Bone Marrow Neoplasms
Bone Marrow Cells
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bone and Bones
Bone Marrow Diseases
Bone Marrow Purging
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Colony-Forming Units Assay
Graft vs Host Disease
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Blood Cell Count
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
Mice, Inbred Strains
Neoplasms, Second Primary
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
Bone marrow scintigraphy using technetium-99m antigranulocyte antibody in malignant lymphomas. (1/285)BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical reliability of immunoscintigraphy (IS) to detect infiltration of the bone marrow in patients with malignant lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole body IS was performed in 103 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using Tc-99m labelled anti-NCA-95 which allows visualization of the granulopoietic bone marrow. Of these, 52% were studied prior to any therapy. Findings were compared to posterior iliac crest biopsy as well as MRI and/or follow-up examination. Criteria of marrow infiltration were a positive biopsy, positive follow-up, or positive results of MRI. RESULTS: Comparison of IS and biospy revealed concordant findings in 69 and discordant findings in 34 of 103 patients. Of the 34 patients with discordant results, IS showed lesions suspicious of bone marrow infiltration in 29 patients despite normal biopsy findings. When follow-up and additional examinations were taken into consideration, 10 patients remained with probably false positive and five with false negative IS findings. IS proved to be highly sensitive and specific in patients with HD (100% and 84%, respectively) and high-grade NHL (93% and 84%, respectively). Moderate sensitivity (60%) was found in low-grade NHL. This was possibly due to false negative IS in three to five patients with chemotherapy in contrast to one of five false negative results in patients without chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow scintigraphy using antigranulocyte antibodies is highly sensitive in HD and high-grade NHL. Positive findings in IS subsequent to a negative biopsy should be followed by guided re-biopsy or MRI. (+info)
Detection of focal myeloma lesions by technetium-99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy. (2/285)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The tracer tachnetium-99m-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (Tc99m-sestaMIBI) has recently been shown to concentrate in some neoplastic tissues, including myeloma. We investigated the diagnostic capacity and limits of this procedure in tracing focal myeloma lesions, and compared them with those of conventional radiological procedures (Xr). DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 55 patients suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) or solitary plasmacytoma in different stages and clinical conditions, or from monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance (MGUS), by whole body scans obtained 10 minutes after injection of 555 MBq of Tc99m-sestaMIBI. Scans were defined as normal (physiological uptake only), diffuse (presence of bone marrow uptake), or focal (localized areas of uptake), and were compared to conventional skeletal Xr. RESULTS: Thirty patients showed no focal areas of Tc99m-sestaMIBI uptake; this group consisted of 5 patients with MGUS, 6 with MM in stage IA and 2 in stage IIA, 11 patients studied after effective chemotherapy and 6 in early relapse. Twenty-five patients showed one or more spots of focal uptake: all of them had active disease (untreated, resistant or relapsing MM). In the setting of tracing focal lesions, Tc99m-sestaMIBI scans were concordant with the radiological examination in 38 patients and discordant in 17. Among the latter, in 4 cases Tc99m-sestaMIBI revealed focal lesions not detected by Xr, and in 13 cases lytic areas detected by Xr did not show Tc99m-sestaMIBI uptake. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In untreated patients, the number of lesions revealed by Tc99m-sestaMIBI was comparable to that shown by Xr, while in pretreated patients Tc99m-sestaMIBI traced a number of lesions lower than that detected by Xr. The reason for this discrepancy is that Tc99m-sestaMIBI traces only active lesions. Tc99m-sestaMIBI limitations in identifying focal lesions may derive from the dimension of the smallest traceable lesion (about one centimeter), and from the possibility that focal plasma cell localizations in collapsed bone may not be visualized due to inadequate vascularization. Tc99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy is an interesting tool for diagnosing, staging and following up focal myeloma lesions, in the bone as well as in soft tissues. It is more specific than conventional Xr in identifying sites of active disease. (+info)
Stage III and oestrogen receptor negativity are associated with poor prognosis after adjuvant high-dose therapy in high-risk breast cancer. (3/285)We report on the efficacy and toxicity of a sequential high-dose therapy with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) support in 85 patients with high-risk stage II/III breast cancer. There were 71 patients with more than nine tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. An induction therapy of two cycles of ifosfamide (total dose, 7.5 g m(-2)) and epirubicin (120 mg m(-2)) was given, and PBSC were harvested during G-CSF-supported leucocyte recovery following the second cycle. The PBSC-supported high-dose chemotherapy consisted of two cycles of ifosfamide (total dose, 12,000 mg m(-2)), carboplatin (900 mg m(-2)) and epirubicin (180 mg m(-2)). Patients were autografted with a median number of 3.7 x 10(6) CD34+ cells kg(-1) (range, 1.9-26.5 x 10(6)) resulting in haematological reconstitution within approximately 2 weeks following high-dose therapy. The toxicity was moderate in general, and there was no treatment-related toxic death. Twenty-one patients relapsed between 3 and 30 months following the last cycle of high-dose therapy (median, 11 months). The probability of disease-free and overall survival at 4 years were 60% and 83%, respectively. According to a multivariate analysis, patients with stage II disease had a significantly better probability of disease-free survival (74%) in comparison to patients with stage III disease (36%). The probability of disease-free survival was also significantly better for patients with oestrogen receptor-positive tumours (70%) compared to patients with receptor-negative ones (40%). Bone marrow samples collected from 52 patients after high-dose therapy were examined to evaluate the prognostic relevance of isolated tumour cells. The proportion of patients presenting with tumour cell-positive samples did not change in comparison to that observed before high-dose therapy (65% vs 71%), but a decrease in the incidence and concentration of tumour cells was observed over time after high-dose therapy. This finding was true for patients with relapse and for those in remission, which argues against a prognostic significance of isolated tumour cells in bone marrow. In conclusion, sequential high-dose chemotherapy with PBSC support can be safely administered to patients with high-risk stage II/III breast cancer. Further intensification of the therapy, including the addition of non-cross resistant drugs or immunological approaches such as the use of antibodies against HER-2/NEU, may be envisaged for patients with stage III disease and hormone receptor-negative tumours. (+info)
Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. (4/285)The role of androgen receptor (AR) mutations in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) was determined by examining AR transcripts and genes from a large series of bone marrow metastases. Mutations were found in 5 of 16 patients who received combined androgen blockade with the AR antagonist flutamide, and these mutant ARs were strongly stimulated by flutamide. In contrast, the single mutant AR found among 17 patients treated with androgen ablation monotherapy was not flutamide stimulated. Patients with flutamide-stimulated AR mutations responded to subsequent treatment with bicalutamide, an AR antagonist that blocks the mutant ARs. These findings demonstrate that AR mutations occur in response to strong selective pressure from flutamide treatment. (+info)
