Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Thromboangiitis Obliterans: A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell SeparationAntigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Marrow DiseasesMice, Inbred C57BLBone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CTransplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Diseases, MetabolicCell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mice, Inbred C3HCell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Lymphopoiesis: Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Myeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). Like ... This distinguishes them from the mononuclear agranulocytes. In common parlance, the term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often ... Granulocytes are derived from stem cells residing in the bone marrow. The differentiation of these stem cells from pluripotent ... they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil ...
Microscopic evidences that bone marrow mononuclear cell treatment improves sciatic nerve regeneration after neurorrhaphy. ... Cells from bone marrow, mesenchymal stem cells, have been shown to secrete growth factors and produce myelin genes when grown ... Cell therapy to improve nerve regeneration is also being researched. In one study mononuclear cells, cells with one nucleus, ... Multipotent stem cells, cells with the ability to grow into an restricted number of cell types specific to a tissue, are ...
This syndrome affects bone marrow cells causing treatment-resistant anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes that may lead to acute ... They are more numerous than usual, small and mononuclear. There may be accompanying erythroid hypoplasia in the bone marrow. ... of human chromosome 5 in bone marrow myelocyte cells. This chromosome abnormality is most commonly associated with the ... Examination of the bone marrow shows characteristic changes in the megakaryocytes. ...
But many are also taken up through phagocytosis by mononuclear phagocytes in liver, spleen and bone marrow. Inside the cells ... It infects the mononuclear phagocyte system including spleen, liver and bone marrow. Infection is transmitted by species of ... The target cells are those of mononuclear phagocyte system. The two main tissues of infection are spleen and liver. Clinical ... Multiplication continues until the host cell can no longer hold and ruptures. In a fully congested cell there can be as many as ...
... s are derived from the bone marrow by multiplication from a stem cell. The derived cells migrate from the bone marrow ... A histiocyte is an animal cell that is part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (also known as the reticuloendothelial system ... Macrophages and dendritic cells are derived from common bone marrow precursor cells that have undergone different ... Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ...
... mononuclear leukocytes). Glucocerebroside can collect in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, and bone marrow. ... a cell membrane constituent of red and white blood cells. In Gaucher disease, the enzyme is unable to function correctly and ... Skeletal weakness and bone disease may be extensive. Spleen enlargement and bone marrow replacement cause anemia, ... Symptoms may begin early in life or in adulthood and mainly affect the liver, spleen, and bone. Enlarged liver and grossly ...
FFAR2 mRNA is expressed in adipose tissue, pancreas, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. ... Brown AJ, Jupe S, Briscoe CP (2005). "A family of fatty acid binding receptors". DNA Cell Biol. 24 (1): 54-61. doi:10.1089/dna. ... However, discrepancies between the pathways activated by FFAR2 agonists in human cells and the equivalent murine counterparts ... 2003). "Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell ...
... and bone marrow. These accumulations may be caused by excessive red blood cell destruction (haemolysis), excessive iron uptake/ ... and the haemoglobin of the cell is released into the extracellular space. Phagocytic cells (of the mononuclear phagocyte system ... Excessive accumulation of hemosiderin is usually detected within cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) or ... It is only found within cells (as opposed to circulating in blood) and appears to be a complex of ferritin, denatured ferritin ...
"Repair of infarcted myocardium by autologous intracoronary mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation in humans" (PDF). ... These landmark publications have been the basis for the new field of autologous bone marrow stem cell therapy for heart disease ... "Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy in heart disease: Discrepancies and contradictions" (PDF). International ... own bone marrow cells into the coronary arteries can increase the pumping efficacy of a weak heart. ...
"Preconditioning with VEGF enhances angiogenic and neuroprotective effects of bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in a ... Cell. Cardiol. 35 (7): 709-18. doi:10.1016/S0022-2828(03)00135-4. PMID 12818560. Marmor M, Penn A, Widmer K, Levin RI, ... Murry, CE; Jennings, RB; Reimer, KA (November 1986). "Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic ... the cells downstream of the tissue or organ are robustly protected from a final ischemic insult when the blood supply is cut ...
Wang J, Fu X, Jiang C, Yu L, Wang M, Han W, Liu L, Wang J (2014). "Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation promotes ... cancer cells, kidney epithelial cells). In vitro, VEGF-A has been shown to stimulate endothelial cell mitogenesis and cell ... VEGF-A production can be induced in cell that is not receiving enough oxygen. When a cell is deficient in oxygen, it produces ... "Pituitary follicular cells secrete a novel heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells". Biochemical ...
