Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Marrow DiseasesBone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Cell SeparationPancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Inbred BALB CMegakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bone Diseases, MetabolicStem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.

Bone marrow scintigraphy using technetium-99m antigranulocyte antibody in malignant lymphomas. (1/285)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical reliability of immunoscintigraphy (IS) to detect infiltration of the bone marrow in patients with malignant lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole body IS was performed in 103 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using Tc-99m labelled anti-NCA-95 which allows visualization of the granulopoietic bone marrow. Of these, 52% were studied prior to any therapy. Findings were compared to posterior iliac crest biopsy as well as MRI and/or follow-up examination. Criteria of marrow infiltration were a positive biopsy, positive follow-up, or positive results of MRI. RESULTS: Comparison of IS and biospy revealed concordant findings in 69 and discordant findings in 34 of 103 patients. Of the 34 patients with discordant results, IS showed lesions suspicious of bone marrow infiltration in 29 patients despite normal biopsy findings. When follow-up and additional examinations were taken into consideration, 10 patients remained with probably false positive and five with false negative IS findings. IS proved to be highly sensitive and specific in patients with HD (100% and 84%, respectively) and high-grade NHL (93% and 84%, respectively). Moderate sensitivity (60%) was found in low-grade NHL. This was possibly due to false negative IS in three to five patients with chemotherapy in contrast to one of five false negative results in patients without chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow scintigraphy using antigranulocyte antibodies is highly sensitive in HD and high-grade NHL. Positive findings in IS subsequent to a negative biopsy should be followed by guided re-biopsy or MRI.  (+info)

Detection of focal myeloma lesions by technetium-99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy. (2/285)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The tracer tachnetium-99m-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (Tc99m-sestaMIBI) has recently been shown to concentrate in some neoplastic tissues, including myeloma. We investigated the diagnostic capacity and limits of this procedure in tracing focal myeloma lesions, and compared them with those of conventional radiological procedures (Xr). DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 55 patients suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) or solitary plasmacytoma in different stages and clinical conditions, or from monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance (MGUS), by whole body scans obtained 10 minutes after injection of 555 MBq of Tc99m-sestaMIBI. Scans were defined as normal (physiological uptake only), diffuse (presence of bone marrow uptake), or focal (localized areas of uptake), and were compared to conventional skeletal Xr. RESULTS: Thirty patients showed no focal areas of Tc99m-sestaMIBI uptake; this group consisted of 5 patients with MGUS, 6 with MM in stage IA and 2 in stage IIA, 11 patients studied after effective chemotherapy and 6 in early relapse. Twenty-five patients showed one or more spots of focal uptake: all of them had active disease (untreated, resistant or relapsing MM). In the setting of tracing focal lesions, Tc99m-sestaMIBI scans were concordant with the radiological examination in 38 patients and discordant in 17. Among the latter, in 4 cases Tc99m-sestaMIBI revealed focal lesions not detected by Xr, and in 13 cases lytic areas detected by Xr did not show Tc99m-sestaMIBI uptake. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In untreated patients, the number of lesions revealed by Tc99m-sestaMIBI was comparable to that shown by Xr, while in pretreated patients Tc99m-sestaMIBI traced a number of lesions lower than that detected by Xr. The reason for this discrepancy is that Tc99m-sestaMIBI traces only active lesions. Tc99m-sestaMIBI limitations in identifying focal lesions may derive from the dimension of the smallest traceable lesion (about one centimeter), and from the possibility that focal plasma cell localizations in collapsed bone may not be visualized due to inadequate vascularization. Tc99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy is an interesting tool for diagnosing, staging and following up focal myeloma lesions, in the bone as well as in soft tissues. It is more specific than conventional Xr in identifying sites of active disease.  (+info)

Stage III and oestrogen receptor negativity are associated with poor prognosis after adjuvant high-dose therapy in high-risk breast cancer. (3/285)

We report on the efficacy and toxicity of a sequential high-dose therapy with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) support in 85 patients with high-risk stage II/III breast cancer. There were 71 patients with more than nine tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. An induction therapy of two cycles of ifosfamide (total dose, 7.5 g m(-2)) and epirubicin (120 mg m(-2)) was given, and PBSC were harvested during G-CSF-supported leucocyte recovery following the second cycle. The PBSC-supported high-dose chemotherapy consisted of two cycles of ifosfamide (total dose, 12,000 mg m(-2)), carboplatin (900 mg m(-2)) and epirubicin (180 mg m(-2)). Patients were autografted with a median number of 3.7 x 10(6) CD34+ cells kg(-1) (range, 1.9-26.5 x 10(6)) resulting in haematological reconstitution within approximately 2 weeks following high-dose therapy. The toxicity was moderate in general, and there was no treatment-related toxic death. Twenty-one patients relapsed between 3 and 30 months following the last cycle of high-dose therapy (median, 11 months). The probability of disease-free and overall survival at 4 years were 60% and 83%, respectively. According to a multivariate analysis, patients with stage II disease had a significantly better probability of disease-free survival (74%) in comparison to patients with stage III disease (36%). The probability of disease-free survival was also significantly better for patients with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours (70%) compared to patients with receptor-negative ones (40%). Bone marrow samples collected from 52 patients after high-dose therapy were examined to evaluate the prognostic relevance of isolated tumour cells. The proportion of patients presenting with tumour cell-positive samples did not change in comparison to that observed before high-dose therapy (65% vs 71%), but a decrease in the incidence and concentration of tumour cells was observed over time after high-dose therapy. This finding was true for patients with relapse and for those in remission, which argues against a prognostic significance of isolated tumour cells in bone marrow. In conclusion, sequential high-dose chemotherapy with PBSC support can be safely administered to patients with high-risk stage II/III breast cancer. Further intensification of the therapy, including the addition of non-cross resistant drugs or immunological approaches such as the use of antibodies against HER-2/NEU, may be envisaged for patients with stage III disease and hormone receptor-negative tumours.  (+info)

Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. (4/285)

The role of androgen receptor (AR) mutations in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) was determined by examining AR transcripts and genes from a large series of bone marrow metastases. Mutations were found in 5 of 16 patients who received combined androgen blockade with the AR antagonist flutamide, and these mutant ARs were strongly stimulated by flutamide. In contrast, the single mutant AR found among 17 patients treated with androgen ablation monotherapy was not flutamide stimulated. Patients with flutamide-stimulated AR mutations responded to subsequent treatment with bicalutamide, an AR antagonist that blocks the mutant ARs. These findings demonstrate that AR mutations occur in response to strong selective pressure from flutamide treatment.  (+info)

Detection and clinical importance of micrometastatic disease. (5/285)

Metastatic relapse in patients with solid tumors is caused by systemic preoperative or perioperative dissemination of tumor cells. The presence of individual tumor cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood can be detected by immunologic or molecular methods and is being regarded increasingly as a clinically relevant prognostic factor. Because the goal of adjuvant therapy is the eradication of occult micrometastatic tumor cells before metastatic disease becomes clinically evident, the early detection of micrometastases could identify the patients who are most (and least) likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy. In addition, more sensitive methods for detecting such cells should increase knowledge about the biologic mechanisms of metastasis and improve the diagnosis and treatment of micrometastatic disease. In contrast to solid metastatic tumors, micrometastatic tumor cells are appropriate targets for intravenously applied agents because macromolecules and immunocompetent effector cells should have access to the tumor cells. Because the majority of micrometastatic tumor cells may be nonproliferative (G0 phase), standard cytotoxic chemotherapies aimed at proliferating cells may be less effective, which might explain, in part, the failure of chemotherapy. Thus, adjuvant therapies that are aimed at dividing and quiescent cells, such as antibody-based therapies, are of considerable interest. From a literature search that used the databases MEDLINE(R), CANCERLIT(R), Biosis(R), Embase(R), and SciSearch(R), we discuss the current state of research on minimal residual cancer in patients with epithelial tumors and the diagnostic and clinical implications of these findings.  (+info)

Sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridisation method for the characterisation of breast cancer cells in bone marrow aspirates. (6/285)