Detection and clinical importance of micrometastatic disease. (5/285)Metastatic relapse in patients with solid tumors is caused by systemic preoperative or perioperative dissemination of tumor cells. The presence of individual tumor cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood can be detected by immunologic or molecular methods and is being regarded increasingly as a clinically relevant prognostic factor. Because the goal of adjuvant therapy is the eradication of occult micrometastatic tumor cells before metastatic disease becomes clinically evident, the early detection of micrometastases could identify the patients who are most (and least) likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy. In addition, more sensitive methods for detecting such cells should increase knowledge about the biologic mechanisms of metastasis and improve the diagnosis and treatment of micrometastatic disease. In contrast to solid metastatic tumors, micrometastatic tumor cells are appropriate targets for intravenously applied agents because macromolecules and immunocompetent effector cells should have access to the tumor cells. Because the majority of micrometastatic tumor cells may be nonproliferative (G0 phase), standard cytotoxic chemotherapies aimed at proliferating cells may be less effective, which might explain, in part, the failure of chemotherapy. Thus, adjuvant therapies that are aimed at dividing and quiescent cells, such as antibody-based therapies, are of considerable interest. From a literature search that used the databases MEDLINE(R), CANCERLIT(R), Biosis(R), Embase(R), and SciSearch(R), we discuss the current state of research on minimal residual cancer in patients with epithelial tumors and the diagnostic and clinical implications of these findings. (+info)
Sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridisation method for the characterisation of breast cancer cells in bone marrow aspirates. (6/285)AIM: The presence of malignant cells in the blood and bone marrow of patients with cancer at the time of surgery may be indicative of early relapse. In addition to their numbers, the phenotypes of the micrometastatic cells might be essential in determining whether overt metastases will develop. This study aimed to establish a sensitive method for the detection and characterisation of malignant cells present in bone marrow. METHODS: In spiking experiments, SKBR3 cells were mixed with mononuclear cells in known proportions to mimic bone marrow samples with micrometastatic cells. Tumour cells were extracted using SAM-M450 Dynabeads coupled to the MOC-31 anti-epithelial antibody, and were further analysed for amplification of erbB2 and int2 by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). erbB2 and int2 copy numbers were also determined in 15 primary breast cancers, and bone marrow samples from patients with amplification were analysed for micrometastatic cells by immunomagnetic enrichment and FISH. RESULTS: In model experiments, cells with amplification could be detected in bead selected fractions when ratios of tumour cells (SKBR3) to mononuclear cells were as low as 10:10(7). Among the tumour samples, eight showed increased copy numbers of erbB2 and/or int2, and three of these patients had detectable numbers of tumour cells in their bone marrow: 4000, 540, and 26 tumour cells/10(7) mononuclear cells, respectively. The patient with 540 tumour cells/10(7) mononuclear cells showed high level amplification of erbB2 and suffered from a particularly aggressive disease, whereas the patient with 4000 tumour cells/10(7) mononuclear cells had favourable disease progression. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the feasibility and advantage of combining immunomagnetic selection and FISH characterisation of cancer cells in bone marrow samples. It is possible that molecular characterisation of such cells could provide prognostically valuable information. (+info)
Cellular proliferation and prevalence of micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. (7/285)The presence of prostate cancer cells in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with clinically localized disease is associated with an increased chance of disease recurrence; however, not all patients develop recurrence. We therefore sought to determine the phenotype of individual micrometastatic cells as a potential method to better predict disease outcome. Immunostaining was performed on BM cells from 46 patients whose BM RNA fraction had been identified to contain prostate-specific antigen mRNA. The prevalence of micrometastatic cells among BM mononuclear cells was determined using an anticytokeratin antibody. Mib-1 antibody was used to determine the percentage of micrometastatic cells that were proliferating. Micrometastatic cells were found in 96% of patient samples, with a 30-fold variation in prevalence ranging from 0.1-3.26/10(5) BM cells. Prior androgen ablation was associated with a reduced prevalence of micrometastatic cells (P = 0.010). In 68% of patients, some micrometastatic cells were judged to be proliferating at proportions ranging from 1 of 11 (9%) to 4 of 4 (100%). Higher Gleason score of the primary tumor was associated with a higher proliferative proportion of micrometastatic cells (P = 0.038). We conclude that, in patients with clinically localized disease, there is wide variability in the prevalence of micrometastatic cells and the proportion which are proliferating. Long-term follow-up will determine whether the development of clinically obvious metastatic disease is related to higher prevalence of micrometastatic cells in the marrow or the proportion that are proliferating. (+info)
Oral etoposide for refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma. (8/285)PURPOSE: To describe the efficacy of oral etoposide against resistant stage 4 neuroblastoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with refractory or recurrent stage 4 neuroblastoma were treated with etoposide 50 mg/m(2) taken orally each day, in two or three divided doses, for 21 consecutive days. Treatment could be repeated after a 1-week period. Extent-of-disease studies included imaging with 131-iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine and extensive bone marrow (BM) sampling. RESULTS: Oral etoposide was used in 20 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years (median, 6 years). Prior treatment included high doses of alkylating agents and a median of 4.5 cycles of etoposide-containing chemotherapy, with cumulative etoposide doses of 1,800 mg/m(2) to 3,935 mg/m(2) (median, 2,300 mg/m(2)). Oral etoposide produced antineuroblastoma effects in four of four children with disease refractory to intensive induction treatment; sampling variability could account for resolution (n = 3) or reduction (n = 1) of BM involvement, but improvement in other markers also occurred. Antineuroblastoma effects were also evident in five of five children with asymptomatic relapses after a long chemotherapy-free interval: BM disease resolved and all other disease markers significantly improved in two patients, and disease markers improved or stabilized in three patients on treatment for more than 6 months. In these nine patients, extramedullary toxicity was absent, neutropenia did not occur, transfusional support was not needed, and preliminary data suggested little immunosuppression (phytohemagglutinin responses). Oral etoposide was ineffective in all (11 of 11) patients with rapidly growing tumor masses. CONCLUSION: Given the absence of toxicity to major organs, the minimal myelosuppression or immunosuppression, and the antineoplastic activity in patients with low tumor burdens after high-dose chemotherapy, limited use of low-dose oral etoposide should be considered for inclusion in postinduction consolidative treatment programs aimed at eradicating minimal residual disease. (+info)
Bone marrow neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can affect the production of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Some common types of bone marrow neoplasms include: 1. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): A group of blood disorders characterized by abnormal blood cell production and an increased risk of developing leukemia. 2. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects plasma cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies. 3. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, causing the production of abnormal white blood cells. 4. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. 5. Polycythemia vera: A type of blood disorder characterized by an overproduction of red blood cells. 6. Myelofibrosis: A type of bone marrow disorder characterized by the formation of scar tissue in the bone marrow, which can lead to anemia and other complications. Treatment for bone marrow neoplasms depends on the specific type and stage of the condition, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, and targeted therapies.
Bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue found inside the bones of most mammals, including humans. It is responsible for producing blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections and diseases, and platelets are involved in blood clotting. The bone marrow is divided into two main types: red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. Red bone marrow is responsible for producing all types of blood cells, while yellow bone marrow is primarily responsible for producing fat cells. In some cases, the bone marrow can be damaged or diseased, leading to conditions such as leukemia, lymphoma, or aplastic anemia. In these cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor.
Bone marrow cells are the cells found in the bone marrow, which is the soft, spongy tissue found in the center of bones. These cells are responsible for producing blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow cells: hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of dividing and differentiating into any type of blood cell, while progenitor cells are capable of dividing and differentiating into specific types of blood cells. In the medical field, bone marrow cells are often used in the treatment of blood disorders, such as leukemia and lymphoma, as well as in the transplantation of bone marrow to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow. In some cases, bone marrow cells may also be used in research to study the development and function of blood cells.
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which healthy bone marrow is transplanted into a patient who has damaged or diseased bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside bones that produces blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two main types of bone marrow transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. Autologous BMT involves transplanting bone marrow from the patient's own body, usually after it has been harvested and stored before the patient undergoes high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their diseased bone marrow. Allogeneic BMT involves transplanting bone marrow from a donor who is a genetic match for the patient. BMT is used to treat a variety of conditions, including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, sickle cell anemia, and some inherited blood disorders. The procedure can also be used to treat certain immune system disorders and some genetic diseases. The success of BMT depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the patient's disease, the patient's overall health, and the availability of a suitable donor. The procedure can be complex and may involve several stages, including preparatory treatment, the actual transplantation, and post-transplantation care.
In the medical field, "bone and bones" typically refers to the skeletal system, which is made up of bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. The skeletal system provides support and structure to the body, protects vital organs, and allows for movement through the use of muscles. Bones are the main component of the skeletal system and are responsible for providing support and protection to the body. There are 206 bones in the human body, which are classified into four types: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones, such as the femur and humerus, are cylindrical in shape and are found in the arms and legs. Short bones, such as the carpals and tarsals, are cube-shaped and are found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones, such as the skull and ribs, are thin and flat and provide protection to vital organs. Irregular bones, such as the vertebrae and pelvis, have complex shapes that allow for specific functions. Overall, the bone and bones of the skeletal system play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the human body.
Bone remodeling is a continuous process that occurs in the human body to maintain the strength and integrity of bones. It involves the coordinated activity of bone-forming cells called osteoblasts and bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. During bone remodeling, osteoclasts break down old or damaged bone tissue, releasing minerals and other components into the bloodstream. Osteoblasts then lay down new bone tissue to replace the old bone that was removed. This process of bone resorption followed by bone formation is a dynamic equilibrium that helps to maintain the balance between bone strength and bone density. Bone remodeling is influenced by a variety of factors, including hormones, mechanical stress, and age. For example, during childhood and adolescence, bone remodeling is stimulated by growth hormones and physical activity, leading to increased bone density and strength. In older adults, bone remodeling slows down, leading to a decrease in bone density and an increased risk of fractures. Disruptions in the bone remodeling process can lead to a variety of bone disorders, including osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease. Understanding the mechanisms of bone remodeling is important for developing effective treatments for these conditions.
Bone marrow diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, which are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, oxygen transport, and blood clotting, respectively. There are several types of bone marrow diseases, including: 1. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood cells. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal white blood cells. 2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It can also affect the bone marrow and produce abnormal white blood cells. 3. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): A group of disorders that affect the bone marrow's ability to produce healthy blood cells. MDS can progress to leukemia. 4. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies. It is characterized by the overproduction of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow. 5. Polycythemia vera: A type of blood disorder that causes the bone marrow to produce too many red blood cells. 6. Thalassemia: A group of genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Treatment for bone marrow diseases depends on the specific type and severity of the disorder. It may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or supportive care to manage symptoms and complications.
Bone marrow examination is a medical test that involves removing a sample of bone marrow from a patient's bone and examining it under a microscope. The bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue found inside the bones, and it is responsible for producing blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are several different types of bone marrow examinations, including aspiration, biopsy, and trephination. During an aspiration, a small amount of bone marrow is removed using a needle and syringe. During a biopsy, a larger sample of bone marrow is removed using a biopsy needle. During trephination, a small piece of bone is removed, along with the bone marrow. Bone marrow examination is used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions, and to detect any complications that may arise during treatment.
Bone density is a measure of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in a specific area of the body, usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³). It is an important indicator of bone health and strength, and is commonly used to diagnose and monitor osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fractures. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which involves passing two low-energy X-ray beams through the body and measuring the amount of X-ray energy absorbed by the bones. The difference in the amount of energy absorbed by the bones at different energies is used to calculate bone density. Normal bone density is considered to be within a certain range, and bone density measurements below this range are considered to be low or osteoporotic. Low bone density is a risk factor for fractures, particularly of the spine, hip, and wrist. Treatment for low bone density may include lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a healthy diet, as well as medications to increase bone density or prevent further bone loss.
Bone resorption is a process in which bone tissue is broken down and removed by osteoclasts, which are specialized cells in the bone marrow. This process is a normal part of bone remodeling, which is the continuous process of bone formation and resorption that occurs throughout life. Bone resorption is necessary for the growth and development of bones, as well as for the repair of damaged bone tissue. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to a number of medical conditions, including osteoporosis, which is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are prone to fractures. Other conditions that can be caused by excessive bone resorption include Paget's disease of bone, which is a disorder that causes the bones to become abnormally thick and weak, and hyperparathyroidism, which is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, which can lead to increased bone resorption. Bone resorption can also be caused by certain medications, such as corticosteroids, and by certain medical conditions, such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. In these cases, bone resorption can lead to a loss of bone mass and density, which can increase the risk of fractures and other complications.
Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bones. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant bone neoplasms can be invasive and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. There are several types of bone neoplasms, including osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and multiple myeloma. These tumors can affect any bone in the body, but they are most commonly found in the long bones of the arms and legs, such as the femur and tibia. Symptoms of bone neoplasms may include pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected bone, as well as bone fractures that do not heal properly. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI scans, and CT scans, as well as a biopsy to examine a sample of the tumor tissue. Treatment for bone neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Options may include surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy to shrink the tumor, and targeted therapy to block the growth of cancer cells. In some cases, a combination of these treatments may be used.
