A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The most posterior portion of the hindbrain from which MEDULLA OBLONGATA is derived.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Diseases of BONES.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
... (Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1, ADP-ribosyl cyclase 2, CD157) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BST1 gene ... 1996). "Pancreatic islet cells express BST-1, a CD38-like surface molecule having ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity". Biochem. ... "Entrez Gene: BST1 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1". Quarona V, Zaccarello G, Chillemi A (2013). "CD38 and CD157: a long ... 1996). "Elevated levels of the soluble form of bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 in the sera of patients with severe ...
"Entrez Gene: BST2 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2". Rollason R, Korolchuk V, Hamilton C, Schu P, Banting G (November 2007 ... plasma cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and in many other cells, it is only expressed as a response to stimuli from IFN ... "Cloning of a cDNA encoding rat bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST-1) from the islets of Langerhans". Gene. 165 (2): 329-30 ... "Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of a bone marrow stromal cell surface gene, BST2, that may be involved in pre-B-cell ...
In addition, the encoded protein can interact with bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST1) to enhance the differentiation ... The scrapie responsive protein 1 may be partly included in the membrane or secreted by the cells due to its hydrophobic N- ... potentials of human mesenchymal stem cells during tissue and bone regeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]. GRCh38: Ensembl ... and osteogenic differentiation potential in mesenchymal stem cells". Sci Rep. 4: 3652. doi:10.1038/srep03652. PMC 3888969. PMID ...
BAFF is secreted by a variety of cells: monocytes and macrophages; bone marrow stromal cells; astrocytes in certain ... It interacts with three membrane receptors on B lymphocytes: BAFF-R (BAFF receptor) BCMA (B cell maturation antigen) TACI ( ... B cells develop in the bone marrow and continue to mature peripherally in secondary lymphoid organs and in the gut. When ... Belimumab binds to BAFF and prevents it from binding to B cells. Without BAFF, B cells commit suicide and no longer contribute ...
... extensive structural homology with the genes for murine bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 and aplysian ADP-ribosyl cyclase". ... followed by natural killer cells, followed by B cells and T cells, and then followed by a variety of cell types. CD38 can ... CD31 on endothelial cells binds to the CD38 receptor on natural killer cells for those cells to attach to the endothelium. CD38 ... In 1992 it was additionally described as a surface marker on B cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells (NK cells). About the ...
Stromal cells, or mesenchymal stromal cells, are differentiating cells found in abundance within bone marrow but can also be ... Low levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) make MSC's hypoimmunogenic. MSC's have trilineage differentiation where they are ... the recruitment of local normal host stromal cells, such as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, endothelial cells, and ... bone marrow stromal cells have been described to be involved in human hematopoiesis and inflammatory processes. Stromal cells ( ...
Naive lymphocytes (those with no history of contact with antigens) travel from the bone marrow or high endothelial venules of ... dendritic cells move to the T cell zone or to the B cell follicle along the fibroblast reticular cell network. Dendritic cells ... Most lymph node stromal cells preferentially express DF1, an Aire-like transcription modulator. Lymph node stromal cells can be ... Antigen-presenting cells accumulate near high endothelial venules to process soluble antigens. Antigens are also presented on ...
In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow ... The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment ... Adipose and bone marrow derived stem cells were removed and induced to a cardiac cell fate before being injected into the heart ... Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone marrow stem cells, but other ...
... this was achieved by growing the cells on stromal cells from the bone marrow. It is hoped that these artificial red blood cells ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens Pierigè F, Serafini S, Rossi L, Magnani M (January 2008). "Cell-based drug delivery". ... Pure red cell aplasia is caused by the inability of the bone marrow to produce only red blood cells. Hemolysis is the general ... The cells develop in the bone marrow and circulate for about 100-120 days in the body before their components are recycled by ...