Wang J, Fu X, Jiang C, Yu L, Wang M, Han W, Liu L, Wang J (2014). "Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation promotes ... Cell Signal. 19 (10): 2003-2012. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2007.05.013. PMID 17658244. Petrova TV, Makinen T, Alitalo K (1999). " ... forms a complex with the vascular-endothelial-growth-factor receptor KDR in transfected cells". Biochem. J. England. 347 (Pt 2 ... "16K human prolactin inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced activation of Ras in capillary endothelial cells". Mol ...
... but circulate as intact mononuclear cells, and are not simply cytoplasmic fragments of bone marrow megakaryocytes. In some ... Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, ... 2007). "Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span". Cell. 128 (6): 1173-86. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.037. ... Endothelial cells are attached to the subendothelial collagen by von Willebrand factor (VWF) which these cells produce. VWF is ...
C17 is a cytokine-like protein specifically expressed in bone marrow and cord blood mononuclear cells that bear the CD34 (MIM ... Deng X, Zhao HS, Peng Z, Deng WW, Li N, Guo S, Shi TP (April 2011). "[Study on the mechanism of C17orf62 induced cell death]". ... Functionally, C17 was identified as a secretory protein expressed in CD34+ haemopoietic cells CYTL1 seems to regulate ... "Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of a candidate cytokine gene selectively expressed in human CD34+ cells". Genomics. ...
... and the hematopoietic system is replaced by transfusion of donor bone marrow or purified hematopoietic stem cells. The ... PBMC layers contain mononuclear cells that have been depleted of red blood cells, leukocytes and granulocytes. Biopanning, ... Lymphocytes can be isolated from blood, or from lymphoid organs such as the thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and mucosal- ... Cells of interest are bound to antibody-coated plastic surfaces, and unwanted cells are removed by treatment with specific ...
During 1986, Syed Zaki Salahuddin, Dharam Ablashi, and Robert Gallo cultivated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients ... bone marrow suppression, and pneumonitis. A variety of tests are used in the detection HHV-6, some of which do not ... "CD46 on glial cells can function as a receptor for viral glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion". Glia. 52 (3): 252-8. doi: ... described five cell lines that can be infected by the newly discovered HBLV. They published that HSB-2, a particular T-cell ...
Evolution of mixed chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as determined on granulocytes and mononuclear cells ... pivotal role of intrathymic clonal deletion and thymic dependence of bone marrow microchimerism-associated tolerance". ... chimerism and achievement of antitumor responses after nonmyeloablative conditioning therapy and HLA-matched donor bone marrow ... Inggris) Successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with relapsed ...
Mononuclear phagocytes of blood and bone marrow: Comparative roles as viral reservoirs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Preservation of T cell proliferation restricted by protective HLA alleles is critical for immune control of HIV-1 infection. J ... Preservation of T cell proliferation restricted by protective HLA alleles is critical for immune control of HIV-1 infection. J ... Cytotoxic T-cell responses, viral load, and disease progression in early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl ...
Thomas' work showed that bone marrow cells infused intravenously could repopulate the bone marrow and produce new blood cells. ... G-CSF has also been described to induce genetic changes in mononuclear cells of normal donors.[44] There is evidence that ... "Bone Marrow Transplant" redirects here. For the journal abbreviated Bone Marrow Transplant, see Bone Marrow Transplantation ( ... Stem cell transplantation was pioneered using bone-marrow-derived stem cells by a team at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research ...
... which are composed of mononuclear inflammatory cells and have been detected in the thymus, spleen, bone marrow, middle ear and ... Canarypox can enter human cells, but it cannot survive and multiply in human cells. There is a live viral vaccine available ... These membranes are acquired from the host cell's endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or cell membrane. CNPV and other poxviruses are ...
Repair of infarcted myocardium by autologous intracoronary mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation in humans. Circulation ... Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. Nature, 2001; 5:410 (6829):701-5. Strauer BE, Brehm M, Zeus T, Kostering M, ... "Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy in heart disease: Discrepancies and contradictions". International Journal of ... started to appear in peer reviewed journals and a paper has been published that has shown the potential of bone marrow cells to ...
Traverse, JH; Ellis (Nov 2011). "Effect of intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells 2 to 3 weeks ... A third cell line that shows great promise and has no known safety concerns is the adult stem cell derived from bone marrow or ... This cell line, however, is also less than ideal in that this cell type has been unable to mature into a homogeneous cell ... Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a cell line derived from somatic cells which have been induced through a ...