Bone marrow purging is a medical procedure used to remove cancer cells or other abnormal cells from the bone marrow. It is typically performed in patients with certain types of blood cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, before they receive a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. During the procedure, a chemotherapy drug or a combination of drugs is given to the patient to kill the cancer cells in the bone marrow. The patient's blood is then removed from their body and the chemotherapy is given directly to the bone marrow through a special catheter. After the chemotherapy has been given, the patient's blood is returned to their body. The goal of bone marrow purging is to remove as many cancer cells as possible from the bone marrow, so that the transplanted cells can engraft and grow without being attacked by the patient's immune system. The procedure is typically followed by a bone marrow or stem cell transplant, which replaces the patient's diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow or stem cells.
Bone development, also known as osteogenesis, is the process by which bones grow and mature. It involves the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are specialized cells that produce bone matrix. The bone matrix is a composite of collagen fibers and minerals, including calcium and phosphate, that give bones their strength and rigidity. During bone development, osteoblasts secrete bone matrix, which is then mineralized with calcium and phosphate. As the bone matrix mineralizes, osteoblasts differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that are embedded within the bone matrix. Osteocytes are responsible for maintaining bone health by regulating bone resorption and formation. Bone development occurs throughout life, with the highest rates of bone growth occurring during childhood and adolescence. However, bone development is not complete until the early 20s, and bone continues to be remodeled and strengthened throughout life through a process called bone remodeling. Disruptions in bone development can lead to a variety of bone disorders, including osteogenesis imperfecta, which is a genetic disorder characterized by brittle bones, and rickets, which is a vitamin D deficiency that can lead to soft and weak bones.
Cell differentiation is the process by which cells acquire specialized functions and characteristics during development. It is a fundamental process that occurs in all multicellular organisms, allowing cells to differentiate into various types of cells with specific functions, such as muscle cells, nerve cells, and blood cells. During cell differentiation, cells undergo changes in their shape, size, and function, as well as changes in the proteins and other molecules they produce. These changes are controlled by a complex network of genes and signaling pathways that regulate the expression of specific genes in different cell types. Cell differentiation is a critical process for the proper development and function of tissues and organs in the body. It is also involved in tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in the progression of diseases such as cancer, where cells lose their normal differentiation and become cancerous.
A Colony-Forming Units (CFU) Assay is a method used to determine the number of viable bacterial cells present in a sample. The assay involves plating a known volume of the sample onto a solid growth medium and incubating the plate for a specific period of time. The number of colonies that grow on the plate is then counted and used to calculate the number of CFUs per milliliter of the original sample. This information is important in the medical field for monitoring the effectiveness of antibiotics, assessing the quality of water and food, and diagnosing and tracking the spread of bacterial infections.
Bone diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the structure, strength, and function of bones. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, hormonal imbalances, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, infections, and injuries. Some common bone diseases include osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget's disease, and bone cancer. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are prone to fractures, especially in the spine, hip, and wrist. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder that causes bones to be abnormally weak and brittle, leading to frequent fractures and deformities. Paget's disease is a chronic disorder that causes bones to become thickened and misshapen due to excessive bone remodeling. Bone cancer, also known as skeletal sarcoma, is a rare type of cancer that starts in the bone or bone marrow. Treatment for bone diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, lifestyle changes, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing complications and improving outcomes.
Bone regeneration is the process by which the body repairs and replaces damaged or lost bone tissue. This process involves the formation of new bone cells, or osteoblasts, which secrete a matrix of collagen and minerals that eventually hardens into bone. Bone regeneration is a natural process that occurs throughout life, but it can also be stimulated by medical treatments such as bone grafts or growth factors. In some cases, bone regeneration may be necessary to treat conditions such as fractures, osteoporosis, or bone tumors.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by the abnormal production of white blood cells, which can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and other parts of the body. There are several different types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment for leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. It happens when the transplanted cells (the graft) attack the recipient's (the host) tissues and organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, diarrhea, liver problems, and inflammation of the lungs, gut, and blood vessels. GVHD can be a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of transplantation, but it can also be treated with medications and other therapies.
Anemia, aplastic is a rare and serious medical condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) produced by the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. In aplastic anemia, the bone marrow fails to produce enough RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the body. Aplastic anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to certain chemicals or medications, radiation therapy, viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and an increased risk of infections. Treatment for aplastic anemia typically involves medications to stimulate the production of blood cells in the bone marrow, such as immunosuppressive drugs or growth factors. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
In the medical field, the bone matrix is the non-cellular component of bone tissue. It is a complex network of proteins and minerals that provides the structural support and strength to the bone. The bone matrix is composed of two main components: the organic matrix and the inorganic matrix. The organic matrix is made up of collagen fibers, which are the most abundant protein in the bone matrix. Collagen fibers provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic matrix is made up of hydroxyapatite crystals, which are mineralized calcium phosphate. Hydroxyapatite crystals provide rigidity and compressive strength to the bone. The bone matrix is constantly being remodeled through a process called bone turnover. This process involves the removal of old bone matrix by osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) and the formation of new bone matrix by osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). This process is essential for maintaining the health and strength of bone tissue.
CD34 is a protein found on the surface of certain cells in the body, including hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells, and endothelial cells. In the medical field, CD34 is often used as a marker to identify and isolate these cells for various purposes, such as in bone marrow transplantation or in research studies. Antigens, CD34 refers to the specific portion of the CD34 protein that serves as an antigen, or a substance that triggers an immune response in the body. Antigens, CD34 can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of certain diseases or conditions, such as certain types of leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. They can also be used in the development of targeted therapies for these conditions.
Bone transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a piece of healthy bone is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another part of the body where there is a deficiency or damage to the bone. The transplanted bone can be used to replace a missing bone, to repair a broken bone, or to stabilize a bone that is at risk of breaking. There are several types of bone transplantation, including autografts, allografts, and synthetic bone grafts. Autografts involve taking bone from one part of the body and transplanting it to another part of the body. Allografts involve taking bone from a donor and transplanting it to the recipient. Synthetic bone grafts are made from materials such as ceramics or polymers and are used when there is not enough healthy bone available for transplantation. Bone transplantation is typically performed under general anesthesia and may require a hospital stay for several days. After the procedure, the transplanted bone will need time to heal and integrate with the surrounding tissue. Physical therapy may be recommended to help the patient regain strength and mobility in the affected area.
Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Pancreatic neoplasms can occur in various parts of the pancreas, including the exocrine gland (which produces digestive enzymes), the endocrine gland (which produces hormones), and the ducts (which carry digestive juices from the pancreas to the small intestine). Symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and unexplained fatigue. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood tests and biopsies. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm.
