentiation of human pluripotent teratocarcinoma stem cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Reproduction, ... Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that ... Perry SS, Wang H, Pierce LJ, Yang AM, Tsai S, Spangrude GJ (April 2004). "L-selectin defines a bone marrow analog to the thymic ... Stahl J, Wobus AM, Ihrig S, Lutsch G, Bielka H (September 1992). "The small heat shock protein hsp25 is accumulated in P19 ...
... bone morphogenetic protein‐6 (BMP‐6) vector. She found BMP‐6 to be osteo-inductive in vivo resulting in acceleration of bone ... Her research indicated that transduction of BMDMSC with bone morphogenetic proteins2 or ‐6 can accelerate osteogenic ... "Mesenchymal Stem Cell-mediated Gene Delivery of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in an Articular Fracture Model". Molecular Therapy ... mediated osteogenic differentiation of stem cells by bone morphogenetic proteins2 or ‐6". Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 24 ...
"Biodegradable Gelatin Microparticles as Delivery Systems for the Controlled Release of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2". Acta ... 24 (2): 503-513. doi:10.1007/s10856-012-4818-9. hdl:1822/24890. PMID 23160914. Patel, Z; Yamamato, M; Ueda, H; Tabata, Y; Mikos ... as was done through varied release groups of BMP-2 over four week intervals. Gelatin microparticles also serve as enhancers of ...
"Dentin Regeneration by Dental Pulp Stem Cell Therapy with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2". Journal of Dental ... Maxillary and mandibular bone development may be altered, especially when the patient is still growing. Psychosocial health of ... This issue is significant for regenerative procedures, since the non-collagenous proteins contained within dentin include ... and Dentin Matrix Protein 1 after Subcutaneous Transplantation in Mice". Journal of Endodontics. 34 (4): 421-426. doi:10.1016/j ...
Arikawa T, Omura K, Morita I (Sep 2004). "Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression by endogenous prostaglandin E2 ... Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is ... Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in ... Kearns AE, Donohue MM, Sanyal B, Demay MB (Nov 2001). "Cloning and characterization of a novel protein kinase that impairs ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Arch. Immunol ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 chain of laminin 5, which is a complex glycoprotein composed of three subunits ... Laminin subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA3 gene. Laminins are basement membrane components ...
"Butyrate response factor 1 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in osteoblastic cells". Biochem ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... The encoded protein contains a distinguishing putative zinc finger domain with a repeating cys-his motif. This RNA binding ... Butyrate response factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZFP36L1 gene. This gene is a member of the TIS11 ...
... also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF2 gene. GDF2 belongs to the ... Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F (2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 induces osteogenic ... Mi LZ, Brown CT, Gao Y, Tian Y, Le VQ, Walz T, Springer TA (March 2015). "Structure of bone morphogenetic protein 9 procomplex ... Fong D, Bisson M, Laberge G, McManus S, Grenier G, Faucheux N, Roux S (Apr 2013). "Bone morphogenetic protein-9 activates Smad ...
It induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 ... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... 3.0.CO;2-K. S2CID 95953333. Tyukavkina, N. A.; Medvedeva, S. A.; Ivanova, S. Z. (1974). "New flavonol glycosides from the ... 10 (2): 170-172. doi:10.1007/BF00563605. S2CID 4819832. Slimestad, Rune; Andersen, Øyvind M.; Francis, George W.; Marston, ...
"Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression by post-transcriptional ... The protein also causes the growth, morphology, and the gene expression of the cells to change, causing them to become a more ... Hu X, Yu J, Zhou X, Li Z, Xia Y, Luo Z, Wu Y (January 2014). "A small GTPase-like protein fragment of Mycoplasma promotes tumor ... Prostate cancer: p37, a protein encoded for by M. hyorhinis, has been found to promote the invasiveness of prostate cancer ...
Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ... "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/threonine ... Koštani morfogenetički protein 2 ili BMP-2 pripada TGF-β superfamiliji proteina.[1] ...
"HIV-1 Tat interaction with cyclin T1 represses mannose receptor and the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 transcription". ... "Entrez Gene: HTATIP2 HIV-1 Tat interactive protein 2, 30kDa". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to ... King FW, Shtivelman E (2004). "Inhibition of nuclear import by the proapoptotic protein CC3". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (16): 7091- ... a protein associated with metastasis suppression". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57 (5): 851-8. doi:10.1007/s000180050047. PMID 10892349 ...
... inactivation sensitizes osteoblasts to bone morphogenetic protein-2, but nov is dispensable for skeletal homeostasis". ... These proteins, together with WISP1 (CCN4), WISP2 (CCN5), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in vertebrates ... The human NOV protein contains 357 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally ... Perbal B, Martinerie C, Sainson R, Werner M, He B, Roizman B (Feb 1999). "The C-terminal domain of the regulatory protein NOVH ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ... Woo EJ (October 2012). "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User ... That can be a bone graft, taken from the pelvis or cadaveric bone; or an artificial implant. The slow process of the bone graft ... "Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Anterior Cervical Fusion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". World Neurosurgery. 104: 752- ...
Woo, EJ (Oct 2012). "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User ... Life-threatening Complications Associated with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Cervical Spine Fusion". fda.gov ... syndrome Other degenerative spinal conditions Any condition that causes instability of the spine Bone morphogenetic protein ( ... After the spine is decompressed, bone graft or artificial bone substitute is packed between the vertebrae to help them heal ...
Wang, YK; Yu, X; Cohen, DM; Wozniak, MA; Yang, MT; Gao, L; Eyckmans, J; Chen, CS (1 May 2012). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2- ... For example, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) - a growth factor - is unable to induce osteogenesis under insufficient ... However, focal adhesions are quite more than simple anchors - their proteins have many roles in signaling. These proteins, such ... Elastin - as its name suggests - is a highly elastic protein with an important role in tissues that need to return to their ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein-2 modulates Wnt and frizzled expression and enhances the canonical pathway of Wnt signaling in ... gene family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for Wnt signaling proteins. The FZD1 protein contains a ... Frizzled-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZD1 gene. Members of the 'frizzled' ... pharmacological properties of a unique G protein-linked receptor". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 365 (5): 341 ...
Park GT, Morasso MI (January 2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transactivates Dlx3 through Smad1 and Smad4: ... Homeobox protein DLX-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLX3 gene. Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle ... 2005). "Increased bone density associated with DLX3 mutation in the tricho-dento-osseous syndrome". Bone. 35 (4): 988-97. doi: ... Park GT, Denning MF, Morasso MI (2001). "Phosphorylation of murine homeodomain protein Dlx3 by protein kinase C". FEBS Lett. ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein-2 upregulates expression and function of voltage-gated K+ channels in human pulmonary artery smooth ... The Kv9.3 protein (encoded by KCNS3 gene) is not functional by itself but can form functional heteromultimers with Kv2.1 ( ... Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily S member 3 (Kv9.3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNS3 gene. KCNS3 ... of the Shab-related subfamily of potassium voltage-gated channel proteins. Heteromeric Kv2.1/Kv9.3 channels form with fixed ...
Park, G. T.; Morasso, M. I. (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transactivates Dlx3 through Smad1 and Smad4: ... 2 (3). Paus R; Cotsarelis G (August 1999). "The biology of hair follicles". N. Engl. J. Med. 341 (7): 491-7. doi:10.1056/ ... This phase lasts for about 2-3 weeks while the hair converts to a club hair. A club hair is formed during the catagen phase ... Scalp hair stays in this active phase of growth for 2-7 years; this period is genetically determined. At the end of the anagen ...
Amano S, Scott IC, Takahara K, et al. «Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 ... Mrowiec T, Melchar C, Górski A «HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins ... and mitogen-activated protein kinase can regulate epithelial cell proliferation.». Mol. Biol. Cell, vol. 10, 2, 1999, pàg. 259- ... 2,0 2,1 «Entrez Gene: LAMA3 laminin, alpha 3». *↑ Utani, A; Nomizu M, Matsuura H, Kato K, Kobayashi T, Takeda U, Aota S, ...
... served as the 3rd largest site in the nation for the trial of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) - the first use of biologics in ... Disc Disease by Using Stand Alone Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cages and Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2: as ... of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Arthrodesis with Use of Interbody Fusion Cages and recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 ... of Anterior Lumbar Interbody Arthrodesis with Use of Interbody Fusion Cages and Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Foods with high levels of protein must be avoided. These include breast milk, eggs, chicken, beef, pork, fish, nuts, and other ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular ...
In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have also shown a potential to differentiate into cardiac competent cells when ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... thereby reducing that protein's activity. In PSI+ cells, the loss of the Sup35 protein (which is involved in termination of ...
... is due to the upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps). During embryonic development, the gene controlling Bmp ... The finger bones of bats are much more flexible than those of other mammals, owing to their flattened cross-section and to low ... The patagium is the wing membrane; it is stretched between the arm and finger bones, and down the side of the body to the hind ... Kirkpatrick, S. J. (1994). "Scale effects on the stresses and safety factors in the wing bones of birds and bats". Journal of ...
... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva.[14] In food and wine pairing, ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ... "Interactions of Grape Seed Tannins with Salivary Proteins". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47 (1): 42-7. doi: ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. ... In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of ...
In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. ... putative mu opioid/metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 heteromers produces potent antinociception in a chronic murine bone cancer ... In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. ... Teif VB, Rippe K (October 2010). "Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin". Journal of ...
"Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ... The ZEB2 protein is a transcription factor that plays a role in the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathways that ... ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right. ZEB2 interacts with ... Mutations of the gene can cause the gene to produce nonfunctional ZEB2 proteins or inactivate the function gene as a whole. ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] It ... the toxin cleaves SNARE proteins (proteins that mediate vesicle fusion, with their target membrane bound compartments) meaning ...
... and bone morphogenetic proteins.[45] Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the ... Bone marrow[edit]. Bone marrow, also known as myeloid tissue in red bone marrow, can be found in almost any bone that holds ... Bone volume[edit]. Bone volume is determined by the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent research has suggested ... Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones ...
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... GDF11 acts as a cytokine and its molecular structure is identical in humans, mice and rats.[6] The bone morphogenetic protein ... "GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ... Displaying a distinctive protein organization, this protein defines a separate class of rho partners.[7] Using a cloning ...
The decapentaplegic Vg-related (DVR) related subfamily (including the bone morphogenetic proteins and the growth ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and ... Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. ... Human genes encoding proteins that contain this domain include:. AMH; ARTN; BMP10; BMP15; BMP2; BMP3; BMP4; BMP5; BMP6; BMP7; ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase. *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1. *BMPR1A. *BMPR1B ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ...
