Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Breaks in bones.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.

Growth differentiation factor-9 stimulates proliferation but suppresses the follicle-stimulating hormone-induced differentiation of cultured granulosa cells from small antral and preovulatory rat follicles. (1/115)

In addition to pituitary gonadotropins and paracrine factors, ovarian follicle development is also modulated by oocyte factors capable of stimulating granulosa cell proliferation but suppressing their differentiation. The nature of these oocyte factors is unclear. Because growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) enhanced preantral follicle growth and was detected in the oocytes of early antral and preovulatory follicles, we hypothesized that this oocyte hormone could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells from these advanced follicles. Treatment with recombinant GDF-9, but not FSH, stimulated thymidine incorporation into cultured granulosa cells from both early antral and preovulatory follicles, accompanied by increases in granulosa cell number. Although GDF-9 treatment alone stimulated basal steroidogenesis in granulosa cells, cotreatment with GDF-9 suppressed FSH-stimulated progesterone and estradiol production. In addition, GDF-9 cotreatment attentuated FSH-induced LH receptor formation. The inhibitory effects of GDF-9 on FSH-induced granulosa cell differentiation were accompanied by decreases in the FSH-induced cAMP production. These data suggested that GDF-9 is a proliferation factor for granulosa cells from early antral and preovulatory follicles but suppresses FSH-induced differentiation of the same cells. Thus, oocyte-derived GDF-9 could account, at least partially, for the oocyte factor(s) previously reported to control cumulus and granulosa cell differentiation.  (+info)

Expression of growth and differentiation factor-9 in the ovaries of fetal sheep homozygous or heterozygous for the inverdale prolificacy gene (FecX(I)). (2/115)

Abnormal follicular and oocyte growth in ovaries of sheep homozygous (II) for the Inverdale gene, FecX(I), suggest that this gene may influence a fundamental event in initiation of folliculogenesis, with two copies of the gene inhibiting growth at the primordial/primary stage. In addition, striking similarities in ovarian morphology between mice deficient in growth and differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and II sheep suggest a relationship between the FecX(I) gene and GDF-9 function in the ovary. Therefore, it was hypothesized that GDF-9 mRNA expression would be inhibited in ovaries of II fetal sheep. To test this hypothesis, in situ hybridization was used to characterize GDF-9 mRNA expression in ovaries of homozygous (II), heterozygous (I+), and control (++) fetal sheep at Day 135 of gestation. GDF-9 mRNA expression was localized exclusively to oocytes from the type 1 follicle stage onward in all genotypes and is the first demonstration of GDF-9 mRNA expression in ovaries of fetal sheep. In addition, GDF-9 mRNA expression was detected in oocytes of abnormal type 2 follicles in the ovaries of II sheep. Thus, it does not appear that inhibition of GDF-9 gene expression is the mechanism of action whereby the FecX(I) gene exerts its influence. However, the possibility of translation at specific stages of follicular development cannot presently be ruled out. In addition, the FecX(I) gene may be involved, either directly or indirectly, in regulating expression of receptors for GDF-9. At present, however, neither the FecX(I) gene product nor the GDF-9 receptor has been isolated or characterized.  (+info)

Growth differentiation factor-9 stimulates progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells via a prostaglandin E2/EP2 receptor pathway. (3/115)

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), an oocyte-secreted member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, progesterone receptor, cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2; Ptgs2), and the EP2 prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor (EP2; Ptgerep2) are required for fertility in female but not male mice. To define the interrelationship of these factors, we used a preovulatory granulosa cell culture system in which we added recombinant GDF-9, prostaglandins, prostaglandin receptor agonists, or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. GDF-9 stimulated Cox2 mRNA within 2 h, and PGE(2) within 6 h; however, progesterone was not increased until 12 h after addition of GDF-9. This suggested that Cox2 is a direct downstream target of GDF-9 but that progesterone synthesis required an intermediate. To determine whether prostaglandin synthesis was required for progesterone production, we analyzed the effects of PGE(2) and cyclooxygenase inhibitors on this process. PGE(2) can stimulate progesterone synthesis by itself, although less effectively than GDF-9 (3-fold vs. 6-fold increase over 24 h, respectively). Furthermore, indomethacin or NS-398, inhibitors of Cox2, block basal and GDF-9-stimulated progesterone synthesis. However, addition of PGE(2) to cultures containing both GDF-9 and NS-398 overrides the NS-398 block in progesterone synthesis. To further define the PGE(2)-dependent pathway, we show that butaprost, a specific EP2 agonist, stimulates progesterone synthesis and overrides the NS-398 block. In addition, GDF-9 stimulates EP2 mRNA synthesis by a prostaglandin- and progesterone-independent pathway. Thus, GDF-9 induces an EP2 signal transduction pathway which appears to be required for progesterone synthesis in cumulus granulosa cells. These studies further demonstrate the importance of oocyte-somatic cell interactions in female reproduction.  (+info)

Growth differentiation factor-9 stimulates rat theca-interstitial cell androgen biosynthesis. (4/115)

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) was shown recently to be essential for early follicular development, including the appearance of the theca layer. Theca cells provide the androgen substrate for aromatization and estrogen production by granulosa cells. Using biologically active recombinant GDF-9 (rGDF-9) and an androgen-producing immortalized theca-interstitial cell (TIC) line or primary TIC, we have examined the action of this paracrine hormone on theca cell steroidogenesis. The effect of GDF-9 on TIC progesterone synthesis was marginal and inconsistent in the primary cultures. In immortalized theca cells, GDF-9 attenuated the forskolin-stimulated progesterone accumulation. More significantly, this oocyte-derived growth factor enhanced both basal and stimulated androstenedione accumulation in the primary and transformed TIC cultures. The effects of GDF-9 on steroidogenesis by preovulatory follicles were relatively modest. Likewise, it did not affect the maturation of follicle-enclosed oocytes. The effect of GDF-9, an oocyte product, on TIC androgen production suggests a regulatory role of the oocyte on theca cell function and hence on follicle development and differentiation. This direct effect of GDF-9 on thecal steroidogenesis is consistent with its recently demonstrated actions on thecal cell recruitment and differentiation.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-15. Identification of target cells and biological functions. (5/115)

In developing ovarian follicles, the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation is tightly coordinated. Precisely how this coordination is achieved is unknown, but recent observations have suggested that molecules emitted by the oocyte are involved in the process. The newly discovered oocyte-specific growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15), is one such molecule. At present, nothing is known about the target cells and biological functions of BMP-15. To fill this gap in our knowledge, recombinant BMP-15 and its antibody were produced and used to determine BMP-15 expression and bioactivity. BMP-15 mRNA and protein were shown to be co-expressed in oocytes throughout folliculogenesis, supporting the idea that BMP-15 is a physiological regulator of follicle cell proliferation and/or differentiation. To test this, we used primary cultures of rat granulosa cells (GCs). We found that BMP-15 is a potent stimulator of GC proliferation, and importantly, the mitogenic effect was follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-independent. By contrast, BMP-15 alone had no effect on steroidogenesis. However, it produced a marked decrease in FSH-induced progesterone production, but had no effect on FSH-stimulated estradiol production. This result indicates that BMP-15 is a selective modulator of FSH action. In summary, this study identifies GCs as the first target cells for BMP-15. Moreover, it identifies the stimulation of GC proliferation and the differential regulation of two crucial steroid hormones as the first biological functions of BMP-15. Significantly, BMP-15 is the first growth factor that can coordinate GC proliferation and differentiation in a way that reflects normal physiology.  (+info)

Comparison of recombinant growth differentiation factor-9 and oocyte regulation of KIT ligand messenger ribonucleic acid expression in mouse ovarian follicles. (6/115)

Oocytes secrete factors that regulate the development of the surrounding granulosa cells in ovarian follicles. KIT ligand (KL) mRNA expression in granulosa cells is thought to be regulated by oocytes; however, the factor(s) that mediate this effect are not known. One candidate is the oocyte-specific gene product growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9). This study examined the effect of recombinant GDF-9 (rGDF-9) on steady-state KL mRNA expression levels in preantral and mural granulosa cells in vitro. Furthermore, the study compared the effect of rGDF-9 with that of coculture with oocytes at different developmental stages. As determined by RNase protection assay, both KL-1 and KL-2 mRNA levels in preantral and mural granulosa cells were suppressed by 25-250 ng/ml rGDF-9. Fully grown oocytes also suppressed both KL-1 and KL-2 mRNA expression levels. Partly grown oocytes isolated from 7-, 10-, or 12-day-old mice either had no effect on KL mRNA levels or promoted KL-1 mRNA steady-state expression. It is concluded that GDF-9 is likely to mediate the action of fully grown, but not partly grown, oocytes on granulosa cell KL mRNA expression.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-15 inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action by suppressing FSH receptor expression. (7/115)

We have recently reported that oocyte-derived bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) can directly modulate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action in rat granulosa cells. Here, we investigate underlying mechanisms of this BMP-15 effect. Treatment with BMP-15 alone exerted no significant effect on the basal expression of mRNAs encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, P450 aromatase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, luteinization hormone receptor, and inhibin/activin subunits. However, BMP-15 markedly inhibited the FSH-induced increases in these messages. In striking contrast, BMP-15 did not change the forskolin-induced levels of these transcripts. Thus, the inhibitory effect of BMP-15 on FSH action must be upstream of cAMP signaling. We next examined changes in FSH receptor mRNA expression. Interestingly, BMP-15 severely reduced the levels of FSH receptor mRNA in both basal and FSH-stimulated cells. To determine whether this effect was at the level of FSH function, we investigated the effect of BMP-15 on FSH bioactivity. Consistent with the mRNA data, BMP-15 inhibited the biological response of FSH, but not that of forskolin. Based on these results, we propose that BMP-15 is an important determinant of FSH action through its ability to inhibit FSH receptor expression. Because FSH plays an essential role in follicle growth and development, our findings could have new implications for understanding how oocyte growth factors contribute to folliculogenesis.  (+info)

Biological function and cellular mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in the ovary. (8/115)

The process of ovarian folliculogenesis is composed of proliferation and differentiation of the constitutive cells in developing follicles. Growth factors emitted by oocytes integrate and promote this process. Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-15, and BMP-6 are oocyte-derived members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. In contrast to the recent studies on GDF-9 and BMP-15, nothing is known about the biological function of BMP-6 in the ovary. Here we show that, unlike BMP-15 and GDF-9, BMP-6 lacks mitogenic activity on rat granulosa cells (GCs) and produces a marked decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced progesterone (P(4)) but not estradiol (E(2)) production, demonstrating not only the first identification of GCs as BMP-6 targets in the ovary but also its selective modulation of FSH action in steroidogenesis. This BMP-6 activity resembles BMP-15 but differs from GDF-9 activities. BMP-6 also exhibited similar action to BMP-15 by attenuating the steady state mRNA levels of FSH-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), without affecting P450 aromatase mRNA level, supporting its differential function on FSH-regulated P(4) and E(2) production. However, unlike BMP-15, BMP-6 inhibited forskolin- but not 8-bromo-cAMP-induced P(4) production and StAR and P450scc mRNA expression. BMP-6 also decreased FSH- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, suggesting that the underlying mechanism by which BMP-6 inhibits FSH action most likely involves the down-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. This is clearly distinct from the mechanism of BMP-15 action, which causes the suppression of basal FSH receptor (FSH-R) expression, without affecting adenylate cyclase activity. As assumed, BMP-6 did not alter basal FSH-R mRNA levels, whereas it inhibited FSH- and forskolin- but not 8-bromo-cAMP-induced FSH-R mRNA accumulation. These studies provide the first insight into the biological function of BMP-6 in the ovary and demonstrate its unique mechanism of regulating FSH action.  (+info)