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In multiple myeloma, these plasma cells become abnormal and start to multiply uncontrollably, leading to the formation of tumors in the bone marrow and other parts of the body. The abnormal plasma cells also produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, which can damage healthy tissues and cause a variety of symptoms, including bone pain, fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. Multiple myeloma can also cause anemia, kidney damage, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). Treatment for multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be recommended. The prognosis for multiple myeloma varies depending on the stage of the disease and other factors, but with appropriate treatment, many people with multiple myeloma can live for many years.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood cells. It is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells, called myeloid cells, in the bone marrow. These abnormal cells do not function properly and can crowd out healthy blood cells, leading to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and frequent infections. AML can occur in people of all ages, but it is most common in adults over the age of 60. Treatment for AML typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.
In the medical field, cell separation refers to the process of isolating specific types of cells from a mixture of cells. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as to study the properties and functions of a particular cell type, to prepare cells for transplantation, or to remove unwanted cells from a sample. There are several methods for cell separation, including centrifugation, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and magnetic bead separation. Centrifugation involves spinning a sample of cells at high speeds to separate them based on their size and density. FACS uses lasers to excite fluorescent markers on the surface of cells, allowing them to be sorted based on their fluorescence intensity. Magnetic bead separation uses magnetic beads coated with antibodies to bind to specific cell surface markers, allowing them to be separated from other cells using a magnetic field. Cell separation is an important technique in many areas of medicine, including cancer research, stem cell biology, and immunology. It allows researchers to study specific cell types in detail and to develop new treatments for diseases based on a better understanding of cell biology.
Pancytopenia is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in all three types of blood cells: red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia). This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, bruising, and an increased risk of infections. Pancytopenia can be caused by a variety of factors, including bone marrow disorders, exposure to toxins, certain medications, and autoimmune diseases. Treatment for pancytopenia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, blood transfusions, or bone marrow transplantation.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of blood disorders that affect the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. In MDS, the bone marrow produces abnormal blood cells that do not function properly, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy blood cells in the body. MDS can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and an increased risk of infections and bleeding. The severity of MDS can vary widely, and some people with the condition may not experience any symptoms at all. There are several different types of MDS, which are classified based on the specific characteristics of the abnormal blood cells and the severity of the disease. Treatment for MDS depends on the type and severity of the condition, and may include medications, blood transfusions, or bone marrow transplantation.
Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of blood disorders characterized by the overproduction of blood cells in the bone marrow. These disorders are caused by genetic mutations that lead to the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of certain types of blood cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. The most common MPDs are polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. These disorders can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and bleeding disorders. Treatment for MPDs typically involves medications to control the overproduction of blood cells and manage symptoms. In some cases, a blood transfusion or a stem cell transplant may be necessary. It is important for individuals with MPDs to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications.
In the medical field, bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased bone tissue. These materials can be used in a variety of surgical procedures, including fracture repair, spinal fusion, and dental implants. Bone substitutes can be classified into two main categories: autografts and allografts. Autografts are bone grafts taken from the patient's own body, while allografts are bone grafts taken from a donor. There are also synthetic bone substitutes, which are man-made materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone. These materials can include ceramics, polymers, and composites. The choice of bone substitute depends on the specific surgical procedure and the patient's individual needs. Factors such as the location and severity of the bone damage, the patient's age and overall health, and the availability of autografts or allografts may all influence the choice of bone substitute.
In the medical field, a cell lineage refers to the developmental history of a cell, tracing its origin back to a common ancestor cell and following its subsequent divisions and differentiation into specialized cell types. Cell lineage is an important concept in the study of stem cells, which have the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding the cell lineage of stem cells, researchers can better understand how they develop into specific cell types and how they might be used to treat various diseases. In addition, cell lineage is also important in the study of cancer, as cancer cells often arise from normal cells that have undergone mutations and have begun to divide uncontrollably. By studying the cell lineage of cancer cells, researchers can gain insights into the genetic and molecular changes that have occurred during cancer development and identify potential targets for cancer therapy.
Bone diseases, metabolic, refer to a group of disorders that affect the normal metabolism of bone tissue, leading to changes in bone structure and strength. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and certain medications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include: 1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fractures. 2. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that causes bones to be weak and brittle, leading to frequent fractures. 3. Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, leading to increased bone resorption and decreased bone density. 4. Hypoparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too little parathyroid hormone, leading to decreased bone resorption and increased bone density. 5. Rickets: A condition that primarily affects children and is characterized by soft, weak bones due to a lack of vitamin D or calcium. 6. Osteomalacia: A condition that primarily affects adults and is characterized by soft, weak bones due to a lack of vitamin D or calcium. Treatment for metabolic bone diseases typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disorder, such as correcting vitamin or mineral deficiencies, treating hormonal imbalances, or surgically removing or replacing affected bones. In some cases, medications may also be prescribed to help prevent or slow the progression of bone loss.
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a type of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. In PMF, the bone marrow becomes scarred and fibrotic, leading to a decrease in the production of healthy blood cells. PMF is a myeloproliferative neoplasm, which means that it is a type of cancer that affects the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. The disease is characterized by an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and easy bruising. PMF is typically diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies. Treatment options for PMF include medications to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease, as well as blood transfusions and stem cell transplantation in some cases.
Neoplasms, cystic, mucinous, and serous are types of tumors that can occur in various organs of the body. Cystic neoplasms are tumors that are filled with fluid or semi-solid material. They can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs, including the liver, kidneys, ovaries, and pancreas. Mucinous neoplasms are tumors that produce a thick, gelatinous substance called mucus. They can be benign or malignant and are most commonly found in the ovaries, appendix, and colon. Serous neoplasms are tumors that produce a clear, watery fluid called serous fluid. They can be benign or malignant and are most commonly found in the ovaries, peritoneum, and pleura. It's important to note that not all cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms are cancerous, and some may be benign and not require treatment. However, it's important to have any suspicious cystic, mucinous, or serous neoplasm evaluated by a medical professional to determine the best course of action.
Leukemia, Myeloid is a type of cancer that affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infections and diseases in the body. In leukemia, myeloid cells grow and divide uncontrollably, leading to an overproduction of these cells in the bone marrow and bloodstream. There are several subtypes of myeloid leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). AML is a rapidly progressing cancer that usually affects older adults, while CML is a slower-growing cancer that is more common in middle-aged and older adults. Symptoms of myeloid leukemia may include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and easy bruising or bleeding. Treatment for myeloid leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplantation. The prognosis for myeloid leukemia depends on the subtype, age of the patient, and the stage of the disease at diagnosis.
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. It occurs when lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, grow and divide uncontrollably, forming abnormal masses or tumors in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other parts of the body. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is a less common type of lymphoma that typically affects younger adults and has a better prognosis than non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a more common type of lymphoma that can affect people of all ages and has a wide range of outcomes depending on the specific subtype and the stage of the disease. Symptoms of lymphoma can include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and itching. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment for lymphoma depends on the subtype, stage, and overall health of the patient. It may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, a stem cell transplant may also be necessary.