Inhibition of TGF-β and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling can efficiently induce neural tissue from pluripotent stem ... The Trk proteins act as receptors for NGF and related factors. Trk is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Trk dimerization and ... This is due to the action of BMP4 (a TGF-β family protein) that induces ectodermal cultures to differentiate into epidermis. ... GDNF: Glial derived neurotrophic factor is a member of the TGFb family of proteins, and is a potent trophic factor for striatal ...
This can occur because shark teeth are not attached to a bone, but instead are developed within a bony cavity.[64] It has been ... Neural cells, for example, express growth-associated proteins, such as GAP-43, tubulin, actin, an array of novel neuropeptides ... "Morphogenetic mechanisms in the cyclic regeneration of hair follicles and deer antlers from stem cells". BioMed Research ... doi:10.1186/2041-9139-2-10. PMC 3113731 . PMID 21545709.. *^ a b c d e f Zoran MJ (2001). Regeneration in Annelids. John Wiley ...
Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... protein binding. • metal ion binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • carboxy-lyase activity. • 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate ... 49 (2): 429-34. PMC 1683290 . PMID 1867199.. *. Fisher CR, Chuang JL, Cox RP, et al. (1991). "Maple syrup urine disease in ...
2008). "GLI2-specific transcriptional activation of the bone morphogenetic protein/activin antagonist follistatin in human ... and bone morphogenetic proteins". Endocrinology. 147 (7): 3586-97. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0089. PMID 16627583. Grusch M, Drucker C ... It has inhibitory action on bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs); BMPs induce the ectoderm to become epidermal ectoderm. Inhibition ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...
The lack of these factors result in a decreased production of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which translates into a ... synaptic vesicle proteins, and channel proteins. A deficiency in the proper development of these proteins can cause the neural ... stretch in the protein. The mutated Htt protein affects an individual's proper neural functions by inhibiting the action of ... that binds to the TATA box along with 13 other proteins that bind to TBP. The TATA box binding proteins also include the ...
... astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is ... WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide positional information to developing macroglial cells through morphogen ... with the bone protein and human glial cells combined, they promoted significant recovery of conscious foot placement, axonal ... In response to nerve damage, heat shock proteins (HSP) are released and can bind to their respective TLRs, leading to further ...
... bone morphogenetic protein, and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily.[9] ... bone growth), to behave as an agonist of the receptor and to induce hyperactive bone growth.[21] On 2 September 2015, Regeneron ... The activin and inhibin protein complexes are both dimeric in structure, and, in each complex, the two monomers are linked to ... Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified ...
... and bone morphogenetic protein BMP4. FGF10 is seen to have the most prominent role. FGF10 is a paracrine signalling molecule ... Other proteins with elevated expression in the lung are the dynein protein DNAH5 in ciliated cells, and the secreted SCGB1A1 ... The highest expression of lung specific proteins are different surfactant proteins,[18] such as SFTPA1, SFTPB and SFTPC, and ... Gene and protein expression[edit]. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ...
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. *Bone morphogenetic protein 1. *Lysostaphin. *Insulin-degrading enzyme ... It is translocated into the host cell cytoplasm where it cleaves the host protein SNAP-25, a member of the SNARE protein family ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] ... Botulinum toxin exerts its effect by cleaving key proteins required for nerve activation. First, the toxin binds specifically ...
Examples of such proteins include bone morphogenetic proteins and cadherins. Expression of these proteins is essential to ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4, or BMP4, is a transforming growth factor that causes the cells of the ectoderm to differentiate ... Cell signaling and essential proteins[edit]. Critical to the proper folding and function of the neural plate is N-cadherin, a ... In a newly formed neural plate, PAX3 mRNA, MSX1 mRNA, and MSX1/MSX2 proteins are expressed mediolaterally.[9] When the neural ...
"Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression by post-transcriptional ... 40 (2): 305-349. doi:10.3892/ijo.2011.1248. PMID 22076306.. *^ a b c d e f g h Tsai S, Wear DJ, Shih JW, Lo SC (October 1995). ... The protein also causes the growth, morphology, and the gene expression of the cells to change, causing them to become a more ... Prostate cancer: p37, a protein encoded for by M. hyorhinis, has been found to promote the invasiveness of prostate cancer ...
Activin, inhibin and a number of other structurally related proteins such as anti-Müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein ... and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily. The activin and inhibin protein complexes are both ... In addition, both complexes are derived from the same family of related genes and proteins but differ in their subunit ... The mutation in ACVR1 causes activin A, which normally acts as an antagonist of the receptor and blocks osteogenesis (bone ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 10. *C-Met. *C-Raf. *C3a receptor. *CBX3. *CD163 ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). *Ciliary neurotrophic factor family *Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) ... Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFLP) ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Protein or other substance that stimulates cellular proliferation. "Growth factors" redirects here. For the journal, see Growth ...
As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... Blázquez-Medela AM, Jumabay M, Boström KI (January 2019). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. BMP-2 like other bone morphogenetic ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the ...
The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair. ... Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. ... wherein BMP is bone morphogenic protein) proteins and processes for obtaining them. These proteins may be used to induce bone ... Pharmaceutical compositions comprising bone morphogenetic protein monomers for inhibiting bone formation. US7371377. Jun 19, ...
See also: Bone morphogenetic protein § Clinical uses. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is shown to stimulate the production of bone ... As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 has been shown to interact with BMPR1A.[4][5][6][7] ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins.[1] ...
A Novel Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mutant Mouse, , Displays Impaired Intracellular Handling in Skeletal Muscle. Laura C. ... digital calipers were used to measure bone dimensions on skeletal preparations of wild type and mutant male mice. Measurements ... 2Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA. 3Department of ... Bridgewater,1 Jaime L. Mayo,1 Bradley G. Evanson,2 Megan E. Whitt,1 Spencer A. Dean,1 Joshua D. Yates,1 Devin N. Holden,1 Alina ...
C. C. Rider and B. Mulloy, "Bone morphogenetic protein and growth differentiation factor cytokine families and their protein ... A Novel Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mutant Mouse, , Displays Impaired Intracellular Handling in Skeletal Muscle. Laura C. ... J. M. Wozney, "Bone morphogenetic proteins," Progress in Growth Factor Research, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 267-280, 1989. View at ... J. E. Felin, J. L. Mayo, T. J. Loos et al., "Nuclear variants of bone morphogenetic proteins," BMC Cell Biology, vol. 11, no. 1 ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE. A View on the Right ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutations, clinical phenotypes and outcomes of Japanese patients with sporadic or ... Mutation in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension in a large kindred ... Background-The effect of a mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) gene on right ventricular (RV) ...
... tissue engineering approaches are being developed that combine growth factors such as Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) with ... the area of bone formed, and bone maturity at the site of injection. Our results suggest that bifunctional peptides that can ... Using a rat ectopic bone formation model, we have injected rhBMP-2 into a collagen matrix with or without a bifunctional BMP-2 ... Using phage display techniques, we have identified peptides that bind with high affinity to BMP-2. The peptides that bind to ...
... bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP‐2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tooth sockets of rat. Forty‐eight ... The findings indicate that local administration of simvastatin can influence alveolar bone remodeling by regulating the ... The expression of TGF‐β1, BMP‐2 and VEGF mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization in the tooth extraction socket at five ... The fusiform stroma cells in the tooth extraction socket began to express TGF‐β1, BMP‐2 and VEGF mRNA in both experimental and ...
In this study we compared the effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 on the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces differentiation of multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and ... BMP-2 also induced differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells but not MC3T3-E1 cells into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Reverse ... The transplanted C3H10T1/2 cells formed mineralized bone containing chondrocytes and adipocytes, whereas MC3T3-E1 created only ...
2011 Feb 2;6(2):e16155. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016155. Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research ... Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of ... Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the pathophysiology of obesity. ... Genetic and Evolutionary Analyses of the Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the Pathophysiology of Obesity ...
bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA. C, D. 135. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: BMPR1A, ACVRLK3, ALK3. EC: 2.7 ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily regulate the development, maintenance and ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily regulate the development, maintenance and ... Structural refinement of the complex of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and its type IA receptor. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1REW/pdb ...
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) caused a dose dependent differentiation of these cells into fat, cartilage and bone cells- ... C3H10T1/2 cells are an established mesenchymal stem cell line which can differentiate into muscle, fat and cartilage cells when ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 causes commitment and differentiation in C3H10T1/2 and 3T3 cells Growth Factors. 1993;9(1):57-71. ... Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) caused a dose dependent differentiation of these cells into fat, cartilage and bone cells- ...
Anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 antibody produced in goat for your research needs. Find product specific information ... Anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 antibody produced in goat affinity isolated antibody, lyophilized powder Synonym: ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the members of the TGF-β superfamily and are identified as the critical factors for ... Anti-Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 (BMP R2) antibody may be used in indirect ELISA at a working antibody concentration ...
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The report on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market also offers the market players as well as the new entrants a complete view of ... Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market 2020-2029 attempts to offer significant and thoughtful insights into the current ... The report on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market also offers the market players as well as the new entrants a complete view of ... The bone morphogenetic protein 2 market has provided every measly data in a crystal clear context in the report. The crisp data ...
Here, we demonstrate the combined effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and MDZ on osteogenic differentiation. An ... BMP-2+MDZ treatment reduced the immunostaining for both α1 and γ2 subunits antigens on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A ( ... BMP-2+MDZ treatment decreased the myotube cell formation of C2C12 cells, and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and ... Our investigation showed that BMP-2+MDZ has a strong ability to induce the differentiation of C2C12 cells into osteoblasts and ...
cDNAs dos genes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) e bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) foram sintetizados a partir de RNA ... Expressão dos genes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 e BMP-4) em fibroblastos bovinos transgênicos ... It was isolated the human bone morphogenetic proteins cDNAs (BMP-2 and BMP-4) that were positioned under control of a mammalian ... Immunolocalization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -3 and osteogenic protein-1 during murine tooth root morphogenesis and ...
... Journal. Cell ... Roles of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) remain ambiguous. In ... Also, we examined ectopic bone formation in nude mice by using soft X-ray, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses ... Heterodimeric BMP-2/7 significantly promoted osteogenesis of hASCs in vitro and in vivo. However, BMP-2/7 was not found to be a ...
... Jaques Luiz, DDS, MSc/Luis Eduardo ... An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration ... Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has ... To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. ...
... have been used as a new therapeutic strategy to heal non-union bone... ... Aono, A., et al. Potent ectopic bone-inducing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-4/7 heterodimer. Biochem Biophys Res ... Haidar, Z. S., Hamdy, R. C., Tabrizian, M. Delivery of recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins for bone regeneration and repair ... Implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins with biomaterial carriers: A correlation between protein ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos. William P Dunworth, ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Signaling Negatively Modulates Lymphatic Development in Vertebrate Embryos ...
