Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Smad1 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Smad5 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and is essential for PHYSIOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15: A protein that plays a role in GRANULOSA CELLS where it regulates folliculogenesis. Mutations in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein 15 are linked to reproductive abnormalities such as PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Smad6 Protein: An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.Smad8 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS and regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Growth Differentiation Factor 6: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the neural differentiation, specifically in the retinal development of the EYE.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated: A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Tolloid-Like Metalloproteinases: A family of metalloproteases that are related to the DROSOPHILA protein tolloid, which is a gene product necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Many members of the group may play a significant role in intercellular signaling.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Smad7 Protein: An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Diseases, MetabolicMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Wnt3 Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE. Defects in Wnt3 protein are associated with autosomal recessive tetra-AMELIA in humans.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyGranulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 10: A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.DioxolesCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.OdontoblastsMice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Neurulation: An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.

The mammalian Tolloid-like 1 gene, Tll1, is necessary for normal septation and positioning of the heart. (1/124)

Mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL-1) is an astacin-like metalloprotease, highly similar in domain structure to the morphogenetically important proteases bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) and Drosophila Tolloid. To investigate possible roles for mTLL-1 in mammalian development, we have used gene targeting in ES cells to produce mice with a disrupted allele for the corresponding gene, Tll1. Homozygous mutants were embryonic lethal, with death at mid-gestation from cardiac failure and a unique constellation of developmental defects that were apparently confined solely to the heart. Constant features were incomplete formation of the muscular interventricular septum and an abnormal and novel positioning of the heart and aorta. Consistent with roles in cardiac development, Tll1 expression was specific to precardiac tissue and endocardium in 7.5 and 8.5 days p.c. embryos, respectively. Tll1 expression was also high in the developing interventricular septum, where expression of the BMP-1 gene, Bmp1, was not observed. Cardiac structures that were not affected in Tll1-/- embryos either showed no Tll1 expression (atrio-ventricular cushions) or showed overlapping expression of Tll1 and Bmp1 (aortico-pulmonary septum), suggesting that products of the Bmp1 gene may be capable of functionally substituting for mTLL-1 at sites in which they are co-expressed. Together, the various data show that mTLL-1 plays multiple roles in formation of the mammalian heart and is essential for formation of the interventricular septum.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein 1 regulates dorsal-ventral patterning in early Xenopus embryos by degrading chordin, a BMP4 antagonist. (2/124)

Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) is a metalloprotease that ventralises dorsal mesoderm when overexpressed in early Xenopus embryos. Here we show that Xenopus BMP1 blocks the dorsalising activity of chordin, but not noggin or DeltaxBMPR, when coexpressed in the ventral marginal zone and degrades chordin protein in vitro. We also show that a dominant-negative mutation for XBMP1 (dnBMP1) dorsalises ventral mesoderm in vivo, and blocks degradation of chordin by both XBMP1 and Xolloid, a closely related Xenopus metalloprotease, in vitro. dnBMP1 does not dorsalise ventral mesoderm in UV-irradiated embryos, demonstrating that this activity is dependent upon a functional organiser--the natural source of chordin in Xenopus gastrulae. Our results suggest that XBMP1 may regulate the availability of chordin during vertebrate embryogenesis.  (+info)

Mammalian BMP-1/Tolloid-related metalloproteinases, including novel family member mammalian Tolloid-like 2, have differential enzymatic activities and distributions of expression relevant to patterning and skeletogenesis. (3/124)

Vertebrate bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP-1) and Drosophila Tolloid (TLD) are prototypes of a family of metalloproteases with important roles in various developmental events. BMP-1 affects morphogenesis, at least partly, via biosynthetic processing of fibrillar collagens, while TLD affects dorsal-ventral patterning by releasing TGFbeta-like ligands from latent complexes with the secreted protein Short Gastrulation (SOG). Here, in a screen for additional mammalian members of this family of developmental proteases, we identify novel family member mammalian Tolloid-like 2 (mTLL-2) and compare enzymatic activities and expression domains of all four known mammalian BMP-1/TLD-like proteases [BMP-1, mammalian Tolloid (mTLD), mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL-1), and mTLL-2]. Despite high sequence similarities, distinct differences are shown in ability to process fibrillar collagen precursors and to cleave Chordin, the vertebrate orthologue of SOG. As previously demonstrated for BMP-1 and mTLD, mTLL-1 is shown to specifically process procollagen C-propeptides at the physiologically relevant site, while mTLL-2 is shown to lack this activity. BMP-1 and mTLL-1 are shown to cleave Chordin, at sites similar to procollagen C-propeptide cleavage sites, and to counteract dorsalizing effects of Chordin upon overexpression in Xenopus embryos. Proteases mTLD and mTLL-2 do not cleave Chordin. Differences in enzymatic activities and expression domains of the four proteases suggest BMP-1 as the major Chordin antagonist in early mammalian embryogenesis and in pre- and postnatal skeletogenesis.  (+info)

Expression of chick BMP-1/Tolloid during patterning of the neural tube and somites. (4/124)

The expression pattern described here is that of the chick BMP-1/Tolloid family of secreted metalloproteinases during early stages of development. BMP-1/Tolloid transcripts are expressed in the blastoderm, at gastrulation stages and as the neural plate forms and neural tube folds, BMP-1/Tolloid is found at the neural plate/ectodermal transition. Expression is maintained in the premigratory neural crest, and transiently in the migrating cephalic neural crest cells. BMP-1/Tolloid is also expressed in the caudal, but not in the anterior notochord, and in the ventral neural tube at the time of dorso-ventral patterning. Further sites of BMP-1/Tolloid expression are the lateral plate mesoderm and the dermotome and the myotome of the somites.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain. (5/124)