AIM: The presence of malignant cells in the blood and bone marrow of patients with cancer at the time of surgery may be indicative of early relapse. In addition to their numbers, the phenotypes of the micrometastatic cells might be essential in determining whether overt metastases will develop. This study aimed to establish a sensitive method for the detection and characterisation of malignant cells present in bone marrow. METHODS: In spiking experiments, SKBR3 cells were mixed with mononuclear cells in known proportions to mimic bone marrow samples with micrometastatic cells. Tumour cells were extracted using SAM-M450 Dynabeads coupled to the MOC-31 anti-epithelial antibody, and were further analysed for amplification of erbB2 and int2 by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). erbB2 and int2 copy numbers were also determined in 15 primary breast cancers, and bone marrow samples from patients with amplification were analysed for micrometastatic cells by immunomagnetic enrichment and FISH. RESULTS: In model experiments, cells with amplification could be detected in bead selected fractions when ratios of tumour cells (SKBR3) to mononuclear cells were as low as 10:10(7). Among the tumour samples, eight showed increased copy numbers of erbB2 and/or int2, and three of these patients had detectable numbers of tumour cells in their bone marrow: 4000, 540, and 26 tumour cells/10(7) mononuclear cells, respectively. The patient with 540 tumour cells/10(7) mononuclear cells showed high level amplification of erbB2 and suffered from a particularly aggressive disease, whereas the patient with 4000 tumour cells/10(7) mononuclear cells had favourable disease progression. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the feasibility and advantage of combining immunomagnetic selection and FISH characterisation of cancer cells in bone marrow samples. It is possible that molecular characterisation of such cells could provide prognostically valuable information.  (+info)

Cellular proliferation and prevalence of micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. (7/285)

The presence of prostate cancer cells in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with clinically localized disease is associated with an increased chance of disease recurrence; however, not all patients develop recurrence. We therefore sought to determine the phenotype of individual micrometastatic cells as a potential method to better predict disease outcome. Immunostaining was performed on BM cells from 46 patients whose BM RNA fraction had been identified to contain prostate-specific antigen mRNA. The prevalence of micrometastatic cells among BM mononuclear cells was determined using an anticytokeratin antibody. Mib-1 antibody was used to determine the percentage of micrometastatic cells that were proliferating. Micrometastatic cells were found in 96% of patient samples, with a 30-fold variation in prevalence ranging from 0.1-3.26/10(5) BM cells. Prior androgen ablation was associated with a reduced prevalence of micrometastatic cells (P = 0.010). In 68% of patients, some micrometastatic cells were judged to be proliferating at proportions ranging from 1 of 11 (9%) to 4 of 4 (100%). Higher Gleason score of the primary tumor was associated with a higher proliferative proportion of micrometastatic cells (P = 0.038). We conclude that, in patients with clinically localized disease, there is wide variability in the prevalence of micrometastatic cells and the proportion which are proliferating. Long-term follow-up will determine whether the development of clinically obvious metastatic disease is related to higher prevalence of micrometastatic cells in the marrow or the proportion that are proliferating.  (+info)

Oral etoposide for refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma. (8/285)

PURPOSE: To describe the efficacy of oral etoposide against resistant stage 4 neuroblastoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with refractory or recurrent stage 4 neuroblastoma were treated with etoposide 50 mg/m(2) taken orally each day, in two or three divided doses, for 21 consecutive days. Treatment could be repeated after a 1-week period. Extent-of-disease studies included imaging with 131-iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine and extensive bone marrow (BM) sampling. RESULTS: Oral etoposide was used in 20 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years (median, 6 years). Prior treatment included high doses of alkylating agents and a median of 4.5 cycles of etoposide-containing chemotherapy, with cumulative etoposide doses of 1,800 mg/m(2) to 3,935 mg/m(2) (median, 2,300 mg/m(2)). Oral etoposide produced antineuroblastoma effects in four of four children with disease refractory to intensive induction treatment; sampling variability could account for resolution (n = 3) or reduction (n = 1) of BM involvement, but improvement in other markers also occurred. Antineuroblastoma effects were also evident in five of five children with asymptomatic relapses after a long chemotherapy-free interval: BM disease resolved and all other disease markers significantly improved in two patients, and disease markers improved or stabilized in three patients on treatment for more than 6 months. In these nine patients, extramedullary toxicity was absent, neutropenia did not occur, transfusional support was not needed, and preliminary data suggested little immunosuppression (phytohemagglutinin responses). Oral etoposide was ineffective in all (11 of 11) patients with rapidly growing tumor masses. CONCLUSION: Given the absence of toxicity to major organs, the minimal myelosuppression or immunosuppression, and the antineoplastic activity in patients with low tumor burdens after high-dose chemotherapy, limited use of low-dose oral etoposide should be considered for inclusion in postinduction consolidative treatment programs aimed at eradicating minimal residual disease.  (+info)

*Acute myelomonocytic leukemia

Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is a group of malignant bone marrow neoplasms of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. ... Diagnostic methods include blood analysis, bone marrow aspirate for cytochemical, immunological and cytogeneticalanalysis, and ... Treatment includes intensive multidrug chemotherapy and in selected cases allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Nevertheless ...

*List of MeSH codes (C15)

... bone marrow neoplasms MeSH C15.378.420.155 --- anemia, sickle cell MeSH C15.378.420.155.440 --- hemoglobin sc disease MeSH ... bone marrow neoplasms MeSH C15.378.190.625 --- myelodysplastic syndromes MeSH C15.378.190.625.062 --- anemia, refractory MeSH ... splenic neoplasms MeSH C15.604.744.742 --- splenic rupture MeSH C15.604.744.742.500 --- splenosis MeSH C15.604.744.909 --- ...

*Myeloid tissue

... even though all blood cells are normally produced in the marrow in adults). Myeloid neoplasms always concern bone marrow cell ... Myeloid tissue, in the bone marrow sense of the word myeloid (myelo- + -oid), is tissue of bone marrow, of bone marrow cell ... or resembling bone marrow, and myelogenous tissue (myelo- + -genous) is any tissue of, or arising from, bone marrow; in these ... Yuan J, Nguyen CK, Liu X, Kanellopoulou C, Muljo SA (2012). "Lin28b reprograms adult bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors to ...

*Route of administration

intraocular, into the eye, e.g., some medications for glaucoma or eye neoplasms intraosseous infusion (into the bone marrow) is ... in effect, an indirect intravenous access because the bone marrow drains directly into the venous system. This route is ...

*Eye neoplasm

Other less common sites of origin include the prostate, kidney, thyroid, skin, colon and blood or bone marrow. Tumors in the ... Eye neoplasms can affect all parts of the eye, and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer). Eye cancers can be ...

*List of MeSH codes (C04)

... tracheal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.448.200 --- bone marrow neoplasms MeSH C04.588.531.500 --- mammary neoplasms, experimental MeSH ... nose neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.656 --- orbital neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.828 --- skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588. ... anal gland neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.445 --- duodenal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.476.411.501 --- ileal neoplasms MeSH ... femoral neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721 --- skull neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721.450 --- jaw neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.721. ...

*Myeloproliferative neoplasm

... are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced. They are related to, and may evolve into, ... Although not a malignant neoplasm like other cancers, MPNs are classified within the hematological neoplasms. There are four ... According to the WHO Classification of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Neoplasms 2008 myeloproliferative neoplasms are divided into ... Mastocytosis All MPNs arise from precursors of the myeloid lineages in the bone marrow. The lymphoid lineage may produce ...

*National University Cancer Institute, Singapore

Hepatology Gynaecologic Oncology Endocrinology Paediatric Haematology-Oncology Palliative Medicine Bone Marrow and Stem Cell ... Transplant Coagulation General Haematology Leukaemia, Myelodysplastic and Myeloprofilerative Neoplasms (MDS / MPN) Lymphoma ...

*Chronic neutrophilic leukemia

On both the bone marrow aspirate and the core biopsy, a hypercellular marrow with an increased myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20:1 ... Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm that features a persistent neutrophilia in peripheral ... Peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and liver are most common, but any organ or tissue can be infiltrated by neutrophils. ... There is a reported association between CNL and multiple myeloma, so the bone marrow biopsy may show evidence of a plasma cell ...

*Myelofibrosis

... is a relatively rare bone marrow cancer. It is currently classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, in which the ... A bone marrow biopsy will reveal collagen fibrosis, replacing the marrow that would normally occupy the space. The one known ... The bone marrow in a typical case is hypercellular and diffusely fibrotic. Both early and late in disease, megakaryocytes are ... When late in the disease progression an attempt is made to take a sample of bone marrow by aspiration, it may result in a dry ...

*Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma

While the bone marrow is commonly involved, the detection of the neoplastic infiltrate may be difficult due to diffuse, ... Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma is a systemic neoplasm comprising medium-sized cytotoxic T-cells that show a significant ... Allogeneic bone marrow transplant has been proven to attain remission for over five years and possibly cure hepatosplenic ... Autologous bone marrow transplantation is currently being investigated in the treatment of hepatosplenic lymphoma. ...

*Clonal hypereosinophilia

The expanding population of eosinophils, initially formed in the bone marrow may spread to the blood and then enter into and ... lymphoid neoplasms, or features of both types of neoplasms. Most commonly, the present with features of myeloid neoplasms with ... In most but not all instances, the resulting malignancies are associated with increases in blood, bone marrow, and/or tissue ... Currently, treatment with chemotherapy agents followed by bone marrow transplantion has been used to improve survival. The ...

*Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

... increased numbers of bone marrow eosinophils, and/or the infiltration of eosinophils into tissues. These neoplasms were ... and require treatment with chemotherapy agents followed by bone marrow transplantion in order to improve survival. The tyrosine ... The Fgfr1 gene appears critical for the truncation of embryonic structures and formation of muscle and bone tissues and thereby ... Unlike many other myeloid neoplasms with eosinophil such as those caused by Platelet-derived growth factor receptor A or ...

*Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia

60%) eosinophil CFUs when incubated with bone marrow cells taken from a non-identical donor; supernatant fluid taken from the ... Lymphoid neoplasms can be associated with eosinophilia presumably because of the secretion of eosinophil/eosinophil precursor ... 1,500/microliter) plus physical findings and symptoms associated with the disease; b) bone marrow analysis showing abnormally ... Boyer DF (2016). "Blood and Bone Marrow Evaluation for Eosinophilia". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 140 (10): ...

*Canine histiocytic diseases

... and bone marrow). This latter form of HS is most like malignant histiocytosis (MH). MH is an aggressive, histiocytic neoplasm ... Primary lesions of HS occur in spleen, lymph node, lung, bone marrow, skin and subcutis especially of extremities. Secondary ... Hemophagocytic HS does not initially form mass lesions in the primary sites (spleen and bone marrow). Typically, diffuse ... Histiocytic lesions have been observed in skin, lung, liver, bone marrow, spleen, peripheral and visceral lymph nodes, kidneys ...

*Eosinophilia

Neoplastic disorders are diagnosed through the usual methods, such as bone marrow aspiration and biopsy for the leukemias, MRI/ ... Of solid tumor neoplasms, ovarian cancer is most likely to provoke eosinophilia, though any other cancer can cause the ... ISBN 1-4160-2973-7. Boyer DF (2016). "Blood and Bone Marrow Evaluation for Eosinophilia". Archives of Pathology & Laboratory ... Reiter A, Gotlib J (2017). "Myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia". Blood. 129 (6): 704-714. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-695973. ...

*PDGFRB

Bone marrow examination may reveal cellular features similar to that seen in the aforementioned diseases. Diagnosis is may by ... This continuous signaling, it is presumed, leads to the development of myeloid and/or lymphoid neoplasms that commonly include ... Other genetic abnormalities in PDGFRB lead to various forms of potentially malignant bone marrow disorders: small deletions in ... conventional cytogenetic examination of blood or bone marrow cells to test for PDGFRB rearrangements using Fluorescence in situ ...

*Chlorambucil

Bone marrow suppression (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) is the most commonly occurring side effect of chlorambucil. ... trophoblastic neoplasms, and ovarian carcinoma. Moreover, it also has been used as an immunosuppressive drug for various ... Common side effects include bone marrow suppression. Other serious side effects include an increased long term risk of further ...

*Chronic myelogenous leukemia

... myeloblasts or lymphoblasts in the blood or bone marrow Large clusters of blasts in the bone marrow on biopsy Development of a ... Vardiman JW, Harris NL, Brunning RD (Oct 2002). "The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms". ... solid focus of leukemia outside the bone marrow) The only curative treatment for CML is a bone marrow transplant or an ... CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and ...

*Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia

Bone marrow, lymph node and spleen enlargement from leukemic cell infiltration usually is present. Infrequently, other soft ... Kaur V (2016). "A rare case of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with deletion 7q.31, in the setting of heavy pre- ... Dendritic cells develop from progenitors in the bone marrow and transform into two subtypes: the myeloid dendritic cell and the ... Gomis F, Moscardó F, Mayordomo F, Martín G, Sempere A, Sanz MA (August 2001). "Bone marrow infiltrate by atypical histiocytic ...

*Essential thrombocytosis

No evidence of iron deficiency stainable iron in the bone marrow or normal red cell mean corpuscular volume B3. No evidence of ... It is one of four myeloproliferative neoplasms (blood cancers that occur when the body makes too many white or red blood cells ... is a rare chronic blood condition characterised by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. It may ... ET is the myeloproliferative neoplasm least likely to progress to acute myeloid leukemia. The incidence of ET is 0.6-2.5/ ...

*Dactinomycin

Common adverse drug reaction includes bone marrow suppression, fatigue, hair loss, mouth ulcer, loss of appetite and diarrhea. ... This includes Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, trophoblastic neoplasm, testicular cancer, and certain types of ... Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, vomiting, mouth ulcers, hair loss, liver problems, infections, and muscle ... "Cell kinetic study of normal humanbone marrow hematopoiesis andacute leukemia using 7AAD/PY". European Journal of Haematology. ...

*List of diseases (B)

... craniosynostosis proptosis hydrocephalus Bone marrow failure neurologic abnormalities Bone marrow failure Bone neoplasms Bone ... dysplasia Azouz type Bone dysplasia corpus callosum agenesis Bone dysplasia lethal Holmgren type Bone dysplasia Moore type Bone ... familial Brief psychotic disorder Bright's disease Brittle bone disease Brittle bone syndrome lethal type Brittle cornea ... BOD syndrome Boder syndrome Body dysmorphic disorder Boil Bolivian hemorrhagic fever Bone development disorder Bone ...

*Lymphoma

Blood, urine, and bone marrow testing may also be useful in the diagnosis. Medical imaging may then be done to determine if and ... Mature B cell neoplasms B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphoma 3 to 4% of lymphomas in adults Small resting ... Chung HM, Lyckholm LJ, Smith TJ (2009). "Palliative care in BMT". Bone Marrow Transplant. 43 (4): 265-73. doi:10.1038/bmt. ... For these reasons, palliative care is especially important for patients requiring bone marrow transplants. Lymphoma is the most ...

*Targeted therapy of lung cancer

... and death of cells in the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract, and increased effectiveness against tumor cells. Lung cancer ... is an extremely heterogeneous family of malignant neoplasms, with well over 50 different histological variants recognized under ...