Characterization of receptors for osteogenic protein-1/bone morphogenetic protein-7 (OP-1/BMP-7) in rat kidneys. Kidney Int. 58 ... Dudley, A. T., Lyons, K. M. and Robertson, E. J. (1995). A requirement for bone morphogenetic protein-7 during development of ... Francis, P. H., Richardson, M. K., Brickell, P. M. and Tickle, C. (1994). Bone morphogenetic proteins and a signalling pathway ... Zou, H., Wieser, R., Massague, J. and Niswander, L. (1997). Distinct roles of type I bone morphogenetic protein receptors in ...
Key words: Granulosa cell, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing ... level in both transcript and protein levels; however, BMP6 upregulated LHR transcript and protein level in goat granulosa cells ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, are crucial factors in follicular ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, are crucial factors in follicular ...
The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Executive Summary:. The report offers the deep-dive vision of the bone morphogenetic ... The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support ... Worldwide Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Is Growing at a Swift Pace at a CAGR by 2029 ...
Growth factor gene expression profiles of bone morphogenetic protein-2-treated human adipose stem cells seeded on calcium ... expression of factors associated with angiogenesis and bone remodeling by hASCs, future bone regeneration studies should focus ... and bone remodeling.. Human ASCs were treated for 15 min with BMP-2 (10 ng/ml) to enhance osteogenic differentiation, or with ... BMP-2-treatment increased the expression of ∼30 factors by hASCs seeded on BCP, while it decreased the expression of only PGF, ...
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized ... BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a ... Abstract 210: Crossveinless 2 Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 in Human and Mouse Vascular Endothelium. Yucheng Yao, ... Abstract 210: Crossveinless 2 Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 in Human and Mouse Vascular Endothelium ...
Asia-Pacific Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market Report 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-05-23 Available for US$ ... 11.1 Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Key Raw Materials Analysis. 11.1.1 Key Raw Materials. 11.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw ... Table Asia-Pacific Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Sales Volume (K Pcs) and Market Share by Region (2012-2017). Table Asia- ... 3.2 China Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Sales Volume and Market Share by Type. 3.3 China Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ...
Bone Graft (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 placed on an absorbable collagen sponge). The implants were placed ... In this study, the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the ability of temporary anchorage ... roughened titanium surfaces have provided a means for increasing bone apposition and strengthening the implant-to-bone ... on the cranial bones of 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation 6 weeks ...
Aoyama K, Yamane A, Suga T, Suzuki E, Fukui T and Nakamura Y: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in ... Chalazonitis A, Pham TD, Li Z, Roman D, Guha U, Gomes W, Kan L, Kessler JA and Gershon MD: Bone morphogenetic protein ... Liu X, Liu S, Xu Y, Liu X and Sun D: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 regulates the differentiation of nitrergic enteric neurons by ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 regulates the differentiation of nitrergic enteric neurons by modulating Smad1 signaling in slow ...
... to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could promote angiogenic tub … ... Bone tissue engineering requires the upregulation of several regenerative stages, including a critical early phase of ... Programmed Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Delivery from a Hybrid Calcium Phosphate/Alginate ... to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could promote angiogenic tubule formation when delivered to in vitro cocultures of ...
  • As an adjuvant to allograft bone or as a replacement for harvested autograft, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) appear to improve fusion rates after spinal arthrodesis in both animal models and humans, while reducing the donor-site morbidity previously associated with such procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the members of the TGF-β superfamily and are identified as the critical factors for formation of bone and cartilage, hematopoietic cell formation and mesoderm patterning. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • BMPs bind to BMP R2 and then recruits the transducing type I receptor which in turn activate the Smad protein signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1998), trigged by the presence bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (scielo.br)
  • Roles of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) remain ambiguous. (uva.nl)
  • In this study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo functional characteristics of BMPs of different dimerization types, with the aim of determining osteoinductive efficiency of heterodimeric BMP-2/7 on osteogenesis of hASCs. (uva.nl)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta family, are crucial factors in follicular growth and development in the mammalian ovary. (academicjournals.org)
  • The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor superfamily and have been implicated in chondrogenesis and neuronal differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Members of the TGF-β superfamily with important effects on bone cell differentiation are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) ( 17 , 41 ), which were first identified as factors that induce bone formation in vivo when implanted into muscular tissues ( 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Unlike TGF-β, which induces new bone formation only when injected near bone, BMPs produce bone formation even when injected into ectopic sites. (asm.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily, of which 20 have been discovered in humans to date ( 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • BMPs were first identified for their pro-osteogenic effects, but recent studies have revealed their additional significance as tissue morphogenetic factors ( 13 ), particularly for BMP-2, −4 and −7 ( 14 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A boost of bone repair can be achieved using potent osteoinductive proteins, named bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (minatec.org)
  • rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 are the commercially available recombinant BMPs. (marketresearch.com)
  • 1 ] based on the previous study which reported the activity of BMPs [ 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Following studies have reported BMPs to have crucial role in the formation of bone and cartilage. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in several developmental and organogenetic processes and have been identified as key regulators in chondrogenesis. (monash.edu)
  • Events normally taking place in the terminal chondrocyte differentiation in the growth plate are also observed during osteoarthritis (OA) development, suggesting that molecules, such as Wnts and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulating chondrocyte activity in the growth plate, may play a key role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) for repair of large bone defects is one of the few protein-based tissue engineering strategies that are currently in widespread clinical use. (sciencemag.org)
  • Delivery of exogenous BMPs has been shown to stimulate cellular pathways responsible for osteogenesis and to promote bone formation in both animals and humans ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 9 However, the absence of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) within platelet concentrates resulted in controversy about whether the platelet concentrate is effective for an osseous disease such as BRONJ. (allenpress.com)
  • BMP-2 and BMP-7 are osteogenic BMPs: they have been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types. (cloud-clone.com)
  • The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMPs were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), already established as a useful addition to classic therapy in cases of non-union and delayed fracture union, have not been sufficiently investigated in infected fractures of the long bones [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are naturally occurring proteins found in the human body. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Certain BMPs are osteoinductive?one of the three main categories of bone grafts?and play an active role in bone formation and maintenance. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate adipogenesis but it is not clear whether they influence regional adipose tissue (AT) development in humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • reported that nicotine exposure inhibited gene expression of BMPs in autogenous bone grafts in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model, a feature which contributes to disc degeneration. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The proteins were termed bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (e-neurospine.org)
  • The largest subdivision of this superfamily is comprised of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which activate SMADs 1, 5, and 8 and play an essential role in embryonic development and in postnatal tissue homeostasis [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important signalling molecules that were first identified by their ability to induce bone and cartilage, and subsequently were shown to be pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses during early development, skeletogenesis and homoeostasis of several tissues. (els.net)
  • BMPs transmit their signals from membrane to nucleus through distinct combinations of types I and II serine/threonine kinase receptors and their intracellular effectors the Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important pleiotropic cytokines controlling a wide variety of biological responses ranging from early development, skeletogenesis and homeostasis of several tissues to suppression of tumorigenesis. (els.net)
  • The BMPs are soluble proteins that are part of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Testing this hypothesis, we detected changes in the expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 ( Bmp2, Bmp7 ) in the interdigital and distal joint tissues, suggesting that HOXA13 may directly regulate their expression in these discrete regions. (biologists.org)
  • Recombinant human BMP2 protein was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography techniques, after refolding of the isolated inclusion body in renaturation buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Understanding which are the molecular regulators of BMP2 activity during bone repair and studying the BMP2 presentation via the bone extracellular matrix is therefore essential for a future new generation of BMP2-delivering biomaterials. (minatec.org)
  • i) how can the presentation of BMP2 by ECM components affect bone differentiation? (minatec.org)
  • The group has shown that the bioactivity of BMP2 can be enhanced by integrins activation(2). (minatec.org)
  • Lyophilized Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution BMP2 should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2)- Cloud-Clone Corp. (cloud-clone.com)
  • The association of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) with BMD and risk of fracture was suggested by a recent linkage study, but subsequent studies have been contradictory. (cdc.gov)
  • Polymorphisms in the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene do not affect bone mineral density in white men or women. (cdc.gov)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell types are potentially useful therapeutically for regeneration of bone and cartilaginous tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily regulate the development, maintenance and regeneration of tissues and organs. (rcsb.org)
  • Our investigation showed that BMP-2+MDZ has a strong ability to induce the differentiation of C2C12 cells into osteoblasts and has the potential for drug repositioning in bone regeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • With the increase of the knowledge of the genetic osteogenic factors and genetic engineering, genetic therapy is becoming a viable alternative to obtain a satisfactory result in bone regeneration. (scielo.br)
  • An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. (quintpub.com)
  • Considering our observed lack of association between the degree of differentiation and the expression of factors associated with angiogenesis and bone remodeling by hASCs, future bone regeneration studies should focus more on systematically orchestrating the secretome of stem cells, rather than on inducing osteogenic differentiation of stem cells only. (uva.nl)
  • Tissue regeneration markers are highly expressed in the nDP+BMP-2 scaffolds at week 8. (diva-portal.org)
  • That is, biological engineering technique has been employed for regeneration of periodontal tissues [ 2 , 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • It plays an important role in embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning, organogenesis, limb bud formation, and bone formation and regeneration. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The industrial development of biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration is steadily increasing due to socio-economical need for bone repair therapies especially caused by the aging of the population and improvement of the quality of life. (minatec.org)
  • We suggest that the potential of this novel technique could be considered for preclinical evaluation of novel smart materials on bone regeneration. (diva-portal.org)
  • The addition of rhBMP-2 to CM failed to improve bone regeneration of peri-implant dehiscence defects compared to using an unsoaked CM after 4 weeks. (uzh.ch)
  • After 4 weeks post-implantation using a rat mandible critical-sized defect model, micro-CT and Masson trichrome results showed accelerated bone regeneration in the PHY, nDP-PHY and MICS groups. (uib.no)