... s have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes[2] of the bone marrow ... v3 The term thrombocytes is proper for mononuclear cells found in the blood of non-mammalian vertebrates: they are the ... Berridge, Michael J. (1 October 2014). "Module 11: Cell Stress, Inflammatory Responses and Cell Death". Cell Signalling Biology ... but circulate as intact cells rather than cytoplasmic fragments of bone marrow megakaryocytes.[4]:3 ...
Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... Application of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in six patients with advanced chronic critical limb ischemia as a ... Updated: 16 December 2013 Why Perform a Stem Cell Transplant? *↑ Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell ...
"Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... Stem cell division and differentiation A: stem cell; B: progenitor cell; C: differentiated cell; 1: symmetric stem cell ... Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is a form of stem ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[37][38] Muse cells ( ...
"Increased expression of preprotachykinin-I and neurokinin receptors in human breast cancer cells: implications for bone marrow ... "Effect of substance P on cytokine production by human astrocytic cells and blood mononuclear cells: characterization of novel ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ...
We examined p15and p16 methylation status in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with high-risk MDS during treatment ... is a clonal bone marrow disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis such that the bone marrow doesnt produce enough ... immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the impairment of normal hematopoiesis. Advances in the identification of ... Immunohistochemical staining for p15 protein in bone marrow biopsies from 8 patients with p15 hypermethylation revealed low or ...
As of January 2010, this journal will no longer be available on IngentaConnect, please visit Wiley InterScience to arrange continued access to this ...
... Dirk Henrich,1 René ... "Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro," BioMed Research ... 3German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement gGmbH (DIZG), 12555 Berlin, Germany. 4Institute of Transfusion Medicine and ...
Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Liver Cirrhosis (CELTHEP-02). The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
Mono Nuclear Cell (MNC) transplantation Intracoronary administration of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells ... Intracoronary Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mononuclear Cells in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy. The safety and scientific ... Intracoronary Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mononuclear Cells (MNC) in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy in ... assess the safety and efficacy of intracoronary transplantation of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells in this ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... "Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells within few Hrs without fusion," Journal of Cell ... Paracrine Effects of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Survival and Cytokine Expression after 90% Partial Hepatectomy. Carlos ...
Highly Angiogenic, Non-Thrombogenic Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells-Derived Spheroids in Intraportal Islet Transplantation ... Highly Angiogenic, Non-Thrombogenic Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells-Derived Spheroids in Intraportal Islet Transplantation ... Highly Angiogenic, Non-Thrombogenic Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells-Derived Spheroids in Intraportal Islet Transplantation ... Highly Angiogenic, Non-Thrombogenic Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells-Derived Spheroids in Intraportal Islet Transplantation ...
Generation of dendritic cells from rabbit bone marrow mononuclear cell cultures supplemented with hGM-CSF and hIL-4.. Cody V1, ... Here we show that DCs can be generated in vitro from rabbit bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) cultured in the presence of ... The in vitro generation of dendritic cells (DCs) from either blood or bone marrow has been accomplished for humans and a number ... Bone Marrow Cells/cytology. *Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects*. *Bone Marrow Cells/immunology* ...
Intraarterial infusion of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells. Intervention: Procedure: Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear ... Procedure: Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Infusion , 80 millions mononuclear cells. Intraarterial administration at ... Autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cells (minimum 80 millions mononuclear cells) are infused intraarterially at popliteal ... Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mononuclear Cells in Treating Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia. The safety and ...
Background: There is strong interest in bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) for therapeutic enhancement of ischemia ... Abstract 15690: Longitudinal in vivo Assessment of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy for Ischemia-Mediated ... Abstract 15690: Longitudinal in vivo Assessment of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy for Ischemia-Mediated ... Abstract 15690: Longitudinal in vivo Assessment of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy for Ischemia-Mediated ...
Experimental: stem cell recipient the patients with peripheral vascular disease who receive bone marrow derived mono nuclear ... Autologous Transplantation of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell (BM-MNC) With and Without Granulocyte-Colony Stimulation Factor (G- ... Indeed, recent studies have shown that bone-marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) implantation increases collateral vessel formation ... cells. Biological: BM-MNC injection Bone marrow aspiration A total volume of 400 ml bone marrow will be aspirated from the ...