*Cutaneous T cell lymphoma

Cyclophosphamide Bone marrow / stem cells Allogenic transplantation Forodesine (Inhibits Purine Nucleoside phosphorylase) In ... ISBN 0-7817-5007-5. Frequency of lymphoid neoplasms. (Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and ...
INNSBRUCK, Austria-The presence of bone marrow micrometastases in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer is a highly significant predictor of poor outcome, according to a pooled analysis of data fro
In 1998, our group first reported isolation of HER2-positive CTCs from the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with organ-confined tumors by means of the patented combined buoyant density gradient and immunomagnetic separation technique (10, 11). Against the background that breast cancer patients with distant metastasis at diagnosis had disseminated HER2-overexpressing epithelial cells in the bone marrow (15), the hypothesis was generated that at the time of primary treatment CTCs expressing the HER2-oncogenic receptor might be intermediates for the metastasis process. This assumption is further supported by the association between bone marrow micrometastases and the occurrence of HER2-positive cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the clinical relevance of HER2-positive CTCs in the peripheral blood of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients.. In this study, HER2-positive CTCs were present in the peripheral blood of 17 of 35 (48.6%) primary breast cancer ...
On live TV Monday morning, Robin Roberts announced she has been diagnosed with a rare blood and bone marrow disease. INSIDE EDITION has the latest.
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of the bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the different types of blood cells.
Bone marrow a href=http://www.wittyfeed.com/story/14094/these-weird-diseases-haunting-theinternet-are-actually-badphotoshop target=_blank rel=nofollowdisease/a is found to be a very rare illness...
The mainstay of chemotherapy for ESFT is currently vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin, alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (44) . With these drugs and adequate local control of the primary tumor, many patients with localized ESFT (excepting those with pelvic primary tumors) can be cured. However, for patients with high-risk ESFT (which includes pelvic primary sites and metastatic disease at diagnosis), the prognosis is much worse, especially for tumors with spread to bone or bone marrow (3 , 45) . Attempts to improve outcome for high-risk ESFT using intensive induction therapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy with stem cell rescue have achieved responses, but improvement in overall survival has been disappointing due to recurrent disease, especially in patients with bone and/or bone marrow metastases at diagnosis (3 , 45, 46, 47, 48) .. One possible approach to improve therapy for metastatic ESFT could be to use intensive (myeloablative) chemoradiotherapy to maximally ...
Luekocytosis literally means abnormal increase in the Leukocytes or the white blood cells. Luekocytosis can be affirmed by if the number of leukocytes that are circulating in the peripheral blood exceeds the Normal White Blood Cell Count of 10,000 white cells per microliter.. As production and release of white blood cells is expected in cases of fighting foreign microorganisms that attempt to invade the body. Luekocytosis can also be caused by disorders in the immune system and by bone marrow tumors.. An increase in the Granulocytes (white blood cells with large granules in their cytoplasm) is noticeable during pregnancy. This increase gets more exaggerated during the labor and the first postpartum week.. Infants and newborns normally have a high count of leukocytes. This high level is very noticeable with neutrophil which drops down within 2 weeks after birth.. Luekocytosis can also be a result of heavy exercises, severe physical or emotional stress, expose to sunlight or cold.. Luekocytosis ...
Subjects with adequate bone marrow (WBC ≥4,000/mm3, Platelet ≥100,000/mm3, Hemoglobin≥9.0g/dL, ANC≥1,500/mm3), renal (Creatinine≤1.5 mg/dl) and hepatic [aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/ alkaline phosphatase (ALP)≤3 x ULN, Total bilirubin ≤2.0 mg/dL] function. No significant heart and lung disease.. ※ For subjects with a liver metastases, AST/ALT/ALP≤ 5 x ULN is allowed; and for subjects with bone marrow metastases, ALP≤ 5 x ULN is allowed. ...
VA-ES-BJ is an epithelioid sarcoma cell line derived in 1991 from a bone marrow metastasis removed from an adult male with primary vertebral epithelioid carcinoma.
VA-ES-BJ is an epithelioid sarcoma cell line derived in 1991 from a bone marrow metastasis removed from an adult male with primary vertebral epithelioid carcinoma.
Many people enjoy long and healthy lives after being successfully treated for their blood cancer. Sometimes, however, the treatment can affect a persons health for months or even years after it has finished. Some side-effects may not be evident until years after treatment has ceased. These are called late effects. Some people who have been treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be at a higher risk of developing other diseases such as myelodysplastic syndrome (a bone marrow disease) and other (secondary) cancers including leukaemia and melanoma (a type of skin cancer). These cancer treatments also have been shown to increase the risk of cardiac (heart) problems, gut problems, and other organs may be affected too.. Evidence suggests that radiotherapy to the chest at a younger age may increase the chances of developing lung cancer, breast cancer or heart problems later in life. While anthrocycline-containing chemotherapy regimens, may increase the risk of developing heart problems or ...
RATIONALE: Biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes and bone marrow may improve the ability to detect and determine the extent of cancer. PURPOSE: Phase II
In multiple myeloma, the tumor cells mainly reside in the bone marrow, where they bind to stromal cells and induce the secretion of cytokines. Among them, IL-6 is one of the most important factors mediating multiple myeloma cell growth, survival, and drug resistance (9, 10). The gp130 signal transducer chains of the IL-6R complex are constitutively associated with JAK kinases, which play a critical role in IL-6-mediated cellular response (11). Evidence for JAK activation in multiple myeloma cells in vivo comes from studies showing constitutive activation of STAT3 in tumor samples, whereas little or no activated STATs were detected in bone marrow from normal individuals or patients with no evidence of bone marrow metastases (30-32). Here, we show that the selective JAK inhibitor INCB20 induces cytotoxicity in multiple myeloma cells by blocking IL-6 signaling pathways.. Inhibition of cell growth by INCB20 was achieved in nine multiple myeloma cell lines; sensitivity to INCB20 treatment, however, ...
Established from a bone marrow metastasis of a 42-month-old boy with stage IV neuroblastoma after 6 months of chemotherapy. IFN gamma inhibits growth of GIMEN. FGF-2 is antimitogenic for GIMEN cells, this antimitogenic effect of FGF-2 is reversed by IFN gamma and enhanced by IL-1 beta ...
Established from the bone marrow metastasis of a 17-year-old man with undifferentiated (standard classification) or unclassified (Palmer classification) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma; cells were described as carrying a p53 mutation, expressing high levels of both myogenin and myoD, and expressing the Pax3/FKHR fusion protein secondary to the t(2;13)(q35;q14) ...
Rao, Indu R and Prabhu, Ravindra A and Rangaswamy, Dharshan and Shenoy, Srinivas Vinayak and Laxminarayana, Sindhura LK and Nagaraju, Shankar Prasad (2019) Efficacy and safety of a modified- modified Ponticelli regimen for treatment of primary membranous nephropathy. Journal of Nephropathology, 8 (3). pp. 1-6. ISSN 2251-8363 Singh, Varun Kumar and Vijay, Anjali S and Belurkar, Sushma V and Amber, Shiny (2019) Prognostic information from chemotherapy-associated changes in bone marrow metastasis of neuroblastoma- a case report. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 9 (6). pp. 7-9. ISSN 2249 - 555X Rao, Raghavendra and Pai, Kanthilatha (2019) Multiple asymptomatic lesions on the lips. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 44. pp. 316-318. ISSN 0307-6938 Khanna, Vinay and Ashraf, Asem Ali and Khanna, Ruchee (2019) Echinostomiasis in a child with severe anemia. Tropical Parasitology, 9 (1). pp. 54-56. ISSN 2229-5070 Shanthi, P B and Faruqi, Faraz and Hareesha, K S and Kudva, Ranjini (2019) Deep ...
OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study.. Patients receive oral beta-glucan and monoclonal antibody 3F8 (MOAB 3F8) IV within 1.5 hours on days 1-5 and 8-12. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. Cohorts of 6 patients receive escalating doses of beta-glucan and MOAB 3F8 until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which at least 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity.. Patients are followed monthly for 6 months, every 2 months for 6 months, and then every 3-6 months for 2 years.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A maximum of 24 patients will be accrued for this study within 2 years. ...
There is increasing evidence that the presence of CTCs and DTCs is correlated with minimal residual disease or disease progression in patients with breast cancer. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular characteristics of micrometastatic cells associated with the development of overt metastases remain largely unknown. EMT is a multistep process that has been suggested to play a key role in cancer progression and metastasis [12]. Accordingly, CTCs bearing characteristics of an EMT phenotype should be actively involved in tumour dissemination, proliferation and metastasis. Twist is a transcription factor that, among others, participates in EMT and is upregulated in many tumour cells [18-22, 47]. In a recent report by Watson et al. [24], Twist expression was specifically enhanced in a gene signature obtained from epithelial cell adhesion molecule-enriched bone marrow samples of patients with breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Twist also increases VEGF expression, while it is directly ...
The present study has documented the feasibility of our immunomagnetic assay for detecting micrometastatic cells in BM samples from CRC patients. In model experiments, a mean of 98% of the cells bound at least five beads to their surface in 11 of 12 CRC cell lines. Moreover, a consistently high recovery of target cells was achieved when different numbers of Co205 cells were mixed with 1 × 107 MNCs from BM and isolated with immunomagnetic beads, even when very small numbers of tumor cells were added. Furthermore, rosetted tumor cells were detected in 17% of BM samples obtained at primary surgery from 275 patients with CRC with a median of eight cells isolated per positive sample.. The overall frequency (17%) of positive samples from the CRC patients examined in the present study is lower than in many of the published reports using other methods. Thus, studies performed using immunocytochemical techniques report overall frequencies between 27 and 32% positive samples in population sizes of ...