Expansion of the mouse cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) is dependent on oocyte-secreted paracrine factors. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily molecules are prime candidates for the cumulus expansion-enabling factors (CEEFs), and we have recently determined that growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) alone is not the CEEF. The aim of this study was to examine oocyte paracrine factors and their signaling pathways that regulate mouse cumulus expansion. Using RT-PCR, oocytes were found to express the two activin subunits, Inhba and Inhbb, and activin A and activin B both enabled FSH-induced cumulus expansion of oocytectomized (OOX) complexes. Follistatin, an activin-binding protein, neutralized activin-induced expansion but had no effect on oocyte-induced expansion. The type I receptors for GDF9 and activin are activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) and ALK4, respectively, both of which activate the same SMAD 2/3 signaling pathway. We examined the requirement for this signaling system ...
Mol Hum Reprod. 2014 Jan 26. [Epub ahead of print] Chang HM, Cheng JC, Taylor E, Leung PC. Author information Abstract In the ovary, connexin-coupled gap junctions in granulosa cells play crucial roles in follicular and oocyte development as well as in corpus luteum formation. Our previous work has shown that theca cell-derived bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP7 decrease gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity via the down-regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) expression in immortalized human granulosa cells. However, the effects of oocyte-derived growth factors on Cx43 expression remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and BMP15 on the expression of Cx43 in a human granulosa cell line, SVOG. We also examined the effect relative to GJIC activity and investigated the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, treatment with BMP15 but not GDF9 significantly decreased Cx43 mRNA ...
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a member of the TGF-β cytokine superfamily that is widely expressed and may be induced in response to tissue injury. Elevations in GDF-15 may identify a novel pathway involved in loss of kidney function among patients with CKD. Among participants in the Clinical Phenotyping and Resource Biobank (C-PROBE) study and the Seattle Kidney Study (SKS), we tested whether kidney tissue expression of GDF15 mRNA correlates with circulating levels of GDF-15 and whether elevations in circulating GDF-15 are associated with decline in kidney function. In matching samples of 24 patients with CKD from the C-PROBE study, circulating GDF-15 levels significantly correlated with intrarenal GDF15 transcript levels (r=0.54, P=0.01). Among the 224 C-PROBE and 297 SKS participants, 72 (32.1%) and 94 (32.0%) patients, respectively, reached a composite end point of 30% decline in eGFR or progression to ESRD over a median of 1.8 and 2.0 years of follow up, respectively. In ...
Patel, M S and Lee, J and Baz, M and Wells, C E and Bloch, S and Lewis, A and Donaldson, A V and Garfield, B E and Hopkinson, N S and Natanek, A and Man, W D C and Wells, D J and Baker, E H and Polkey, M I and Kemp, P R (2016) Growth differentiation factor-15 is associated with muscle mass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and promotes muscle wasting in vivo. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 7 (4). pp. 436-448. ...
Aims: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is induced during heart failure development, and may influence different processes in cardiac remodeling. While its anti-apoptotic action under conditions of ischemia-reperfusion have been shown, it remained unclear if this is a broadly protective effect applicable to other apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, effects on cardiac hypertrophy remained obscure. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of GDF15 on induction of hypertrophy and apoptosis in ventricular cardiomyocytes.. Methods and Results: Dose-response analysis of SMAD-binding affinity under stimulation with GDF15 revealed a maximal activation of SMADs, as the classical transcription factors in GDF15 signaling, by addition of 3 ng/ml GDF15 to cardiomyocytes. Under these conditions enhancement of SMAD1,5,8 phosphorylation, as another parameter of SMAD activation, was seen. At the same concentration, GDF15 enhanced hypertrophic growth as determined by an increase in cell size ...
Background: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a marker of inflammation, oxidative stress and it is associated with adverse prognosis in cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present cohort study is to investigate the prognostic value of GDF-15 in patients with coro...
Experimental observations that GDF-15 is produced by inflammatory cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis led to the hypothesis that this cytokine may be useful in risk stratification of patients with cardiovascular disease.2,6 Subsequent studies3,21,22 demonstrated upregulated GDF-15 expression in cultured rat cardiomyocytes subjected to inflammatory cytokines, oxidative or nitrosative stress, simulated ischemia-reperfusion, or mechanical stretch. Mouse models showed a prolonged increase of GDF-15 expression in the myocardium in response to ischemia and reperfusion or long-term pressure overload.3,23 Retrospective data from the Womens Health Study showed that healthy women with GDF-15 concentrations greater than the 90th percentile (,856 ng/L) had a 2.7-fold higher risk of cardiovascular death, stroke, or MI.6 More recently, it was shown that GDF-15 on presentation in patients with NSTE ACS is an independent predictor of mortality and recurrent MI at 2 years10 and that patients ...
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
JACC Heart Fail. 2017 Oct;5(10):724-734. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.07.013. Sharma A, Stevens SR, Lucas J, Fiuzat M, Adams KF, Whellan DJ ...
J:60755 Rankin CT, Bunton T, Lawler AM, Lee SJ, Regulation of left-right patterning in mice by growth/differentiation factor-1. Nat Genet. 2000 Mar;24(3):262-5 ...
Background: Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15, a stress responsive cytokine, is associated with the risk of CV events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Unlike other established cardiac biomarkers, the level of GDF-15 remains elevated in sub-acute phase after ACS and gradually decreases over time. We evaluated the prognostic utility of GDF-15 in patients after ACS accounting for established markers and risk predictors.. Methods: GDF-15 (R&D Systems) and other established cardiac biomarkers (BNP, hsCRP and hsTnI) were measured at baseline in a randomly selected cohort of 4,968 patients enrolled within 30 days of hospitalization with ACS (median=14d) in SOLID-TIMI 52. Previously defined cutpoints were applied for GDF-15 concentration: ,1200 (n=3451), 1200-1800 (n=919), and , 1800 ng/L (n=598). Analyses were adjusted for established risk predictors, days from the ACS event and other markers. MACE was defined as CV death, MI or stroke. Median follow-up was 2.5 years.. Results: Patients ...
Complete data from 428 patients and all variables from the simple model were included in the multiple model. NT-proBNP, creatinine, uric acid, and GDF-15 were not normally distributed and were therefore transformed to their natural logarithms. HRs refer to an increase of 1 U in the Ln scale in these variables.. CI = confidence interval; Hb = hemoglobin; HR = hazard ratio; Ln = natural logarithm; other abbreviations as in Table 1.. ...
Oocytes are powerful local modulators of follicular cell functions and many of the activities of oocytes are attributed to members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Whilst in the mouse it is known that members of this family are able to mimic many of the effects of oocytes on follicular cells, the relative importance of any of these factors is unknown in bovine follicles. The objectives of this study were to determine if bovine oocytes express and secrete TGF-β and to compare oocyte-secreted factor(s) to TGF-β in terms of their capacities to stimulate mural granulosa cell (MGC) DNA synthesis. Bovine ovaries were collected from an abattoir and RNA was extracted from isolated MGC, cumulus cells, cumulus-oocyte complexes and denuded oocytes (DO). Using RT-PCR, all cell types were found to express TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 mRNA transcripts. However, no TGF-β bioactivity could be detected from DO using a sensitive (40 pg/ml) and specific mink lung fibroblast cell bioassay. MGC ...
Background Elevated serum levels of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), is an established risk factor for a range of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of plasma GDF-15 as a biomarker for secondary cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients with atherosclerosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Secondly, we determined whether ... read more plasma GDF-15 was associated with carotid plaque characteristics. Methods Circulating GDF-15 levels were determined by Luminex assay in a cohort of 1056 patients from the Athero-Express biobank. Composite endpoint was defined as major CVE, death and peripheral vascular interventions. Findings were validated in 473 patients from the independent Carotid Plaque Imaging Project biobank. Results GDF-15 levels did not associate with secondary CVE in the total cohort. However, following a significant interaction with sex, it was found to be strongly, independently predictive of secondary CVE in women but not men (quartile 4 ...
Latest data suggest that placental growth factor (PLGF), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and hepatic growth factor (HGF) are involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Diagnostic performance of these markers for non-invasive liver fibrosis prediction was evaluated based on liver histology and stiff …
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Mice harboring the hCD2-iCre transgene have the human CD2 promoter and locus control region (LCR) directing expression of an optimized variant of Cre recombinase (iCre) to T cells and B cells (all B cell and T cell progenitors) and mice may be useful for generating conditional mutations in T cells and B cells. Because of the integration site of the transgene, the hCD2-iCre transgene is linked to the agouti coat color genes.
Folliculogenesis   In biology, folliculogenesis is the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely-packed shell of somatic cells that contains an
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a secreted protein with pleotropic functions from the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family. GDF15 is synthesized as a precursor and undergoes proteolytic cleavage to generate mature GDF15. The strong appetite-suppressing effect of mature GDF15 makes it an attractive therapeutic agent/target for diseases such as obesity and cachexia. In addition, clinical studies indicate that circulating, mature GDF15 is an independent biomarker for heart failure. We recently found that GDF15 functions as a heart-derived hormone that inhibits liver growth hormone signaling and postnatal body growth in the pediatric period. However, little is known about the mechanism of GDF15 maturation, in particular the enzymes that mediate GDF15 precursor cleavage. We investigated which candidate proteases can cleave GDF15 precursor and generate mature GDF15 in cardiomyocytes in vitro and mouse hearts in vivo. We discovered that three members of the proprotein convertase, ...
Background- An invasive treatment strategy improves outcomein patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromeat moderate to high risk. We hypothesized that the circulatinglevel of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) may improverisk stratification.. Methods and Results- The Fast Revascularization duringInStability in Coronary artery disease II (FRISC-II) trial randomizedpatients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrometo an invasive or conservative strategy with a follow-up for2 years. GDF-15 and other biomarkers were determined on admissionin 2079 patients. GDF-15 was moderately elevated (between 1200and 1800 ng/L) in 770 patients (37.0%), and highly elevated(,1800 ng/L) in 493 patients (23.7%). Elevated levels ofGDF-15 independently predicted the risk of the composite endpoint of death or recurrent myocardial infarction in the conservativegroup (P=0.016) but not in the invasive group. A significantinteraction existed between the GDF-15 level on admission andthe effect of ...
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Background It has been reported that calf oocytes are less developmentally competent than oocytes obtained from adult cows. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth and differentiation factor...
Materials. Neonatal Wistar rats were obtained from untimed pregnant females (Simonsen Labs, Gilroy, CA). The animal studies were conducted in accordance with the Policies on the Use of Animals and Humans in Neuroscience Research (1995), and animal protocols were approved by the local animal care committee. A total of 47 rat pups were used. 125I-Na was from PerkinElmer Life Sciences (Boston, MA). GDNF and CT-1 were purchased from Peprotech (Rocky Hill, NJ), tetanus toxin C-fragment (TTC) was from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA), BDNF was a kind gift from Regeneron (Tarrytown, NY), and growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) was kindly provided by Jens Strelau and Klaus Unsicker (University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany). All electron microscopy (EM) tissue processing reagents were from EM Sciences (Gibbstown, NJ) except for lead citrate (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). DiI was from Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). Autoradiographic developer (D19) and fixative (rapid fix) were from Kodak (Rochester, ...
Methods and Results-In 86 stable patients with HF and EF ≥45% in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) biomarker substudy, biomarkers were quantified by a multiplex immunoassay. Orthogonal projection to latent structures by partial least square analysis was performed on 87 biomarkers and 240 clinical variables, ranking biomarkers associated with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional class and the composite outcome (all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization). Biomarkers significantly correlated with outcome were analyzed by multivariable Cox regression and correlations with echocardiographic measurements performed. The orthogonal partial least square outcome-predicting biomarker pattern was run against the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) database, containing annotated data from the public domain. The orthogonal partial least square analyses identified 32 biomarkers correlated with NYHA class and 28 predicting outcomes. Among outcome-predicting biomarkers, growth/differentiation factor-15 was ...
Results There were 44 patients with CTD-ILD, 28 patients without ILD and 31 healthy controls. The age and gender distributions of participants in all three groups were not different. Serum TGF-β and GDF-15 levels in patients with CTD-ILD and CTD without ILD were significantly higher than healthy controls (respectively, 3.05±0.26, 3.05±0.22, 1.39±0.33 pg/ml, p,0.001 for TGF-β and 1.17±0.17, 1.12±0.05, 0.95±0.21 pg/ml, p,0.001 for GDF-15). There were no statistically different from patients with ILD and without ILD for both TGF-β (p:0.864) and GDF-15 levels (p:0.146) in CTD. Also, GDF-15 and TGF-β levels of patients with systemic sclerosis were not different from other CTDs. ...
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
GDF15 antibody (growth differentiation factor 15) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-GDF15 pAb (GTX54079) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