Hematologic neoplasms are a group of disorders that affect the blood and bone marrow, including the production of blood cells. These disorders are characterized by the abnormal growth and proliferation of blood cells, which can lead to an overproduction of certain types of blood cells (such as leukemias) or a deficiency of certain types of blood cells (such as anemia). Hematologic neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can affect people of all ages. Some common types of hematologic neoplasms include leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Treatment for hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a protein that stimulates the production and differentiation of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow. It is primarily used to treat neutropenia (a condition characterized by a low number of neutrophils in the blood), which can occur as a side effect of chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, or as a result of certain infections or autoimmune disorders. G-CSF is typically administered as a daily injection for several days, and it works by binding to specific receptors on the surface of bone marrow cells, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the production and release of granulocytes into the bloodstream. This helps to increase the number of neutrophils in the blood and reduce the risk of infection. In addition to its use in treating neutropenia, G-CSF has also been studied for its potential use in other medical conditions, such as bone marrow transplantation, chronic granulomatous disease, and some types of anemia. However, more research is needed to determine its effectiveness and safety in these settings.
Fractures, bone refer to a break or crack in a bone that occurs due to trauma or injury. Fractures can be classified based on their severity, location, and type. There are several types of bone fractures, including: 1. Simple fractures: These are clean breaks in the bone with no displacement of the broken ends. 2. Compound fractures: These are breaks in the bone that involve the skin and/or soft tissues surrounding the bone. 3. Comminuted fractures: These are fractures in which the bone is broken into multiple pieces. 4. Stress fractures: These are small cracks in the bone that occur due to repetitive stress or overuse. 5. Open fractures: These are fractures in which the broken bone pierces through the skin. 6. Closed fractures: These are fractures in which the broken bone is contained within the skin. The treatment for bone fractures depends on the severity and location of the fracture, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), casting, surgery, or physical therapy.
Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressive drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. It works by inhibiting the growth and division of cells, including cancer cells, and by suppressing the immune system. Cyclophosphamide is usually administered intravenously or orally, and its dosage and duration of treatment depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health. Side effects of cyclophosphamide can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the kidneys, bladder, and reproductive organs, and may increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer later in life.
Cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two or more daughter cells. This process is essential for the growth, development, and repair of tissues in the body. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process by which somatic cells (non-reproductive cells) divide to produce two identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the process by which germ cells (reproductive cells) divide to produce four genetically diverse daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction. Abnormalities in cell division can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cancer. In cancer, cells divide uncontrollably and form tumors, which can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body.
In the medical field, "Antigens, CD" refers to a group of proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These proteins, known as CD antigens, are recognized by other immune cells and play a crucial role in the immune response to infections and diseases. CD antigens are classified into different families based on their structure and function. Some CD antigens are expressed on the surface of immune cells themselves, while others are found on the surface of cells that are targeted by the immune system, such as cancer cells or cells infected with viruses. The identification and characterization of CD antigens has been important for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapies for a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target specific CD antigens have been used in cancer immunotherapy to help the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells.
Blood cells, also known as hematopoietic cells, are the cells that make up the blood. There are three main types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are the most abundant type of blood cell and are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and removing carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. They are also responsible for maintaining the body's acid-base balance. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are an important part of the immune system and help protect the body against infection and disease. There are several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, each with a specific function in the immune response. Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets stick together to form a plug that helps prevent blood loss. Overall, blood cells are essential for maintaining the body's health and function, and any abnormalities in their production or function can lead to a variety of medical conditions.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of bone tissue. They are secreted by various cells in the body, including bone-forming cells called osteoblasts, and are involved in processes such as bone growth, repair, and remodeling. BMPs are also used in medical treatments to promote bone growth and healing. For example, they are sometimes used in orthopedic surgeries to help repair fractures or to stimulate the growth of new bone in areas where bone has been lost, such as in spinal fusion procedures. They may also be used in dental procedures to help promote the growth of new bone in areas where teeth have been lost. BMPs are also being studied for their potential use in other medical applications, such as in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, and in the repair of damaged or diseased tissues in other parts of the body.
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (PCLL) is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. It is a rare and aggressive form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is a type of cancer that affects the white blood cells in the bone marrow. PCLL is characterized by the rapid growth and proliferation of immature white blood cells, called lymphoblasts, in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphatic system. These cells do not mature properly and are unable to carry out their normal functions, leading to a weakened immune system and an increased risk of infections. PCLL is typically diagnosed in children and young adults, and the symptoms may include fever, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for PCLL typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for PCLL is generally poor, but with appropriate treatment, some people are able to achieve remission and improve their quality of life.
In the medical field, "cell count" refers to the measurement of the number of cells present in a specific sample of tissue or fluid. This measurement is typically performed using a microscope and a specialized staining technique to distinguish between different types of cells. For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a common laboratory test that measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Similarly, a urine analysis may include a cell count to measure the number of white blood cells or bacteria present in the urine. Cell counts can be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, such as infections, inflammation, or cancer. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments or to detect any changes in the body's cellular makeup over time.
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) is a protein that plays a crucial role in bone development and repair. It is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins, which are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and migration. In the medical field, BMP2 is used as a therapeutic agent to promote bone growth and regeneration in a variety of conditions, including spinal fusion, non-unions, and osteoporosis. It is typically administered as a bone graft substitute or in combination with other growth factors to enhance bone formation. BMP2 has also been studied for its potential use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, where it is used to stimulate the growth of new bone tissue in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, BMP2 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, making it a promising target for the development of new therapies for a range of diseases.
Blood cell count is a medical test that measures the number and types of cells present in a sample of blood. It is a routine diagnostic test that is often performed to evaluate a person's overall health and to diagnose various medical conditions. The blood cell count typically includes measurements of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, while white blood cells help fight infections and other diseases. Platelets are responsible for blood clotting. A blood cell count can be performed using a variety of methods, including automated blood cell counters and manual methods. The results of a blood cell count can provide important information about a person's overall health, including their risk of anemia, infection, or bleeding disorders.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood cells. It is also known as Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and is characterized by the presence of an abnormal Philadelphia chromosome, which is caused by a genetic mutation. This mutation results in the production of an abnormal protein called BCR-ABL, which promotes the uncontrolled growth and division of white blood cells. CML is typically diagnosed in adults and is treatable with medications that target the BCR-ABL protein. However, it is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment and monitoring.
Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the skin. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Skin neoplasms can occur anywhere on the body and can vary in size, shape, and color. Some common types of skin neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and keratosis. These growths can be treated with a variety of methods, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. It is important to have any unusual skin growths evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.