and it has an unknown cause. What happens? Well, cells in the bone marrow start putting out tons of misfolded proteins. These buggers settle in the organs, like the heart, kidney, liver, and digestive tract, gradually gumming up the works and leading to the failure of the affected organ(s). They can also settle in other tissues, like the tongue, salivary glands, body fat, etc. Untreated, the disease progresses rapidly, and death usually occurs in a couple of years. The other outcome is that I was forced into retirement from my psychotherapy practice, but as you will see, it led me to another purpose.. While not strictly a cancer, amyloidosis is treated very much like its cousin multiple myeloma, another bone marrow disease. I was lucky enough that, the disease having been identified relatively early in its progression, none of my major organs had been strongly impacted. Actually, the big tip-off was my very enlarged tongue. Macroglossia, as its called, is a symptom that occurs in fewer than ...
Good Morning America" co-host Robin Roberts will take a leave of absence from the show late next month to undergo a bone marrow transplant. Roberts was diagnosed with bone marrow disease earlier in the year.. The 51-year-olds recent health battles reportedly stem after complications from successful breast cancer treatment. Over the past few months Roberts said she has battled "moments of fatigue" and feels its time to address her health.. Its fascinating-slash-scary how to prepare yourself for something like this, Roberts told reporters via satellite during an ABC panel at the Television Critics Association press tour.. Roberts said GMAs recent surge in momentum has revitalized her, but she still felt the need to take a break from the show. ...
Today more than 70 diseases are being treated using stem cells and the possibilities for these remarkable cells keep growing. Im not alone when I tell you that in the future stem cells will be used to cure and treat diseases now fatal or disabling. Stem cell discoveries in the 21st century will be like the antibiotic boom in the last century.. The reason for the explosion in stem cell research is because these cells have the remarkable ability to develop into almost any type of cell in the body. Its a complicated process, but after years of successful research, stem cells are now considered standard therapy in the treatment of many serious diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, some bone marrow diseases like multiple myeloma and some immune system diseases. And the list is growing. ...
Deletions and dominant-negative mutations in IKZF1, the gene encoding Ikaros transcription factor, are found in ∼85% of Ph+ B-ALL and in some cases of Ph− B-ALL, and are associated with poor prognosis. Genomic studies of high-risk Ph− or "Ph-like" B-ALLs have revealed frequent mutation and activation of TK genes and signaling pathways. While ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as dasatinib and ponatinib have been incorporated into chemotherapy regimens for Ph+ B-ALL, the majority of patients still relapse, which correlates with residual bone marrow disease following induction therapy. New therapeutic strategies are needed for patients with Ikaros-mutant, high-risk Ph+ and Ph− B-ALL.. Using mice with a conditional Ikzf1 mutation (Ike5fl) that mimics the dominant-negative Ik6 mutant found in human B-ALL, we demonstrated that loss of Ikaros DNA-binding function arrests B-lymphoid development at a large pre-B cell stage that can give rise to B-ALL. Survival and proliferation of ...
1750 - The first Shakespearean play in America, King Richard III, was presented at the Nassau Street Theatre in New York City.. 1961 - Zeke Mowatt was born. He became a tight end in the NFL and played for the New York Giants from 1983 to 1989 before being traded to the New England Patriots in 1991. He came back to the Giants to finish his career in 1991.. 1970 - The Weathermen terrorist group bombed 18 West 11th St. in New York, N.Y.. 1999 - Broadways original "Man of La Mancha," actor Richard Kiley, died at age 76 of bone marrow disease in Warwick, N.Y... ...
Some of you will certainly comment on the higher prices at Hanjip, but after splitting the bill, the meal cost is similar to going to Genwa or other high end KBBQ places, and I very much enjoyed everything Ive tried here. Hanjip is definitely the best Korean BBQ option on the Westside (the only option?) but its become one of the top in the city as well. They have $12 lunch items, as well, if you wanted to try out the places for less first ...
Hands on Health-South Carolina is designed to promote healthier citizens and communities in South Carolina. It focuses on health issues and problems important in the state. The site has been developed collaboratively by the Medical University of South Carolina Library working with the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library, the South Carolina State Library and the South Carolina Hospital Association. It provides links to high quality websites that are easy to navigate and provide appropriate and useful information. The information is intended for the use of laypersons not health professionals and is presented in a format that people of all age groups reading abilities and education levels will be able to comprehend. The Medical University of South Carolina Library received funding for the project from the Duke Endowment.
The above is an informational video that explains the basics of Aplastic Anemia & introduces you to a few of the people affected by it.). Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia. So What is Aplastic Anemia?. Medical Definition: Aplastic anemia is a degenerative bone marrow disease. It is a rare and serious condition in which the bone marrow stops producing enough platelets, red and white blood cells to keep the body healthy, resulting in an increased risk of infection and uncontrollable bleeding.. Parents Definition: A condition which causes your child to become sleepy, clingy and irritable. An instant crash course in at-home nursing for parents. Also known to make others think you abuse your children due to excessive bruising and bad attitude.. Aplastic Anemia (AA) is one of those diseases you never hear of until you or your loved one is diagnosed with it. There are around 300~400 cases diagnosed every year in the United States, around 1 in a million. It is a very serious condition that doctors are not ...
In November 2016 Schmoul was diagnosed with Systemic Mastocytosis, a rare bone marrow disease. Despite how he felt or how far he could still ride Lucy, the doctors told him that he was indeed very ill and would require chemotherapy and a stem cell replacement. As what frequently happens in life, our plan is not necessarily Gods plan. Schmoul began taking an experimental oral chemo drug, Midostaurin, in March 2017. The drug was approved by the FDA in April and Schmoul has continued on it. Unfortunately, it has not been the miracle worker we had hoped for. It appeared to decrease the Mast Cells in the bone marrow but his organs (spleen and liver) continue to grow larger. As a result, the stem cell transplant is on hold until we find a treatment that will debulk the spleen.
A new study finds that longer courses of a mild form of chemotherapy may help patients with a bone marrow disease only recently considered a form of cancer. Writing in the April 15, 2006 issue of CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, researchers say the study found that 45 percent of patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) who relapse did respond to a second course of treatment, but that the quality and duration of the second response was inferior to the initial treatment, leading researchers to believe that longer initial treatments may be more beneficial to patient outcome.. Myelodysplastic Syndrome ...
Like Pourhouse, they cut the bone into three sections and provided a butter knife and a small spoon. I had to give up the spoon early because it was too wide to fit, so I couldnt use it to scoop out any marrow. Fortunately, the butter knife worked out nicely: I used it on the inside surface of the bone to loosen the marrow from the bone, and a bit of light shaking caused the marrow to come out more or less intact ...
Neuroblastoma is a highly malignant tumor of children that arises in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, and spreads widely to bones and bone marrow. The survival of children with metastatic neuroblastoma is less than 40%, despite intensive chemotherapy, radiation and bone marrow transplant. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a chemical similar in structure to noradrenaline and specifically taken up by neuroblastoma, thus providing a means to detect tumor metastases and to deliver intravenous tumor-targeted radiation by attaching a radioactive iodine molecule. 131I-MIBG has achieved responses of 40% in children with relapsed neuroblastoma, with very few side effects, but due to the special requirements of administering radioactive medicines, is used at only a few centers and is not yet approved for commercial use by the FDA. Furthermore, there is very little pre-clinical data on using MIBG in combination with the new molecularly targeted drugs to provide a platform for overcoming resistant ...
모체의 혈청 내 호모시스테인 수준은 태아 성장에 중요한 요인으로 부각되고 있으며 영아의 정상적인 발달과 성장을 위하여 비타민 B₂, 비타민 B_(6), 엽산, 비타민 B_(12) 영양상태가 중요한 것으로 알려져 왔다. 본 연구에서는 생후 12개월 영아의 성장에 관련성이 있을 것이라 사료되는 모체의 임신 중반기의 혈청 호모시스테인 수치와 혈청 비타민 B군 수준, 영아의 비타민 B군 섭취상태에 따른 영아의 성장 발달을 살펴보았다. 또한 영아의 수유상황과 보충제 복용유무, 질병실태에 따른 영아의 영양섭취상태와 성장을 살펴보았다. 이 연구는 전향적 코호트 연구로서 기존에 E 대학 병원 산부인과에서 임신 24-28주의 임산부 308명을 대상으로 이루어졌다. 이들에게서 태어난 영아들 중 생후 1년째의 영아 110명을 대상으로 신체 계측을 실시하고, 식이섭취조사와 ...
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Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an heterodimeric glycoprotein of 150 kDa with an α2/β2 structure. The two subunits (α and β) have a molecular weight of 55 and 15 kDa, respectively. MPO synthesis occurs in bone marrow at an early stage of myeloid lineage differentiation.
Principal Investigator:MIYAZAKI Tatsuya, Project Period (FY):2010-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Digestive surgery
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Introduction: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), not otherwise specified, is a large B-cell lymphoma with a diffuse growth pattern and aggressive clinical course. It is divided in subgroups according to its morphology, immunophenotype, and primary site. Dissemination to bone marrow occurs in 11% to 35% of cases and can be of concordant or discordant morphology. Objective: To examine the association, the type of bone marrow involvement in relation to the primary site, morphology, immunohistochemistry of DLBCLs and to determine the cases of Epstein-Barr virus positive DLBCLs. Materials and Methods: We reviewed lymph node and extranodal biopsies as well as the respective bone marrow biopsies in all cases of DLBCL diagnosed in the Hospital General de México during the period from 2002 to 2010. We used immunohystochemistry for immunophenotype identification (Hanss algorithm) and an in-situ hybridization technique to detect presence of Epstein Barr encoded RNA (EBER). Results: We included 108 patients
Trilinear hematopoiesis (TH) can occur in thyroidal aspirations by one of three mechanisms: as mass-forming extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), as marrow elements within thyroidal metaplastic bone or as marrow elements in aspirated ossified neck cartilage. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is a dynamic process of blood cell development occurring outside the confines of the medullary cavity of bone often in the settings of hypoxia, inflammation and bone marrow failure. Several case reports exist of EMH in various organs mimicking a mass and being discovered on fine needle aspiration. Although liver, spleen and lymph nodes are the most common sites, thyroid EMH can also occur. In a 2008 review, Westhoff et al. found that EMH of the thyroid most often occurs in older patients and is most likely secondary to a myelophthisic disease, such as myelofibrosis or metastatic bone marrow disease. Some reported cases of EMH in the thyroid have been attributable only to chronic anemia and still other cases have ...