GDF10 antibody [N3C3] (growth differentiation factor 10) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-GDF10 pAb (GTX118039) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Compare H1 histone family, member O, oocyte-specific Proteins from Creative Biomart from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
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Read all about the correct GDF-8 (Myostatin) dosage and understand the science behind the benefits. We cover GDF-8 (Myostatin) side effects and Dosage.
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress, has emerged as a biomarker for arterial cardiovascular disease. However, the association between GDF-15 and venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains uncertain. We therefore investigated the association between plasma GDF-15 levels and future risk of incident VTE, and explored the potential of a causal association using Mendelian randomization (MR). We conducted a population-based nested case-control study comprising 416 VTE patients and 848 age- and sex-matched controls derived from the Tromsø Study. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for VTE across GDF-15 quartiles. For the MR, we used data from the International Network on Venous Thrombosis (INVENT) consortium to examine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with GDF-15 levels with genome-wide significance were related to VTE. We found that the ORs for VTE increased across GDF-15 quartiles (P for trend=0.002). ...
Growth differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subfamily of proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions predominantly in development. Several members of this subfamily have been described, and named GDF1 through GDF15. GDF1 is expressed chiefly in the nervous system and functions in left-right patterning and mesoderm induction during embryonic development. GDF2 (also known as BMP9) induces and maintains the response embryonic basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have to a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, and regulates iron metabolism by increasing levels of a protein called hepcidin. GDF3 is also known as Vg-related gene 2 (Vgr-2). Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the thymus, spleen, bone marrow brain, and adipose tissue of adults. It has a dual nature of function; it both inhibits and induces early stages of development in embryos. GDF5 is expressed in the developing central nervous system, ...
Myostatin, human recombinant protein, GDF-8, MSTN, Growth Differentiation Factor 8, MSTN Muscle Hypertrophy validated in (PBV10333r-10), Abcepta
Inflammatory cell recruitment to injured tissues is needed for repair, but an excessive inflammatory response can exacerbate injury. Tibor Kempf et al. now identify the cytokine GDF-15 as a new anti-inflammatory factor that dampens leukocyte recruitment in the setting of myocardial infarction in mice, thereby preventing cardiac rupture. GDF-15 blocks leukocyte extravasation from the blood into injured tissue by inhibiting the activation of cell surface integrin receptors. Inflammatory cell recruitment after myocardial infarction needs to be tightly controlled to permit infarct healing while avoiding fatal complications such as cardiac rupture. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-related cytokine, is induced in the infarcted heart of mice and humans. We show that coronary artery ligation in Gdf15-deficient mice led to enhanced recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the infarcted myocardium and an increased incidence of cardiac rupture.
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Results The levels of plasma GDF11 in the COPD group were decreased compared with the control groups in the two independent cohorts. The levels of plasma GDF11 were significantly positively correlated with pulmonary function data. The mRNA expression of GDF11 in mesenchymal cells from the COPD group was decreased. Chronic exposure to CSE decreased the production of GDF11. Treatment with GDF11 significantly inhibited CSE-induced cellular senescence and upregulation of inflammatory mediators, partly through Smad2/3 signalling in vitro. Daily GDF11 treatment attenuated cellular senescence and airspace enlargement in an elastase-induced mouse model of emphysema. ...
INVOLVED IN endoderm development (ortholog); in utero embryonic development (ortholog); mesoderm development (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH congenital heart disease (ortholog); dextro-looped transposition of the great arteries (ortholog); dextro-looped transposition of the great arteries 3 (ortholog)
Myostatin (also known as growth differentiation factor 8, abbreviated GDF-8) is a myokine. A myokine is a protein produced and released by myocytes that acts on the autocrine function of muscle cells to inhibit myogenesis: muscle cell growth and differentiation. In humans it is encoded by the MSTN gene. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor that is a member of the TGF beta protein family. Myostatin also inhibits Akt, a kinase that causes muscle hypertrophy, in part through the activation of protein synthesis. Further research into myostatin and the myostatin gene may lead to therapies for muscular dystrophy.. *This description is meant for informational purposes only and is publicly available. ...
The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of neonatal exposure to either agonists or antagonists of androgen and estrogen receptors on the expression of growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and their cognate receptors (TGFBR1, BMPR1B, and BMPR2) in ovarian follicles of adult pigs. Piglets were injected subcutaneously with testosterone propionate (TP, an androgen, at 20 mg/kg bw), flutamide (FLU, an antiandrogen, at 50 mg/kg bw), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP, an estrogenic compound, 100 mg/kg bw), ICI 182,780 (ICI, an antiestrogen, 400 μg/kg bw), or corn oil (control) between postnatal Days 1 and 10 (n = 5/group). Ovarian follicles were excised from adult pigs on Days 8-11 of the estrous cycle. The expression of GDF9, BMP15, TGFBR1, BMPR1B and BMPR2 were examined in the population of preantral and small antral ovarian follicles using real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. In preantral follicles, the upregulation of GDF9 mRNA
Complete information for GDF11 gene (Protein Coding), Growth Differentiation Factor 11, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from NODAL nodal growth differentiation factor available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
Objective-The assembly of a functional vascular system requires a coordinated and dynamic transition from activation to maturation. High vascular endothelial growth factor activity promotes activation, including junction destabilization and cell motility. Maturation involves junctional stabilization and formation of a functional endothelial barrier. The identity and mechanism of action of prostabilization signals are still mostly unknown. Bone morphogenetic protein receptors and their ligands have important functions during embryonic vessel assembly and maturation. Previous work has suggested a role for growth differentiation factor 6 (GDF6; bone morphogenetic protein 13) in vascular integrity although GDF6s mechanism of action was not clear. Therefore, we sought to further explore the requirement for GDF6 in vascular stabilization. ...
Oocyte control of granulosa and theca cell function may be mediated by several growth factors via a local feedback loop(s) between these cell types. This study examined both the role of oocyte-secreted factors on granulosa and thecal cells, cultured independently and in co-culture, and the effect of stem cell factor (SCF); a granulosa cell derived peptide that appears to have multiple roles in follicle development. Granulosa and theca cells were isolated from 2-6 mm healthy follicles of mature porcine ovaries and cultured under serum-free conditions, supplemented with: 100 ng/ml LR3 IGF-1, 10 ng/ml insulin, 100 ng/ml testosterone, 0-10 ng/ml SCF, 1 ng/ml FSH (granulosa), 0.01 ng/ml LH (theca) or 1 ng/ml FSH and 0.01 ng/ml LH (co-culture) and with/without oocyte conditioned medium (OCM) or 5 oocytes. Cells were cultured in 96 well plates for 144 h, after which viable cell numbers were determined. Medium was replaced every 48 h and spent medium analysed for steroids.Oocyte secreted factors were ...
Daniel A. Dumesic, M.D., JoAnne S. Richards, Ph.D.. Volume 100, Issue 1, Pages 23-38, July 2013. Abstract:. Activation of primordial follicles into the growing pool, selection of the dominant follicle and its eventual ovulation require complex endocrine and metabolic interactions, as well as intraovarian paracrine signals to coordinate granulosa cell proliferation, theca cell differentiation and oocyte maturation. Early preantral follicle development relies mostly upon mesenchymal-epithelial cell interactions, intraovarian paracrine signals and oocyte-secreted factors, while development of the antral follicle depends upon circulating gonadotropins as well as locally-derived regulators. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), ovarian hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia from insulin resistance and altered intrafollicular paracrine signaling perturb activation, survival, growth and selection of follicles, causing accumulation of small antral follicles within the periphery of the ovary, ...
Certain microRNAs (miRs) have important roles in the maintenance of bone development and metabolism, and a variety of miRs are known to be deregulated in diabetes. The present study investigated the role of miR‑203‑3p in the regulation of bone loss by assessing jaw bones of a rat model of type 2 diabetes. The results indicated that miR‑203‑3p inhibited osteogenesis in the jaws of diabetic rats and in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultured in high‑glucose medium. A luciferase re-porter assay was used to verify the bioinformatics prediction that miR‑203‑3p targets the 3‑untranslated region of Smad1, which is an important mediator of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/Smad pathway ...
The fact that a mutation in Alk5 had an effect in the Acvr2b‐null background indicates that Alk5 must also be coupling to another type II receptor, most probably Acvr2, to mediate the effects of GDF11 on embryonic development. In support of this idea, mutations in Acvr2 have been shown to augment the phenotypes observed in Acvr2b−/− animals (Oh et al, 2002). Unlike Acvr2b−/− mutants, however, Acvr2−/− animals lack any vertebral patterning defects, indicating that although the Acvr2b−/− strain is genetically sensitized for those phenotypes, the Acvr2−/− strain is not. Together with the absence of effects of ALK4 and ALK7 in axial patterning, the lack of ALK4 and ALK7 expression in relevant patterning structures and the fact that GDF11, similar to TGF‐β, signals through Smad2 and Smad3, our results strongly indicate that GDF11 uses the TGF‐β receptor ALK5 in vivo to control several developmental events. Our study has not addressed the possible participation of other ...
As it is known that the normal tumor microenvironment becomes corrupted during tumor development, which is reflected by appearance of a large and heterogeneous category of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) [28]. CAF cells are considered active modulators of the tumor microenvironment among many solid tumors [29-31]. However, few studies have directly addressed the role of the CAFs in the BM of leukemia. In the present study, we demonstrate that functional CAFs are widespread in the BM of AML patients and could serve as a critical chemo-protective element for AML cells by producing an abundance of GDF15.. As we all know, AML cells interact both anatomically and functionally with the stroma within the BM microenvironment. These interactions have a critical role in the development, progression and relapse of AML. A recent study has suggested discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a class of collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was highly upregulated on bone marrow (BM)-derived CD33+ ...
A large family of cell regulatory proteins which are structurally related to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. The superfamily is subdivided into at least three related protein families: BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS; GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTORS; and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS ...
21] The board observes that such a dichotomy arose between, on the one hand, the disclosure in the patent application underlying decision T 1329/04 (lack of the seven cystein residues with their peculiar spacing required for a protein (in that case, GDF-9) to belong to the TGF-beta superfamily - see T 1329/04 [7] - and the lack of functional characterisation of GDF-9 - see ibidem, [9]) and, on the other hand, the teaching in post-published document D4 that GDF-9 was indeed a growth differentiation factor (see T 1329/04 [12]). Hence, the then competent board concluded that there was not enough evidence in the application as filed to make it at least plausible that a solution had been found to the problem alleged to be solved ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
CPB653Po21, OVA Conjugated Myostatin (MSTN), 肌肉生长抑制素(MSTN)卵白蛋白偶联物, GDF8; Growth Differentiation Factor 8 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Chung H.K., Ryu D., Kim K.S., Chang J.Y., Kim Y.K., Yi H.-S., Kang S.G., Choi M.J., Lee S.E., Jung S.B., Ryu M.J., Kim S.J., Kweon G.R., Kim H., Hwang J.H., Lee C.-H., Lee S.-J., Wall C.E., Downes M., Evans R.M., Auwerx J., Shong M. (2017) Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a myomitokine governing systemic energy homeostasis. J Cell Biol. 216: 149-165. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201607110.. ...
A schematic diagram showing folliculogenesis and oogenesis. The former involves the maturation of a follicle within the ovary while the latter involves the release of the ovum/egg from it, - Stock Image F002/0936
زمینه مطالعاتی: انتخاب به وسیله ژنتیک مولکولی روی ژن-های منحصر بفرد یک روش مطمئن برای بهبود ژنتیکی صفات مهم اقتصادی در حیوانات اهلی می-باشد. صفت چندقلوزایی یکی از صفات مهم اقتصادی در صنعت گوسفندداری می-باشد که در سال-های اخیر توجه متخصصین اصلاح نژاد را به خود جلب کرده است. ژن فاکتور رشد و تمایز شماره 9 (GDF9) از مهم-ترین ژن-های کاندیدای موثر بر صفت چندقلوزایی در گوسفند می-باشد. هدف: این آزمایش جهت بررسی وجود چند شکلی در جایگاه نیمه دوم (منتهی به3) اگزون 2 ژن GDF9 گوسفند نژاد کرمانی انجام شد. روش کار: در این مطالعه، از 102 رأس گوسفند خونگیری شد. پس از استخراج DNA، تعیین
2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on the surface of live cells: a new oligomerization mode for serine/ ... Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... Vitt UA, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh AJ (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth ... The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2). ...
1 April 2001). "Highly prolific Booroola sheep have a mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein ... 1 December 2002). "Growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 are essential for ovarian follicular ... Jennifer L. Juengel; McNatty KP (10 February 2005). "The role of proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily in ...
... bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimers are potent regulators of ovarian functions". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... ROS also interacts with ERK pathway that leads to activation of Ras, MEK and MEK-like proteins. These proteins activate protein ... Bone morphogenetic proteins/ Mothers against decapentaplegic/ Inhibitor of differentiation), mediated by transcription factors ... In TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor β) pathway, BMP (Bone Morphogenic Protein), Activin and Nodal ligands bind to their ...