Epithelial cells maintained in culture medium containing low calcium proteolytically process laminin 5 (alpha3beta3gamma2) within the alpha3 and gamma2 chains (). Experiments were designed to identify the enzyme(s) responsible for the laminin 5 processing and the sites of proteolytic cleavage. To characterize the nature of laminin 5 processing, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the proteolytic fragments produced by the processing events. The results indicate that the first alpha3 chain cleavage (200-l65 kDa alpha3) occurs within subdomain G4 of the G domain. The second cleavage (l65-l45 kDa alpha3) occurs within the lIla domain, 11 residues N-terminal to the start of domain II. The gamma chain is cleaved within the second epidermal growth factor-like repeat of domain Ill. The sequence cleaved within the gamma2 chain matches the consensus sequence for the cleavage of type I, II, and III procollagens by bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1), also known as type I procollagen C-proteinase (). Recombinant BMP-1 cleaves gamma2 in vitro, both within intact laminin 5 and at the predicted site of a recombinant gamma2 short arm. alpha3 is also cleaved by BMP-1 in vitro, but the cleavage site is yet to be determined. These results show the laminin alpha3 and gamma2 chains to be substrates for BMP-1 in vitro. We speculate that gamma2 cleavage is required for formation of the laminin 5-6 complex and that this complex is directly involved in assembly of the interhemidesmosomal basement membrane. This further suggests that BMP-1 activity facilitates basement membrane assembly, but not hemidesmosome assembly, in the laminin 5-rich dermal-epidermal junction basement membrane in vivo.  (+info)

Profiling of genes which are differentially expressed in mouse liver in response to adenoviral vectors and delivered genes. (6/124)

The effects of transgene delivery by adenoviral vectors were studied by probing a 588 gene, mouse cDNA array with mRNA derived from infected liver. The liver tissues were obtained from naive mice and mice infected with replication-deficient adenovirus, adenovirus expressing transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), and adenovirus expressing connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Expression of 98 genes was detected in the array analysis. The increased expression of the transcripts for Stat1, gamma interferon-induced monokine (MIG) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) clearly demonstrated the immune response induced by infection with a first generation, replication-incompetent adenovirus. In vivo expression of TGFbeta1 led to a down-regulation of genes involved in the immune response. The increased expression of u-PAR1, laminin receptor and BMP-1 confirms the importance of CTGF and TGFbeta1 in angiogenesis, and tissue repair. Expression of the serine protease inhibitors, Spi 2.4 and Spi 2, is also increased in response to AdTGFbeta1 and AdCTGF.  (+info)

Is chordin a long-range- or short-range-acting factor? Roles for BMP1-related metalloproteases in chordin and BMP4 autofeedback loop regulation. (7/124)

Diffusible morphogen models have been used widely to explain regional specification of tissues and body axes during animal development. The three-signal model for patterning the dorsal-ventral axis of the amphibian embryo proposes, in part, that a factor(s) secreted from Spemann's organizer is responsible for converting lateral marginal zone into more dorsal cell fates. We examine the possibility that chordin, a secreted inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and candidate "dorsalizing signal," is a long-range-acting factor. We show that chordin can, when overexpressed, act directly over distances of at least 450 microm in the early Xenopus embryo to create a gradient of BMP signaling. However, since lower levels of chordin can still induce secondary axes and these amounts of chordin act only locally to inhibit a BMP target gene, we suggest that chordin likely acts as a short-range signal in vivo. Furthermore, BMP1, a secreted metalloprotease that cleaves chordin protein in vitro, inhibits chordin's axis-inducing effects, suggesting that BMP1 functions to negatively regulate chordin's action in vivo. A dominant-negative mutant BMP1 blocks the in vitro cleavage of chordin protein by wild-type BMP1 and induces secondary axes when injected ventrally. We argue that BMP1 and Xolloid are probably functionally redundant metalloproteases and may have two roles in the early Xenopus embryo. One role may be to inhibit the action of low-level chordin protein expressed throughout the entire embryo and a possible second role may be to inhibit activation of a juxtacrine cell relay, thereby confining chordin's action to the organizer region preventing chordin from functioning as a long-range-acting factor.  (+info)

Bone morphogenetic protein-1 processes probiglycan. (8/124)

Bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) is a metalloprotease that plays important roles in regulating the deposition of fibrous extracellular matrix in vertebrates, including provision of the procollagen C-proteinase activity that processes the major fibrillar collagens I-III. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, is a nonfibrillar extracellular matrix component with functions that include the positive regulation of bone formation. Biglycan is synthesized as a precursor with an NH(2)-terminal propeptide that is cleaved to yield the mature form found in vertebrate tissues. Here, we show that BMP-1 cleaves probiglycan at a single site, removing the propeptide and producing a biglycan molecule with an NH(2) terminus identical to that of the mature form found in tissues. BMP-1-related proteases mammalian Tolloid and mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL-1) are shown to have low but detectable levels of probiglycan-cleaving activity. Comparison shows that wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) produce only fully processed biglycan, whereas MEFs derived from embryos homozygous null for the Bmp1 gene, which encodes both BMP-1 and mammalian Tolloid, produce predominantly unprocessed probiglycan, and MEFs homozygous null for both the Bmp1 gene and the mTLL-1 gene Tll1 produce only unprocessed probiglycan. Thus, all detectable probiglycan-processing activity in MEFs is accounted for by the products of these two genes.  (+info)

*Bone morphogenetic protein 1

Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 1, also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... bone morphogenetic protein 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human BMP1 genome location ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 1

Bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors are single pass, type I transmembrane proteins. They belong to a class of receptor ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular ... serine/threonine kinases that bind members of the TGF beta superfamily of ligands-the Bone morphogenetic proteins. There are ...

*TLL1

2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein-1 processes probiglycan". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (39): 30504-11. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004846200. ... 2001). "Multiple bone morphogenetic protein 1-related mammalian metalloproteinases process pro-lysyl oxidase at the correct ... with high sequence similarity to mammalian tolloid/bone morphogenetic protein-1". Genomics. 34 (2): 157-65. doi:10.1006/geno. ... Tolloid-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLL1 gene. This gene encodes an astacin-like zinc- ...

*DMP1

2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-1/Tolloid-like proteinases process dentin matrix protein-1". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2): 980-6. ... This protein, which is critical for proper mineralization of bone and dentin, is present in diverse cells of bone and tooth ... 2006). "A chondroitin sulfate chain attached to the bone dentin matrix protein 1 NH2-terminal fragment". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (12 ... 2006). "DMP1 Depletion Decreases Bone Mineralization In Vivo: An FTIR Imaging Analysis". J. Bone Miner. Res. 20 (12): 2169-77. ...

*Laminin, alpha 3

"Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (30): ... "HIV-protein-mediated alterations in T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix proteins and endothelium". Arch. Immunol ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 chain of laminin 5, which is a complex glycoprotein composed of three subunits ... Laminin subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMA3 gene. Laminins are basement membrane components ...