... this was achieved by growing the cells on stromal cells from the bone marrow. It is hoped that these artificial red blood cells ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Red blood cells.. *Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens by Laura Dean. Searchable and ... Pure red cell aplasia is caused by the inability of the bone marrow to produce only red blood cells. ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens *^ a b Pierigè F, Serafini S, Rossi L, Magnani M (January 2008). "Cell-based drug delivery ...
... dendritic cells and bone marrow stromal cells. The transmembrane form can be cleaved from the membrane, generating a soluble ... B-cell maturation antigen), all of which have differing binding affinities for it. These receptors are expressed mainly on ... This cytokine is expressed in B cell lineage cells, and acts as a potent B cell activator. It has been also shown to play an ... This interaction triggers signals essential for the formation and maintenance of B cell, thus it is important for a B-cell ...
... extensive structural homology with the genes for murine bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 and aplysian ADP-ribosyl cyclase". ... white blood cells), including CD4+, CD8+, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. CD38 also functions in cell adhesion, signal ... negative regulation of bone resorption. • NAD metabolic process. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • negative ... cell nucleus. • plasma membrane. • basolateral plasma membrane. • secretory granule membrane. Biological process. • B cell ...
It has been shown that endoglin expression and TGF-beta secretion are attenuated in bone marrow stromal cells when they are ... Endoglin (ENG) is a type I membrane glycoprotein located on cell surfaces and is part of the TGF beta receptor complex. It is ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia CD105+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine ... Ultimately, the cocultured prostate cancer cells altered the TGF-beta signaling in the bone stromal cells, which suggests this ...
A critical factor for healthy stem cells production is the bone marrow microenvironment. Important components are stromal cells ... Several kinectin-derived peptides can be processed and presented by HLA I and can induce antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses ... a bone marrow transplant, a potential cure. The transplanted bone marrow replaces the failing bone marrow cells with new ones ... The definitive diagnosis is by bone marrow biopsy; normal bone marrow has 30-70% blood stem cells, but in aplastic anemia, ...
T cell precursors rise in bone marrow and migrate through the bloodstream to the thymus for further development. During their ... Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) represent a unique stromal cell population of the thymus which plays an essential ... "autoreactive T cells" which recognize self antigens via their TCRs. Autoreactive T cells must be eliminated from the body or ... "Fezf2 Orchestrates a Thymic Program of Self-Antigen Expression for Immune Tolerance". Cell. 163 (4): 975-87. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
... or bone marrow cells. Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via ... Treg cells are not the only cells that mediate peripheral tolerance. Other regulatory immune cells include T cell subsets ... recognized that tumors are a complex and dynamic population of cells composed of transformed cells as well as stromal cells, ... Treg cells inhibit anti-tumor NK cells.[36] The injection of Treg cells specific for a tumor antigen also can reverse ...
Bone marrow is responsible for both the creation of T cell precursors and the production and maturation of B cells, which are ... Lymphocytes are initially generated in the bone marrow. The lymphoid organs also contain other types of cells such as stromal ... Cells in the lymphatic system react to antigens presented or found by the cells directly or by other dendritic cells. When an ... T cells, on the other hand, travel from the bone marrow to the thymus, where they develop further and mature. Mature T cells ...
... and expression of a novel hematopoietic cell antigen from CD34+ human bone marrow cells". Blood. 89 (8): 2706-16. doi:10.1182/ ... It may also mediate the attachment of hematopoietic stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells ... Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as haematopoietic cells, or in ... "Single-cell analysis of bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells from children with sickle cell disease and thalassemia". Blood. 134 (23 ...
It was not until 1971 that it was discovered that thymus-derived lymphocytes (T-cells) were important regulators of bone-marrow ... Purification of protein from bovine-derived stromal cell supernatants produces a substantially homogeneous factor, free of ... LTCI increases the immune response to foreign antigens and dampens the immune-mediated response to self-antigens by increasing ... LTCI increases the production of CD-4+ T-cells and can subsequently overcome this immunosuppression. Lymphocyte T-Cell ...