  • The results demonstrate that PHY scaffolds may not be desirable for clinical use, since similar osteogenic potential was not seen under both in vitro and in vivo conditions, in contrast to nDP-PHY and MICS groups, where continuous low doses of BMP-2 induced satisfactory bone regeneration in both conditions. (uib.no)
  • PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to test whether or not a synthetic matrix consisting of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) combined with grafting materials enhances bone regeneration compared with grafting alone or empty control sites. (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that rhBMP-2 significantly enhances bone regeneration in rabbits when delivered by a synthetic matrix containing HA/TCP. (uzh.ch)
  • Adenoviral delivery of BMP-2 enhanced bone regeneration achieved by the transplantation of MSCs, fibrin and MBCP in vivo. (inserm.fr)
  • The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate bone regeneration in mandibular, full-thickness, alveolar ridge, saddle-type defects following surgical implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a novel hyaluronan (HY) sponge carrier. (elsevier.com)
  • This study demonstrates the feasibility of extensive in vivo bone regeneration by transplantation of undifferentiated BMMSCs and BMP-2 delivery via HCPNs. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these results confirm that BMP-2 can be used as an anabolic agent for mitogenesis in AF cells and NP cell matrix regeneration without the possibility of osteogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Like many other proteins from the BMP family, BMP-2 has been demonstrated to potently induce osteoblast differentiation in a variety of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces differentiation of multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vivo and in v. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we compared the effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 on the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. (nih.gov)
  • BMP-2 also induced differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells but not MC3T3-E1 cells into chondrocytes and adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that BMP-2 can induce the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in both in vivo and in vitro conditions, and that C3H10T1/2 could be used to examine the BMP-2-induced regulatory mechanisms of mesenchymal differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) caused a dose dependent differentiation of these cells into fat, cartilage and bone cells-low concentrations favoring adipocytes and high concentrations chondrocytes and osteoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Our results in this model system indicate that a single protein factor can cause differentiation of a stem cell line to multiple phenotypes, that phenotypes induced can be regulated by factor concentration, and that other factors can also influence BMP-2 induced differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate the combined effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and MDZ on osteogenic differentiation. (mdpi.com)
  • BMP-2+MDZ treatment decreased the myotube cell formation of C2C12 cells, and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Hidaka Y, Chiba-Ohkuma R, Karakida T, Onuma K, Yamamoto R, Fujii-Abe K, Saito MM, Yamakoshi Y, Kawahara H. Combined Effect of Midazolam and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 for Differentiation Induction from C2C12 Myoblast Cells to Osteoblasts. (mdpi.com)
  • We investigated how the secretome of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) can be affected by substrate, BMP-2 treatment, and degree of differentiation. (uva.nl)
  • We hypothesized that as differentiation progresses, hASCs produce increasingly more gene products associated with processes such as angiogenesis and bone remodeling. (uva.nl)
  • Human ASCs were treated for 15 min with BMP-2 (10 ng/ml) to enhance osteogenic differentiation, or with vehicle. (uva.nl)
  • Short incubation with BMP-2 may be a promising treatment to enhance both osteogenic differentiation and environmental modulation. (uva.nl)
  • In order to examine the function of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP‑2) on the differentiation of nitrergic enteric neurons in slow transit constipation (STC), the expression of BMP‑2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was investigated in the myenteric nerve plexus in STC and control tissues by immunohistochemical assays. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The results demonstrated that BMP‑2 regulated the differentiation of primary enteric neurons and increased the length of neurites compared with the control group. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These data indicate a new role for BMP‑2 as an important transcriptional cofactor that regulates the differentiation of nitrergic enteric neurons through the Smad1 pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Importantly, hMSCs cultured with scaffolds releasing the PDGF to BMP-2 schedule showed similar amounts of ALP staining to hMSCs cultured with BMP-2 alone, suggesting that the sequential schedule of PDGF to BMP-2 presentation promotes differentiation of hMSCs toward an osteoblast phenotype while also increasing cellular infiltration of the scaffold. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) not only blocks myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells but also induces osteoblast differentiation. (asm.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms governing the ability of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 to both induce ligand-specific responses and inhibit myogenic differentiation are not known. (asm.org)
  • Li C, Yang X, He Y, Ye G, Li X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Deng F. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Induces Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Dental Follicle Stem Cells in P38 and ERK1/2 MAPK Dependent Manner. (medsci.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) are vital for bone and cartilage formation, where bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is acknowledged as a growth factor in osteoblast differentiation. (diva-portal.org)
  • 100 µg) BMP2K is a putative serine/threonine protein kinase which is elevated under BMP-2-induced differentiation. (allelebiotech.com)
  • Specifically, bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9/GDF2) increases acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene expression both in vivo and in vitro, and has therefore been characterized as a cholinergic differentiation and maintenance factor. (bu.edu)
  • Dec-RVKR-CMK, a PC inhibitor, and LDN-193189, a BMP receptor inhibitor, suppressed squamous differentiation, promoted mucociliary differentiation, and down-regulated the BMP-2/Smad1/5/8/p38 signalling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under retinoic acid-sufficient culture conditions for mucociliary differentiation of HNECs, short-term expression of PC5/6A by the adenovirus system and addition of exogenous BMP-2 induced squamous differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, PC5/6A is involved in squamous differentiation of HNECs, possibly through up-regulation of the BMP-2/pSmad1/5/8/p38 signalling pathway, pointing to a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of chronic airway diseases that exhibit squamous metaplasia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, recent pre-clinical studies suggest BMP-2 may induce osteosarcoma differentiation. (ucalgary.ca)
  • In the 143b cell line there was no differentiation response, however cellular proliferation, motility and tumour growth were enhanced with BMP-2. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The SaOS-2 cell line was found to be more differentiated than the 143b cell line and responded to BMP-2 signalling with partial osteoblastic differentiation, and a reduction in in vivo local tumour burden. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The observed divergent effects of BMP-2 on osteosarcoma tumour growth may be due to the variation in intrinsic differentiation abilities of different cell lines. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The BMPR2 gene belongs to a family of genes originally identified for its role in regulating the growth and maturation (differentiation) of bone and cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) is one of the proteins that can trigger ectopic bone formation at non-skeletal sites in vivo and converts the differentiation pathway of the clonal myoblastic cell line C2C12 into that of osteoblast lineage cells in vitro. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The BMPR2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2. (nih.gov)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 spans the cell membrane, so that one end of the protein is on the outer surface of the cell and the other end remains inside the cell. (nih.gov)
  • About half of the mutations involved in this condition disrupt the assembly of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2, reducing the amount of this protein in cells. (nih.gov)
  • Other mutations prevent bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 from reaching the cell surface or alter its structure so it cannot receive or transmit signals. (nih.gov)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins receptor type 2 (BMPR2) mutations can be found in sufferers with heritable and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (bosutinib.info)
  • Thus, we sought to identify and validate an antibody that neutralizes the ligand-binding function of BMP receptor type 2 (BMPR2) extracellular domain (ECD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we sought to identify and validate a commercially available antibody that neutralizes the ligand-binding function of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2), which is essential for embryogenesis and has been shown to play clinically-relevant roles in pulmonary vascular homeostasis and remodeling of the postnatal skeleton [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results are relevant for other proteins of the TGF-beta superfamily and provide useful clues for structure-based drug design. (rcsb.org)
  • however, it remains to be clarified whether the TGF-β superfamily member bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) affects this process in hOSCC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway comprises the largest subdivision of the transforming growth factor (TGFβ) superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. (quintpub.com)
  • The temporary anchorage devices (TADs) used in this study were manufactured from commercially pure titanium and divided into 2 types of treatments: (1) sandblasted and acid-etched (i.e. the control) and (2) sandblasted and acid-etched treated with Medtronic INFUSE® Bone Graft (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 placed on an absorbable collagen sponge). (calpoly.edu)
  • For both lumbar and cervical fusions, rhBMP-2 and iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) had similar results for fusion. (spinesection.org)
  • BMP has reported outstanding results over bone graft, such as lack of donor morbidity, extensive surgical procedure, higher recovery time, pain & numbness, and high cost. (marketresearch.com)
  • Regarding the surface fraction of the HA/TCP graft particles covered with newly formed bone the addition of rhBMP-2 revealed a more than two-fold increase compared with cylinders containing HA/TCP granules without rhBMP-2. (uzh.ch)
  • Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 6 patients who had undergone repair of a mandible defect using rhBMP-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate matrix or a cadaveric bone graft at a single tertiary care institution. (elsevier.com)
  • Until the development of BMP-2, arthrodesis was mainly performed using bone graft, typically harvested from the iliac crest of the same patient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • n = 8/group) was used to quantify the consequences of a high rhBMP-2 dose (6 mg rhBMP-2) on fusion tissue compared to the 'gold standard' of autologous, cancellous bone graft. (scienceopen.com)
  • Background: Alveolar cleft reconstruction using iliac crest bone graft is considered standard of care for children with complete cleft lip and palate at the time of mixed dentition. (elsevier.com)
  • The authors investigated the outcomes of rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix versus iliac crest bone graft for alveolar cleft reconstruction by reviewing postoperative surgical complications and cleft closure. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for 258 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix procedures (mean follow-up, 2.9 years) and 243 iliac crest bone graft procedures (mean follow-up, 4.1 years) on 414 patients over a 12-year period. (elsevier.com)
  • Twenty-three of the 228 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix patients and 28 of the 242 iliac crest bone graft patients required repeated surgery for alveolar cleft repair. (elsevier.com)
  • Purpose: To evaluate bone graft substitutes used in spine fusion surgery and determine the feasibility of studying the use of adult stem cells. (unt.edu)
  • Hypothesis: Using a well designed, randomized clinical trial to compare bone graft substitutes used in spine fusion surgery will help determine the best alternative to autologous bone graft. (unt.edu)
  • Design: Retrospective data on two bone graft substitutes will be evaluated. (unt.edu)
  • Although the use of tricortical iliac crest bone graft in ACFs is associated with the excellent outcomes, the risk of donor site related complications have always incited the spine surgeon to use various contemporary graft substitutes. (e-neurospine.org)
  • This chapter is focused on the USFDA regulation and the related efficacy evidence of bone graft materials, especially Class III drug-device combination products for use in the spine. (intechopen.com)
  • Currently, there are only two PMA-supported Class III drug-device bone graft substitutes with Level I data that demonstrate equivalence to autograft for safety and effectiveness in spine: Infuse® (rhBMP-2) and i-FACTOR (P-15 peptide). (intechopen.com)
  • The ideal bone graft substitute for spinal fusion would have the safety and effectiveness of autograft when used by itself, be supported by quality published clinical evidence, and be available at a reasonable cost. (intechopen.com)