Osteoporosis is caused by the bones losing density, and this can be due to a variety of issues. The bones of the body are a living tissue that is constantly being broken down and built up again. A special form of bone cell, osteoclasts break down bone cells that are damaged, and osteoblasts, a different type of cell, build up new bone tissue. Bones are never solid, but as osteoporosis sets in, the bones develop larger spaces between clusters of tissue. In secondary osteoporosis, this loss of density is due to a diagnosed medical condition, including bone marrow disease, inflammatory disorders, endocrine diseases, or taking certain corticosteroids. In primary osteoporosis, the relationship between osteoclasts and osteoblasts gradually gets off balance as people age, and they lose bone density without a medical condition. Certain levels of hormones and nutrients tend to contribute to primary osteoporosis. If a person does not have enough calcium for essential bodily functions, the body will leach ...
Scientists make multiple types of white blood cells directly from embryonic and adult stem cells Tuesday, 11 August 2009 In an advance that could help transform embryonic stem cells into a multipurpose medical tool, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have transformed these versatile cells into progenitors of white blood cells and into six types of mature white blood and immune cells. While clinical use is some years away, the new technique could produce cells with enormous potential for studying the development and treatment of disease. The technique works equally well with stem cells grown from an embryo and with adult pluripotent stem cells, which are derived from adult cells that have been converted until they resemble embryonic stem cells. If the adult cells came from people with certain bone marrow diseases, the new technique could produce blood cells with specific defects. It could also be used to grow specific varieties of immune cells that could target specific infections ...
Another issue is flow cytometry analyses. As mentioned above, flow cytometry is essential when assessing BM involvement. Current guidelines regard a small clonal population (, 2%) as uninvolved BM [30]. However, to the best of our knowledge, no clinical study has addressed this issue. Moreover, recent advances in flow cytometry technology have caused a wide range of variation in the sensitivity of flow cytometric analyses among institutions. Thus, it is desirable to document the minimal criteria for flow cytometry technology in a standard guideline. The last issue in flow cytometry is the meaning of discordance between a bone marrow biopsy (BMB) and flow cytometry. Recently, in a study that included 757 NHL patients, there was considerable discordance between BMB and flow cytometry [33]. For example, in FL and LPLs, the discordance rates were up to 22% and 24%, respectively. Based on BMB and flow cytometry results, four subsets can be created in patients with NHL: positive BMB and positive flow ...
whisper of blood, and the pleading of bone marrow". Knut Hamsun (1859-1952). Knut Hamsun, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920, urged writers to describe the "whisper of blood, and the pleading of bone marrow.". Im a writer, and I understand the pleading of bone marrow at the physical level. And I worked to reduce that pleading during 42 days of chemotherapy spread over two years.. Some cancer patients live on maintenance chemotherapy, which involves receiving bone marrow stimulants like Neupogen or Neulasta after each infusion to keep white blood cell counts up.. One patient who had Neulasta for dozens of cycles was told she had widespread bone metastases. Upon further investigation, those studying her situation agreed that what appeared to be metastasis in the bones was actually not cancer, but the long-term effects of the marrow stimulant.. The shots cause bone pain and are extremely expensive. When long-term use of these shots causes serious damage, why not try adding some safe ...
The clinical evaluation of patients with myeloma includes a careful physical examination searching for tender bones and masses. Only a small minority of patients has an enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes, the physiologic sites of antibody production. Chest and bone radiographs may reveal lytic lesions or diffuse osteopenia. MRI offers a sensitive means to document extent of bone marrow infiltration and cord or root compression in patients with pain syndromes. A complete blood count with differential may reveal anemia. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is elevated. ...
The original staging systems were based on clinical examination and blood tests which may not be accurate enough for determination of need for treatment. For instance, researchers have found that 27% of patients with RAI Stage 0 will have abnormal abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans.[2] These authors found that an abnormal abdominal CT correlated with increased bone marrow infiltration, higher lymphocyte count, increased ZAP-70 expression (a marker for poor prognosis) and a short lymphocyte doubling time. Patients with an abnormal CT also had a median time to disease progression of 3.5 years while for patients without an abnormal CT scan the median time to disease progression was longer.. One of the most important factors that affects the decision to treat or not to treat is whether or not patients with CLL have symptoms of their disease. Some of the symptoms of CLL include: fever, frequent infections, night sweats, swollen and painful lymph nodes and significant weight loss.. Although all ...
Lymphoid areas include cervical, inguinal and spleen.. The original staging systems were based on clinical examination and blood tests which may not be accurate enough for determination of need for treatment. For instance, researchers have found that 27% of patients with RAI Stage 0 will have abnormal abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans.2 These authors found that an abnormal abdominal CT correlated with increased bone marrow infiltration, higher lymphocyte count, increased ZAP-70 expression (a marker for poor prognosis) and a short lymphocyte doubling time. Patients with an abnormal CT also had a median time to disease progression of 3.5 years while for patients without an abnormal CT scan the median time to disease progression was longer.. One of the most important factors that affects the decision to treat or not to treat is whether or not patients with CLL have symptoms of their disease. Some of the symptoms of CLL include: fever, frequent infections, night sweats, swollen and painful ...
Lymphoid areas include cervical, inguinal and spleen.. The original staging systems were based on clinical examination and blood tests which may not be accurate enough for determination of need for treatment. For instance, researchers have found that 27% of patients with RAI Stage 0 will have abnormal abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans.[2] These authors found that an abnormal abdominal CT correlated with increased bone marrow infiltration, higher lymphocyte count, increased ZAP-70 expression (a marker for poor prognosis) and a short lymphocyte doubling time. Patients with an abnormal CT also had a median time to disease progression of 3.5 years while for patients without an abnormal CT scan the median time to disease progression was longer.. One of the most important factors that affects the decision to treat or not to treat is whether or not patients with CLL have symptoms of their disease. Some of the symptoms of CLL include: fever, frequent infections, night sweats, swollen and painful ...
Tel Aviv University researchers, in collaboration with scholars from Spain, have uncovered evidence of the storage and delayed consumption of animal bone marrow at Qesem Cave near Tel Aviv, the site of many major discoveries ...
Funds are needed in order to provide information and links to MPN resources. Our aim is for people with MPNs to be empowered. We need money to raise awareness of MPNs, and to advocate for access to best practice diagnosis and treatment. The MPN AA aims to contribute some of the funds raised towards research to assist with finding a cure, and enable people to feel enlivened! Support the MPN community in Australia with a donation to raise funds for research, education and advocacy for people with MPNs. Please make a donation today and have your credit card ready! A receipt will be emailed to you.. ...
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Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration are procedures to collect and examine bone marrow - the spongy tissue inside some of your larger bones. Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration can show whether your bone marrow is healthy and making normal amounts of blood cells. Doctors use bone marrow biopsy and aspiration to diagnose and monitor blood and marrow diseases, including some cancers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Granulocytic sarcoma with orbit, caude equina, muscle and peripheral nerve extension but without bone marrow involvement. AU - Manabe, Yasuhiro. AU - Hamakawa, Yoshiyuki. AU - Sunami, Kazutaka. AU - Ohta, Yasuyuki. AU - Omori, Nobuhiko. AU - Abe, Koji. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - We report a very rare case of granulocytic sarcoma (GS) with muscle and peripheral nerve extension but without bone marrow involvement. A 53-year-old woman presented with sciatic pain and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral orbital and cauda equina region tumors. The blood cell count, and bone marrow histology and cytology were normal. The characteristic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytologic picture of CD14+, CD33+, CD4+, CD56+ and positive nonspecific erastase staining suggested the diagnosis of GS. The patient underwent intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy, as if she had acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This case emphasizes the value of CSF cytological examination and the use of ...
High blood protein (hyperproteinemia) is an increase in the concentration of protein in the bloodstream. High blood protein is not a specific disease or condition in itself, but it might indicate you have a disease.. High blood protein rarely causes signs or symptoms on its own. But sometimes it is uncovered while youre having blood tests done as part of an evaluation for some other problem or symptom.. If your doctor discovers high blood protein during an evaluation, he or she may recommend additional tests to determine if there is an underlying problem.. A total protein test can determine whether you have high blood protein. Other more-specific tests, including serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), can help determine the exact source, such as liver or bone marrow, as well as the specific protein type involved in your high blood protein levels. Your doctor may order an SPEP if he or she suspects you have a bone marrow disease.. ...