"Nucleostemin is a marker of proliferating stromal stem cells in adult human bone marrow". Stem Cells. 24 (4): 1113-20. doi: ... Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ... May 2003). "Differentiation of bone marrow cells into cells that express liver-specific genes in vitro: implication of the ... "Human stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow promote neurogenesis of endogenous neural stem cells in the hippocampus of mice". ...
August 2003). "Redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes and chondrogenesis of human bone marrow stromal cells via ... Yeh CH, Shatkin AJ (June 1994). "A HeLa-cell-encoded p21 is homologous to transcription elongation factor SII". Gene. 143 (2): ... hepatitis delta antigen, and stimulatory factor II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (50): 50101-11. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Cell. 114 (3): 347-57. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00598-1. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0015-8647-8. PMID 12914699. S2CID 17184533. ...
IL-11 is a cytokine and first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like stromal cells. It was initially thought ... modulate antigen-antibody responses, participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation IL-11 causes ... unlike IL6 receptors that are expressed at highest levels in immune cells and lowly expressed in stromal cells. Signal ... Signal specificity is provided by the IL-11Rα subunit which is expressed at high levels in fibroblasts and other stromal cells ...
... bone marrow and spleen, most patients have peripheral blood involvement, indolent B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia ... Mesenchymal stromal cells may result in little to no difference in the all-cause mortality, relapse of malignant disease and ... Four chimeric antigen receptor CAR-T cell therapies are FDA-approved for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including lisocabtagene ... B cells, T cells, NK cells, and histiocytic-dendritic cells in which one or more of these cell types is infected with the ...
NK cells, which lack antigen specific receptors, develop in the bone marrow. After maturation and release from the marrow they ... they are fully committed to the T cell lineage- when thymocytes expressing Notch1 receptors engage thymic stromal cells ... B cells Large Pre-B cells => Small Pre-B cells Immature B cells B Cells => (B1 cells; B2 cells) Plasma cells Pro-T cells T- ... unconventional T cells' such at γδ T cells, Natural Killer T cells (NKT) and regulatory T cells (Treg). γδ T cells γδT cells ...
Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin (derived from bone marrow ... The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T-cell receptor. The T-cell receptor undergoes genetic ... Stromal cells include epithelial cells of the thymic cortex and medulla, and dendritic cells. The thymus provides an inductive ... hematopoietic precursors from the bone-marrow, referred to as thymocytes, mature into T cells. Once mature, T cells emigrate ...
"APRIL is critical for plasmablast survival in the bone marrow and poorly expressed by early-life bone marrow stromal cells". ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells". ... This protein and its receptor are both found to be important for B cell development. In vivo experiments suggest an important ... role for APRIL in the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Mice deficient in APRIL have normal immune system ...
... and the bone marrow in adults, as this is where CLPs, NKPs, and CHILPs have been found. The cells then exit and circulate in ... Retinoic acid, produced by many cell types, such as nerve cells, dendritic cells, and stromal cells, favours the ... "High and interrelated rates of PD-L1+ CD14+ antigen-presenting cells and regulatory T cells mark the microenvironment of ... hematopoietic cells such as stromal cells. In the lung, ILC2s have a distinct localization to stromal cells, which release IL- ...
transplanted bone marrow (BM) cells from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings to patients suffering from OI. ... Multiple clinical studies are ongoing that obtain stromal cells from bone-marrow, adipose tissue, or peripheral blood to be ... Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), derived from bone marrow or blood, are cells with the abilities to self-renew and to ... bone marrow derived cells can be infused into the patients blood stream. Here the injected cells are able to home into the ...
... apart from CD8+ T cells, requires indirect presentation of TRAs by bone marrow (BM) derived APCs. Direct presentation of TRAs ... Breed, Elise R.; Lee, S. Thera; Hogquist, Kristin A. (2018). "Directing T cell fate: How thymic antigen presenting cells ... These processes are mediated especially by unique subset of stromal cells called Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) via ... Antigen transfer in the thymus is the transmission of self-antigens between thymic Antigen presenting cells (APCs) which ...