Dudley, A. T.; Robertson, E. J. (1997). "Overlapping expression domains of bone morphogenetic protein family members ... "A requirement for bone morphogenetic protein-7 during development of the mammalian kidney and eye". Genes & Development. 9 (22 ... Brennan, Jane; Norris, Dominic P.; Robertson, Elizabeth J. (15 September 2002). "Nodal activity in the node governs left-right ... Dudley, A. T.; Lyons, K. M.; Robertson, E. J. (15 November 1995). " ...
It acts as a regulator of TGFβ family (such as bone morphogenetic proteins) activity by competing with SMAD4 and preventing the ... Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S (2001). "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through ... The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD) and the C. elegans protein ... SMAD family member 6, also known as SMAD6, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD6 gene. SMAD6 is a protein that, ...
By occupying type I receptors for Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), it also plays a role in negative feedback of ... Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S (August 2001). "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling ... "Differential inhibition of Smad6 and Smad7 on bone morphogenetic protein- and activin-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis in B ... Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 or SMAD7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD7 gene. SMAD7 is a protein ...
Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II or BMPR2 is a serine/threonine receptor kinase. It binds Bone morphogenetic ... Bone morphogenetic protein, Developmental genes and proteins, TS domain, S/T kinase, Receptors, EC 2.7.11). ... BMPR2 is expressed on both human and animal granulosa cells, and is a crucial receptor for bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 ... Gilboa L, Nohe A, Geissendörfer T, Sebald W, Henis YI, Knaus P (March 2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor complexes on ...
The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 (BMPR2). They are involved in a multitude of cellular functions ... Bone morphogenetic proteins cause the transcription of mRNAs involved in osteogenesis, neurogenesis, and ventral mesoderm ... The TGF beta superfamily of ligands includes: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), ... "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads". The EMBO Journal. 20 (15): ...
Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S (August 2001). "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling ... STAM-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAMBP gene. Cytokine-mediated signal transduction in the ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
Itoh F, Asao H, Sugamura K, Heldin CH, ten Dijke P, Itoh S (August 2001). "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling ... "Physical and functional interaction of murine and Xenopus Smad7 with bone morphogenetic protein receptors and transforming ... potency of cell proliferation and differentiation responses to transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic protein ... Thus, the two proteins could be caught in a "vicious cycle" of regulation. Pin1 causes both itself and Smad2 to be associated ...
The BMPs bind to the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2). Some of the proteins of the BMP family are BMP4 and ... Then active Smoothened protein is able to inhibit PKA and Slimb, so that the Ci protein is not cleaved. This intact Ci protein ... The binding of Wnt to a Frizzled protein activates the Dishevelled protein. In its active state the Dishevelled protein ... "Promoting bone morphogenetic protein signaling through negative regulation of inhibitory Smads". The EMBO Journal. 20 (15): ...
"A novel link between the proteasome pathway and the signal transduction pathway of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". BMC ... Smad nuclear-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNIP1 gene. SNIP1 has been shown to interact ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ... Roche KC, Wiechens N, Owen-Hughes T, Perkins ND (2004). "The FHA domain protein SNIP1 is a regulator of the cell cycle and ...
"A novel link between the proteasome pathway and the signal transduction pathway of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". BMC ... The eukaryotic proteasome recognized degradable proteins, including damaged proteins for protein quality control purpose or key ... "A novel link between the proteasome pathway and the signal transduction pathway of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". BMC ... "Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ...
Developmental genes and proteins, Bone morphogenetic protein, TGFβ domain). ... Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. It is involved in ... Bragdon B, Moseychuk O, Saldanha S, King D, Julian J, Nohe A (April 2011). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: a critical review". ... Persani L, Rossetti R, Di Pasquale E, Cacciatore C, Fabre S (2014-11-01). "The fundamental role of bone morphogenetic protein ...
... or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Like other members of the bone morphogenetic protein ... Reddi AH (July 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and skeletal development: the kidney-bone connection". Pediatric Nephrology ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Der Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 ...
... , also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ...
"Entrez Gene: BMP4 bone morphogenetic protein 4". Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M (January 2010). "Bone morphogenetic protein ... type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene. BMP4 is found on chromosome 14q22-q23. BMP4 ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb ...
... bone morphogenetic protein‐6 (BMP‐6) vector. She found BMP‐6 to be osteo-inductive in vivo resulting in acceleration of bone ... Her research indicated that transduction of BMDMSC with bone morphogenetic proteins‐2 or ‐6 can accelerate osteogenic ... "Mesenchymal Stem Cell-mediated Gene Delivery of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in an Articular Fracture Model". Molecular Therapy ... "Gene-mediated osteogenic differentiation of stem cells by bone morphogenetic proteins-2 or -6". Journal of Orthopaedic Research ...
... is a chemical compound used in the study of bone morphogenetic protein signalling through the ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 ... Structure-activity relationship study of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug ... Bone. 2018 Apr;109:251-258. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2017.09.004 PMID 28918311 (Articles without InChI source, Chemical pages without ... Bone morphogenetic protein, Quinolines, Phenylpiperazines, Pyrazolopyrimidines). ...
1998). "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner ... GDF6 interacts with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to form heterodimers that may work to regulate neural induction and ... Reddi AH (1995). "Cartilage morphogenesis: role of bone and cartilage morphogenetic proteins, homeobox genes and extracellular ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ...
... a bone morphogenetic protein. Matrix 1992; 12:369-80. Ripamonti U, Heliotis M, van den Heever B, Reddi AH. Bone morphogenetic ... isolation and purification of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that are involved in bone formation and repair. The molecular ... Osteogenin (bone morphogenetic protein-3) stimulates cartilage formation by chick limb bud cells in vitro. Dev Biol 1991; 146: ... Osteogenin and recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2B are chemotactic for human monocytes and stimulate transforming growth ...
Dpp is the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are members of the TGF-β superfamily ... It is known to be necessary for the correct patterning and development of the early Drosophila embryo and the fifteen imaginal ... In Drosophila, the receptor for Dpp is formed by two proteins, Thickveins (Tkv) and Punt. Like Dpp itself, Tkv and Punt are ... When a cell receives a Dpp signal, the receptors are able to activate an intracellular protein called mothers against Dpp (mad ...
... and bone morphogenetic proteins. Evidence suggests that bone cells produce growth factors for extracellular storage in the bone ... Most of the bones of the skull are flat bones, as is the sternum. Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act ... Bone tissue is mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones include ... cancellous bone at the ends of the bones. Most bones of the limbs, including those of the fingers and toes, are long bones. The ...
... bone morphogenetic protein-7) to initiate rapid bone formation". J Bone Miner Res. 12 (10): 1584-95. doi:10.1359/jbmr.1997.12. ... bone morphogenetic protein-7) to initiate rapid bone formation. (October 1997) Transforming growth factor-beta 1: induction of ... induction of bone morphogenetic protein genes expression during endochondral bone formation in the baboon, and synergistic ... "Enhanced activity of demineralised bone matrix augmented with xenogeneic bone morphogenetic protein complex in rats". South ...
... of the co-repressor homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 for ski-mediated inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein-induced ... The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD) and the C. elegans protein ... protein. In response to TGF-beta signal, this protein is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptors. The phosphorylation induces ... Developmental genes and proteins, MH1 domain, MH2 domain, R-SMAD, Transcription factors, Human proteins). ...
"Entrez Gene: NOG noggin". Blázquez-Medela AM, Jumabay M, Boström KI (May 2019). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein ... superfamily signaling proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). By diffusing through extracellular matrices more ... BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki[permanent dead link] Noggin publications, gene expression data, sequences and ... Hall AK, Burke RM, Anand M, Dinsio KJ (July 2002). "Activin and bone morphogenetic proteins are present in perinatal sensory ...
Core AB, Canali S, Babitt JL (2014). "Hemojuvelin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in iron homeostasis". ... hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, bone morphogenic protein 6 (BMP6), matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP ... Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene. Hepcidin is a key regulator of the entry of iron into the ... NMR studies showed a new model for hepcidin: at ambient temperatures, the protein interconverts between two conformations, ...
Shim S, Bae N, Han JK (July 2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein-4-induced activation of Xretpos is mediated by Smads and Olf-1/ ... Zinc finger protein 423 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF423 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... "ZFP423 coordinates Notch and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, selectively up-regulating Hes5 gene expression". The Journal ... OAZ+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Type XIII - OI caused by a mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) gene on chromosome 8p21.3. This mutation causes ... Type XV - OI caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the WNT1 gene on chromosome 12q13.12. It is autosomal ... Defects in these proteins lead to defective bone mineralization which causes the characteristic brittle bones of osteogenesis ... Defects in the proteins pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and bone-restricted interferon-induced transmembrane protein ( ...
In 2006, while examining the available literature on bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), used to stimulate bone growth in ... for his research and campaigning which were instrumental in uncovering the harmful side effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 ... Tomislav Smoljanović (born 15 July 1977) is a Croatian medical scientist, physician, and a retired rower. Smoljanović won ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with ... Life-threatening Complications Associated with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Cervical Spine Fusion". ... "Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: adverse events reported to the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience ... bone graft or artificial bone substitute is packed between the vertebrae to help them heal together.[1] In general, fusions are ...
... a novel endothelial cell precursor-derived protein, antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and endothelial cell ... "Human Crossveinless-2 is a novel inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... "BMPER is an endothelial cell regulator and controls bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent angiogenesis". Circulation Research ... BMP binding endothelial regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMPER gene. KLF15 is a strong and direct ...
Developmental research in 2004 found that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), and its differential expression during ... 15, no. 1, pp. 1-53, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1007/BF00132004, S2CID 17161535, retrieved 2008-12-09 Wikimedia Commons ...
... dorsalizes the developing embryo by binding ventralizing TGFβ proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) ... "Not.S - Xnot protein - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) - not.S gene & protein". Larraín J, Bachiller D, Lu B, Agius E, ... There are five named isoforms of this protein that are produced by alternative splicing. CHRD is 23 exons long and has a length ... Chordin (from Greek χορδή, string, catgut) is a protein with a prominent role in dorsal-ventral patterning during early ...
2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... Huang CK, Zhan L, Ai Y, Jongstra J (1997). "LSP1 is the major substrate for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein ... Harrison RE, Sikorski BA, Jongstra J (2005). "Leukocyte-specific protein 1 targets the ERK/MAP kinase scaffold protein KSR and ...
... and skeletal development may also go awry when GPC3 mutations inhibit regulations of responses to bone morphogenetic proteins, ... The function of this gene is to produce a protein that acts as a cell surface receptor that binds to transcription factors. ... Macrosomia Macroglossia Advanced bone age Organomegaly Neonatal hypoglycemia Neoplasms Congenital diaphragmatic hernia ( ... 25 (1): 8-15. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801520. PMID 11244452. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases ...
An Animal Model With and Without Bone Morphogenetic Protein". Spine. Lippincott-Raven. 23 (7): 758-765. doi:10.1097/00007632- ... and the Cortical Bone Dowel, which is cut from allograft femur. The cages can be packed with autologous bone material in order ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. 81 (6): 859-880. doi: ... J. W. Brantigan; A. D. Steffee (1993-10-15). "A carbon fiber implant to aid interbody lumbar fusion. Two-year clinical results ...
... gradient of pituitary morphogenesis is dependent on neuroectodermal signals from the infundibular bone morphogenetic protein 4 ... Other essential proteins necessary for pituitary cell proliferation are Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), Wnt4, and Wnt5. ... An assortment of genes and proteins - such as WNT4, RSPO1, FOXL2, and various estrogen receptors - have been shown to prevent ... May 1, 2002). "Parathyroid hormone is essential for normal fetal bone formation". J Clin Invest. 109 (9): 1173-1182. doi: ...