  • A large reason for these challenges is that the regulatory pathways and required evidence leading to FDA approval for spinal bone graft substitutes vary widely. (intechopen.com)
  • The BMP-2 signaling pathway plays a canonical role in biomineralization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in the pathophysiology of obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • BMPR2 mRNA expression in visceral (Vis) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue in lean, obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. (nih.gov)
  • BMPR2-ECD/Fc fusion (Sino Biologicals 10551-H03H) was mixed with 5 µL Protein G-coupled Dynabeads (Invitrogen 1003D) at room temperature for 30 min in 200 µL total volume with gentle rocking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of dual tapered threaded fusion cages and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge obtained and maintained intervertebral spinal fusion, improved clinical outcomes, and reduced pain after anterior lumbar interbody arthrodesis in patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the ability of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) to osseointegrate was investigated. (calpoly.edu)
  • The current study investigated if transduction with a VSG.G pseudotyped retroviral vector expressing human bone morphogenetic protein 2 influences the gene expression profile of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during monolayer proliferation. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Observational studies have reported serious complications associated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in cervical and lumbar spine fusions. (spinesection.org)
  • Methods: Two centers in the USA and UK were each provided with participant-level data on 17 multi-site clinical trials of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is licensed in Europe for open tibia fractures treated with unreamed nails. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 produced in CHO is a homodimeric, glycosylated, Polypeptide chain containing 115 amino acids and having a calculated molecular mass of 26018 Dalton. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pseudo-Pedicle Heterotopic Ossification From Use of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cages. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Contribution of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 to the rapid creation of interbody fusion when used in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a preliminary report. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Radiographic assessment of interbody fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein type 2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Clinical and radiographic outcomes of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Objectives: To describe the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) as an option for segmental or near-complete rim mandibulectomy defects in a select group of patients, precluding the need for free tissue transfer. (elsevier.com)
  • High-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 impacts histological and biomechanical properties of a cervical spine fusion segment: results from a sheep model. (scienceopen.com)
  • The 'off-label' use of high-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in lumbar and cervical fusion leads to heterotopic bone formation and vertebral osteolysis. (scienceopen.com)
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 as an adjunct for spine fusion in a pediatric population. (scienceopen.com)
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with a demineralized bone matrix is an alternative bone source for alveolar cleft reconstruction. (elsevier.com)
  • We aimed to evaluate the effects of onlay-type grafted human freeze-dried corticocancellous bone block (FDBB) and deproteinized bovine bone with collagen (DBBC) loaded with Escherichia coli-produced recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2) on space maintenance and new bone formation in rat calvaria. (bvsalud.org)
  • Does recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 use in adult spinal deformity increase complications and are complications associated with location of rhBMP-2 Use? (elsevier.com)
  • Evaluate complications associated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) use in ASD. (elsevier.com)
  • Hyaluronan supports recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone reconstruction of advanced alveolar ridge defects in dogs. (elsevier.com)
  • Mouse Anti Human Bone Morphogenetic protein_2 antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Mouse Anti Human Bone Morphogenetic protein_2. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse Anti Human Bone Morphogenetic protein_2 Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Mouse Anti Human Bone Morphogenetic protein_2. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • A chemokinetic response to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was observed in a monolayer culture of primary chondrocytes derived from femoral epiphyseal cartilage of 2-day-old rats. (springer.com)
  • We sought to clarify the interaction between nicotine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in terms of osteogenesis in vitro and osteoinduction in vivo. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • There are several reports, which documented a high incidence of complications following the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in anterior cervical fusions (ACFs). (e-neurospine.org)
  • We performed a retrospective analysis of 197 patients who underwent anterior cervical fusion (ACF) with the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) during 2007-2012. (e-neurospine.org)
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a member of this family, which has gained a widespread popularity for its application in spinal fusions. (e-neurospine.org)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a dose-dependent relationship between the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and bone formation during suture expansion. (bioquant.com)
  • Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market 2020-2029 attempts to offer significant and thoughtful insights into the current market situation and emerging growth dynamics. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Market report aims to analyze market opportunities and risks in the global bone morphogenetic protein 2 industry. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 industry is highly fragmented and the market leaders/key players/major manufacturers have used various strategies such as product launches, acquisitions, agreements, expansions, partnerships, joint ventures, and others to increase their domination over this market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2020-2029 is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to support market players to grow their business tactics and ensure long-term success. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The authors of the report have used simple-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provided precise information and detailed data on the Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The report furnishes players with useful information and advises result-oriented ideas to gain a competitive edge in the Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The global bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) market size is expected to reach over USD 644.6 million by 2024, based on a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing incidence of spinal fusion, trauma, and small bone surgeries coupled with demand for faster bone recovery are the key drivers affirming growth of BMP market. (marketresearch.com)
  • 7. What are the key factors driving the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 industry? (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 10. What are the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market? (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 1. To provide detailed analysis of the market structure along with forecast of the various segments and sub-segments of the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 7. To track and analyze competitive developments such as joint ventures, strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions, new product developments, and research and developments in the global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Global Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 Market 2018 Report gift ideas comprehensive analysis of their present trends, market size, market share, drivers, and opportunities, challenges, and issues in addition to key market segments. (thewomenssecrets.com)
  • An additional review by Agrawal and Sinha of BMP-2 and its common delivery systems in early 2016 showed how "problems like ectopic growth, lesser protein delivery, [and] inactivation of the protein" reveal a further need "to modify the available carrier systems as well as explore other biomaterials with desired properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, we examined ectopic bone formation in nude mice by using soft X-ray, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses in vivo. (uva.nl)
  • mRNA levels of ALP, COL1 alpha 2, and ANGPT1 are signifi cantly upregulating in the nDP+BMP-2 scaffolds at week 1 with ectopic bone seen at week 8. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ectopic bone formation using a collagen sponge containing rhBMP-2 was evaluated with and without nicotine after 21 days using radiographic, histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • C3H10T1/2 cells are an established mesenchymal stem cell line which can differentiate into muscle, fat and cartilage cells when treated with azacytidine. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have suggested that a sequential delivery of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could promote angiogenic tubule formation when delivered to in vitro cocultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). (nih.gov)
  • Here, we examined the independent and collective effects of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 on EMT and mesenchymal‑epithelial transition (MET) in a panel of four hOSCC cell lines. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, BMP-2 downregulated the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and the EMT inducer Snail, but upregulated epithelial CK9 expression, indicating that BMP-2 prefers to induce MET rather than EMT. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured in vitro showed upregulated BMP-2 and osteocalcin gene expression at both week 1 and week 3 in the MICS and nDP-PHY scaffold groups. (uib.no)
  • Specifically, a doxycycline inducible Tet-on adenoviral vector (AdTetBMP-2) in combination with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), fibrin and a biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (MBCP®) was used to repair large bone defects in nude rats. (inserm.fr)
  • This study was performed to determine if a combination of previously undifferentiated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and exogenous bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivered via heparin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles (HCPNs) would extensively regenerate bone in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Bone Marrow Aspirate vs. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (rhBMP-2) in Multilevel Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery and the Feasibility of Using Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells. (unt.edu)
  • The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair. (google.com)
  • These proteins may be used to induce bone and/or cartilage formation and in wound healing and tissue repair. (google.com)
  • The transplanted C3H10T1/2 cells formed mineralized bone containing chondrocytes and adipocytes, whereas MC3T3-E1 created only bony tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The bone tissue has an uncommon capacity to regenerate with the complete substitution of the harmed tissue by de novo formed tissue. (scielo.br)
  • When the bone loss is larger than this critical limit, a surgical intervention is necessary in order to achieve tissue reparation. (scielo.br)
  • Nevertheless, the results achieved with the use of these techniques are still uncertain in cases of large tissue destruction in which the losses do not allow a correct juxtaposition of the bone fragments. (scielo.br)
  • Although the autografts are successfully used, they have some disadvantages, such as the limited amount of bone tissue that can be obtained and necessity of a surgery in the donor area. (scielo.br)
  • Consequently, there is considerable interest in developing novel alternatives to de novo regenerate bone tissue. (scielo.br)
  • Total RNAs were isolated from bone tissue collected from patients with facial trauma (jaw fractures between the 7th and 10th day pos-trauma). (scielo.br)
  • Bone tissue engineering requires the upregulation of several regenerative stages, including a critical early phase of angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The aim is to evaluate the effect of modifying poly[(L-lactide)-co-(epsilon-caprolactone)] scaffolds (PLCL) with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP+physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP+BMP-2) on in vivo host tissue response and degradation. (diva-portal.org)
  • While EMT is essential for embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance ( 2 , 3 ), it is also necessary for desmoplasia and cancer cell migration ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Linear regression analysis was performed on raw data of 90 patients that were either treated by standard of care with soft tissue management and unreamed nailing (SOC group) (n = 50) or with rhBMP-2 in addition to soft tissue management and unreamed nailing (rhBMP-2 group) (n = 40). (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Newly formed bone was vascularized and fully integrated with nascent tissue and implanted biomaterial. (inserm.fr)