"Comparing mesenchymal stromal cells from different human tissues: Bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood". Bio- ... human iPS cell-derived myeloid cell lines as unlimited cell source for dendritic cell-like antigen-presenting cells". Gene ... "Regeneration of Human Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells from iPSCs Derived from Mature CD8+ T Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (1): 31- ... Antibody that Transforms Bone Marrow Stem Cells Directly into Brain Cells Xie, J.; Zhang, H.; Yea, K.; Lerner, R. A. (23 April ...
Rabbit polyclonal Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication ... Anti-Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 antibody. See all Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 primary antibodies. ... Anti-Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 antibody (ab137718) at 1/500 dilution + Raji whole cell lysate at 30 µg. Predicted band ... Immunology Adaptive Immunity B Cells CD Share by email Anti-Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 antibody (ab137718). ...
Browse our Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 available through Novus Biologicals. ...
In this study, we report the identi-fication of new Abs specific for mouse IPC, which recognize the bone marrow stromal cell Ag ... and inducing B cell differentiation into Ab-secreting plasma cells (1, 2). IPC develop in the bone marrow and then circulate ... Through secretion of type I IFN, IPC direct both the innate and adaptive immune re-sponse by promoting NK cell and CD8 T cell ... T ype I IFN-producing cells (IPC),3 also called plasmacy-toid dendritic cells (DC), are early responders to viralinfections (1 ...
Sheep Polyclonal Anti-Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 Antibody. Validated: WB. Tested Reactivity: Mouse. 100% ... Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 » Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 Antibodies » Bone marrow stromal cell ... Additional Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 Products. Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 AF4710 * Bone marrow ... Blogs on Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157. There are no specific blogs for Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157, ...
... bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 explanation free. What is bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1? Meaning of bone marrow stromal ... cell antigen 1 medical term. What does bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 in the Medical Dictionary? ... bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2. *Bone Marrow Stromal Cells. *Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells ...
Mahauad-Fernandez WD, DeMali KA, Olivier AK and Okeoma CM: Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 expressed in cancer cells promotes ... ginsenosides induce autophagic cell death in cervical cancer cells accompanied by downregulation of bone marrow stromal antigen ... ginsenosides induce autophagic cell death in cervical cancer cells accompanied by downregulation of bone marrow stromal antigen ... ginsenosides induce autophagic cell death in cervical cancer cells accompanied by downregulation of bone marrow stromal antigen ...
2008) Murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells cause mature dendritic cells to promote T-cell tolerance. Scand J Immunol 68: ... Antigen Challenge.. To elicit a bronchial allergic response, RW sensitization and challenge were used (18, 19). C57BL/6J mice ... Bone marrow stromal cells [BMSCs; also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] effectively suppress inflammatory responses in ... Bone marrow stromal cells use TGF-β to suppress allergic responses in a mouse model of ragweed-induced asthma. Krisztian Nemeth ...
In vitro, we assessed the effect of carcinoma cell BST-2 knockdown and/or overexpression on adhesion, anchorage-independent ... Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) is one such gene whose role in cancer is not clear. BST-2 is a unique innate immunity ... In vivo, we examined the effect of knockdown of BST-2 in two different murine carcinoma cells on tumor growth, metastasis, and ... Results: BST-2 in breast tumors and mammary cancer cells is a strong predictor of tumor size, tumor aggressiveness, and host ...
BAFF and APRIL were both reported to block B-cell antigen receptor-induced apoptosis upstream of mitochondrial damage, ... APRIL is critical for plasmablast survival in the bone marrow and poorly expressed by early-life bone marrow stromal cells. ... APRIL is critical for plasmablast survival in the bone marrow and poorly expressed by early-life bone marrow stromal cells. ... APRIL is critical for plasmablast survival in the bone marrow and poorly expressed by early-life bone marrow stromal cells ...