January 2006). "Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits corticotroph tumor cells: involvement in the retinoic acid inhibitory ... February 2003). "Involvement of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in pituitary prolactinoma pathogenesis through a Smad/ ... October 2007). "RSUME, a small RWD-containing protein, enhances SUMO conjugation and stabilizes HIF-1alpha during hypoxia". ... Gerez, J; Tedesco, L; Bonfiglio, J J; Fuertes, M; Barontini, M; Silberstein, S; Wu, Y; Renner, U; Páez-Pereda, M (2014-12-15 ...
"The RING domain of PIASy is involved in the suppression of bone morphogenetic protein-signaling pathway". Biochem. Biophys. Res ... E3 SUMO-protein ligase PIAS4 is one of several protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins. It is also known as protein ... "Entrez Gene: PIAS4 Protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 4". Imoto, Seiyu; Sugiyama Kenji; Muromoto Ryuta; Sato Noriko; Yamamoto ... 2002). "Protein inhibitors of activated STAT resemble scaffold attachment factors and function as interacting nuclear receptor ...
... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva. In food and wine pairing, ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ... foods that are high in proteins (such as red meat) are often paired with tannic wines to minimize the astringency of tannins. ...
This model only specifies a "bare bones" pattern. Other factors like sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Hox proteins, primary ... Limb formation begins in the morphogenetic limb field, as mesenchymal cells from the lateral plate mesoderm proliferate to the ... In the development of most vertebrate limbs (though not in some amphibians), the cartilage skeleton is replaced by bone later ... Zhu J, Zhang YT, Alber MS, Newman SA (2010). "Bare bones pattern formation: a core regulatory network in varying geometries ...
"Differentiation of human pluripotent teratocarcinoma stem cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2". Reproduction, ... Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that ... Perry SS, Wang H, Pierce LJ, Yang AM, Tsai S, Spangrude GJ (April 2004). "L-selectin defines a bone marrow analog to the thymic ... Stahl J, Wobus AM, Ihrig S, Lutsch G, Bielka H (September 1992). "The small heat shock protein hsp25 is accumulated in P19 ...
Up-regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is also crucial in developmental and evolutionary ... Swartz, S. M., Bennett, M. B., & Carrier, D. R. (1992). Wing bone stresses in free flying bats and the evolution of skeletal ... The expansion of the long bones in bat wings is at at least partly attributed to paired-box (Pax) homeodomain transcription ... Bats also had to evolve a thinner cortical bone to reduce torsional stresses produced by propulsive downstroke movements. Bats ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as ... Ligaments connect one bone to another, while tendons connect muscle to bone. Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular ... In this process, osteocytes infiltrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In ... G-proteins, which induce intracellular signaling cascades, may also be important, and ion channels are activated by stretching ...
Bone morphogenetic protein Collective cell migration Embryonic development Pattern formation Turing pattern French flag model ... During assembly of the bacteriophage (phage) T4 virion, the morphogenetic proteins encoded by the phage genes interact with ... Phage T4 encoded proteins that determine virion structure include major structural components, minor structural components and ... Maintaining an appropriate balance in the amounts of each of these proteins produced during viral infection appears to be ...
"Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 112 (20): 3519 ... Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massagué J (1995). "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the ... The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 also known as NCOA3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the NCOA3 gene. NCOA3 is ... The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. ...
2004). "Proteins associated with type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR-II) and identified by two-dimensional gel ... This protein is located in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the cleavage of the leader peptides of precursor proteins ... from mitochondrial protein precursors and releases of N-terminal transit peptides from precursor proteins imported into the ... which necessitates proper translocations of mitochondrial targeting proteins. Many mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in a ...
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a growth factor that plays a significant role in embryonic neural development, is highly ... "SPATA18 protein expression summary - The Human Protein Atlas". Retrieved 2022-06-02. Benton, Mary Lauren ... ZEB2 is a protein- coding gene in the Homo sapien species. A 2021 study found that a delayed change in the shape of early brain ... This, however, leads to a dilemma as the emergence of organisms with more complex nervous systems with protective bone or other ...
... the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1/Tolloid-like family, releases the c-terminal endorepellin domain of the perlecan core protein ... Cartilage and bone development have proven to be dependent upon perlecan expression. The protein becomes visible by ... that the driving force behind heparanase and chondroitinase activation of osteogenesis is release of bone morphogenetic protein ... The HSPG2 gene codes for a 4,391 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 468,829. It is one of the largest known proteins ...
Together with his colleagues, he discovered Chordin, a protein secreted by dorsal cells that binds Bone Morphogenetic Protein ( ... De Robertis, Edward M.; Moriyama, Yuki (2016-01-01), Wassarman, Paul M. (ed.), "Chapter Thirteen - The Chordin Morphogenetic ... and protein degradation. He has also served for over two decades on the scientific board of the Pew Charitable Trusts Latin ... secreted frizzled-related proteins as inhibitors of tolloid proteinases". Cell. 124 (1): 147-159. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.12. ...
"Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation". J. Bone Miner. Res. 10 (11): ... The bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA also known as BMPR1A is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMPR1A ... "Bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor signaling regulates postnatal osteoblast function and bone remodeling". J. Biol. ... "Cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins and osteogenic protein-1 differentially regulate osteogenesis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 ...
... and bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA. Other LU domain proteins are small globular proteins such as CD59 antigen, ... Three-finger proteins or three-finger protein domains (3FP or TFPD) are a protein superfamily consisting of small, roughly 60- ... Protein articles without symbol, Protein folds, Protein families). ... Members of the family have no enzymatic activity, but are capable of forming protein-protein interactions with high specificity ...
... gradient of pituitary morphogenesis is dependent on neuroectodermal signals from the infundibular bone morphogenetic protein 4 ... Other essential proteins necessary for pituitary cell proliferation are Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), Wnt4, and Wnt5. ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... An assortment of genes and proteins - such as WNT4, RSPO1, FOXL2, and various estrogen receptors - have been shown to prevent ...
Developmental genes and proteins, Bone morphogenetic protein, TGFβ domain). ... Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. It is involved in ... Bragdon B, Moseychuk O, Saldanha S, King D, Julian J, Nohe A (April 2011). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: a critical review". ... Persani L, Rossetti R, Di Pasquale E, Cacciatore C, Fabre S (2014-11-01). "The fundamental role of bone morphogenetic protein ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 15. Xp11·2. DIAPH2. Diaphanous. Xq22. FMR1 premutation. Fragile X mental retardation protein 1. Xq27 ... Management should be directed at symptom resolution and bone protection, but most importantly should include psychosocial ...
Human BMP15(Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15) ELISA Kit Human BMP15(Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15) ELISA Kit. To Order Contact us ... This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15 ... This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15 ... This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15 ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 co-operate to regulate granulosa cell function. McNatty, K. P ... Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 co-operate to regulate granulosa cell function in ruminants. ... Growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 are essential for ovarian follicular development in sheep. ... The bioactivity of human bone morphogenetic protein-15 is sensitive to C-terminal modification: Characterization of the ...
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulates Runx2 acetylation.. 119. 21247344. 2011. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 ... Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 functions via a conserved signaling pathway involving Wnt4 to regulate uterine decidualization in ... expression in human mesenchymal stem cells via the MAPK and protein kinase D signaling pathways.. 94. ...
A deletion in the bone morphogenetic protein 15 gene causes sterility and increased prolificacy in Rasa Aragonesa sheep. A ... Association of the heart fatty acid‐binding protein (FABP3) gene with milk traits in Manchega breed sheep. JH Calvo, S Marcos, ...
Mutation of the bone morphogenetic protein GDF3 causes ocular and skeletal anomalies. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Jan 15;19(2):287-98. ... Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Aug 15;129A(1):92-4. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30126. No abstract available. Citation on PubMed ... 2009 Mar 15;18(6):1110-21. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp008. Epub 2009 Jan 6. Citation on PubMed ...
"Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" was a major or ... A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL ... Prostate cancer induces bone metastasis through Wnt-induced bone morphogenetic protein-dependent and independent mechanisms. ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
Examining the Impact of Endothelial Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 2 Loss on Interleukin-15 Signaling and the Pathogenesis ... BM4 - Role of Stress Inducible Protein (STI-1) During Cardiac Development and Pathological Hypertrophy ... Transactivation of the Insulin Receptor through G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Biased Agonism: A Novel Therapeutic Target for ... Role of Giα Protein and Nitro-Oxidative Stress ... Protein Folding in Hypertension, Regulator of the Blood Vessel ...
"Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4" was a major or ... A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Masterson JC, Molloy EL, Gilbert JL, McCormack N, Adams A, ODea S. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in airway epithelial ...
Animals, Binding Sites, Bone and Bones, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2, Cartilage, Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit, Core ... Transcriptional regulation of gilthead seabream bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 gene by bone- and cartilage-related ... Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 belongs to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of cytokines and growth ... Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1, Sea Bream, SOX9 Transcription Factor, Transcription Factors, Zebrafish Proteins. ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) alleles predict over-response to recombinant follicle stimulation hormone and iatrogenic ...
... bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), forkhead transcription factor L2 (FOXL2), and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9)] ... Forkhead box protein L2 Publications[править]. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells improve ovarian function in natural aging ... measured by a protein antibody array methodology. After hAMSCs and hAECs were transplanted into a different degrees of POA ... were measured by a protein antibody array methodology. After hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) ...
Bone tissue morphogenetic proteins 15 (Mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (didnt have any manifestation in either group, as ... proteins (NAIP) genes had been considerably upregulated in the GnRH-ant group set alongside the GnRH-a group, using the fold ... Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related proteins and Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and the ones mixed up in cell routine ...
... bone morphogenetic protein signaling through SMAD1/4 induces expression of proepithelial microRNAs (miRNA; miR200 and miR205) ... F, protein lysates were extracted from H358 cells treated with TGFβ1 or control vehicle for 21 days and immunoblot analysis was ... F, protein lysates were extracted from H358 cells treated with TGFβ1 or control vehicle for 21 days and immunoblot analysis was ... C. Protein lysates were extracted from H358 and SCC-S cells treated or untreated with TGFbeta for 21 days and immunoblot ...
Estienne A, Pierre A, di Clemente N, et al. Anti-Müllerian hormone regulation by the bone morphogenetic proteins in the sheep ... Pierre A, Estienne A, Racine C, et al. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Up-Regulates the Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an essential renal morphogen that maintains renal tubular differentiation in the adult and is ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an essential renal morphogen that maintains renal tubular differentiation in the adult and is ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an essential renal morphogen that maintains renal tubular differentiation in the adult and is ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 is an essential renal morphogen that maintains renal tubular differentiation in the adult and is ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Medicine & Life Sciences 18% View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA ... the genuine casein kinase that phosphorylates secreted proteins. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics, 1854( ... the genuine casein kinase that phosphorylates secreted proteins, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics, vol ... In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics, Vol. 1854, No. 10, 01.10.2015, p. 1718-1726.. Research output: ...
N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 2. 0.014. Bmpr2. bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine ... guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1. 0.021. ... inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein. 0.011. ... a group of water-soluble proteins expressed in vary large quantities. ...
Dive into the research topics of Temporal and spatial expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in extracorporeal shock wave- ... Temporal and spatial expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in extracorporeal shock wave-promoted healing of segmental ...
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15. *Growth Differentiation Factor 1. *Growth Differentiation Factor 10 ...
Jan 31, 2012 - Genetic studies have identified bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15) as an .... hBMP15 uses a complex of the ... which we designate a protein-glycosaminoglycan-protein (PGP) crosslink. A combination of protein and carbohydrate analytical ... The human blood protein pre-a-inhibitor is composed of one heavy and one light protein chain. The chains are covalently linked ... Nevertheless, we have recently shown (4) that the humanblood protein pre-a-inhibitor (PaI) consists of protein chains that ...