*Laminin, gamma 2

2000). "Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is an extracellular processing enzyme of the laminin 5 gamma 2 chain". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ... Laminin subunit gamma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMC2 gene. Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix ... Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. ... 2001). "Involvement of activator protein 1 complexes in the epithelium-specific activation of the laminin gamma2-chain gene ...

*GDF11

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... "GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... GDF11 is a myostatin(GDF8)-homologous protein that acts as an inhibitor of nerve tissue growth. GDF11 has been shown to ... It acts as a cytokine[citation needed]. The BMP group of proteins is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site, ...

*Perlecan

Another family of metalloproteases, the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1/Tolloid-like family, releases the c-terminal endorepellin ... Cartilage and bone development have proven to be dependent upon perlecan expression. The protein becomes visible by ... that the driving force behind heparanase and chondroitinase activation of osteogenesis is release of bone morphogenetic protein ... chondroitin sulfate signaling enhances mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteogenic differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein ...

*Collagen, type V, alpha 2

... collagen heterotrimer by bone morphogenetic protein-1 and furin-like proprotein convertases". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (7): 5596-602 ... Collagen alpha-2(V) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL5A2 gene. This gene encodes an alpha chain for one ... 1 (1): 29-39. PMID 1820205. Myers JC, Loidl HR, Seyer JM, Dion AS (1985). "Complete primary structure of the human alpha 2 type ... 1 (1): 25-34. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80004-0. PMID 9659900. Richards AJ, Martin S, Nicholls AC, et al. (1999). "A single ...

*TLL2

2001). "Multiple bone morphogenetic protein 1-related mammalian metalloproteinases process pro-lysyl oxidase at the correct ... Tolloid-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLL2 gene. This gene encodes an astacin-like zinc- ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 6 (1): 63-70. doi: ... Unlike other family members, a similar protein in mice does not cleave procollagen C-propeptides or chordin. GRCh38: Ensembl ...

*PCOLCE

"Identification of the minimal domain structure of bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) for chordinase activity: chordinase ... 2002). "Interaction properties of the procollagen C-proteinase enhancer protein shed light on the mechanism of stimulation of ... 1994). "Type I procollagen COOH-terminal proteinase enhancer protein: identification, primary structure, and chromosomal ... "Fine mapping of the human and mouse genes for the type I procollagen COOH-terminal proteinase enhancer protein". Genomics. 31 ( ...

*Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1

This protein mediates the signals of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in a range of biological ... SMAD1 is a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) and is activated by bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor kinase. GRCm38: ... The Interactive Fly Smad1 Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SMAD1 protein, human ... This protein is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as SMURF1 and SMURF2, and undergoes ubiquitination and ...

*Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 5

SMAD5 is a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) and is activated by bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor kinase. It may play ... Like many other TGFβ family members SMAD5 is involved in cell signalling and modulates signals of bone morphogenetic proteins ( ... Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 5 also known as SMAD5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMAD5 gene. SMAD5, ... It belongs to the SMAD family of proteins, which belong to the TGFβ superfamily of modulators. ...

*Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 9

When a bone morphogenetic protein binds to a receptor (BMP type 1 receptor kinase) it causes SMAD9 to interact with SMAD anchor ... SMAD9 is a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) and is activated by bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor kinase. There are ... The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD) and the C. elegans protein ... Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 9 also known as SMAD9, SMAD8, and MADH6 is a protein that in humans is enocoded by the ...

*Astacin

Proteins containing the astacin domain include: Astacin-like metallo-endopeptidase (ASTL) Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) ... The proteins are synthesised with N-terminal signal and pro-enzyme sequences, and many contain multiple domains C-terminal to ... The astacin family of metalloendopeptidases (EC 3.4.24.21) encompasses a range of proteins found in hydra to humans, in mature ... These metallopeptidases belong to the MEROPS peptidase family M12, subfamily M12A (astacin family, clan MA(M)). The protein ...

*SOSTDC1

This protein functions as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. Specifically, it directly associates with BMPs, ... a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist abundantly expressed in the kidney". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Sclerostin domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOSTDC1 gene. This gene is a member of the ... Goto M, Eddy EM (October 2004). "Speriolin is a novel spermatogenic cell-specific centrosomal protein associated with the ...

*Gremlin (protein)

Namkoong H, Shin SM, Kim HK, Ha SA, Cho GW, Hur SY, Kim TE, Kim JW (2006). "The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 ... Gremlin1 (Grem1) is known for its antagonistic interaction with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the TGF beta signaling ... "Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor ... 12, 23 GREM1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GREM2 protein, human at the ...

*MECOM

Alliston T, Ko TC, Cao Y, Liang YY, Feng XH, Chang C, Derynck R (Jun 2005). "Repression of bone morphogenetic protein and ... Alliston T, Ko TC, Cao Y, Liang YY, Feng XH, Chang C, Derynck R (Jun 2005). "Repression of bone morphogenetic protein and ... along with other TGF-β family ligands such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and activin are involved in regulating important ... or positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 3 (PRDM3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MECOM gene. EVI1 was ...

*Syringetin

It induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 ... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ... Rune Slimestad and Kurt Hostettmann, Phytochemical Analysis, Volume 7 Issue 1, pp 42-48 New flavonol glycosides from the ...

*Chordin-like 1

This gene encodes an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4. The encoded protein may play a role in topographic ... Gazzerro E, Canalis E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists". Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 7 (1-2): 51-65. doi ... Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors. 22 (4): 233-41. doi:10.1080/ ... a bone morphogenetic protein-4 antagonist, is upregulated by hypoxia in human retinal pericytes and plays a role in regulating ...

*FSTL1

... is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 signaling antagonist in controlling mouse lung development". Proceedings of the ... This gene encodes a protein with similarity to follistatin, an BMP-4-binding protein. It binds to BMP-4 and TGF-β1, but not ... Tanaka M, Ozaki S, Osakada F, Mori K, Okubo M, Nakao K (Sep 1998). "Cloning of follistatin-related protein as a novel ... FSTL1 protein seems to have a cardioprotective role. FSTL1 attenuated hypertrophy following pressure overload and prevented ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein receptor

BMPR1A BMPR1B Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 Bone morphogenetic protein Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors at ... There are three bone morphogenetic protein receptors in humans: Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 1: ...