Type of Action - Toxic tort Type of Injuries - Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) 5q minus, an incurable bone marrow disease Name of Case - Lakie v. SmithKline Beecham P.L.C. Court/Case Number - U.S. District Court for District of Columbia Name of Judge - Judge Harold H. Greene Special Damages - $105,607.00 medical, $191,512.00 wage loss; $50,000.00 to $890,000.00 future medicals ...
When she got invited to the International Zumba Convention to help spread awareness about Diamond Blackfan Anemia, she not only owned the stage, she stole everyones heart in the process. Audrey is only six-years-old and is from Kentucky. Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a life threatening bone marrow disease, but instead of being sheltered, Audrey and her family have decided to spread the word about this disease in hopes to raise money to find a cure ...
Here are a few more stories mentioning Adventists from around the world that you might have missed:. In Jamaica, in a general election year, Church President Everett Brown shared a message encouraging a positive and ethical political environment. Read his remarks on the Church and society here.. ADRA Australia helped find accommodation for almost 100 people affected by bush fires which swept through Western Australia. Read about how their volunteers swung into action here. Adventists in Arkansas are preparing to go to court in an attempt to protect their religious freedom rights. Read more of this story here.. In the Philippines, Southern Asia-Pacific Division President Leonardo Asoy passed away aged 56 from a rare bone marrow disease.. And finally, in more light-hearted news, students from across the pond at Andrews University narrowly failed to set a new world record. Almost 500 students gathered in the gym and tried to beat a British record for the most people performing sit-ups. To see how ...
My husband just had his 20 something bone marrow biopsy to check how many leukemia cells are in his bones, There are 4 of us in the room talking to keep him distracted because its extremely painful ...
Who can be a donor for an Allogeneic transplant?. Matching bone marrow is done by blood tests alone. It is not necessary to test the donors bone marrow at this stage.. It is usual to start by testing the brothers and sisters, as they are likely to provide the best match; parents are not usually good matches.. The donor should be in good health. He or she will be given a thorough medical checkup to make sure that there will be no risk to his or her own health from the procedure.. Collecting bone marrow. About a week or two before the bone marrow harvest is done, the patient (or the donor, for an Allogeneic transplantation) may have 1 to 2 units of blood withdrawn. This will be given back during the bone marrow harvest.. The harvest itself is carried out under general anaesthesia, so one will feel nothing. It involves the removal of some marrow from inside the bones at the back and front of the pelvis (the hip bones).. The patient or donor will have to stay in hospital overnight to recover fully ...
Who can be a donor for an Allogeneic transplant?. Matching bone marrow is done by blood tests alone. It is not necessary to test the donors bone marrow at this stage.. It is usual to start by testing the brothers and sisters, as they are likely to provide the best match; parents are not usually good matches.. The donor should be in good health. He or she will be given a thorough medical checkup to make sure that there will be no risk to his or her own health from the procedure.. Collecting bone marrow. About a week or two before the bone marrow harvest is done, the patient (or the donor, for an Allogeneic transplantation) may have 1 to 2 units of blood withdrawn. This will be given back during the bone marrow harvest.. The harvest itself is carried out under general anaesthesia, so one will feel nothing. It involves the removal of some marrow from inside the bones at the back and front of the pelvis (the hip bones).. The patient or donor will have to stay in hospital overnight to recover fully ...
Like all acute leukemias the clinical consequences of ALL are largely the result of bone marrow infiltration, potentially leading to bone pain as well as a myelophthisic anemia with consequent pancytopenia. Infiltration of the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes can result in splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and painless lymphadenopathy. In a minority of cases, seeding of the CNS can result in neurological impairments ...
Done at diagnosis, it is the most precise way to diagnose CML as well as provide helpful information about your specific case of CML. An analysis of bone
Learn more about Bone Marrow Biopsy at Sky Ridge Medical Center DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ...
Pancytopenia neutropenia - What do you advise if Im diagnosed as chronic anemic, pancytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and lympocytopenia? Specialist help. This is probably a marrow disease and you need to be evaluated by a competent, no-nonsense hematologist. An anemia always needs a workup and unless the other values are only trivially reduced relative to the reference range, you have serious disease until proved otherwise. Dont delay, and stay proactive.
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View Test Prep - BMB400Test_2 from BMB 400 at University of Maine Orono. BMB 400 Dr. Keith Hutchison 12/18/07 Exam 2 1) Here is my sequence and the binding sites within it: My promoter region was
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Explains how bone marrow aspiration and biopsy tests are used, when bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy tests are ordered, and what the results of a bone marrow aspiration or biopsy might mean
Explains how bone marrow aspiration and biopsy tests are used, when bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy tests are ordered, and what the results of a bone marrow aspiration or biopsy might mean
Patients with myelofibrosis resistant or intolerant to Jakafi (ruxolitinib) may have an alternative treatment option with a novel JAK2-selective inhibitor fedratinib, according to the results of clinical study recently published in the medical journal Lancet.1. About Myelofibrosis. Myelofibrosis is a type of blood cancer known as a myeloproliferative neoplasm that is chronic and progressive in nature. It involves the abnormal development and function of bone marrow cells that produce blood cells and leads to the formation of scar tissue in the bone marrow. When the bone marrow becomes scarred it cant make enough blood cells and this can cause anemia, enlargement of the spleen and liver, fatigue, and other problems.. Myelofibrosis can result from a worsening of other bone marrow diseases, such as polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia or develop on its own - so called primary myelofibrosis.. Approved in 2011, Jakafi is currently the only drug that has been approved specifically for ...
TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:8527655 ID - pug01:8527655 LA - eng TI - Whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging for the staging of multiple myeloma PY - 2017 JO - (2017) SKELETAL RADIOLOGY SN - 0364-2348 SN - 1432-2161 PB - 2017 AU - Dutoit, Julie 000060207189 AU - Verstraete, Koenraad GE16 801000727961 0000-0003-3688-1076 AB - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging technique for the detection of bone marrow infiltration, and has therefore recently been included in the new diagnostic myeloma criteria, as proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Nevertheless, conventional MRI only provides anatomical information and is therefore only of limited use in the response assessment of patients with multiple myeloma. The additional information from functional MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, can improve the detection rate of bone marrow infiltration and the ...
Definition of Bone marrow aspiration with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
... - Find information about the symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms You can get consultations from top oncologist within 60 Seconds through mfine app for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms !
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How often should MPN patients have a bone marrow biopsy? Dr. Brady Stein and Dr. Stephen Oh discuss their views on when and why patients should have a bone marrow biopsy.
Our physician attempted a Bone Marrow Aspiration 38220, but a sample could not be obtained. Can you still charge for this since nothing was collected?
My husband just had his 20 something bone marrow biopsy to check how many leukemia cells are in his bones, There are 4 of us in the room talking to keep him distracted because its extremely painful ...
Comparing people with and without recurrent disease, the researchers could identify no recurrence predictors from a list that included sex, age, prior AIDS, average CD4 count, ART at diagnosis, undetectable viral load, high International Prognostic Index, bone marrow infiltration, central nervous system involvement, NHL subtype, or bulky disease. Among NHL patients with complete remission, 64% received CHOP therapy and 33% BALL. Among NHL patients with recurrent disease, 18% used CHOP and 5% BALL, a significant difference (P < 0.01). But the researchers observed that the higher recurrence rate with CHOP may reflect NHL subtype and other unmeasured factors ...
Anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia is due to bone marrow infiltration of plasma cells. Thrombosis and Raynaud phenomenon due to cryoglobulinemia may be present.
The aim of this study is to investigate the differences of clinical and laboratory parameters between patients with JAK2-V617F positive myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and JAK2 wild type MPNs. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood...
I have a sister who has been sick for a while, gradually getting worse. Over the last year she has lost a TON of hair, she has joint pains, shortness of breath, and very tired. She got blood work at her doctors office and he said she was very anemic and that there were some abnormal cells and he wanted her to go to a hematologist. She did. They took more blood and did a test for lupus and RA and those 2 tests were essentially negative but she was even more anemic, so they wanted to do a bone marrow biopsy. When they did the bone marrow, they did not get enough marrow to test but the bone biopsy showed caseating granulomas. They just did another bone marrow aspiration yesterday to test that and they had a real hard time getting anything to aspirate. They mentioned dust a few times.?? The pathologist said they got enough though for the doctor to make the diagnosis and that he was leaning towards 2 different things but could not say what. It will be another week before we hear anything from the ...
This morning I am getting ready to go to the hospital to get a bone marrow biopsy. Not something Im particularly looking forward to. You see, in order to get some bone marrow from a person the doctor has to push a horse needle into your hip bone and then suck some marrow into the…
I was going to write yesterday to let everyone know that Parker was having his one month bone marrow aspiration today but I fell short on time. However, Parker did have his aspiration this morning at nine and it went well. They made five holes this time, two in one hip and three in the other. Normally there is very little bleeding afterwards, if any but today there was some in his right hip that we needed to change the gause before the first hour was up. Several hours later, there was some more blood accumulating but not nearly the amount the first time. My wife is waiting for the doctor to examine Parkers hip. We are just being cautious as we always do ...