  • Despite its efficacy in inducing bone formation, clinical BMP-2 delivery has also been associated with numerous complications, including soft tissue inflammation and abnormal (heterotopic) ossification, in as many as 28% of patients treated with BMP-2 for off-label spinal applications ( 6 , 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Histological findings supported improved bone-healing after rhBMP treatment but quantitative micro-CT and histomorphometric results still showed significantly more hypertrophic callus tissue in all three infected groups compared to the non-infected group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These destructive ROS have the potential to damage proteins, lipid membranes and nucleic acids and result in tissue damage [ 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Other tissues which are major users of iron include the muscles (2-3%) where it is present in the haem group of myoglobin, tissue macrophages (5%) involved in red blood cell (RBC) recycling and liver hepatocytes (20%) where excess iron is stored within ferritin. (mdpi.com)
  • However, little is so far known about the histological, functional or biomechanical tissue consequences of over-dosage of rhBMP-2 in these specific clinical situations. (scienceopen.com)
  • Our results suggest a potential application of rhBMP-2 for the designed distribution of chondrocytes into a scaffold to be used for tissue engineering. (springer.com)
  • Three defects were implanted with rhBMP-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier (positive control). (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: Fifty 6-week-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to 5 groups to receive 0 (control), 0.01, 0.025, 0.1, or 0.4 mg/mL of rhBMP-2 delivered by absorbable collagen sponge placed over the interfrontal suture. (bioquant.com)
  • BMP-2 induces the activation of mTOR in A549 ( A ) and H1299 ( B ) lung cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BMP-2 induces cyclin E through the PI3K/mTOR pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A. BMP-2 induces cyclin E m-RNA that is not regulated through m-TOR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenic protein induces bone formation. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Similarly, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) induces CHAT activity in an embryonic in vitro model and stimulates ACh release in rat hippocampal slices. (bu.edu)
  • Determining whether BMP-2 induces pain directly or whether it induces neuroinflammation, which could lower the threshold for pain, is important for developing therapeutic interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Function: Induces cartilage and bone formation. (szabo-scandic.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that rhBMP-2 may be a natural chemokinetic factor in vivo, which induces migration of proliferative chondrocytes into the narrow interfibrous spaces. (springer.com)
  • Consistent with the observation that Runx2 can be induced by either TGF-β1 or BMP-2, the exogenous expression of Runx2 mediated some of the effects of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 but not osteoblast-specific gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Xenograft orthotopic murine models were used to assess the effects of exogenous and endogenous elevations in BMP-2 signaling on tumour growth and metastasis. (ucalgary.ca)
  • While used primarily in orthopedic procedures such as spinal fusion, BMP-2 has also found its way into the field of dentistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study published in 2011 noted "reports of frequent and occasionally catastrophic complications associated with use of [BMP-2] in spinal fusion surgeries", with a level of risk far in excess of estimates reported in earlier studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors conclude that on the basis of the currently available evidence, it is difficult to identify clear indications for rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion. (spinesection.org)
  • Osteogenic Potential of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid as an Alternative to rhBMP-2 in a Mouse Spinal Fusion Model. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Supraphysiologic doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) are used clinically to promote bone formation in fracture nonunions, large bone defects, and spinal fusion. (sciencemag.org)
  • The use of clinical products containing recombinant human BMP-2 rose sharply after their introduction into the health care market in 2002, with BMP-2 use accounting for 25% of all spinal fusion surgeries by 2006 ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis indicated macrophage infiltration in the DRG and spinal nerve in rats implanted with rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponges or absorbable collagen sponges alone, but not in rats that underwent surgery without implantation of the absorbable collagen sponges suggesting that the sponges contributed to the biological response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FDA approval of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) for interbody fusion in the anterior lumbar spine was initially widely welcomed by orthopedic surgeons as it enabled more rapid spinal fusion without the morbidity associated with a second harvesting surgical site [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that a high dose of rhBMP-2 in cervical spinal fusion could induce substantial alterations in bone, leading to mechanical impairment. (scienceopen.com)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 is widely used in spinal fusion, trauma surgery, oral maxillofacial surgery and reconstructive. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • The most proportion of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 is used in spinal fusion, and the consumption proportion is about 62% in 2016. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Background: Treatment of trauma-related spinal instability with use of recombinant human bonemorphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) may appear as a viable option, but little is known of the direct effects of rhBMP-2 on the injured spinal cord. (elsevier.com)
  • In the current study, we investigated the acute and long-term effects of using rhBMP-2 in the posterolateral spine at the level of a spinal cord injury in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • After the animals were killed, they were perfused and the spinal cords analyzed for inflammatory markers, gliosis, and extracellular matrix proteins with use of immunohistochemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Our findings indicate that in a rat model, rhBMP-2 use in the vicinity of a penetrating spinal cord injury triggers detrimental changes in the morphology of the spinal cord lesion and alters functional recovery. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinical Relevance: Our findings suggest that rhBMP-2 used in its current form may impede neurologic recovery in a subset of patientswith an open dural spinal cord injury, aswe observed detrimental effects on histological and behavioral testing in our rat model. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the in vivo differential property, these cells were inoculated with BMP-2 in a diffusion chamber and transplanted into the mouse peritoneal cavity for 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Heterodimeric BMP-2/7 significantly promoted osteogenesis of hASCs in vitro and in vivo. (uva.nl)
  • High Doses of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induce Structurally Abnormal Bone and Inflammation In Vivo. (minatec.org)
  • We propose that this functional, non-invasive imaging method allows tri-modal visualisation of the release of BMP-2 and the following in vivo response. (diva-portal.org)
  • The effect of adenoviral BMP-2 gene delivery upon bone healing was investigated in vivo in 4 mm critically sized, internally fixated, femoral defects. (inserm.fr)
  • We first developed a computational model to investigate BMP-2-HMP interactions and demonstrated improved in vivo BMP-2 retention using HMPs. (sciencemag.org)
  • HMPs increased BMP-2 retention in vivo, improving spatial localization of bone formation in large bone defects and reducing heterotopic ossification. (sciencemag.org)
  • These complications are believed to be caused by the supraphysiological doses of BMP-2 that must be used in humans for effective treatment to overcome the short half-life and rapid clearance of the protein in vivo (~6.7 min) ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In vivo testing found that undifferentiated BMMSCs with BMP-2-loaded HCPNs induce far more extensive bone formation than either implantation of BMP-2-loaded HCPNs or osteogenically differentiated BMMSCs. (elsevier.com)
  • We assessed the oncologic consequences of BMP-2 signalling on osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Results showed that nicotine did not inhibit the stimulatory effect of rhBMP-2 in vitro, but a high dose of nicotine inhibited bone formation in vivo by adversely affecting vascularization. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the possible cross-talk between BMP-2 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in OA progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review examines the current status of hepcidin and ferroportin agonists and antagonists, as well as inducers and inhibitors of these proteins and their regulatory pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • Mutations in the Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways are the cause of inherited polyposis syndromes as well as the initiating event in the development of sporadic gastrointestinal cancer development ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The BMP-2 variant L51P was deficient in type I receptor binding only, whereas its overall structure and its binding to type II receptors and modulator proteins, such as noggin, were unchanged. (rcsb.org)
  • TGF-β1 stimulates the synthesis of matrix proteins and their receptors (for example, fibronectin, fibronectin receptor, collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and integrins) and inhibits matrix degradation by increasing the production of protease inhibitors and decreasing the production of proteases ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • Specific inhibitors for type 2 receptors are poorly represented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Extracellular dimeric ligands bind to transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptor complexes, bringing together two type 1 and two type 2 receptors, in order to activate a group of effectors called SMAD proteins [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • That said, the repertoire of these molecules remains limited and, in particular, few tools exist for inhibiting the function of type 2 BMP receptors, the activity of which are essential for initiating signal transduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the effect of BMP‑2 on the expression of nNOS was also investigated in primary enteric neurons and the Smad1 signal transduction pathway by western blot analysis, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The results suggested that BMP‑2 promoted the expression of nNOS in primary myenteric neurons and induced phosphorylation of Smad1. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Notably, we found that HSC-4 cells were the most responsive to BMP-2 stimulation, which resulted in the upregulation of Smad1/5/9 target genes such as the MET inducers ID1 and cytokeratin 9 (CK9). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Moreover, TGF-β1 dampened BMP-2-induced epithelial gene expression by inhibiting Smad1/5/9 expression and phosphorylation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We showed that treatment of cultured chondrocytes with BMP-2 resulted in increased β-catenin nuclear translocation and LRP-5 expression and that the BMP-2-induced LRP-5 upregulation is mediated through Smad1/5/8 binding on LRP-5 promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This leads to the phosphorylation of the type I receptor that subsequently phosphorylates the BMP-specific Smads (Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8), allowing these receptor-associated Smads to form a complex with Smad4 and move into the nucleus where the Smad complex binds a DNA binding protein and acts as a transcriptional enhancer ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BMP-2 is known as osteogenic BMP which is based on its strong bone-inducing activity [ 8 ] and essential for endochondral bone formation [ 9 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Chondrogenesis leads to the formation of mature cartilage and generates initial skeletal elements that serve as templates for endochondral bone formation. (monash.edu)
  • Gene expression analysis revealed that the hypertrophic marker collagen X was down-regulated by approximately 50% and the chondrogenic marker Aggrecan was elevated almost 9-fold in Rv.BMP-2 transduced hMSCs if compared to Rv.eGFP transduced control cells. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Interestingly, the same changes in gene expression were detected when hMSCs were exposed to 100 ng/ml of recombinant human BMP-2 and their gene expression profile was compared to control hMSC. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • A region encompassing the chondrocyte-specific enhancer, localized in intron I of type-II collagen α1 chain (Col2a1) gene, is sufficient to confer BMP-2-dependent transcriptional induction of type-II collagen gene expression. (monash.edu)
  • Interestingly, direct BMP-2 treatment of DRG explants resulted in changes in gene expression that were not specifically pro-inflammatory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, analysis of DRGs taken from rats implanted with absorbable collagen sponges without rhBMP-2 showed a significant change in gene expression distinct from DRGs from rats undergoing surgery only. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, abnormal bone formation (i.e., heterotopic ossification) caused by rapid BMP-2 release from conventional collagen sponge scaffolds is a serious complication. (sciencemag.org)
  • Scope of the Report: The classification of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 includes sponge and gel types, and the proportion of sponge in 2016 is about 99%, and the proportion will be in decreasing trend from 2017 to 2022. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Collagen sponge (CS), FDBB, or DBBC disks (8×4 mm) with ErhBMP-2 (2.5 µg) were implanted onto the calvaria of male Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas CS with buffer was implanted onto the calvaria as controls (n=20/carrier). (bvsalud.org)
  • A low-dose rhBMP-2 (0.7mg/level) sponge was placed exclusively within the cage. (e-neurospine.org)
  • In 102 patients demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was filled around the BMP sponge. (e-neurospine.org)