*ZFP36L1

"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... This RNA binding protein most likely functions in regulating the response to growth factors. ZFP36L1 has been shown to interact ... "Entrez Gene: ZFP36L1 zinc finger protein 36, C3H type-like 1". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li ... The encoded protein contains a distinguishing putative zinc finger domain with a repeating cys-his motif. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein

Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone Morphogenetic Proteins at the US National Library ... "Bone Morphogenetic Protein" in the scientific literature in the Journal of Dental Research in 1971. Bone induction is a ... "Osteogenic activity of the fourteen types of human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 6

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of secreted signaling molecules that can induce ectopic bone growth. BMPs ... 2001). "Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on haemopoietic stem cells and cytokine production in normal human bone marrow ...

*Atrioventricular node

BMP (Bone morphogenetic protein) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ... The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm). The AV node lies at the lower back section of the interatrial septum near the ... The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm). It is located at the center of Koch's triangle-a triangle enclosed by the septal ... 246 (1): 99-107; discussion 108-9. doi:10.1148/radiol.2461070030. PMID 18024438. Stroud DM, Gaussin V, Burch JB, et al. ( ...
Expression of procollagen C-proteinase enhancer in cultured rat heart fibroblasts: evidence for co-regulation with type I collagen.: Procollagen processing by p
Shop Transducin-like enhancer protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Transducin-like enhancer protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Protein BM-1 (bahasa Inggris: procollagen C-peptidase, bone morphogenetic protein 1, mammalian tolloid, mTLD, procollagen C-proteinase, procollagen C-terminal proteinase; carboxyprocollagen peptidase; procollagen C-terminal peptidase; procollagen C-proteinase; procollagen C-terminal proteinase; procollagen carboxypeptidase; procollagen carboxy-terminal proteinase; procollagen peptidase, BMP-1, EC 3.4.24.19) merupakan enzim metaloprotease yang mengiris terminus-C pada posisi Ala-Asp pada prokolagen tipe I dan II, dan pada posisi arg-Asp pada prokolagen tipe III,[1] dalam proses aktivasi prekursor protein yang berperan dalam pembentukan jaringan matriks ekstraselular, termasuk aktivasi protelitik terhadap zimogen dari oksidase lisil.[2] Marimastat merupakan senyawa penghambat aktivitas BMP-1.[3] Aktivitas BMP-1 akan meningkat oleh kalsium, fibronektin,[2] sFRP,[4] dan sejenis glikoprotein dengan kofaktor berupa Zn,[5] Protein sFR merupakan target terapi fibrosis jantung.[4] ...
View mouse Pcolce Chr5:137605103-137613784 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Transcriptional corepressor that binds to a number of transcription factors. Inhibits NF-kappa-B-regulated gene expression. Inhibits the transcriptional activation mediated by FOXA2, and by CTNNB1 and TCF family members in Wnt signaling. The effects of full-length TLE family members may be modulated by association with dominant-negative AES. Unusual function as coactivator for ESRRG (By similarity).
1bw5: The solution structure of the homeodomain of the rat insulin-gene enhancer protein isl-1. Comparison with other homeodomains.
Clone REA981 recognizes the mouse and rat CD49b antigen, a transmembrane glycoprotein also known as integrin alpha-2 (Itga2). CD49 is found on activated lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and platelets. In association with CD29 (integrin β-1), a VLA-2 complex is formed, which functions as a receptor for collagen and collagen C-propeptides, laminin, and E-cadherin. Additional information: Clone REA981 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
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Several of the above proteins consist of a catalytic domain together with several CUB domains interspersed by calcium-binding EGF domains. Some CUB domains appear to be involved in oligomerisation and/or recognition of substrates and binding partners. For example, in the complement proteases, the CUB domains mediate dimerisation and binding to collagen-like regions of target proteins (e.g. C1q for C1r/C1s). The structure of CUB domains consists of a beta-sandwich with a jelly-roll fold. Almost all CUB domains contain four conserved cysteines that probably form two disulphide bridges (C1-C2, C3-C4). The CUB1 domains of C1s and Map19 have calcium-binding sites [(PUBMED:17446170)].. ...
Several of the above proteins consist of a catalytic domain together with several CUB domains interspersed by calcium-binding EGF domains. Some CUB domains appear to be involved in oligomerisation and/or recognition of substrates and binding partners. For example, in the complement proteases, the CUB domains mediate dimerisation and binding to collagen-like regions of target proteins (e.g. C1q for C1r/C1s). The structure of CUB domains consists of a beta-sandwich with a jelly-roll fold. Almost all CUB domains contain four conserved cysteines that probably form two disulphide bridges (C1-C2, C3-C4). The CUB1 domains of C1s and Map19 have calcium-binding sites [(PUBMED:17446170)].. ...
Presenilin enhancer protein 2 (PEN2) is a 101-amino acid protein that traverses the membrane twice and it is the regulatory component of the multimeric gamma-secretase complex which also consists of presenilin, APH-1 and Nicastrin. The gamma-secretase complex catalyzes the cleavage of a number of...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P83504 (PSBO_BRACM), Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1, chloroplastic. Brassica campestris (Field mustard)
Выставка осенних букетов, композиций, экибан ко Дню учителя С первых дней октября фойе нашей школы наполнилось ароматами осени - это школьники в честь учителей устроили выставку осенних букетов, композиций, экибан, сделанных своими руками...
ADAMTS-2 is an extracellular metalloproteinase responsible for cleaving the N-propeptides of procollagens I-III; an activity necessary for the formation of collagenous ECM (extracellular matrix). The four TIMPs (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases) regulate the activities of matrix metalloproteinases, which are involved in degrading ECM components. Here we delineate the abilities of the TIMPs to affect biosynthetic processing of procollagens. TIMP-1, -2 and -4 show no inhibitory activity towards ADAMTS-2, in addition none of the TIMPs showed inhibitory activity towards bone morphogenetic protein 1, which is responsible for cleaving procollagen C-propeptides. In contrast, TIMP-3 is demonstrated to inhibit ADAMTS-2 in vitro with apparent Ki values of 160 and 602 nM, in the presence of heparin or without respectively; and TIMP-3 is shown to inhibit procollagen processing by cells.
Risk in products will pass at the time of delivery to the customer. The customer is responsible for unloading and transporting large and/or heavy items from delivery vans. In view of the hazards of certain chemicals and apparatus the customer must ensure that the products purchased are in a safe condition and that a safe system of work is in place taking into account all available information. None of the products sold are intended for human consumption unless otherwise clearly stated. In view of the wide range of uses of chemicals and apparatus, the customer will be solely responsible for determining the suitability and specification of products, services, information and advice for its purposes. VWR has the right, without notice, to supply product of different specifications, sources, and pack size to that published or ordered. The customer is required to ensure that that the use of any products supplied by VWR do not infringe third party intellectual property rights. In view of the above, ...
Complete information for TLL1 gene (Protein Coding), Tolloid Like 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Research_in_African_literatures.html?id=QDYzAAAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareResearch in African literatures ...
291459338 - EP 1254270 A1 2002-11-06 - METHODS AND MATERIALS RELATING TO CUB DOMAIN POLYPEPTIDES AND POLYNUCLEOTIDES - [origin: WO0157267A1] The invention provides novel polynucleotides and polypeptides encoded by such polynucleotides and mutants or variants thereof that correspond to a novel human secreted CUB domain polypeptide. These polynucleotides comprise nucleic acid sequences isolated from cDNA library from testis (Hyseq clone identification numbers 2924342 (SEQ ID NO: 1)). Other aspects of the invention include vectors containing processes for producing novel humain secreted CUB domain polypeptides, and antibodies specific for such polypeptides.[origin: WO0157267A1] The invention provides novel polynucleotides and polypeptides encoded by such polynucleotides and mutants or variants thereof that correspond to a novel human secreted CUB domain polypeptide. These polynucleotides comprise nucleic acid sequences isolated from cDNA library from testis (Hyseq clone identification numbers 2924342 (SEQ
MAA573Mi21, P3NP; N-Propeptide Of Type III Procollagen; Procollagen III Amino Terminal Propeptide | Products for research use only!
Thanks for Bearbound for another great set of shots. This cub is uber sexy anyway, but to have him duct tape gagged and in a strict hogtie...so fucking hot ...