The Potential Role of Quorum Sensing in Clonal Growth and Subsequent Expansion of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Strains in Culture ... Stem Cells International / 2019 / Article / Tab 1. Research Article. The Potential Role of Quorum Sensing in Clonal Growth and ... Antigen. Type. Label. Clone. Distributor. CD34 (gp 105-120). MC. FITC. 581. BD Biosciences. ... Subsequent Expansion of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Strains in Culture. Table 1. Antibodies used for flow cytometry. ...
... and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) have been extensively studied. The present study focused on the ... roles of gap junction and vascular endothelial growth factor in the cross-talking of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) ... which indicated that the cell-cell adhesion was improved between cocultured cells. In addition, more beta-catenin was found to ... Antigens, CD / physiology* * Bone Marrow Cells / cytology * Bone Marrow Cells / physiology* * Cadherins / physiology* ...
INDICATION: Cardiovascular; hemophilia Mouse studies suggest BST1- and CD200-positive vascular endothelial cells could help ...
... from the surface of infected cells, preventing infection of new cells. BST-2 is variably expressed in most cell types, and its ... In cultured cells, BST-2 inhibits virus accumulation in the culture medium, and co-localizes at the cell surface with virus ... By using RNA interference, we show that loss of BST-2 enhances MMTV replication in cultured mammary tumor cells and in vivo. ... Our data provide evidence that BST-2 restricts MMTV release from naturally infected cells and that BST-2 is an antiviral factor ...
Publications] Takahashi S, Ochiai A, et al.: Over-expression of sialyl Lewis x antigen associates formation of extra-tumoral ... We xenotransplanted several human cancer cell lines which had various ability to induce cancer stroma. The following results ... Cancer / stromal cells / interaction / stromal fibroblasts / bone-marrow derived cells / animal model / proliferative activitiy ... In order to confirm that cancer stromal cells contain bone marrow derived cells, the double mutant mouse model which is Ragi ...
Anabolic response of mouse bone-marrow-derived stromal cell clone ST2 cells to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. Biochem Biophys ... Gene network T containing transcription factors fos‑like antigen 1 and serum response factor was also associated with the ... in mouse ST2 bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) (13).. Here, to elucidate the early cellular response to LIUS in cells, the ... Genetic response to low‑intensity ultrasound on mouse ST2 bone marrow stromal cells. *Authors: *Yoshiaki Tabuchi ...
Bone marrow stromal cells inhibit mast cell function via a COX2-dependent mechanism ... Pollen-induced antigen presentation by mesenchymal stem cells and T cells from allergic rhinitis ... Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. mesenchymal stromal cells in experimental allergic asthma ... Bone marrow stromal cells use TGF-β to suppress allergic responses in a mouse model of ragweed-induced asthma. Krisztian Nemeth ...
Bone marrow stroma is the physical basis of the haematopoietic microenvironment and regulates several key features of stem cell ... Antigens, CD34 / metabolism* * Bone Marrow Cells / cytology * Bone Marrow Cells / immunology * Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism* ... Expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin by the human bone marrow stromal cells and its probable role in CD34(+) ... a cell adhesion molecule which plays a crucial role in cell-cell aggregation during development, is also present in the bone ...
Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... BST2 (Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BST2 include Hiv-1 and Stomatitis ... Bone marrow stromal cells are involved in the growth and development of B-cells. The specific function of the protein encoded ... bone marrow stromal antigen 2,involved in pre-B-cell growth,36kDa,expressed in various tissues *BST2 ...
... and mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1. Haematologica. 2009;94(2):173-184.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell pool by CXCL12-CXCR4 chemokine signaling in bone marrow stromal cell niches. ... Bone marrow stromal cells from β-thalassemia patients have impaired hematopoietic supportive capacity. Stefania Crippa,1 ... Pal B, Das B. In vitro culture of naïve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a stemness based approach. Front Cell Dev ...
Bst1 (Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1, ADP-ribosyl cyclase 2, CD157) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BST1 gene ... 1996). "Pancreatic islet cells express BST-1, a CD38-like surface molecule having ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity". Biochem. ... "Entrez Gene: BST1 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1". Quarona V, Zaccarello G, Chillemi A (2013). "CD38 and CD157: a long ... 1996). "Elevated levels of the soluble form of bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 in the sera of patients with severe ...