  • Packing DBM putty around the BMP sponge does not affect the safety profile of rhBMP-2 in ACFs. (e-neurospine.org)
  • The worldwide market for Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly 2.0% over the next five years, will reach 430 million US$ in 2024, from 390 million US$ in 2019, according to a new GIR (Global Info Research) study. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Chapter 4, the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2019. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Chapter 12, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2019 to 2024. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • The implants were placed on the cranial bones of 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. (calpoly.edu)
  • After further 5 weeks rats were sacrificed and underwent biomechanical testing to assess the mechanical stability of the fractured bone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rats implanted with rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponges also exhibited a transient change in thermal and mechanical sensitivity indicating that rhBMP-2 applied to the lumbar spine could increase pain sensitivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: Fifty-two rats underwent a T10 dorsal hemisection and were assigned to one of two groups: the vehicle control group (twenty-four rats) or the rhBMP-2 group (twenty-four rats). (elsevier.com)
  • Results: At one week, there was a significant increase in reactive astrocyte, macrophage-microglia, and fibroblast immunoreactivity around the lesion in the rhBMP-2-treated rats relative to controls. (elsevier.com)
  • cDNAs dos genes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) e bone morphogenetic protein -4 (BMP-4) foram sintetizados a partir de RNA total extraído de tecidos ósseos de pacientes que apresentavam trauma facial (fraturas do maxilar entre o 7º e o 10º dia pós-trauma) e clonados num vetor para expressão em células mamíferas, sob controle do promotor de citomegalovírus (CMV). (scielo.br)
  • Os vetores contendo os genes BMP-2 e o BMP-4 foram utilizados para a transfecção de fibroblastos bovinos. (scielo.br)
  • The vectors were used to transfect bovine fibroblasts and express the BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes. (scielo.br)
  • Expression of another ∼50 genes was decreased ≥2-fold on BCP vs. plastic, even though hASCs differentiate better on BCP than on plastic. (uva.nl)
  • Using microarray analysis we found that implantation of rhBMP-2-soaked absorbable collagen sponges resulted in altered expression of numerous pro-inflammatory genes in the adjacent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) showing that implantation of rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponges triggers potent neuroinflammatory responses in the DRG-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BMP-2 and -4 genes was analyzed in 101 osteoporotic-postmenopausal women and 52 postmenopausal women with positive bone mineral density scores. (geneticsmr.com)
  • In particular, BMP-2 is a cytokine used to treat bone defects and is being investigated in regenerative studies ( 15 , 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study is designed to determine the effect of collagen membrane (CM) soaked with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for the treatment of peri-implant dehiscence defects. (uzh.ch)
  • The nDP-PHY scaffolds used here in critical-sized bone defects for the first time appear to have promise compared to growth factors adsorbed onto a polymer alone and the short distance effect prevents adverse systemic side effects. (uib.no)
  • Our model and novel gene delivery system may provide a powerful standardized tool for the optimization of growth factor delivery and release for the healing of large bone defects. (inserm.fr)
  • We leveraged the strong affinity interactions between heparin microparticles (HMPs) and BMP-2 to improve protein delivery to bone defects. (sciencemag.org)
  • We then evaluated BMP-2-loaded HMPs as a treatment strategy for healing critically sized femoral defects in a rat model that displays heterotopic ossification with clinical BMP-2 doses (0.12 mg/kg body weight). (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore currently available therapeutic options must involve not only antibiotic treatment but also repeated surgical debridement, potentially exacerbating extensive bone defects [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusion: The use of an rhBMP-2-based reconstructive approach is a feasible option for segmental or nearcomplete rim mandibulectomy defects in a select group of patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: Alveolar ridge defects (∼15 x 10 x 10 mm), 2 per jaw quadrant, were surgically prepared in each of 3 young adult American fox hounds. (elsevier.com)
  • Four defects were immediately implanted with rhBMP-2/HY. (elsevier.com)
  • Three defects were implanted with HY sponges soak-loaded with buffer without rhBMP-2 (negative control), while 2 defects served as surgical controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Clinically, alveolar ridge defects receiving rhBMP-2/ACS exhibited a slight supracrestal expansion, while defects receiving rhBMP-2/HY were filled to contour. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, the HY and surgical controls exhibited ridge collapse, rhBMP-2/HY-treated defects exhibited a dense bone quality without radiolucent regions observed in defects treated with rhBMP-2/ACS. (elsevier.com)
  • The histometric analysis showed 100% bone fill for the rhBMP-2/ACS defects and 94%, 58%, and 65% bone fill for the rhBMP-2/HY, HY, and surgical control defects, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • A study in skeletal muscle and cultured muscle cells and the effects of dantrolene and verapamil," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 741-748, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • The fusiform stroma cells in the tooth extraction socket began to express TGF‐β1, BMP‐2 and VEGF mRNA in both experimental and control groups from one week after tooth extraction until the end of experiment. (nature.com)
  • Multipotent fibroblastic C3H10T1/2 cells are known to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in response to certain growth factors. (nih.gov)
  • Incubation of these cells with BMP-2 resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, but the increase in MC3T3-E1 cells was much higher than that in C3H10T1/2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Transfection of the C3H10T1/2 cells with a BMP-2 cDNA also induced a phenotypic change from the parental fibroblast to adipocytes and osteoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • BMP-2+MDZ treatment reduced the immunostaining for both α1 and γ2 subunits antigens on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor in C2C12 cells, but enhanced that for BMP signal transducers. (mdpi.com)
  • however, BMP6 upregulated LHR transcript and protein level in goat granulosa cells, whereas it had no effect on FSHR level. (academicjournals.org)
  • We identified Runx2/PEBP2αA/Cbfa1, a global regulator of osteogenesis, as a major TGF-β1-responsive element binding protein induced by TGF-β1 and BMP-2 in C2C12 cells. (asm.org)
  • Runx2 mimicked common effects of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 by inducing expression of matrix gene products (for example, collagen and fibronectin), suppressing MyoD expression, and inhibiting myotube formation of C2C12 cells. (asm.org)
  • Although nearly all cells synthesize and respond to TGF-β, bone and cartilage are particularly rich in this growth factor ( 6 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Cells grown on the PHY scaffolds in vitro expressed collagen type 1 alpha 2 early but the scaffold could not sustain rhBMP-2 release to express mineralization. (uib.no)
  • Cells were treated with 10 ng/mL recombinant BMP-2 and phosphorylated mTOR ( p-mTOR ) was determined by Western blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • C. A549 cells were pretreated for 1 hour with PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002 (20 μmol/L), before incubation with BMP-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A549 ( A ) and H1299 ( C ) cells were treated with 10 ng/mL recombinant BMP-2 and cyclin E expression was examined by Western blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • E. Immunoblot of cyclin D1 of A549 cells treated with 10 ng/mL BMP-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin E immunoblot of A549 ( F ) and H1299 ( G ) cells treated with rapamycin (1 μg/mL) 2 hours before being treated with 10 ng/mL BMP-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • H. Cyclin E immunoblot of A549 cells pretreated with wortmannin (100 nmol/L) before BMP-2 (10 ng/mL) treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Quantification of cyclin E expression in A549 cells treated with 10 ng/mL BMP-2 ( A ) and cells pretreated with 1 μg/mL rapamycin before being treated with BMP-2 ( B ). The level of cyclin E expression from each immunoblot was quantitated using NIH imaging. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B. A549/Tob3SA cells cultured in DMEM/5% FCS were treated with 10 ng/mL BMP-2 and immunoblots for cyclin E and phosphorylated mTOR were done. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Limiting dilution cloning assay of A549/Vector ( C ) and A549/BMP-2 ( D ) cells treated with (+) and without (-) rapamycin (1 μg/mL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This review will be focusing on BMP-2 signaling in modulating normal cells, human diseases, and cancer progression and suppression. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Time-course studies with BMP-2-stimulated C3H10T1/2 cells showed a dose-dependent appearance of Alcian-blue-positive material and up-regulated expression of type-II collagen mRNA. (monash.edu)
  • Cells were pre-treated with vehicle control (Group A) or rhBMP-2 (Group B) prior to implantation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Human BMMSCs cultured in medium containing BMP-2-loaded HCPNs for 2 weeks differentiated toward osteogenic cells expressing alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA, while cells without BMP-2 expressed only ALP. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro experiment using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and cells from the nucleus pulposus (NP), transitional zone (TZ), and anulus fibrosus (AF) of the human intervertebral disc (IVD). (elsevier.com)
  • To demonstrate the differential effect of BMP-2 on DNA synthesis, proteoglycan synthesis, and osteocalcin mRNA expression in human IVD cells from the NP, TZ, and AF, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • BMP-2 has been proven to be effective in stimulating proteoglycan synthesis in articular chondrocytes and IVD cells from the NP. (elsevier.com)
  • Nevertheless, the effect of BMP-2 on cells from different regions of the IVD has not yet been thoroughly elucidated. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells from the AF responded to BMP-2 with mitogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Only cells from the NP showed a significant increase in newly synthesized proteoglycan in response to BMP-2. (elsevier.com)
  • IVD cells from all zones demonstrated no significant expression of bone sialoprotein, DLX5, osteocalcin mRNA after treatment with BMP-2. (elsevier.com)
  • BMP-2 clearly exerted a mitogenic effect on AF cells, and stimulated proteoglycan synthesis in NP cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Nicotine did not inhibit or stimulate alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity or the amount of osteocalcin in C2C12 cells in the presence of rhBMP-2 in vitro. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The reaction is based on the bioreduction of the substrate 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) into a brown formazan product by mitochondrial dehydrogenases of viable cells. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • C2C12 cells (American Type Culture Collection) were seeded at 5 × 10 2 cells per well in a 96-well plate containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and 1% penicillin. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 in breast cancer cells inhibits hypoxic cell death. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BMP-2 is involved in the fetal and postnatal development of the mammary gland but has also been detected in breast cancer cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Stably transfected MCF-7 cells overexpressing BMP-2 revealed significantly increased resistance to hypoxia-induced apoptosis compared to empty vector controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cytoplasmic BMP-2/4 protein expression was detected in carcinoma cells of 81 samples of invasive breast cancer in contrast to adjacent normal mammary epithelial cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that BMP-2/4 expression is reactivated in invasive breast cancer and part of an autocrine/paracrine mechanism rescuing malignant cells from hypoxic cell death via activation of the MAPK and Id-1 pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To determine the effect of local simvastatin application on the mRNA expression level of transforming growth factor‐β1 (TGF‐β1), bone morphogenetic protein‐2 (BMP‐2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tooth sockets of rat. (nature.com)
  • The expression of TGF‐β1, BMP‐2 and VEGF mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization in the tooth extraction socket at five days, one week, two weeks and four weeks after implantation. (nature.com)
  • The expression of TGF‐β1 and BMP‐2 mRNA in the experimental group was significantly up‐regulated after one, two and four weeks, and expression of VEGF mRNA was significantly increased after one and two weeks compared with that in the control group. (nature.com)
  • Liu, C., Wu, Z. & Sun, H. The Effect of Simvastatin on mRNA Expression of Transforming Growth Factor‐β1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein‐2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Tooth Extraction Socket. (nature.com)
  • This last effect required new protein synthesis because addition of cycloheximide completely blocked the induction of type-II collagen mRNA. (monash.edu)