Planarians (flatworms) can regenerate from irregularly shaped fragments. During regeneration, new tissue forms at the wound and existing tissues are remodelled to make a complete, symmetrical animal. How is this amazing feat achieved? On p. 4043, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarados group report that BMP signalling regulates several aspects of regeneration in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. The researchers use RNAi knockdown to investigate the role of smedolloid-1 (a BMP1/Tolloid-like gene), smedsmad4-1 (a SMAD4-like gene) and smedbmp4-1 (a BMP2/4/DPP-like gene) in regeneration. These experiments show that BMP signalling is involved in the formation and dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of new tissues at the reset midline of a regenerating fragment. Additional knockdown experiments indicate that BMP signalling also maintains the DV pattern in undamaged adult tissue. These and other results lead the researchers to propose that BMP signalling regulates the dorsal midline of planarians and that the ...
Laminin-5 and its cell surface receptor a6b4 integrin are required for development of squamous cell carcinomas. Lack of either of these molecules results in a lack of tumor growth, whereas overexpression of these molecules correlates with increasing tumor invasiveness and a worsening patient prognosis. We have identified that laminin-5 undergoes proteolytic processing of two of its three chains, via mammalian Tolloid, a metalloprotease of the astacin family. Processing of laminin-5 promotes tumor invasion. We are currently studying the mechanisms whereby these processing events influence tumor cell invasion, migration and metastasis. Type VII collagen appears to play a key role in tumor invasion, and appears to operate through association with laminin-5. We are currently studying the mechanism of this association and its role in tumorigenesis. The laminin-5 receptor a6b4 integrin interacts with laminin-5 at one end and with intracellular protein complexes at the other end, through which it ...
The investigators aim to compare the levels of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -7 (BMP-4 and 7) in blood, follicular fluid and ovarian organ culture s
Carragee and colleagues recently published an analysis of publicly available raw data from the Medtronic sponsored AMPLIFY study (a randomized controlled trial
As part of a continuing investigation into a bone morphogenetic protein-2 product marketed as Infuse, the |em|Milwaukee Journal Sentinel/MedPage Today|/em| describe a first-hand account of early signs
The Chicago Cubs will need to rely on the starting rotation as the anchor of the club in order to have any success in 2014.
Ultima Eye Care and Skincare on sale. CHR Procollagen For Eyes by Ultima is only $17.00 at fragranceX.com, FREE Shipping on orders over $35. CHR Procollagen For Eyes Ultima Skincare All products are original, authentic name brands. We do not sell knockoffs or imitations.
ProCollagen Extrema膠原蛋白防曬日霜 SPF30 PA+++質地清爽,為肌膚注入微膠原分子同時有效阻截紫外線UVA及UVB,在日間為肌膚建起最強屏障,激發肌膚活躍再生。
Working near the Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik, the researchers located the den by tracking a radio-collared 3-year-old tigress named Galia. Of course, finding the cubs required some caution, particularly in making sure Mom was not home. The researchers waited until Galias radio signal indicated that she had left the den site before searching for the cubs, which they found in a collection of rocks on the slope of a hill. The cubs, who weighed from 6.5 to nine pounds, remained calm as the researchers handled and measured them. After collecting hair and blood samples for genetic and disease analysis, Goodrich and his team fitted them with radio collars and returned them to their den ...
A gathering place for all Farmall Cub, Cadet owners and tractor enthusiast from all over the world. A place where all are treated equal and ideas are shared freely.
Originally Written for 10/5/08 Well, the week started off good - I mean really good. It was the first time in 102 years that both the Chicago Cubs and White Sox were playing in the post season at the same time. The Cubs finished the year with the best record in the national league and…
3 Liger Cubs were Born at Taiwan zoo in 2010. One of the liger cub died immediately at the time of the birth while 2 of the Survived in Taiwan. It is illegal to Cross-breed Lion and tiger to produce liger in Taiwan. Therefore, the Taiwanese Zoo owner who bred lion and tiger together was fined a penalty of around 15000 US Dollars. Recent Reports suggest that another liger cub has also died.
Every member of the Daytona Cubs probably has dreamt of teaming with a future Hall of Famer like Chicago Cubs second baseman Ryne Sandberg. Few probably figured on it happening so soon.Sandberg, a
A highly conserved TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the establishment of the dorsoventral axis of the vertebrate embryo. Specifically, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (Bmps) pattern ventral tissues of the embryo while inhibitors of Bmps, such as Chordin, Noggin and Follistatin, are implicated in dorsal mesodermal and neural development. We investigated the role of Tolloid, a metalloprotease that can cleave Chordin and increase Bmp activity, in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the zebrafish embryo. Injection of tolloid mRNA into six dorsalized mutants rescued only one of these mutants, mini fin. Through chromosomal mapping, linkage and cDNA sequence analysis of several mini fin alleles, we demonstrate that mini fin encodes the tolloid gene. Characterization of the mini fin mutant phenotype reveals that Mini fin/Tolloid activity is required for patterning ventral tissues of the tail: the ventral fin, and the ventroposterior somites and vasculature. Gene expression studies show that mfn ...
Kovács, Tibor and Billes, Viktor and Komlós, Marcell and Hotzi, Bernadette and Manzéger, Anna and Tarnóci, Anna and Papp, Diána and Szikszai, Fanni and Szinyákovics, Janka and Ákos Rácz, Ákos and Noszál, Béla and Veszelka, Szilvia and Walter, Fruzsina R. and Deli, Mária A. and Hackler Jr., László and Alföldi, Róbert and Huzian, Orsolya and Puskás, László G. and Liliom, Hanna and Tárnok, Krisztián and Schlett, Katalin and Borsy, Adrienn and Welker, Ervin and Kovács, Attila L. and Pádár, Zsolt and Erdős, Attila and Légrádi, Ádám and Bjelik, Annamária and Gulya, Károly and Gulyás, Balázs and Vellai, Tibor (2017) The small molecule AUTEN-99 (autophagy enhancer-99) prevents the progression of neurodegenerative symptoms. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. pp. 1-17. ISSN 2045-2322 Kovács, Tibor and Máthé, Domokos and Fülöp, András and Jemnitz, Katalin and Bátai-Konczos, Attila (2017) Functional shift with maintained regenerative potential following portal vein ligation. ...
Purified BMP-2 proteins and processes for producing them are disclosed. The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair.
針對眼部幼嫩肌膚研製之高效能修護配方, 蘊含ProCollagen Extrema™微晶膠原激活再生科技,並配合多種強效補濕、修護及緊緻成份,全面擊退眼周肌膚問題。有效改善黑眼圈、眼袋及眼部浮腫問題,減淡眼部乾紋、皺紋,讓眼周肌膚回復緊緻飽滿。不含香料,適合任何眼部肌膚使用。
Vitters is done with the Cubs. I have been one of his biggest supporters but as John pointed out he has been surpassed by FAR too many players. He needs a change of scenery and while I dont think he will be an allstar I could imagine him topping out as a starting OF or a 4-5 outfielder. I think he is frustrated that he is still at Iowa. Put him on another AAA team he might thrive and get pulled up.. His biggest problem is that he is a hacker. He never learned to take a walk (5% over 8 seasons). I really wonder if he would have done better under better coaching or if "he is what he is.". Too bad everyone knows that he is done with the Cubs or else if I were an opposing GM I might be tempted to make an offer of a "flyer" on an A-Ball player (not a Top-30 guy) to give Vitters a shot.. At the same time I dont think Johns original comparison was fair. Comparing Vitters to Castro and Rizzo would be like calling all the Angels prospects over age 23 disappointing because at the same age or younger ...
A gathering place for all Farmall Cub, Cadet owners and tractor enthusiast from all over the world. A place where all are treated equal and ideas are shared freely.
To examine the local effects of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on diverse skeletal tissues in vivo, Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells transfected with the murine bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene were implanted into athymic nude mice by injection into the subcutaneous space of the skull, intra- and extraarticular spaces of the knee, paravertebral muscles, and intramedullary space in the femur, to form experimental tumors secreting bone morphogenetic protein-4. As a control, mock vector-transfected Chinese hamster ovary tumor cells were used. Three weeks after injection, the newly formed Chinese hamster ovary tumors together with the skeletal tissues adjacent to the tumor were recovered from each site and processed for histologic examination. On the periosteum of calvaria, new bone, but no cartilage, was observed, and abundant chondrogenic cell proliferation was seen in the apophysis of the spinous process and around Ranviers groove in the knee. There were no apparent reactions to the Chinese hamster
Tll2 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN317618G1|/strong|, Tll2 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE | CirculationBone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE | Circulation

Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutation in Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE. A View on the Right ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutations, clinical phenotypes and outcomes of Japanese patients with sporadic or ... Mutation in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II as a cause of primary pulmonary hypertension in a large kindred ... Background-The effect of a mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) gene on right ventricular (RV) ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/133/18/1747

La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company Receives Orphan Drug Designation for Two Novel Compounds for Fibrodysplasia Ossificans...La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company Receives Orphan Drug Designation for Two Novel Compounds for Fibrodysplasia Ossificans...

... bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type-I receptor family, ALK2. La Jolla recently entered a worldwide, exclusive license ... FOP is a rare genetic disorder where the body turns muscle into bone. FOP is caused by a genetic mutation in ALK2 that results ... Development of such lesions is exacerbated by trauma, and surgical intervention leads to dramatic and explosive new bone growth ... In early childhood, afflicted individuals develop soft tissue swellings that transform into bone. ...
more infohttps://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20150818005500/en/La-Jolla-Pharmaceutical-Company-Receives-Orphan-Drug

Follistatin-Related Proteins
     Summary Report | CureHunterFollistatin-Related Proteins Summary Report | CureHunter

These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes. ... Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 3. Interleukin-18 (Interleukin 18) 4. Cytokines 5. Interleukin-6 (Interleukin 6) ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Carrier Proteins: 11456*Follistatin-Related Proteins: 14*human FSTL1 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD038702-FSTL1-Gene-Product.do

Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full TextBiological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity | Head & Face Medicine | Full Text

Paresis of a bone morphogenetic protein-antagonist response in a genetic disorder of heterotopic skeletogenesis. J Bone Joint ... Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains ... Olmsted EA, Kaplan FS, Shore EM: Bone morphogenetic protein-4 regulation in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Clin Orthop ... The influence of bone morphogenetic proteins on this disorder seems to be evident [5-8]. ...
more infohttps://head-face-med.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-160X-5-6

Bone morphogenetic protein 1 - WikipediaBone morphogenetic protein 1 - Wikipedia

Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMP1 encodes a protein that is not closely ... BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 1, also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ... bone morphogenetic protein 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human BMP1 genome location ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_morphogenetic_protein_1