HemaCare provides a variety of primary human cells and blood components including bone marrow mononuclear cells. Request a ... Bone marrow mononuclear cells are isolated from bone marrow aspirate using density gradient centrifugation techniques. Bone ... For cryopreserved bone marrow mononuclear cells, either prepare cells for long-term storage in Liquid Nitrogen vapor phase or ... Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Flow Data. The CD34 protein is a transmembrane protein expressed on early hematopoietic and ...
Profoundly Reduced Neovascularization Capacity of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Derived From Patients With Chronic Ischemic ... Profoundly Reduced Neovascularization Capacity of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Derived From Patients With Chronic Ischemic ... Profoundly Reduced Neovascularization Capacity of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Derived From Patients With Chronic Ischemic ... Profoundly Reduced Neovascularization Capacity of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Derived From Patients With Chronic Ischemic ...
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) were shown to improve the outcome in animal stroke models and clinical pilot ... Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells do not exert acute neuroprotection after stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rats. ... "Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells do not exert acute neuroprotection after stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rats." ...
... outcomes following treatment of severe traumatic brain injury in adults using autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells. ...
Application of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in six patients with advanced chronic critical limb ischemia as a ... Background aims: Previous clinical studies have reported that the injection of bone marrow (BM)-derived mononuclear cells (MNC ... However, most patients with Fontaine stage IV CLI limbs had to undergo amputation even after stem cell therapy. We report on ...
Impact of bone marrow mononuclear cell administration route on lung and distal organs in pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute ... Impact of bone marrow mononuclear cell administration route on lung and distal organs in pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute ... Impact of bone marrow mononuclear cell administration route on lung and distal organs in pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute ... Impact of bone marrow mononuclear cell administration route on lung and distal organs in pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute ...
Silicate Granules Preconditioned with Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Improve Osteogenesis in Bone Sarcoma Patients ... Silicate Granules Preconditioned with Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Improve Osteogenesis in Bone Sarcoma Patients. Flavio ... 2015) Silicate Granules Preconditioned with Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Improve Osteogenesis in Bone Sarcoma Patients. ... about the combinatory use of silicate granules with autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear cells (BMMCs) to refill bone cavity. ...
Phase 2 Pediatric Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. ... The proposed Phase 2 clinical trial will examine the effects of using bone marrow derived cells to treat severe traumatic brain ... The study will test if these cells preserve injured brain tissue after traumatic injury. Preservation of brain tissue is ...
... and non-cultured Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BM-MNCs) can improve random-pattern skin flap survival. However, .. ... Both cultured Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) ... Both Bone Marrow Mononuclear CElls (BM-MNCs) and Bone Marrow ... Random-pattern skin flap; Cell therapy; Bone marrow mononuclear cells; Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ... Both cultured Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) and non-cultured Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BM-MNCs) can improve ...
YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Transendocardial Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cells for ... Transendocardial Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cells for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: The TAC-HFT Randomized ... What is the safety of transendocardial stem cell injection with autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone marrow ... Bone Marrow, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Benzimidazoles, Quality of Life, Heart Failure, Hospitalization, Choristoma ...
Bone Marrow-Mononuclear Cells are isolated from bone marrow by diluting the whole bone marrow with phosphate buffered saline ... Mononuclear Cells can be processed to isolate subpopulations. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia-Bone Marrow-Mononuclear Cells are ... Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (Newly Diagnosed/Untreated) (CSC-C4602X). ... PRODUCTS Cells. Probe. BioBank. Tissue Array SERVICES Cell Services. Cell-Based Drug Discovery Services. Histology Services. ...
European Cells & Materials Journal - Open and Free Access - The Official Research Journal of AOCMF, AOTrauma, European ... Orthopaedic Research Society (EORS), Swiss Society for Biomaterials (SSB) and Tissue & Cell Engineering Society (TCES) ... Abstract: Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded on a scaffold of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote bone healing in a ... Title: The osteo-inductive activity of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells resides within the CD14+ population and is ...
Keywords: Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapy, Left ventricular function, Molecular and cellular perturbation, ... Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cell Therapy Prevents the Damage of Viable Myocardium and Improves Rat Heart ... Background We examined the effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMNCs) on preventing viable myocardium damage ...
2007) Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for ... However, bone marrow cells prepared according to the ASTAMI protocol are functional in bone marrow transplantation for patients ... 2006) Intracoronary injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 355:1199-1209. ... 2006) Intracoronary bone marrow cell transfer after myocardial infarction: eighteen months follow-up data from the randomized ...