The presentation of most acute leukemias is similar and is due to marrow and solid lymphoid organ infiltration as discussed above. Marrow infiltration often results in a myelophthisic anemia and thus pancytopenia, with attendant symptomology. In some cases, marrow infiltration can be so severe that patients experience bone pain. Additionally, generalized painless lymphadenopathy as well as hepatomegaly or splenomegaly can be presenting symptoms. In a minority of cases seeding of the CNS can yield neurological impairments as well as symptomology associated with increased intracranial pressure ...
If your nurse said IV meds then I am sure its the same as I had. Since its not the same as a general anastetic they cant tell you you wont feel anything but I believe you wont. They told me I was talking a little bit and said "oh that stings" and they just gave me a little more medicine. Like I said I dont remember any of that or anything about the procedure at all just waking up and them telling me it was all over. Ive had this type of sedation three times now in my 15 month journey with the same result. Trust it, it works. Through the bone marrow biopsy the discovered it was in the marrow but my MD had prepared me for this by saying it will not matter. I trust him completely. Now I will be starting R CHOP on the 6th not because of the marrow but because of a large lump in my neck that they feel is my lymphoma command center (where it all started). Im nervous about it. I dont like taking anything and this is above and beyond my comfort level...nurses are not the best patients as a little ...
Bone Marrow. This one full day hands one course offers the knowledge and skills necessary to perform a bone marrow harvesting, processing, and activation procedure. It comprises a 2 hour theoretical presentation and two practical cases.. Target Audience: Physicians, nurses and physician assistants. Goals and objectives:. Discuss the different points of access to obtain bone marrow aspirate and the anatomical markings. Familiarize the attendee with biological understanding of hematopoietic and mesenchimal Regenestem derived from bone marrow. Familiarize the attendee with latest literature to support the protocols of treatments. To provide the attendee with the abilities to perform the protocols provided in the class.. ...
Learn more about Bone Marrow Biopsy at Medical City Dallas DefinitionReasons for ProcedurePossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ....
Another feature of the hyperplastic proliferating epithelial cells in FSGS and HIVAN is that they are WT1 negative (Table 2). This seems to controvert the dedifferentiated podocyte hypothesis, since podocytes express WT1 in all stages of development (7, 9, 67). However, mature PECs do not express WT1 (9), so it seems possible that PECs could be the origin of hyperplastic proliferating cells in FSGS. Furthermore, normal PECs often express PAX-2 (7) and at times also Ki-67 (5, 45, 46), a well-known proliferation marker, indicating their innate proliferative capability. Dijkman et al. (14, 15) and Nagata et al. (45) have provided further evidence to support this hypothesis, as they have shown that cytokeratin-positive hyperplastic cells are in continuity with PECs on Bowmans capsule in FSGS including the collapsing variant, either idiopathic or associated with HIV infection or pamidronate use. In addition, Dijkman et al. (14) found synaptopodin-positive podocytes covering the collapsed glomerular ...
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Correlation between the activities measured in the bone marrow aspirate and the activities measured in the blood at the same time-points. The straight line is t
Although Jeremy is so "healthy" and active, and the doctors are so delighted with his progress, it is still hard for us not to be anxious about the results of tomorrows bone marrow aspirate. Previously, the doctors had told us that we can "relax" after he is in remission for 5 years (only 4 years and 34 weeks to go!) although I think that we will be always be worried everytime he has a fever or gets tired or ... We need to keep reminding ourselves that our God is a good God, and that He holds tomorrow - and that we can trust Him no matter what ...
JAK2 and CALR mutant proteins in myeloproliferative neoplasms - image accompanying the review article on page 7. (www.somersault1824.com). ...
As for who I am, I honestly cant say right now. I am not even sure that I know or that any of us really ever does know who we are. But I do know who Id like the world to see when they look at me, and I aim to get myself to that point one way or another. I can see that I am here, now, in California for several reasons. One, this is where I can get the absolute BEST care to treat my disease. My "team" of doctors has been working very hard to get things pointed in the right direction for that to happen. Sure, we have hit some snags along the way, but they are willing to listen to what I have to say and what I wish to have done (good thing for them!). After a battery of tests to ensure that I am healthy enough for the transplant, which culminated in yet another bone marrow biopsy, things look like they are right on track so far. Id also like to tell you about that biopsy, I have had this procedure done twice in the past two years and each time with less than a perfect outcome. The first time was ...
A 49-year-old male had leukocytosis. Bone marrow biopsy.. CBC:. WBC, 43.7 K/uL NEUTR 2.0% LYMPH 21% MONO 6.0% EOSIN 1.0% BLAST 20.0% RBC 4.19 M/uL HGB 11.1 g/dL HCT 31.7 % MCV 76 fL MCH 26.5 pg. RDW 15.5 % PLT 12 K/uL ...
30 REPRESENTATIVE TEST QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS Including answers, in each question only one answer is correct 1 Which of the following bone marrow diseases is considered a chronic myeloproliferative disorder a b c d e Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia Essential thrombocythaemia Hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome Juvenile chronic myeloid leukaemia Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts in…
... is the removal of a small amount of the liquid portion of the bone marrow through a needle inserted into the bone. It can be done to collect bone marrow for stem cell transplantation or chromosomal analysis, or to monitor treatment for certain types of blood disorders.. The bone marrow sample is examined under a microscope to obtain information to:. ...
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs): Diagnosis, Treatment and Side Effects Management This continuing education virtual lecture on myeloproliferative neoplasms diagnosis, treatment and side effects management is for nurses, nurse practitioners, and oncology social workers. Topics covered include types of myeloproliferative neoplasms tests for diagnosis, treatments and management of side effects.The material is presented by a physician, a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. There is no fee for this educational activity.
These are photos of me, Jonnie, undergoing a bone marrow aspiration, a diagnostic procedure that leukemia patients like me undergo periodically during treatment. I didnt have much hair then, but it all grew back. The photos were taken at the end of my first year of treatment in May of 2000. My bone marrow was examined for signs of cancer relapse and everything turned out fine. These photos may be difficult for some people to view, but this is the type of painful and frightening procedure kids with leukemia go through before being rewarded with a toy. I hope these photos will help you see for yourself why an incentive like a toy can help a child overcome fear and discomfort and reward them for their bravery or soothe them in their recovery. These photos are in series. They follow the procedure as it happens. Read them from left to right ...
We aim to provide an up-to-date summary of infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH) and its misnomers and to dialectically present the differential diagnosis of these rare entities of the liver. Eligible peer-reviewed articles on hepatic infantile hemangiomas, published between 2000 and 2015, were reviewed for this study. IHH is the most common hepatic vascular tumor in children. Once a liver mass is identified in an infant, the differential diagnosis ranges from vascular malformations to benign and malignant tumors including mesenchymal hamartoma, hepatoblastoma, metastatic neuroblastoma, so careful physical examination, imaging studies, and, if indicated, tumor markers and biopsy, are of pivotal importance to ascertain the correct diagnosis ...
Immunohistochemistry was performed in an autostainer (BOND-MAX, Leica Biosystems, Nussloch, Germany) using the following primary antibodies: anti-c-Kit (1:50, polyclonal, Dako, Glostrup, Denmark), anti-CD34 (1:200, QBEnd10, Dako), anti-CK (1:200, AE1/AE3, Dako), and anti-DOG1 (1:100, K9, Novocastra, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK). The epithelioid cells were immunoreactive for CK, c-Kit, and DOG1 but not for CD34. The spindle cells were immunoreactive for c-Kit, DOG1, and CD34, but not for CK (Figs. 2, 3). There was a subtle difference in intensity of c-Kit staining between the epithelioid and spindle cells (Fig. 2D). Interestingly, the expressions of CD34 and CK were mutually exclusive between the epithelioid and spindle-cell areas. Direct sequencing of the KIT gene was performed in both sense and antisense directions in order to verify the results, using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from both areas and an ABI Prism 3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Grand Island, NY, USA), ...
Certain diseases of the bone marrow like leukemia, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), pancytopenia, anemia etc. require examination of the bone marrow tissue. This is called bone marrow aspiration or bone marrow biopsy. A needle is used to withdraw samples of the marrow from within the bone. This is often a very painful process.. Bone marrow is suppressed with the use of cancer chemotherapy. This leads to severe drop in production of RBCs (leading to anemia), WBCs (leading to increased risk of life threatening infections) and platelets (leading to risk of bleeding tendencies).. With advent of medical science it is possible now to transplant the bone marrow in diseased individuals. This process has shown success in a number of cancer patients.. Reviewed by April Cashin-Garbutt, BA Hons (Cantab). ...
Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration. Bone marrow examination is used in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, including leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, anemia, and pancytopenia. The bone marrow produces the cellular elements of the blood, including platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. While much information can be gleaned by testing the blood itself (drawn from a vein by phlebotomy), it is sometimes necessary to examine the source of the blood cells in the bone marrow to obtain more information on hematopoiesis; this is the role of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Bone marrow samples can be obtained by aspiration and trephine biopsy. Sometimes, a bone marrow examination will include both an aspirate and a biopsy. The aspirate yields semi-liquid bone marrow, which can be examined by a pathologist under a light microscope and analyzed by ...

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