The bone morphogenetic protein 1/Tolloid-like metalloproteinases. - Semantic ScholarThe bone morphogenetic protein 1/Tolloid-like metalloproteinases. - Semantic Scholar

... like proteins BMP2, BMP4 (vertebrates) and decapentaplegic (arthropods). More recently, it has become apparent that the BMP1/ ... TLD-like proteinases are activators of a broader subset of the TGFbeta superfamily of proteins, with implications that these ... proteinases may be key in orchestrating the formation of ECM with growth factor activation and BMP signaling in morphogenetic ... bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) was shown to provide the activity necessary for proteolytic removal of the C-propeptides of ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-bone-morphogenetic-protein-1%2FTolloid-like-Hopkins-Keles/3257c92e65bc350193dcfc8f6e7636a57b44c86c

Bone morphogenetic protein 1 isoform 3 (BMP1) polyclonal antibody - Allele BiotechBone morphogenetic protein 1 isoform 3 (BMP1) polyclonal antibody - Allele Biotech

Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression. ... a secreted metalloprotease requiring calcium and needed for cartilage and bone formation. BMP1 is capable of inducing the ...
more infohttp://www.allelebiotech.com/bone-morphogenetic-protein-1-isoform-3-bmp1-polyclonal-antibody/

BMP1 elisa kit | Rat Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP 006120.1BMP1 elisa kit | Rat Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP 006120.1

Rat Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP_006120.1 (MBS021022) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this gene encodes a protein that is not ... NCBI Protein Information. bone morphogenetic protein 1; procollagen C-proteinase; mammalian tolloid protein; procollagen C- ... Kit for analyzing the presence of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. The ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/bmp1-rat-elisa-kits/bone-morphogenetic-protein-1/21022

BMP1 elisa kit | Horse Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP 006120.1BMP1 elisa kit | Horse Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP 006120.1

Horse Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 ELISA Kit-NP_006120.1 (MBS035230) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this gene encodes a protein that is not ... NCBI Protein Information. bone morphogenetic protein 1; procollagen C-proteinase; mammalian tolloid protein; procollagen C- ... Kit for analyzing the presence of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. The ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/bmp1-horse-elisa-kits/bone-morphogenetic-protein-1/35230

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 1 - WikipediaBone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 1 - Wikipedia

Bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors are single pass, type I transmembrane proteins. They belong to a class of receptor ... Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular ... serine/threonine kinases that bind members of the TGF beta superfamily of ligands-the Bone morphogenetic proteins. There are ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_morphogenetic_protein_receptor,_type_1

Monoclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1), Monoclonal antibody, CLOUD-CLONE CORP.(CCC)Monoclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1), Monoclonal antibody, CLOUD-CLONE CORP.(CCC)

Mammalian tolloid protein, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp. ... Monoclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1) ... Monoclonal Antibody to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1), Homo sapiens (Human), Monoclonal antibody, PCOLC, PCP, TLD, mTld, ... PCOLC; PCP; TLD; mTld; Procollagen C Proteinase; Mammalian tolloid protein. *UOM *20µl ... The loss rate was determined by accelerated thermal degradation test, that is, incubate the protein at 37°C for 48h, and no ...
more infohttps://www.cloud-clone.us/antibody/Antibody-to-Bone-Morphogenetic-Protein-1-BMP1-11829.htm

ELISA Kit for Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1) - Mouse - BioTecNika Prime - Delivers lab Supplies at your DoorstepELISA Kit for Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1) - Mouse - BioTecNika Prime - Delivers lab Supplies at your Doorstep

Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1 ... Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1 ... This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1). ... No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1) and analogues was observed. ...
more infohttps://labs.biotecnika.org/products/elisa-kit-for-bone-morphogenetic-protein-1-bmp1-mouse

Transforming growth factor-β2 induces expression of biologically active bone morphogenetic protein-1 in human trabecular...Transforming growth factor-β2 induces expression of biologically active bone morphogenetic protein-1 in human trabecular...

T1 - Transforming growth factor-β2 induces expression of biologically active bone morphogenetic protein-1 in human trabecular ... keywords = "Bone morphogenetic protein 1, Trabecular meshwork, Transforming growth factor beta 2", ... Transforming growth factor-β2 induces expression of biologically active bone morphogenetic protein-1 in human trabecular ... title = "Transforming growth factor-β2 induces expression of biologically active bone morphogenetic protein-1 in human ...
more infohttps://experts.unthsc.edu/en/publications/transforming-growth-factor-%CE%B22-induces-expression-of-biologically-

Zinc in the structure of Crystal Structure of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 Protease Domain in Complex With Partially Bound Dmso...Zinc in the structure of Crystal Structure of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 Protease Domain in Complex With Partially Bound Dmso...

Crystal Structure of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 Protease Domain in Complex With Partially Bound Dmso ... The binding sites of Zinc atom in the structure of Crystal Structure of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 Protease Domain in Complex ... Zinc in the structure of Crystal Structure of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 Protease Domain in Complex With Partially Bound Dmso ... Residues shown as a stick model or VDW spheres: A: Ala1, A: Phe100, A: Glu103, A: Arg106, A: Thr140, A: Asp142, A: Ser145, A: ...
more infohttp://zinc.atomistry.com/pdb3edh.html

bmp7.1 (bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 1) e... - 
		
		
			
				Xenbase Expression Image
			
			
		
	bmp7.1 (bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 1) e... - Xenbase Expression Image

bmp7.1 (bone morphogenetic protein 7, gene 1) expressed in Xenopus laevis embryo via in situ hybridization, stage 28, lateral ... bmp7, bmp-7, op-1. X.laevis. Throughout NF stage 28. Image source: Community submitted. Larger Image. Printer Friendly View. ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/common/ViewImageActionNonAdmin.do?imageId=38361

Transforming Growth Factor-β2 Induces Expression of Biologically Active Bone Morphogenetic Protein-1 in Human Trabecular...Transforming Growth Factor-β2 Induces Expression of Biologically Active Bone Morphogenetic Protein-1 in Human Trabecular...