Identification of sequence variation in the oocyte-derived bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) gene (BMP15) associated with ... Association Between PCR-SSCP of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Gene and Prolificacy in Jining Grey Goats ... Association of a Single Codon Deletion in Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Gene with Prolificacy in Small Tail Han Sheep ...
Chordin-Like 1 Suppresses Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion. Mol Cell Biol. 2016 ... Distinct phosphotyrosine-dependent functions of the ShcA adaptor protein are required for transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)- ... 2013 Feb 15; 288(7):5210-22. Northey JJ, Dong Z, Ngan E, Kaplan A, Hardy WR, Pawson T, Siegel PM. PMID: 23277357; PMCID: ... 05 15; 36(10):1509-25. Cyr-Depauw C, Northey JJ, Tabariès S, Annis MG, Dong Z, Cory S, Hallett M, Rennhack JP, Andrechek ER, ...
Dive into the research topics of Insulin-like growth factor 1 synergizes with bone morphogenetic protein 7-mediated anabolism ... T1 - Insulin-like growth factor 1 synergizes with bone morphogenetic protein 7-mediated anabolism in bovine intervertebral disc ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 synergizes with bone morphogenetic protein 7-mediated anabolism in bovine intervertebral disc ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 synergizes with bone morphogenetic protein 7-mediated anabolism in bovine intervertebral disc ...
Estienne A, Pierre A, di Clemente N, et al. Anti-Müllerian hormone regulation by the bone morphogenetic proteins in the sheep ... Pierre A, Estienne A, Racine C, et al. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Up-Regulates the Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor ...
Original Article: Utilizing calcium alginate for the assessment of bone morphogenetic protein 15 induction effect on the ... Materials and Methods: In this study, the fusion protein (PlpE1 + 2 + 3) and full PlpE genes (PlpE-Total) were cloned in pET28a ... Original Article: PlpE epitopes of Pasteurella multocida fusion protein as novel subunit vaccine candidates. ... Patients in the intervention group, in addition to receiving routine treatment of control group (high-protein diet, resting), ...
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP15 gene. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) alleles predict over-response to recombinant follicle stimulation hormone and iatrogenic ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). (
  • Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology 15, no. 4 (August 16, 2021): 1731-1737. (
  • 2021) Elution of rifampin and vancomycin from a weight-bearing silorane-based bone cement. (
  • Parikh K, Reinhardt D, Templeton K, Toby B , Brubacher J . (2021) Rate of Bone Mineral Density Testing and Subsequent Fracture-Free Interval After Distal Forearm Fracture in the Medicare Population. (
  • Meng B, Bunch J , Burton D, Wang J . (2021) Lumbar interbody fusion: recent advances in surgical techniques and bone healing strategies. (
  • 2021 May;15(3):410-419. (
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been considered for bone graft enhancement. (
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are progress components that belong to the remodeling progress factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, and until date 15 BMPs have been described. (
  • BMPs, first described for his or her function in bone and cartilage formation, additionally play a task in renal fibrosis in persistent kidney illness (CKD). (
  • BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are also called growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and form a subfamily of related proteins within the TGF-beta superfamily. (
  • The interplay between bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists governs developmental and cellular processes as diverse as establishment of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, induction of neural tissue, formation of joints in the skeletal system and neurogenesis in the adult brain. (
  • Recently it was demonstrated that ossification are due to increased expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4, a member of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (
  • There are many mediators involved in the differentiation process osteogenic that seek to repair and form bone tissue, some of these mediators are the Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (
  • So we're going to go through its inflammatory modulating effects of what's called BMPs, which I'm going to refer to pretty frequently throughout the presentation, that's called bone morphogenetic proteins. (
  • I will go through these BMPs and their stem cell signaling pathway, and then we're going to talk about just principles of bone and cartilage. (
  • [ 5 ] BMPs are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and play a role in the development of bone and other tissues. (
  • Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2016 bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling cancer small molecule BMP inhibitors Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family. (
  • BMP-15 is released from the oocyte into the surrounding granulosa tissue where it binds to two membrane bound receptors on granulosa cells. (
  • Limb hypertrophy is due to the presence of vascular, venous, and lymphatic abnormalities but also to the hypertrophy of soft tissue and bone. (
  • Bone tissue morphogenetic proteins 15 (Mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (didn't have any manifestation in either group, as offered in Desk?4. (
  • It is generally assumed that these cross-links impart structural rigidity to fibrin and connective tissue proteins. (
  • However, noncalcium phosphate-based bone substitutes demonstrate poor mechanical properties, low biocompatibility, and poor tissue adhesion. (
  • After publication of the results gained for the regulators of cartilage metabolism bFGF and IGF-I [ 3 ], this article focuses on the role of the Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 (BMP-2, BMP-7) that both are recognized as candidate growth factors with good potential in cartilage tissue engineering as well as cartilage repair. (
  • BMP-4 is one ofmultifuntional growth factors with pleiotropic roles in many different cell types and is predominantly present in human bone tissue. (
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue, constantly refurbished, which depends on several factors to maintain the balance between bone formation and resorption. (
  • Bone tissue is affected by several injuries, including congenital factors, metabolic diseases as well as factors external such as fractures. (
  • In addition, the main goal is to develop a therapy in which formation bone is modulated inflammation of bone tissue. (
  • The principles of guided tissue and bone regeneration are covered in detail, including many recent advancements in barrier membrane technologies as well as use of platelet-rich fibrin and various growth factors, and many next-generation materials that will optimize future bone and periodontal regeneration are presented. (
  • Today's webinar, "Breakthrough in Stem Cell Activation: The First Oral Protein Complex for Tissue Regeneration. (
  • The release of growth factors further accelerates the bone regeneration process by promoting the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and other bone progenitor cells from surrounding tissue. (
  • GDF15 can be known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), prostate-derived element (PDF), placental bone tissue morphogenetic proteins (PLAB), placental changing growth element (PTGF), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) [94]. (
  • Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising cell source in regenerative medicine, of particular utility for cell therapies and tissue engineering, because adipose tissue can easily be harvested in large quantities compared to bone marrow, and ADSCs have high proliferation rates in culture. (
  • Local delivery of BMSCs onto a bone scaffold associated with bone formation in vivo confirmed the preferential tropism of BMSCs to the bone tissue as well as their efficacy to form bone. (
  • As bone is the physiological environment of BM-MSCs (BMSCs), we hypothesized that a local delivery of BMSCs into the FH during surgery would facilitate their location and participation in tissue regeneration. (
  • although clinically efficacious, some common risks of the use of rhBMP-2 in patients include heterotopic bone formation and life-threatening soft tissue swelling, resulting in airway obstruction in the setting of anterior cervical fusion. (
  • The Bone tissue Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) are secreted ligands mainly known for his or her functional roles in embryogenesis and tissue development. (
  • and matrix-regulative genes, including matrix metalloproteinase-13, tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. (
  • Early in his career, he worked on tissue biology of infectious diseases, biofilm-induced bone diseases and antibody engineering. (
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (
  • Lee have shown an increase in MAP1LC3B\II protein levels in lung tissue from iPAH patients compared with controls 24. (
  • The pathway helps regulate growth and development of bone and other tissue. (
  • In diabetic nephropathy, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) is downregulated. (
  • Immunofluorescence staining for bone specific proteins in cell seeded scaffolds tissue sections confirmed differentiation of the cells into osteoblasts in vivo . (
  • The results demonstrate that TGF-beta family of proteins could potentially be used to generate murine iPSC derived-cells with potential for osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation in vivo and thus for application in musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration. (
  • As a scaffold, most present graft biomaterials are able to osteoconduct matrix or three-dimensional substrates to support new bone tissue formation [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ] . (
  • The manufacturing production of scaffolds with ideal characteristics is one of the most challenging issues in bone tissue regeneration strategy. (
  • The main purpose of this paper is to show the possible applications of microtomography for 3D inner displaying and morphometric characterization of a human bone tissue grafted with an osteoconductive biomaterial. (
  • The regenerated bone tissue of the test sample was analysed by means of 3D microtomographic and histological tests, and the results were compared with those obtained from similar evaluations carried out on the control sample. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2 functions via a conserved signaling pathway involving Wnt4 to regulate uterine decidualization in the mouse and the human. (
  • The ST2 cells were cultured with SP, Noggin (inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway), SP+Noggin, and 2% fetal bovine serum, respectively. (
  • Conclusion SP can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ST2 cells, and the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway may be involved in this process. (
  • Role of neuropeptide substance P and the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway in osteogenic differentiation of ST2 cells[J]. West China Journal of Stomatology, 2018, 36(4): 378-383. (
  • Findings suggest that fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva maps to band 4q27-31, a region that contains at least 1 gene involved in the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway. (
  • A signaling pathway called Hedgehog signaling is overactive in human cartilage and bone tumors. (
  • APC protein down-regulates the Wnt signaling pathway through its binding to β-catenin and axin ( 8 ). (
  • Masterson JC, Molloy EL, Gilbert JL, McCormack N, Adams A, O'Dea S. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in airway epithelial cells during regeneration. (
  • Objective: We undertook this study to assess the therapeutic benefits of intervertebral disc matrix repair and regeneration by evaluating the potential synergistic effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) on bovine spine discs and by elucidating the relevant molecular/cellular mechanisms. (
  • 2 day lecture titled Next Generation Biomaterials for Bone and Periodontal Regeneration in affiliation with the NSU Implant Maxi Program. (
  • Next-Generation Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9: The Future of Bone Regeneration? (
  • This study was to clarify whether HA-g-CS and moderate-intensity exercise might have a synergistic effect on facilitating (1) regeneration of osteochondral defects and (2) subchondral bone remodeling in a mouse model of osteochondral defects. (
  • The ability of P-15 to enhance cell binding, increases the number of viable cells at the healing site and speeds the process of new bone formation, and closely resembles the natural process of bone regeneration. (
  • Thus, skeletal stem cells recruited locally at the bone fracture site promote healing and their ablation disrupts bone regeneration and remodelling [18]. (
  • BMSC efficacy on bone regeneration was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. (
  • Genetic and pharmacologic suppression of PPARγ enhances NELL-1-stimulated bone regeneration. (
  • PRP did not enhance bone regeneration. (
  • Isolation of pig bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells suitable for one-step procedures in chondrogenic regeneration. (
  • Bone healing is a quite complex and dynamic process that dates back to embryonic bone development and regeneration, and ends with the restoration of anatomical and functional standard conditions of the bone. (
  • Since its inception in 1997, Citagenix has become an important source of knowledge and experience for bone regeneration in the Canadian medical device industry. (
  • 2022.1.Hs: Updated to GO Release 2022-07-01, NCBI gene2go 2022-07-15. (
  • Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is usually without an identified genetic cause, despite clinical and molecular similarity to bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutation-associated heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (
  • Fatty Acid Metabolism, Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2, and the Right Ventricle. (
  • Mutations of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene ( BMPR2), a component of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family which plays a key role in cell growth, have recently been identified as causing familial PPH. (
  • 7-11 Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene ( BMPR2 ), a receptor member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family, have recently been identified as causing FPPH. (
  • Importantly, E12.5 equatorial lens vesicle cells showed cell-surface immunoreactivity for bone-morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 and nuclear immunoreactivity for the active, phosphorylated form of the Bmp responsive Smads. (
  • BMP-2 and insulin-like growth factor-I mediate Osterix (Osx) expression in human mesenchymal stem cells via the MAPK and protein kinase D signaling pathways. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 2, a growth factor that commits mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts, down-regulated rHox mRNA expression by 40-50% in UMR 201, a rat preosteoblast cell line, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (
  • Objective This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in ST2 cell (bone mesenchymal stem cells of mice) osteogenic differentiation to provide a basis for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. (