... or mesenchymal stem cells, are non-hematopoietic, multipotent, self-renewable cells, which are capable of trilineage ... Researchers discover a mechanism linked to stem cell aging. Despite relatively low numbers of MSCs in bone marrow aspirates, ... Stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4, CD146 and stromal precursor antigen-1 (Stro-1) are the hallmarks of mesenchymal stem ... and direct cell-cell contact between MSCs and natural killer (NK) cells suppress the proliferation of NK cells. Cell-cell ...
intravenous infusions of allogeneic unrelated non-human leukocyte antigen-matched bone marrow -derived mesenchymal stromal ... ... hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) matched related donor (MRD) and ... ... Intravenous infusion of allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells in refractory or relapsed aplastic anemia ... ... The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen -identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or ... ...
... and initiation of the cell apoptosis pathways. Additionally, some virus-encoded lncRNAs facilitate viral replication through ... and initiation of the cell apoptosis pathways. Additionally, some virus-encoded lncRNAs facilitate viral replication through ... cell differentiation, pre-mRNA transcription and splicing, protein translation, and so on. During the last decade, increasing ... cell differentiation, pre-mRNA transcription and splicing, protein translation, etc. During the last decade, increasing ...
... are referred as a promising immunotherapeutic cell product. New approaches using empowered MSCs should be developed as for the ... Objective and design Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) ... Immune-related antigens, surface molecules and regulatory factors in human-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: the expression ... Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are referred as a promising immunotherapeutic cell product. New approaches ...
683 BST1; bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 3803 KIR2DL2; killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long ... 54210 TREM1; triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 56253 CRTAM; cytotoxic and regulatory T cell molecule 8784 ... 684 BST2; bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 64866 CDCP1; CUB domain containing protein 1 57823 SLAMF7; SLAM family member 7 ... bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 K06732 CDCP1; CUB domain-containing protein 1 K06733 SLAMF7; SLAM family member 7 K06734 ...
4 on leukemic cells to fibronectin on bone-marrow stromal cells. We found that VLA-4-positive cells acquired resistance to ... We postulate that the drug resistance is induced by the attachment of very late antigen (VLA)- ... Thus, the interaction between VLA-4 on leukemic cells and fibronectin on stromal cells may be crucial in bone marrow MRD and ... Interaction between leukemic-cell VLA-4 and stromal fibronectin is a decisive factor for minimal residual disease of acute ...
Lipopolysaccharide treatment induces genome-wide pre-mRNA splicing pattern changes in mouse bone marrow stromal stem cells ... Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer. Recent large-scale next-generation sequencing ... Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a gram-negative bacterial antigen that triggers a series of cellular responses. LPS pre- ... conditioning was previously shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow stromal ... ...
... have a key role in maintenance of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche through reciprocal regulation with immune cells, we ... OPN induction required cell-to-cell contact, mediated at least in part, by beta1 integrin (CD29). Conversely, activated MSCs ... OPN induction required cell-to-cell contact, mediated at least in part, by beta1 integrin (CD29). Conversely, activated MSCs ... exert immunosuppressive effects on immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs). However, many details of the bidirectional ...
... are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several cell types. In addition, many studies have shown that MSCs ... Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the response of naive and memory antigen-specific T cells to their cognate peptide. ... Identification of bone marrow-derived soluble factors regulating human mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration. Stem Cell ... Biologic properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. J Cell Biochem. 2006;99:1285-97. ...
Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is a specific marker of type I IFN-producing cells in the naive mouse, but a promiscuous ... we discovered an ILT7 ligand expressed by human cell lines and identified it as bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2; CD317 ... Abbreviations used: BST2, bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2; ILT, Ig-like transcript; ITAM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based ... Here, we report the identification of a surface molecule named bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) as a biological ligand ...

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