The bone morphogenetic protein 1/Tolloid-like metalloproteinases. Matrix Biol . 2007; 26: 508-523. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Isolation and maturation to an active form by bone morphogenetic protein-1. J Biol Chem . 2001; 276: 48944-48949. [CrossRef] [ ... Bone morphogenetic protein-1 processes insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3. J Biol Chem . 2011; 286: 29014-29025. [ ... Bone-morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1), also known as procollagen C-proteinase, is a zinc protease that converts secreted ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2128194

ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 14 (CDMP-1) | Creative BioarrayActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 14 (CDMP-1) | Creative Bioarray

The lyophilized protein should be reconstituted with distilled, sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. For further ... The lyophilized protein, though stable at room temperature for up to 3 weeks, is best stored desiccated at -20°C. Reconstituted ... BMP-14 is expressed in long bones during embryonic development and postnatally in articular cartilage. Mutations in the BMP-14 ... Recombinant human BMP-14 is a 27.0 kDa homodimeric disulfide-linked protein consisting of two 120 amino acids. ...
more infohttps://www.creative-bioarray.com/ActoFactor-Recombinant-Human-Bone-Morphogenetic-Protein-14-CDMP-1-CSC-CTK0546-item-3872.htm

BMP1 Gene - GeneCards | BMP1 Protein | BMP1 AntibodyBMP1 Gene - GeneCards | BMP1 Protein | BMP1 Antibody

Protein Coding), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Protein Symbol:. P13497-BMP1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Bone morphogenetic protein 1 Protein Accession:. P13497. Secondary ... Although other bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, this gene encodes a protein that is not ... BMP1 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BMP1 include Osteogenesis Imperfecta, ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BMP1

Stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis in explants of porcine articular cartilage by recombinant osteogenic protein-1 (bone...Stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis in explants of porcine articular cartilage by recombinant osteogenic protein-1 (bone...

... also known as bone morphogenetic protein-7) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family. Bone morphogenetic proteins ... also known as bone morphogenetic protein-7) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family. Bone morphogenetic proteins ... also known as bone morphogenetic protein-7) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family. Bone morphogenetic proteins ... also known as bone morphogenetic protein-7) is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family. Bone morphogenetic proteins ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/stimulation-of-proteoglycan-synthesis-in-explants-of-porcine-arti

Construction of a high-density genetic map and fine QTL mapping for growth and nutritional traits of Crassostrea gigas |...Construction of a high-density genetic map and fine QTL mapping for growth and nutritional traits of Crassostrea gigas |...

Two protein-coding genes were identified in qBW_2 (Table 4, Fig. 5a). Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) is a ... Hopkins D, Keles S. Ds: the bone morphogenetic protein 1/Tolloid-like metalloproteinases. Matrix Biol. 2007;26(7):508-23. ... Wardle FC, Welch JV, Dale L. Bone morphogenetic protein 1 regulates dorsal-ventral patterning in early Xenopus embryos by ... 5b). This QTL interval identified many zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), such as ZFP729, ZFP668, and ZFP37 (Table 4). ZFP is a ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12864-018-4996-z

KEGG ENZYME: 3.4.24.19KEGG ENZYME: 3.4.24.19

bone morphogenetic protein 1. Genes. .g1{display:none;}. HSA: 649(BMP1). PTR: 464042(BMP1). ... Protein sequence (44) UniProt (8) SWISS-PROT (2) RefSeq(pep) (19) PDBSTR (13) PMD (2) DNA sequence (43) RefSeq(nuc) (31) ... Gene (1311) KEGG ORTHOLOGY (1) KEGG GENES (152) KEGG MGENES (208) RefGene (935) EGENES (15) ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?enzyme+3.4.24.19

Recombinant Human Bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP2) (CSB-YP002736HU-1) | Szabo-ScandicRecombinant Human Bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP2) (CSB-YP002736HU-1) | Szabo-Scandic

Recombinant Human Bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP2) von Cusabio bei SZABO-SCANDIC erhältlich. Weiteres zu Proteine & Peptide ... Organism: Homo sapiens (Human). Function: Induces cartilage and bone formation. Subcellular Location: Secreted. Protein ...
more infohttps://www.szabo-scandic.com/shop/forschungsprodukte-biochemikalien/proteine-extrakte-lysate/proteine-peptide/recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-bmp2-2154960

BMP1 - PCR Primer Pair - SYBR | PrimePCR | Bio-RadBMP1 - PCR Primer Pair - SYBR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad

Bone morphogenetic protein 1 Aliases:. Not Available. RefSeq:. Not Available. Ensembl:. ENSOCUG00000010592 ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/assay/qocuced0016734-primepcr-sybr-green-assay-bmp1-rabbit

BMP1 - What does BMP1 stand for? The Free DictionaryBMP1 - What does BMP1 stand for? The Free Dictionary

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit ...
more infohttps://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/BMP1
  • Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. (mdpi.com)
  • Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an oligomeric C type lectin that promotes phagocytosis by binding to microbial surface carbohydrates. (pnas.org)
  • Three collectins are known in humans: mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a serum protein, and the lung surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), which are produced by epithelial cells mainly in the lung. (pnas.org)
  • At the next stop sign turn right: the metalloprotease Tolloid-related 1 controls defasciculation of motor axons in Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, progressively deforming bones, bowing of limbs due to multiple fractures, very short stature, a triangular face, severe scoliosis, and grayish sclera. (mybiosource.com)
  • Genetic and molecular studies suggest that activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) type I receptor, and endoglin, a TGF-β co-receptor, play an essential role in vascular development and pathological angiogenesis. (jpt.com)
  • After binding to microbial surfaces, MBL activates the complement system through a complement activation pathway, the MBL pathway, by using two recently identified serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, to activate C4 and C2 ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The oral tissues, a part of the mucosal immune system, are constantly covered by saliva, which harbors a similar set of antimicrobial proteins as other mucosal fluids [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic, biochemical, and histological analyses of this mutant and a comparison to a second, similar locus reveal that Bmp1a is critically required for mature-collagen generation, downstream of osteoblast maturation, in bone. (zfin.org)
  • Upon stimulation with an oxidized phospholipid as pro-inflammatory agent, c-Kit deficient SMC displayed enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity, higher phosphorylated/total p65 ratio, and increased protein expression of NF-κB regulated pro-inflammatory mediators with respect to cells from control mice. (peerj.com)
  • Mono- and Stereo- picture of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere 1 of Zinc in the PDB 3edh. (atomistry.com)
  • Functional assays further demonstrated that c-Kit suppresses NF-κB activity in SMC in a TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and Nemo-like kinase (NLK) dependent manner. (peerj.com)