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal bone marrow disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis such that the bone marrow doesn't produce enough healthy blood cells , instead making too many immature cells or "blasts" (megakaryoblasts, proerythroblasts, myeloblasts, and lymphoblasts). (shu.edu)
  • Ideally, if a small number of BM-MNCs could be expanded to achieve a large number of BMSCs without losing their protective function, the amount of bone marrow aspirate could be greatly reduced to meet current clinical requirements. (omicsonline.org)
  • Among various cell types, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNC) have been most widely applied in clinical trials and basic research [ 2 - 7 ]. (thno.org)
  • The Stem Cells Portal is a shared platform for the STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine sister journals, providing up-to-the-minute coverage of the latest research from bench science and developments to clinical applications. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Increased sensitivity to LPS may have clinical implications and could contribute to the development of pancytopenia by creating a chronic subclinical inflammatory micro-environment in the bone marrow. (elsevier.com)
  • We are conducting clinical trials with our stem cell therapies with the intention of obtaining marketing authorization in Europe the United States and other markets. (rexgenero.com)
  • All reagents and devices used to collect and separate the cells are certified clinical grade. (stemexpress.com)
  • Despite promising preclinical and early-phase clinical studies, subsequent studies fell short of confirming the efficacy of gene and cell-based therapies while their safety profile appears favourable. (escardio.org)
  • Different kinds of cells and scaffolds investigated in our group as well as in vivo transfer studies and BMC used in clinical phase I and IIa clinical trials of our group are shown. (springer.com)
  • Until now, systematic clinical studies applying autologous bone cell transplantation have barely performed. (springer.com)
  • There are two clinical application forms of cell therapies to regenerate bone. (springer.com)
  • To present clinical outcomes of 2 years duration in a prospective case series of a biologic augmentation technique using intra-ligamentous and intra-articular infiltration of mononuclear cells sourced from bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and growth factors derived from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) under arthroscopic visualization for the treatment of isolated and acute partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. (esska.org)
  • Release and secretion of these enzymes may influence hematopoietic cell behavior and may be important in the clinical point of view. (cdc.gov)
  • The history of stem cell transplant goes back as early as 1939, when the first documented clinical transplant was performed. (medscape.com)
  • A number of clinical trials have proved the superiority of this method over collection from the bone marrow. (medscape.com)
  • We conducted an observational clinical study comparing the abundance and molecular/functional characteristics of CD146 + pericytes isolated from the bone marrow of 25 individuals without diabetes and 14 individuals with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes, referring to our Musculoskeletal Research Unit for hip reconstructive surgery. (springer.com)
  • The infiltration of pancreatic islets by activated T lymphocytes, functional and morphological alterations of islet cells upon incubation with lymphokines such as gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor, and clinical response to cyclosporine are a few examples. (springer.com)
  • Clinical and animal studies highlight the multiple roles of B cells in the development and severity of RA, including production of autoantibodies, inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-6, and aberrant antigen presentation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both antibodies detected CD164/MGC-24v protein expression by BM stroma and subpopulations of the CD34 + cells, which include the majority of clonogenic myeloid (colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage [CFU-GM]) and erythroid (blast-forming unit-erythroid [BFU-E]) progenitors and the hierarchically more primitive precursors (pre-CFU). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Previously, we and others have shown that stroma exerts a protective effect that contributes to the poor response of leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic drugs ( 9 - 11 ), and the examination of the molecular nature of the protection provided by stroma remains the focus of significant interest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The BM is an immunologically privileged site, where stroma promote B-cell survival and thus may protect B cells from depleting therapies [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) have been in the spotlight for having the potential to treat a variety of diseases including neurological disorders. (sciencellonline.com)
  • Given the safety and the potential of these cells to treat so many conditions, researchers are energized to better understand how BMMC function in normal and diseased states. (sciencellonline.com)
  • Both the SIL-BMMC-healthy and SIL-BMMC-sil groups showed improvement in lung function, a reduction in the fractional area of granuloma, and a decrease in the number of mononuclear and apoptotic cells in lung parenchyma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Panels A to E are representative confocal images showing that transplanted BMMC, pre-labeled by PKH26 (red) and DAPI (blue), co-localize with proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, green). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, and in order to attain long-lasting cell labeling and study longer survival times, we used BMMC isolated from adult transgenic rats expressing GFP to reproduce our wild type model and evaluate their remyelination ability in a reversible model of Wallerian degeneration. (elsevier.com)
  • RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that cells isolated from the transgenic strain exhibited similar expression levels of markers specific to multipotent progenitors (CD34, CD90 and CD105) and Schwann cells (MPZ, MBP, S100β and p75 NTR ) compared to wild type BMMC. (elsevier.com)
  • Most importantly, and as detected through long-lasting cell tracking, some of these BMMC settled in the demyelinated area, mingled with endogenous cells, underwent phenotypic changes and colocalized with Schwann cell markers MBP and S100β. (elsevier.com)
  • Methanol-chloroform phospholipid extraction from 60 × 10 6 cells (PBMC or BMMC) was performed according to a modified version of Folch's method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The contribution of BM-MNCs in ischemia-mediated neovascularization was assessed via intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) transplantation of BM-MNCs (2x10 5 /1x10 6 ) that were extracted from the bone marrow of transgenic FVB-L2G mice (ubiquitously expressing Fluc and GFP reporter genes) and injected into syngeneic FVB/N mice after surgery (n=5-6/group). (ahajournals.org)
  • Female rabbits were submitted to the epidural balloon inflation method and the intravenous cells administrations were made after 8 hours or seven days after injury induction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intravenous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with early phase stroke serum: current evidence and study protocol for a randomized trial. (springer.com)
  • Stem cell and cell-based therapies offer an innovative approach to reverse cardiac structure and function towards normal, possibly reducing the need for aggressive therapies and cardiac transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CD34+ signal and low SSC is used to quantify stem cell populations within a sample. (hemacare.com)
  • J Stem Cell Res Ther 6:355. (omicsonline.org)
  • Comparison of Different Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell Approaches in Reperfused STEMI. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The isolated MNCs can be used to isolate subpopulations or used as a control for donor matched CD34+ stem cell experiments (Please request the CD34 depleted flow-through fraction upon ordering CD34+ stem cells). (stemexpress.com)
  • Minnesota Living With Heart Failure questionnaire score improved in a repeated measures analysis of variance compared with baseline for the mesenchymal stem cell group ( P = .02) and the bone marrow group ( P = .005) but not the placebo group ( P = .38). (jamanetwork.com)
  • The ATCC Cell Biology Collection is one of the largest bioresources in the world, and offers a complex array of human, animal, insect, fish and stem cell lines from which to choose. (atcc.org)
  • Our research history demonstrated the great potential of various stem cell species to support bone defect healing. (springer.com)
  • Recently, we described a panel of monoclonal antibodies with superior selectivity for mesenchymal stem cells, including the monoclonal antibodies W8B2 against human mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1 (MSCA-1) and 39D5 against a CD56 epitope, which is not expressed on natural killer cells. (haematologica.org)
  • On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1968, the first successful allogenic stem cell transplant was made possible followed by series of achievements in 1970s and 1980s. (medscape.com)
  • Now, treatment of a number of diseases is possible through stem cell transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • Pilot studies of autologous stem cell transplantation using peripheral blood have demonstrated rapid engraftment with this technique. (medscape.com)
  • The eligibility criteria for a stem cell donor are essentially the same as for blood donation. (medscape.com)
  • To maintain their numbers, HSCs must generate at least one daughter cell that retains the stem cell phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, long-term constitutive stabilization of β-catenin leads to inhibition of multilineage differentiation and the eventual loss of HSCs ( 8 , 9 ), indicating that the context in which canonical Wnt signaling is activated may determine the physiological effect and that other factors contribute to regulate canonical Wnt signaling to properly maintain stem cell numbers. (pnas.org)
  • Adult derived mononuclear bone marrow cells improve survival in a model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in rats," Toxicology , vol. 247, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Although primary cells isolated from non-diseased donors are not known to cause disease in healthy adult humans. (kosheeka.com)
  • Adult bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) are a potential resource for making Schwann cells to repair damaged peripheral nerves. (elsevier.com)
  • Adult porcine bone marrow was collected and enriched for BM-MNCs using a SEPAX device, then cells cultured in Neurobasal media, 4mM L-glutamine and 20% serum. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 - 4 These multipotent cells are found in various adult and fetal tissues including bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, liver, dental pulp, and term placenta. (haematologica.org)
  • Adult stem cells have become prominent candidates for treating various diseases in veterinary practice. (mcponline.org)
  • The main goal of our study was therefore to provide a comprehensive study of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) and conditioned media, isolated from healthy adult dogs of different breeds. (mcponline.org)
  • The Wnt signaling pathway regulates cell-fate decisions at all stages of development in multiple tissues, including embryonic and adult intestinal and skin stem cells ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)