  • A thermoresponsive polydiolcitrate-gelatin scaffold and delivery system mediates effective bone formation from BMP9-transduced mesenchymal stem cells. (
  • Argonaute (AGO) proteins play an essential role in mediating BMP9-induced osteogenic signaling in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (
  • Injection of osteoprogenitor cells like bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) into the FH appears to be a good therapeutic treatment. (
  • Besides their inhibitory effect on osteoclasts and bone resorption, bisphosphonates may promote the processes of bone formation and enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) [ 17 ]. (
  • report that deleting Ptch1 in mesenchymal stem cells, early-stage cells that can give rise to cartilage and bone cells, generates a mouse model for osteosarcoma and cartilage tumors. (
  • Treating the mice that had mesenchymal cells lacking Ptch1 with a drug that inhibits Wnt signaling reduced the growth of cartilage and bone tumors. (
  • The BMP-15 gene is located on the X-chromosome and using Northern blot analysis BMP-15 mRNA is locally expressed within the ovaries in oocytes only after they have started to undergo the primary stages of development. (
  • Two breeds of sheep, Inverdale and Hanna, are naturally heterozygous carriers of point mutations in the BMP-15 gene. (
  • Data reported here provides new insights toward the better understanding of the transcriptional regulation of BMP2 gene in a bone and cartilage context. (
  • Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a protein that is not folded in its correct three-dimensional structure. (
  • CONCLUSION The sporadic form of PPH is associated with germline mutations of the gene encoding the receptor protein BMPR-II in at least 26% of cases. (
  • An animal model of degeneration was used to determine the effects of disc distraction, and was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as gene and protein expression levels. (
  • Distraction results in disc rehydration, stimulated extracellular matrix gene expression, and increased numbers of protein-expressing cells. (
  • Mutation in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension in a large kindred. (
  • Although the amount of BMP-7 mRNA was similar in the kidneys of diabetic CTGF +/+ and CTGF +/− mice, phosphorylation of the BMP signal transduction protein Smad1/5 and expression of the BMP target gene Id1 were lower in diabetic CTGF +/+ mice. (
  • but mice do not form tumors when this gene is deleted in their mature cartilage and bone cells. (
  • Phenotypic and physiological novelty in snakes seems to be driven by system-wide coordination of protein adaptation, gene expression, and changes in the structure of the genome. (
  • The adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and mutations resulting in loss of APC protein function are associated with carcinogenesis. (
  • Creating models animal FOP from the knockout mice to kinin receptors allow us clarify the role of inflammation in ectopic bone formation, found in this disease.Thus, with the generated models, it is possible to evaluate the role of kinins in osteogenesis mediated BMP-2. (
  • However, attachment as well as stable adhesion can also be mediated by specific, high affinity receptor-ligand interactions, e.g., between cell surface receptors like integrins and their ECM binding partner(s) on the substratum [15-16]. (
  • G-protein receptors regulation of inflammatory response. (
  • Miyazono K, Kamiya Y, Morikawa M. Bone morphogenetic protein receptors and signal transduction. (
  • BMP-15 prevents this transition by inhibiting the production of FSH receptor mRNA in granulosa cells. (
  • As BMP-15 acts directly on granulosa cells it has an important influence on granulosa function including steroidogenesis inhibition of luteinization and differentiation of cumulus, without which would lead to infertility and lack of folliculogenesis. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation. (
  • Wahdan-Alaswad RS, Song K, Krebs TL, Shola DT, Gomez JA, Matsuyama S, Danielpour D. Insulin-like growth factor I suppresses bone morphogenetic protein signaling in prostate cancer cells by activating mTOR signaling. (
  • The Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Up-Regulates the Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor Expression in Granulosa Cells. (
  • 2013) Vascular endothelial growth factor-A signaling in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells exposed to hypoxic stress. (
  • Expression of rHox mRNA in calvarial osteoblasts derived from PTHrP -/- mice was approximately 15% of that observed in similar cells obtained from normal mice. (
  • Furthermore, research indicates that P-15 promotes the attraction, attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells. (
  • Salisbury E.A, Lazard Z.W., Ubogu E.E., Davis A.R., Olmsted-Davis E.A. Transient brown adipocyte-like cells derive from peripheral nerve progenitors in response to bone morphogenetic protein 2. (
  • A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS. (
  • Mei G, Zou Z, Fu S, et al.Substance P activates the Wnt signal transduction pathway and enhances the differentiation of mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells[J]. Int J Mol Sci, 2014, 15(4): 6224-6240. (
  • This protein segment (P-15) is responsible for the attachment and proliferation of osteogenic cells. (
  • These cells bind to the synthetic P-15 found in i-FACTOR the same way they would bind to human Type I collagen (figure 1). (
  • i-FACTOR Bone Graft increases the opportunity for cell binding in the fusion site by making an abundance of the P-15 peptide available to osteogenic cells. (
  • Cells have a natural high affinity for P-15 which increases the number of viable cells at the healing site. (
  • Studies demonstrated that on P-15-coated substrata, increased cell spreading and lamellipodia and filopodia formation was observed by 30 min and remained obvious even days later in comparison with those cells cultured on control substrata [6, 9,20]. (
  • Stable sites of cell-substratum adhesion may then transition to become focal adhesions which are platforms for cell activation and signaling [21-22]From three hours through four days after the onset of cell attachment to P-15-coated substrata, those cells were more viable and showed less apoptosis (programmed cell death), compared with cells on control substrata. (
  • Overexpression of EIF5A2 in CRC cells enhances the enrichment of c-Myc around the promoter of metastasis-associated proteins 1 (MTA1). (
  • Under hypoxia, dexamethasone treatment inhibits HIF-1 proteins levels and reduces mRNA degrees of hypoxia-induced SNAIL, SLUG, and TWIST1, and transcriptional elements involved with EMT, aswell as the hypoxia-induced integrin V6 proteins, a well-known EMT marker for CRC cells [102]. (
  • Porcine allograft mandible revitalization using autologous adipose-derived stem cells, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and periosteum. (
  • Morpholino-based knockdown of Eya1 leads to reduction of proliferating, Sox3- and Islet1/2-immunopositive cells, redistribution of cell polarity proteins and loss of N-cadherin suggesting that Eya1 is required for maintenance of epithelial cells with apicobasal polarity, progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation during otic neurogenesis. (
  • iPSC\ECs, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), human pulmonary artery easy muscle cells (PASMCs), inflammation, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) Introduction Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is usually characterised by an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (greater than 25?mmHg at rest), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (15?mmHg), and pulmonary vascular Isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-Glucoside resistance (greater than 3 Wood units) 1. (
  • More targeted sequencing of additional tumors was conducted to track how instructions encoded in DNA were translated into the proteins that do the work of cells. (
  • TGF-β1 in combination with RA derived-cells seeded onto HA/TCP ceramics and implanted in mice deposited typical bone. (
  • The cartilage and bone tumors are originated from Prrx1 + lineage cells and express low levels of osteoblast and chondrocyte markers, respectively. (
  • These findings suggest that cartilage/bone tumors arise from their early progenitor cells and identify the Wnt/β-Catenin pathway as a pharmacological target for cartilage/bone neoplasms. (
  • The mice with these Ptch1 deficient cells developed tumors with overactive Hedgehog signaling in cartilage and bone. (
  • In vivo testing demonstrates all five elements of bone formation are present in our PentOS OI™ grafts: chondrocytes, osteocytes, bone marrow cells, cartilage, and new bone. (
  • While it plays important roles in embryo morphogenesis and organogenesis, BMP2 is also critical to bone and cartilage formation. (
  • In silico analysis of seabream BMP2 promoter revealed several binding sites for bone and cartilage related transcription factors (TFs) and their functionality was evaluated using promoter-luciferase constructions and TF-expressing vectors. (
  • A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. (
  • It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. (
  • Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears. (
  • Substantial evidence shows that crosstalk between cartilage and subchondral bone may play an important role in cartilage repair. (
  • However, no in vivo studies have demonstrated that these two factors may have a synergistic activity to facilitate subchondral bone remodeling in mice, thus supporting bone-cartilage repair. (
  • Extent of subchondral bone remodeling at the injury site and subsequent cartilage repair were assessed at 4 weeks after surgery. (
  • The extent of cartilage repair was correlated positively to bone formation activity at the injured site as verified by microCT and correlation analysis. (
  • This bone formation process was accompanied by an increase in osteogenesis and chondrogenesis factors at the injury site which promoted cartilage repair. (
  • Also, cartilage and subchondral bone forms a functional unit in an articular joint and subchondral bone may regulate cartilage repair by secreting growth factors in its remodeling process. (
  • Indian Hedgehog (IHH) signaling, a key regulator of skeletal development, is highly activated in cartilage and bone tumors. (
  • Bone and cartilage tumors are among the most common tumors in the skeleton, often affecting the limbs. (
  • Protein structure and function have been remarkably conserved throughout evolution and BMP2 transcription has been proposed to be tightly regulated, although few data is available. (
  • In an effort to understand the function of this variant protein, we generated a mouse line in which BMP2 is expressed and functions normally, but nBMP2 is excluded from the nucleus. (
  • Had it entered the secretory pathway, the protein would have been cleaved at a furin-type proprotein convertase recognition sequence to release the mature BMP2 growth factor. (
  • DMH1 has been used for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibition. (
  • Bisphosphonates are antiresorptive drugs that influence bone metabolism mainly via inhibition of osteoclast recruitment, differentiation, and bone resorption activity [ 13 ]. (
  • Ligand (Indian, Sonic, or Desert Hedgehog) engagement to receptor Smoothened (Smo) relieves the inhibition of Patched 1 (Ptch1) and upregulates Gli1/2 proteins, which increase the expression of proteins including Myc, Cyclin D, and Bcl2 and promote cell proliferation. (
  • Therefore, HA is preferred as a bone graft or extender in orthopedics [ 8 - 11 ]. (
  • i-FACTOR Peptide Enhanced Bone Graft is based upon the biological activity of a 15 amino-acid peptide found in type I collagen. (
  • We hypothesized locally delivered ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate act as a bone graft extender to increase the volume of new bone formed in a murine model of posterior lumbar fusion. (
  • Fresh morselized bone graft from 12 donor mice was used. (
  • 1 - 3 An additional $2 billion is spent on products to augment iliac crest autograft and local bone graft with bone graft extenders or substitutes, such as demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, and bone morphogenetic proteins. (
  • Graft resorption with the use of bone morphogenetic protein: lessons from anterior lumbar interbody fusion using femoral ring allografts and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. (
  • [1] Additional hardware (screws, plates, or cages) is often used to hold the bones in place while the graft fuses the two vertebrae together. (
  • Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) is commonly used as a bone-graft substitute. (
  • Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) is one of the most acid-insoluble collagenous scaffolds containing minerals and noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and is now commonly used as a bone-graft substitute. (
  • For using DDM as an allogenic bone-graft substitute, the risk of viral-disease transmission should be reduced or eliminated. (
  • proteins (NAIP) genes had been considerably upregulated in the GnRH-ant group set alongside the GnRH-a group, using the fold switch of 3.990 (SD 1.325), 6.274 (SD 1.542), and 2.156 (SD 1.443), respectively, (P 0.001). (
  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence (ICC) staining method were performed to characterize the expression of OCT4, Nanog, ZP2, and ZP3 genes and protein. (
  • Thus far attempts to discover major autism susceptibility genes have been largely unsuccessful, with approximately only 15% to 20% of cases of autism linked to specific genes, chromosomal aneuploidy or recognized syndromes [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • Results and Conclusions: During in vitro hypertrophic differentiation, levels of p57 mRNA and protein were constant despite changes in chondrocyte proliferative activity and the induction of hypertrophic-specific genes in response to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. (
  • of the manifestation of 25 genes involved in angiogenesis/tumor invasion and 15 housekeeping genes. (
  • In the early Xenopus embryo, the Xiro homeodomain proteins of the Iroquois (Iro) family control the expression of proneural genes and the size of the neural plate. (
  • We also found that many snake metabolic genes have undergone positive selection, which together with the rapid evolution of mitochondrial proteins, provides evidence for extensive adaptive redesign of snake metabolic pathways. (
  • Furthermore, down-regulation of rHox mRNA by bone morphogenetic protein 2 and its up-regulation by PTHrP support a role of the homeodomain protein, rHox, in osteoblast differentiation. (
  • Protein and mRNA levels were monitored by Western and Northern blot analyses, respectively. (
  • Compared with diabetic wild-type CTGF +/+ mice, diabetic CTGF +/− mice had approximately 50% lower CTGF mRNA and protein, less severe albuminuria, no thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and preserved matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. (
  • The renal expression of CTGF mRNA and protein is upregulated in human and experimental diabetic nephropathy. (
  • Cytokines (growth factors) were measured by a protein antibody array methodology. (
  • Using an antibody specifically raised against Xenopus Eya1, we characterize the subcellular localization of Eya1 proteins, their levels of expression as well as their distribution in relation to progenitor and neuronal differentiation markers during otic neurogenesis. (
  • Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor, which accounts for about one third of all bone malignancies. (
  • Treatment of metastatic Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone: evaluation of increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy--a report from the Children's Oncology Group. (