Busulfan is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. It works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Busulfan is usually given orally or intravenously, and it can also be used as a conditioning agent before a bone marrow transplant. The drug can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and low blood cell counts. It is important to closely monitor patients who are taking busulfan to ensure that the drug is working as intended and to manage any side effects that may occur.
In the medical field, a chimera refers to a person or animal that has two or more genetically distinct cell lines within their body. This can occur naturally or as a result of medical treatment, such as bone marrow transplantation. For example, a person who has received a bone marrow transplant from a donor with a different blood type may have chimerism, meaning that some of their blood cells are from the donor and some are from their own body. Similarly, a person who has undergone in vitro fertilization and has two or more embryos implanted may have chimerism if the embryos have different genetic profiles. Chimerism can also occur in animals, such as when a twin embryo develops from two separate fertilized eggs and the resulting animal has cells from both embryos. In some cases, chimerism can cause health problems, such as immune system disorders or cancer, but it can also be a natural and harmless condition.
Cell proliferation refers to the process of cell division and growth, which is essential for the maintenance and repair of tissues in the body. In the medical field, cell proliferation is often studied in the context of cancer, where uncontrolled cell proliferation can lead to the formation of tumors and the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body. In normal cells, cell proliferation is tightly regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways and feedback mechanisms that ensure that cells divide only when necessary and that they stop dividing when they have reached their full capacity. However, in cancer cells, these regulatory mechanisms can become disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and the formation of tumors. In addition to cancer, cell proliferation is also important in other medical conditions, such as wound healing, tissue regeneration, and the development of embryos. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell proliferation is therefore critical for developing new treatments for cancer and other diseases.
In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Second Primary" refers to the development of a new cancer in a person who has already been diagnosed with one or more primary cancers. This type of cancer is also known as a "metastatic cancer" or a "secondary cancer." When a person develops a second primary cancer, it means that the cancer has spread from its original location to a new part of the body. This can happen through the bloodstream, lymphatic system, or other means of spread. The development of a second primary cancer can be a complex and challenging situation for both the patient and their healthcare team. Treatment options may depend on the type and location of the second cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.
Multiple primary neoplasms, also known as synchronous or metachronous neoplasms, are two or more neoplasms (cancerous or non-cancerous tumors) that occur in the same individual at the same time or at different times. In the medical field, multiple primary neoplasms can occur in different organs or tissues of the body, and they can be either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). The occurrence of multiple primary neoplasms can be due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, exposure to environmental toxins, lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions such as immunosuppression. The diagnosis of multiple primary neoplasms typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy of the tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and stage of the neoplasms, as well as the overall health of the individual.
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin (NHL) is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. NHL is characterized by the abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other parts of the body. There are many different types of NHL, and they can vary in their symptoms, progression, and treatment options. Some common symptoms of NHL include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. NHL is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment options for NHL may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation, depending on the type and stage of the cancer. Overall, NHL is a serious condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes and quality of life for patients.
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
List of MeSH codes (C15)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cell
Route of administration
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1
Canine histiocytic diseases
List of diseases (B)
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- With a diverse scientific program, the meeting covers a wide range of topics, including Thymus Pathology, hot topics in hematopathology, reactive and therapy-induced changes, myeloid neoplasms, novel mechanisms in lymphomagenesis, and the boundaries between neoplastic and reactive lymphoproliferations. (conference-service.com)
- Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders that are directly related to previous cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. (medscape.com)
- Two predominant and clinically significant types of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) have been defined, those arising after treatment with alkylating chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and those arising after therapy with topoisomerase II inhibitors. (medscape.com)
- Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders related to previous exposure to chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] The therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) category represents a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms that share diagnostic features of conventionally defined myeloid malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN). (medscape.com)
- Cases of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) that arise following therapy with alkylating agents (eg, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, cisplatin) and/or ionizing radiation have a relatively long latency period (5-10 y) after primary exposure. (medscape.com)
- The incidence of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) is dependent on the type, dose, and intensity of therapeutic intervention and on the nature of the underlying primary malignancy/disease process. (medscape.com)
- however, the risk of developing secondary myeloid neoplasms following alkylating chemotherapy or radiation therapy seems to increase with age. (medscape.com)
- The risk of developing therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) dramatically decreases after 10 years. (medscape.com)
- An extensive review and analysis of previously published data highlighted vague trends, with the greatest likelihood of developing therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) following treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. (medscape.com)
- Approximately 30% of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) cases involve patients treated for non-neoplastic disorders, and those treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. (medscape.com)
- [ 4 , 5 ] Significantly, cases of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) represent approximately 10-30% of all confirmed cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN). (medscape.com)
- The heritable risk factors predisposing to the development of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) are the topic of intense study. (medscape.com)
- These are the malignant proliferations of abnormal clones of white blood cells within the bone marrow that are broadly categorized into lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms depending on the type of white cell proliferation. (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] ETP-ALL frequently has mutations in RUNX1 and/or ETV6 in addition to genes that are more commonly associated with myeloid neoplasms and are otherwise rare in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (such as FLT3 , IDH1/2 , TET2 , and DNMT3A mutations). (medscape.com)
Associated with bone marrow failure1
- Early mortality is often associated with bone marrow failure, infections, fatal pulmonary complications, or malignancy. (medscape.com)
- Cbl0137, cudc-907, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are the most common interventions in solid neoplasm clinical trials. (mycancergenome.org)
- Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a non-infectious pulmonary complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with resultant high mortality. (nih.gov)
- Bone marrow transplantation. (bvsalud.org)
- MM is considered an incurable disease despite various methods of treatment, including autologous bone marrow transplantation . (who.int)