  • LRP-5, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and LEF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were found to be significantly upregulated in osteoarthritic chondrocytes compared with normal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for mRNA expression of bone sialoprotein, DLX5, osteocalcin, and collagen type I, was performed. (elsevier.com)
  • rhBMP-2 is widely known for its high osteoinductive property for faster formation of bone and cartilage in bone fusion procedures rhBMP-2 held more than half of the market share in 2015. (marketresearch.com)
  • The osteoinductive properties of BMP-2 prompted its development into clinical use to promote bone growth and fracture healing, including arthrodesis (spine fusion). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2, with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) 2 in 2017 and 2018. (marketstudyreport.com)
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 (BMP R2) is a 70-80kD protein that belongs to serine/threonine kinases family. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The findings indicate that local administration of simvastatin can influence alveolar bone remodeling by regulating the expression of a school of growth factors which are crucial to osteogenesis in the tooth extraction socket. (nature.com)
  • Compared to plastic, BCP-cultured hASCs showed ≥2-fold higher expression of ∼20 factors, e.g. cytokines such as IL-6, growth factors such as FGF7 and adhesion molecules such as VCAM1. (uva.nl)
  • BMP-2-treatment increased the expression of ∼30 factors by hASCs seeded on BCP, while it decreased the expression of only PGF, PPARG and PTN. (uva.nl)
  • However, it was previously unclear that this PDGF to BMP-2 delivery schedule will result in cell migration into the scaffolding system and affect the later expression of bone markers. (nih.gov)
  • Using a three-dimensional coculture model, we observed that this sequence of PDGF to BMP-2 delivery influenced both cellular infiltration and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. (nih.gov)
  • B. BMP-2-induced cyclin E expression involves the regulation of translation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) transgene expression could be effectively tuned by modification of the doxycycline concentration. (inserm.fr)
  • Analysis of the expression levels of chondrogenic Sry-type high-mobility group (HMG) box proteins (SOX) transcription factors demonstrated a time-dependent induction of Sox6 expression by BMP-2 that correlated with the appearance of BMP-2-induced protein complexes bound to the chondrocyte-specific enhancer. (monash.edu)
  • Forced expression of SOX6 mimicked the BMP-2 effect, whereas coexpression of SOX9 promoted a synergistic interaction between both factors in transcription from the chondrocyte-specific enhancer. (monash.edu)
  • Low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP-5) and 6, BMP-2, -4, and -7, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA and IB (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IA), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1), and transcription factor 4 ( TCF-4) expression levels were investigated in normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LRP-5, β-catenin (phospho and active form), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 7, 9, 13, 14, ADAMTS-4, 5, as well as collagen X (COL10A1) expression levels were evaluated after LRP-5 silencing in BMP-2-treated chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LRP-5 silencing reduced nuclear β-catenin protein levels, MMPs and collagen X expression, whereas increased phospho-β-catenin protein levels in BMP-2-treated chondrocyte. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, BMP9 increased hippocampal CHAT protein expression in the 5-month old wildtype and APPswe/PS1deltaE9 mouse by 70% and 40%, respectively. (bu.edu)
  • Using a retinoic acid deficiency-induced squamous metaplasia model of HNECs, we observed a significant increase in the expression of PC5/6A, a PC member, and BMP-2, a candidate substrate for PC5/6A. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific lentiviral shRNA-mediated PC5/6A knockdown decreased BMP-2 expression and maturation, decreased expression of squamous cell markers, and increased expression of ciliated cell markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • showed that rhBMP-2 expression was usually maintained at a high level for two weeks after completion of distraction in the presence of nicotine, while Theiss et al. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • BMP-2/4 expression did not correlate with common prognostic parameters and was not associated with relapse-free or overall survival. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For anterior cervical spine fusion, rhBMP-2 was associated with increased risk for wound complications and dysphagia. (spinesection.org)
  • Owing to this advantage, rhBMP-2 is being implanted with increasing frequency in the lumbar spine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Statement of Clinical Significance: The data support the notion that exposure to rhBMP-2 does not promote the growth of A549 lung cancer spine lesions. (northwestern.edu)
  • The potent ability of BMP-2 to stimulate bone growth prompted its widespread clinical use for arthrodesis (spine fusion). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We therefore modeled the clinical use of BMP-2 for posterior lumbar fusion by implanting absorbable collagen sponges soaked with either recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) or vehicle above the L4-L5 transverse processes of rat spine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data indicate that implantation of rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponges on the lumbar spine triggers potent neuroinflammatory responses in the DRG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2008 the FDA issued a warning about life threatening complications associated with off-label use of rhBMP-2 in the anterior cervical spine [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, rhBMP-2 is still widely used in the lumbar spine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study is to share our experience with low-dose rhBMP-2 in anterior cervical spine. (e-neurospine.org)
  • For anterior lumbar interbody fusion, rhBMP-2 was associated with non-significantly increased risk for retrograde ejaculation and urogenital problems. (spinesection.org)
  • Vertebral bone resorption after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purpose was to quantify and describe the presence of bone resorption within the vertebral body after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with placement of rhBMP-2 within the disc space. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Adjacent vertebral body osteolysis with bone morphogenetic protein use in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anterior lumbar interbody fusion using rhBMP-2 with tapered interbody cages. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Unilateral transforaminal posterior lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF): indications, technique, and 2-year results. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was also observed that hMSCs expressed a greater amount of ALP+ staining in response to scaffolds delivering the sequential PDGF to BMP-2 schedule, when compared with scaffolds delivering no growth factor, or PDGF alone. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, modifying PLCL scaffolds with nDP does not aggravate the host response and physisorbed BMP-2 delivery attenuates infl ammation while lowering the dose of BMP-2 to a relatively safe and economical level. (diva-portal.org)
  • A low dose of 1 μg rhBMP-2 was immobilised by four different functionalising techniques on recently developed poly(l-lactide)-co-(ε-caprolactone) [(poly(LLA-co-CL)] scaffolds. (uib.no)
  • Release kinetics of BMP-2 from the different scaffolds was quantified using targeted mass spectrometry for up to 70 days. (uib.no)
  • In contrast, NDP-PHY and nDP-COV scaffolds showed no significant release, although nDP-PHY scaffolds maintained bioactivity of BMP-2. (uib.no)
  • Collectively, these data suggest that TGF-β positively regulates hOSCC invasion in the primary tumor, whereas BMP-2 facilitates cancer cell colonization at secondary metastatic sites. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • BMP-2 regulates cyclin E through a Smad 1/5-independent mechanism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Binding epitopes for these extracellular signaling proteins have been defined, but hot spots specifying binding affinity and specificity have so far not been identified. (rcsb.org)
  • Osteogenic protein-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prospective randomized study of posterolateral lumbar fusion using osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) versus local autograft with ceramic bone substitute: emphasis of surgical exploration and histologic assessment. (scienceopen.com)
  • Losses of bone tissues occur due to several factors, most importantly due to accidents. (scielo.br)
  • Periodontitis may cause the inflammation of the periodontal supporting tissues, formation of periodontal pocket, progressive attachment loss and alveolar bone absorption, which finally result in loose and loss of teeth. (medsci.org)
  • In 1965, Urist 14) discovered a subset of protein extract, which had a significant potential of inducing new bone formation even at the non-osseous tissues. (e-neurospine.org)
  • These transgenic animals can further produce proteins with pharmaceutical relevance (Houdebine, 2000). (scielo.br)
  • The present invention relates to a novel family of purified proteins designated BMP-2 (wherein BMP is bone morphogenic protein) proteins and processes for obtaining them. (google.com)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of mammalian Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • BMP intracellular signalling through Smad proteins. (els.net)
  • Although high-dose rhBMP-2 treatment led to an advanced radiological fusion result compared to autograft treatment, heterotopic bone formation and vertebral bone resorption were induced simultaneously. (scienceopen.com)
  • Despite qualitative alteration of the trabecular bone structure within the fusion site, the massive anterior heterotopic bone formation led to a substantial increase in mechanical stiffness compared to the autograft group. (scienceopen.com)
  • It has close sequence homology to BMP7 and BMP5 and is believed to play a role in bone and cartilage development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the fact that this BMP is closely related to BMP5 and BMP7 has led to speculation of possible bone inductive activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro testing found that the HCPNs were able to release BMP-2 over a 2-week period. (elsevier.com)
  • acquired LY2109761 pontent inhibitor higher white bloodstream cell counts and significantly raised serum protein levels of IL-6 and osteoprotegerin (OPG) plasma levels recapitulating in?vitro data. (bosutinib.info)
  • In order to check for subtle differences between skeletal structure in wild type and nBmp2NLS^tm mice, digital calipers were used to measure bone dimensions on skeletal preparations of wild type and mutant male mice. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, mutational and structural analyses show that epitopes of BMP-2 and the BRIA receptor form a new type of protein-protein interface. (rcsb.org)
  • The bone morphogenetic protein 2 market is further bifurcated into Portable/Mini Type, Fixed Type based on its impact on the market's revenue enrichment and increase in product demand and supply. (pharmiweb.com)
  • 2006) High resolution structures of the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor in two crystal forms: implications for ligand binding. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The patient also had type 2 diabetes and a 2-year history of glucocorticoid therapy due to rheumatic arthritis, a possible comorbidity of osteonecrosis of the jaw. (allenpress.com)
  • Evaluate clinically and radiographically the conditions of bone density around the experimental bioactive implants that are covered with Bone Morphogenetic Protein recombinant human type-2 (rhBMP-2) (IE) and to compare it to that obtained whit rough- surface implants (IC). (bvsalud.org)
  • It has been indicated that the type I collagen atelocollagen is highly effective as a carrier for rhBMP-2. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients. (quintpub.com)
  • Conclusions: The rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative for alveolar cleft repair. (elsevier.com)
  • Functional analysis revealed that TGF-β1 and BMP-2 significantly enhanced HSC-4 cell migration and proliferation, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Statistical analysis revealed significantly more newly formed bone in the two rhBMP-2 groups compared with the PEG and HA/TCP group and with the empty control. (uzh.ch)
  • Radiological assessment scores post-mortem were significantly improved upon delivery of AdTetBMP-2. (inserm.fr)
  • In AdTetBMP-2 groups, histological analysis revealed significantly more newly formed bone at the defect site compared with controls. (inserm.fr)
  • A recent comprehensive meta-analysis of several clinical trials also revealed a significantly increased risk ratio for the development of post-operative back and leg pain in patients when rhBMP-2 is used for posterolateral arthrodesis, a surgical procedure used to fuse two or more vertebrae [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functionally, in the acute phase, rhBMP-2-treated animals demonstrated more open field and finemotor control deficits relative to the controls.By six weeks, both groups had equivalent functional scores, but those treated with rhBMP-2 retained significantly greater paw angle changes than the control animals. (elsevier.com)
  • The rhBMP-2 significantly increased their migration upto 10 ng/ml in a dose-dependent manner. (springer.com)
  • Mutations in the gene-encoding SERCA1, the fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase, are associated with Brody disease," Nature Genetics , vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 191-194, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • This synthetic PEG matrix containing HA/TCP granules apparently fulfills a number of criteria required for an ideal carrier system for rhBMP-2. (uzh.ch)
  • In one animal, no response to rhBMP-2 was observed with either carrier, and the animal may have been a non-responder of unknown nature. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, HY appears to be a suitable candidate carrier for rhBMP-2. (elsevier.com)