  • Recent research have proven that spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 2 (SKA2) is dysregulated in a number of tumors and acts as a key regulator of tumor development. (
  • Toxicol Rep. 2020 Feb 15;7:386-402. (
  • In mice, the BMP-15 homologue is not as physiologically important. (
  • Uremia was imposed on LDL receptor null mice (a model of atherosclerosis), which were then treated with bone morphogenetic protein 7 for 15 wk. (
  • Shen K, Liu X, Qin H, Chai Y, Wang L, Yu B. HA-g-CS Implant and Moderate-intensity Exercise Stimulate Subchondral Bone Remodeling and Promote Repair of Osteochondral Defects in Mice. (
  • Because no bone formation occurs in Osterix null mice, Osterix is thought to be an essential regulator of osteoblast differentiation. (
  • These point mutations result in higher ovulation rates and larger litter sizes than sheep strains with a wildtype BMP-15 genotype. (
  • Sheep carrying homozygous alleles for the Inverdale and Hanna BMP-15 mutations are infertile, as they have streak ovaries and the primary stage of folliculogenesis is inhibited. (
  • The classification of PAH comprises non\hereditary or idiopathic PAH (iPAH) and hereditary PAH, which is mostly related to heterozygous germline mutations in encodes for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 2 receptor, which belongs to the transforming growth factor (TGF\) family. (
  • Despite the above, the incomplete penetrance of mutations (20C30%) suggests that other genetic and environmental factors such as hypoxia, inflammation 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, alterations in oestrogen metabolism 16, 17, or infections 18 contribute to the disease. (
  • In individuals with an inherited disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), the same ACVR1 mutations lead not to cancer, but to a different mechanism resulting in abnormal growth of bone in other tissues. (
  • P-15 also improves cell viability and the receptor-mediated anchorage of osteoblasts by P-15 initiates a number of signal transduction pathways that lead to the synthesis of growth factors, cytokines, and bone morphogenetic proteins. (
  • Osterix, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is specifically expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes of all developing bones. (
  • Platelet Rich Plasma: A source of multiple autologous growth factors for bone grafts. (
  • The use of Platelet-Rich Plasma to Enhance the Sucess of Bone Grafts Around Dental Implants. (
  • Bone grafting the jaws in the 21st century: The use of platelet-rich plasma and bone morphogenetic protein. (
  • The biomaterials used for calvarial reconstruction were demineralised perforated bone matrix (DBM), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP2) and autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). (
  • The human blood protein pre-a-inhibitor is composed. (
  • The human blood protein pre-a-inhibitor is composed of one heavy and one light protein chain. (
  • Nevertheless, we have recently shown (4) that the humanblood protein pre-a-inhibitor (PaI)' consists of protein chains that contain a carbohydrate cross-link. (
  • Embryonic mouse models have demonstrated that ROCK protein inhibitor decreases the number of terminal lung buds. (
  • Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor sertraline inhibits bone healing in a calvarial defect model. (
  • DMH1 is a highly selective Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor. (
  • The P-15 peptide in i-FACTOR is immobilized on an anorganic bone mineral (ABM) surface and enhances cell adhesion and migration, and induces osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. (
  • The advantageous stability between proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the colonic epithelium is tightly managed by the interaction between WNT, Notch, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. (
  • This protein is a member of the Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily and is a paracrine signalling molecule. (
  • Functions of BMP-15 include Promotion of growth and maturation of ovarian follicles, starting from the primary gonadotrophin-independent phases of folliculogenesis. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 belongs to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of cytokines and growth factors. (
  • Medtronic Inc. (MDT) ghost-wrote sections of medical papers and paid physician authors hundreds of millions of dollars in 'consulting fees' to promote its bone-growth product Infuse, a U.S. Senate investigation found. (
  • Medtronic, the world's biggest maker of heart-rhythm devices, helped write, edit and shape at least 11 medical journal articles about the product, which is used to spur bone growth after spinal surgery, according to report released today by the Senate Finance Committee (Cortez and Armstrong, 10/25). (
  • Transforming growth factor family proteins like TGFß1 can oppose these effects. (
  • Enhanced expression of growth factor beta 1 (TGF-B1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and BMP-7 hours-days after cell attachment to P-15 coated surfaces was shown. (
  • 您现在的位置: 主页 / 其他重组蛋白 / Recombinant Human Growth Differentiation Factor 5/Bone Morphogenetic Protein-14. (
  • Growth/differentiation factors (GDF-1 to GDF-15) are members of the BMP family of TGF-beta superfamily proteins. (
  • Much like one implant size and shape cannot be utilized for every indication in implant dentistry, one bone grafting material, barrier membrane, or growth factor cannot maximize regenerative outcomes in all clinical situations. (
  • Children in remote areas often suffer from inadequate intake of protein and trace elements such as zinc and iron due to economic reasons, resulting in growth retardation, low weight and anemia. (
  • Turning the growth hormone receptor on: evidence that hormone binding induces subunit rotation[J]. Proteins, 2010,78(5):1163-1174. (
  • The successful separation of a pair of craniopagus twins resulted in significant cranial vault defects that required reconstruction.1 Previously, calvarial reconstruction in separated craniopagus twins was postponed until adolescence when autologous bone was more plentiful.2 The goals of pediatric calvarial reconstruction are to provide protection for the brain, to enable normal growth of the cranial vault and to reduce deformity of the head shape. (
  • iPSC reprogrammed from murine tail tip fibroblasts were exposed to retinoic acid alone (RA) or in combination with TGF-β1 and 3, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). (
  • BMP is a naturally occurring growth factor found in the human body and plays a crucial role in bone formation. (
  • RESULTS: 63 samples of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) derived from 36 men and 27 women between the ages of 15-65 years. (
  • The processing of bone to produce demineralized bone matrix (DBM) entails conditions harsh enough to achieve significant levels of viral inactivation. (
  • Schematic illustrating the organic phase of bone, comprised of rope-like collagen macromolecules, their component triple helices, and P-15, a 15 amino acid peptide present within single chains of the triple helices. (
  • The P-15 sequence (residues 769-783) comprises about one per cent of the length of the collagen molecule. (
  • A second "sponge control" group received morselized bone with the control collagen sponge. (
  • The third group received morselized bone and a collagen sponge with ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. (
  • Ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, and its role in bone synthesis have been studied since the discovery of scurvy, 9 and it has been involved in the collagen biosynthetic pathway 10 and upregulates alkaline phosphatase. (
  • The annulus is formed of 15-25 concentric lamellae with collagen fibers running parallel within each lamella and oriented approximately 60° to the vertical axis. (
  • Proteinases of the bone morphogenetic protein-1 family convert procollagen VII to mature anchoring fibril collagen. (
  • TGF-ß activation by bone marrow-derived thrombospondin-1 causes Schistosoma- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Three months postoperatively, the lumbar spine underwent high-resolution micro-computed tomography for analysis of bone formation, density, and bridging fusion. (
  • Locally delivered ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate in a murine model of posterior spinal fusion yielded statistically significant increases in new bone formation in the lumbar spine but statistically significant decreases in mineralized bone fraction. (
  • Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion . (
  • Prostate cancer induces bone metastasis through Wnt-induced bone morphogenetic protein-dependent and independent mechanisms. (
  • We report that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) induces an increase in Osterix expression, which is mediated through a homeodomain sequence located in the proximal region of the Osterix promoter. (
  • Development Citalopram Hydrobromide manufacture Differentiation Element 15 (GDF15) GDF15 is usually a divergent person in the BMP-subfamily from the TGF- superfamily. (
  • This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. (
  • The BMP-7-binding affinity of site-specific variants of Noggin is correlated with alterations in bone formation and apoptosis in chick limb development, showing that Noggin functions by sequestering its ligand in an inactive complex. (
  • Figure 5: Binding affinity of Noggin proteins for BMP-7. (
  • Zimmerman, L. B., De Jesus-Escobar, J. M. & Harland, R. M. The Spemann organizer signal noggin binds and inactivates bone morphogenetic protein 4. (
  • CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. (
  • Thymoquinone accelerates osteoblast differentiation and activates bone morphogenetic protein-2 and ERK pathway. (
  • Surgical treatment for primary spinal aneurysmal bone cysts: experience from Boston Children's Hospital. (
  • More than $3 billion is lost annually in direct and indirect costs due to failures to heal or form bone, such as the case with spinal fusion. (
  • There are many types of spinal fusion and each technique involves using bone grafting -either from the patient ( autograft ), donor ( allograft ), or artificial bone substitutes-to help the bones heal together. (
  • HGGs represent 15 to 20 percent of brain and spinal tumors in children. (
  • Treatment of a natural pig ONFH by autologous BMSCs indicated a beginning of bone healing as early as 2 weeks with a complete healing after 9 weeks. (
  • To avoid arthroplasty, many conservative procedures are used in the early pre-collapse stage of ONFH, including core decompression associated (or not) with autologous bone marrow (BM) grafting [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Autologous bone is the material of choice. (
  • Many ASD cases require multilevel fusion, requiring more bone grafts than typical single-level fusion. (
  • Objective-To evaluate scintigraphy, radiography, and histomorphometric analysis for assessing incorporation of intercalary bone grafts and to compare incorporation of cortical autografts and allografts by the recipient. (
  • PentOS OI™ Max is the newest member of the PentOS OI™ family of bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial surgery. (
  • Dipsacus asperoides is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which has the actions of nourishing liver and kidney, strengthening tendons and bones and preventing uterine bleeding [ 1 ]. (
  • The liver requires vitamin K in order to make blood clotting proteins, and as this article discusses, for the regulation of calcium deposition. (
  • These studies suggest that BMP-15 plays a vital role in the normal regulation of folliculogenesis and ovulation in sheep. (
  • Anti-Müllerian hormone regulation by the bone morphogenetic proteins in the sheep ovary: deciphering a direct regulatory pathway. (
  • A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. (
  • Rahman MS, Akhtar N, Jamil HM, et al.TGF-β/BMP sig-naling and other molecular events: regulation of osteoblasto-genesis and bone formation[J]. Bone Res, 2015, 3: 15005. (
  • 3 Both the bones and the arterial system have their own regulation mechanisms, therefore it is clear that there are other processes occurring to cause abnormal calcium deposition in the arteries in the case of diseased arteries. (
  • A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Content of bone morphogenetic protein-4 in human demineralized bone: relationship to donor age and ability to induce new bone formation. (
  • Urist, M. R. Bone: formation by autoinduction. (
  • Additionally, studies have shown that cell spreading and the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia are stimulated by P-15. (
  • Experimental studies have shown cell activation and focal adhesion formation The experimental studies made use of different cell cultures and although P-15 promoted cell adhesion and activation, different pathways of integrin signalling were noted. (
  • 7 , 8 Therefore, the development of a newer, lower-cost, noninferior method for bone healing and formation with fewer complications is needed. (
  • this protein called morphogenetic protein-2 has an important function in influencing the formation of bone. (
  • Prescription drugs such as alendronate (Fossimax) and raloxifene (Evista) are able to increase calcium deposition in the bones, however they do not stop the formation of calcium plaques in the arteries. (
  • Microtubule\associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta\II (MAP1LC3B\II) is an autophagy marker and a lipidated form of MAP1LC3B\I. It is associated with autophagosomal membranes and is fundamental for the Isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-Glucoside formation of the autophagosome 23. (
  • It is a specific biochemical marker of bone turnover and bone formation involved in bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis [ 8 ]. (
  • The data are compatible with bone morphogenetic protein 7 deficiency as a pathophysiologic factor in chronic renal failure, and they demonstrate its efficacy as a potential treatment of vascular calcification. (
  • Hoffmann B , Annis D, Mosher D. (2011) Reactivity of the N-terminal region of fibronectin protein to transglutaminase 2 and factor XIIIa. (
  • Right here, we show a 70-kDa vitelline layer protein, HrVC70, comprising 12 epidermal development factor-like repeats, has an integral role in personal/nonself reputation during ascidian fertilization. (
  • However, safety and efficacy of BMSCs to treat bone defect are the main preclinical data required for clinical application. (
  • High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo. (
  • ethanol extracts of Garcinia mangostana L. peel and propolis) had inhibitory effects on inflammation and alveolar bone loss in silk-ligature. (
  • Fam20C is an atypical kinase implicated in bio-mineralization and phosphate homeostasis disorders, and has recently been shown to account for the activity of an orphan enzyme ("genuine casein kinase", G-CK) previously characterized for its ability to phosphorylate casein and a plethora of secreted proteins at serine residues specified by the S-x-E/pS motif. (
  • Fanning S § , Xu W § , Beaurepaire C, Suhan J, Nantel A, Mitchell A * . Functional control of the Candida albicans cell wall by catalytic protein kinase A subunit Tpk1. (
  • BMP-15 prevents differentiation into preovulatory follicle by inhibiting FSH action in granulosa. (
  • BMP-15 promotes the change of primordial to primary and secondary follicles which are surrounded by several granulosa cell layers but doesn't promote transition into preovulatory follicles. (
  • Furthermore, P-15 promotes cell adhesion by providing a network of surface adhesion points for cell attachment. (
  • P-15 promotes cell attachment. (
  • P-15 promotes cell adhesion and spreading. (