- Immature Granulocyte count (IMG) is used in the assessment of various infections or sepsis and its severity 1,2 , inflammatory conditions like Pancreatis 3 , Appendicitis 4 , Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) 5 , different diseases of bone marrow, transplant engraftment or growth factor therapy or hematopoietic neoplasms. (horiba.com)
- Decreased WBC count, leukopenia, is seen when supply is depleted by infection or treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or when a hematopoietic stem cell abnormality does not allow normal growth/maturation within the bone marrow, such as myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia. (medscape.com)
- Myelofibrosis Myelofibrosis is a disorder in which fibrous tissue in the bone marrow replaces the blood-producing cells, resulting in abnormally shaped red blood cells, anemia, and an enlarged spleen. (merckmanuals.com)
- Lymphoma can affect any part of your lymphatic system, which is made up of lymphocytes, lymph nodes and vessels, the spleen and bone marrow. (emory.edu)
- Lymphoma is a malignant neoplasm that develops in the lymph nodes. (bvsalud.org)
- A benign or malignant neoplasm arising from tissues that do not include fluid areas. (mycancergenome.org)
- Patients living with bone marrow failure diseases and their families and caregivers should continue to practice social distancing, frequently wash and sanitize hands, wear masks around others, and encourage others to wear masks around you. (aamds.org)
- Patients with these diseases have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with concerning mortality rates for patients who contract the virus and concerns about the efficacy of the available vaccines for bone marrow failure patients. (aamds.org)
- Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. (instituteofliving.org)
- Myeloproliferative disorders - sometimes called myeloproliferative neoplasms - are cancer-like diseases in which too many blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. (edu.au)
- Neoplasms originating from the blood or bone marrow (leukemias and myeloproliferative disorders) are not considered solid tumors. (mycancergenome.org)
- In myeloproliferative disorders, the bone marrow produces excessive numbers of mature blood cells that function normally, but are present in greater-than-normal numbers. (edu.au)
- Lymphoblastic leukemias/lymphomas are neoplasms of precursor T cells and B cells or lymphoblasts. (medscape.com)
- and neoplasm = new abnormal growth, such as a precancer or cancer), the blood-producing cells in the bone marrow (precursor cells, also called stem cells) develop and reproduce excessively or are crowded out by an overgrowth of fibrous tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
- See also Pathology of Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Features , Pathology of Other Myeloid Related Precursor Neoplasms , and Pathology of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Not Otherwise Categorized . (medscape.com)
- A complete staging workup may include a physical exam, blood work, CT and/or PET scans, bone marrow biopsy, and sometimes a lumbar puncture. (emory.edu)
- Too much fibrous tissue produced in the bone marrow, preventing normal blood production. (edu.au)
- In 30-50% of patients, the lymphoblasts infiltrate bone marrow, causing ineffective hematopoiesis. (medscape.com)
- However, BPDCN usually progresses with bone marrow involvement and a decrease in red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet counts. (lls.org)
- Homozygous autosomal recessive mutations in RTEL1 lead to similar phenotypes that parallel with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson (HH) syndrome, a severe variant of DKC characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, bone marrow failure, intrauterine growth restriction and immunodeficiency. (medscape.com)
- Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused by genetic mutations. (msdmanuals.com)
- TINF2 mutations result in very short telomeres: analysis of a large cohort of patients with dyskeratosis congenita and related bone marrow failure syndromes. (cdc.gov)
- TERC and TERT gene mutations in patients with bone marrow failure and the significance of telomere length measurements. (cdc.gov)
- In myelofibrosis , scar tissue forms in the bone marrow and hinders the body's ability to produce healthy blood cells. (sanantoniomag.com)
- Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative neoplasm of the blood-producing cells of the bone marrow that results in overproduction of all types of blood cells. (merckmanuals.com)
- On bone marrow aspiration, the morphologic features are those of myelodysplasia. (medscape.com)
- Thrombopoietin, primarily produced in the liver, stimulates the bone marrow to make large cells (megakaryocytes), which in turn make platelets from material inside their cell body (cytoplasm). (msdmanuals.com)
- He is an international expert on myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), a group of bone marrow disorders that often lead to leukemia. (sanantoniomag.com)
- 20% lymphoblasts in marrow), a diagnosis of lymphoblastic lymphoma is made. (medscape.com)
- Conversely, a diagnosis of ALL generally requires at least 20% lymphoblasts in marrow. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), The diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), unclassifiable, requires that either all 3 criteria are met. (who.int)
- It significantly improved outcomes of patients treated for myelofibrosis (MF), a rare but fatal bone marrow cancer, in a study Mesa helped lead. (sanantoniomag.com)
- This Clinical Policy Bulletin addresses treatment approaches for liver and other neoplasms. (aetna.com)
- Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of blood cancers where the bone marrow makes too many blood cells. (cdc.gov)
- Ruben Mesa, MD, FACP , executive director of the Mays Cancer Center at UT Health San Antonio, has seen too many patients and families struggle with deadly bone marrow cancers. (sanantoniomag.com)
- MM is characterized by monoclonal paraprotein production, lytic lesions and increased plasma cells in the bone marrow . (who.int)
- and neoplasm = new abnormal growth, such as a precancer or cancer), the blood-producing cells in the. (merckmanuals.com)
- A drug has been urgently needed to treat anemia in patients suffering from this rare, but deadly, bone marrow cancer. (sanantoniomag.com)
- Bone cancer is a serious condition that requires the best professionals to prevent it from spreading. (mypremiumeurope.com)
- These genetic changes cause over-active signalling in bone marrow cells, resulting in uncontrolled production of blood cells. (edu.au)
- Platelets (sometimes called thrombocytes) are cell fragments produced in the bone marrow that circulate in the bloodstream and help blood to clot. (msdmanuals.com)
- As a person with a bone marrow failure condition, such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), aplastic anemia , paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), etc., you are already taking precautions to protect your compromised immune system. (aamds.org)
- This treatment consists of destroying cancerous bone marrow cells using higher doses of chemotherapy and in some cases, radiotherapy, and then replacing them with healthy stem cells to help patients regain a new and healthy immune system. (emory.edu)
- Other drug classes (ie, antimetabolites/immunosuppressants) have been implicated in the development of these neoplasms, but in these cases, the clinical course is less distinct. (medscape.com)
- TP53 Mutation, TP53 Missense, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, KRAS Mutation, and KRAS Exon 2 Mutation are the most common alterations in solid neoplasm [ 2 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
- However, the therapy-related neoplasms progress quickly regardless of their morphologic appearance at presentation and are considered to be a single diagnostic entity. (medscape.com)
- Normally, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time. (instituteofliving.org)
- Representative examples include epithelial neoplasms (e.g. lung carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma), and neoplasms arising from the soft tissues and bones (e.g. leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma). (mycancergenome.org)
- ABL1 is altered in 1.76% of solid neoplasm patients [ 2 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
- BCR is altered in 1.37% of solid neoplasm patients [ 2 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
- BRAF is altered in 6.45% of solid neoplasm patients [ 2 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
- NF1 is altered in 7.01% of solid neoplasm patients [ 2 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
- There are 5 clinical trials for solid neoplasm, of which 1 is open and 4 are completed or closed. (mycancergenome.org)
- BRAF is the most frequent gene inclusion criterion for solid neoplasm clinical trials [ 3 ]. (mycancergenome.org)
- ABL1 is an inclusion eligibility criterion in 1 clinical trial for solid neoplasm, of which 0 are open and 1 is closed. (mycancergenome.org)
- Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for liver neoplasms when criteria above are not met. (aetna.com)
- Overall biases and uncertainties in estimates of doses to lung tissue and bone marrow received by workers at the Hanford research facility (Hanford workers) were summarized. (cdc.gov)
- Malignant plasma cells in bone marrow produce an immunoglobulin, usually monoclonal IgG or IgA or, less commonly, immunoglobulin light chains . (who.int)