Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Marrow DiseasesColony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Cell SeparationMice, Inbred BALB CCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, Inbred C3HBlood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Mice, Inbred CBALeukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Myeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Myelopoiesis: Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Preleukemia: Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Thrombopoietin: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Bone Diseases, MetabolicErythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Leukopoiesis: The process of generating white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS of the BONE MARROW. There are two significant pathways to generate various types of leukocytes: MYELOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes in the blood are derived from MYELOID STEM CELLS, and LYMPHOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOCYTES) are generated from lymphoid stem cells.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Mice, Inbred DBAPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Lymphopoiesis: Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Mice, Inbred AKRTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Hematologic Diseases: Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (1/12182)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

gp49B1 inhibits IgE-initiated mast cell activation through both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, recruitment of src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1, and suppression of early and late calcium mobilization. (2/12182)

We define by molecular, pharmacologic, and physiologic approaches the proximal mechanism by which the immunoglobulin superfamily member gp49B1 inhibits mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity Fc receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). In rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells expressing transfected mouse gp49B1, mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine in either of the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs of the gp49B1 cytoplasmic domain partially suppressed gp49B1-mediated inhibition of exocytosis, whereas mutation of both abolished inhibitory capacity. Sodium pervanadate elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of native gp49B1 and association of the tyrosine phosphatases src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). SHP-1 associated transiently with gp49B1 within 1 min after coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI in mBMMCs. SHP-1-deficient mBMMCs exhibited a partial loss of gp49B1-mediated inhibition of FcepsilonRI-induced exocytosis at concentrations of IgE providing optimal exocytosis, revealing a central, but not exclusive, SHP-1 requirement in the counter-regulatory pathway. Coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI on mBMMCs inhibited early release of calcium from intracellular stores and subsequent influx of extracellular calcium, consistent with SHP-1 participation. Because exocytosis is complete within 2 min in mBMMCs, our studies establish a role for SHP-1 in the initial counter-regulatory cellular responses whereby gp49B1 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs rapidly transmit inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis.  (+info)

Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human bone marrow. (3/12182)

The expression of neurotrophins and their receptors, the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR) and the Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC), was investigated in human bone marrow from 16 weeks fetal age to adulthood. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, all transcripts encoding for catalytic and truncated human TrkB or TrkC receptors were detected together with trkAI transcripts, whereas trkAII transcripts were found only in control nerve tissues. Transcripts for the homologue of the rat truncated TrkC(ic113) receptor were identified for the first time in human tissue. Stromal adventitial reticular cells were found immunoreactive for all neutrophin receptors. In contrast, hematopoietic cell types were not immunoreactive for p75LNGFR but showed immunoreactivity for one or several Trk receptors. TrkA immunoreactivity was found in immature erythroblasts. Catalytic TrkB immunoreactivity was observed in eosinophilic metamyelocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Truncated TrkB immunoreactivity was found in erythroblasts and megacaryocytes. Immunoreactivity for both catalytic and truncated TrkC receptor was observed in promyelocytes, myelocytes, some polymorphonuclear cells and megacaryocytes. Neutrophin transcript levels appeared higher at fetal than at adult stages, no variation in Trk family transcript levels was observed. The local expression of neurotrophin genes suggests a wide range of paracrine and/or autocrine mode of action through their corresponding receptors within the bone marrow.  (+info)

Disproportionate recruitment of CD8+ T cells into the central nervous system by professional antigen-presenting cells. (4/12182)

Inappropriate immune responses, thought to exacerbate or even to initiate several types of central nervous system (CNS) neuropathology, could arise from failures by either the CNS or the immune system. The extent that the inappropriate appearance of antigen-presenting cell (APC) function contributes to CNS inflammation and pathology is still under debate. Therefore, we characterized the response initiated when professional APCs (dendritic cells) presenting non-CNS antigens were injected into the CNS. These dendritic cells expressed numerous T-cell chemokines, but only in the presence of antigen did leukocytes accumulate in the ventricles, meninges, sub-arachnoid spaces, and injection site. Within the CNS parenchyma, the injected dendritic cells migrated preferentially into the white matter tracts, yet only a small percentage of the recruited leukocytes entered the CNS parenchyma, and then only in the white matter tracts. Although T-cell recruitment was antigen specific and thus mediated by CD4+ T cells in the models used here, CD8+ T cells accumulated in numbers equal to or greater than that of CD4+ T cells. Few of the recruited T cells expressed activation markers (CD25 and VLA-4), and those that did were primarily in the meninges, injection site, ventricles, and perivascular spaces but not in the parenchyma. These results indicate that 1) the CNS modulates the cellular composition and activation states of responding T-cell populations and that 2) myelin-restricted inflammation need not be initiated by a myelin-specific antigen.  (+info)

Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA sequences in multiple myeloma bone marrow stromal cells. (5/12182)

Whether Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with multiple myeloma (MM) remains controversial. We assayed for KSHV DNA sequences in long-term bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from 26 patients with MM and 4 normal donors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers which amplify a KSHV gene sequence to yield a 233-bp fragment (KS330233 within open reading frame 26) was negative in all cases. Aliquots of these PCR products were used as templates in subsequent nested PCR, with primers that amplify a 186-bp product internal to KS330233. BMSCs from 24 of 26 (92%) patients with MM and 1 of 4 normal donors were KSHV PCR+. DNA sequence analyses showed interpatient specific mutations (2 to 3 bp). Both Southern blot and sequence analyses confirmed the specificity of PCR results. The presence of the KSHV gene sequences was further confirmed by amplifying T 1.1 (open reading frame [ORF] K7) and viral cyclin D (ORF 72), two other domains within the KSHV genome. Immunohistochemical studies of KSHV PCR+ MM BMSCs demonstrate expression of dendritic cell (DC) lineage markers (CD68, CD83, and fascin). Serological studies for the presence of KSHV lytic or latent antibodies were performed using sera from 53 MM patients, 12 normal donors, and 5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/KSHV+ patients. No lytic or latent antibodies were present in sera from either MM patients or normal donors. Taken together, these findings show that KSHV DNA sequences are detectable in BMSCs from the majority of MM patients, but that serologic responses to KSHV are not present. Ongoing studies are defining whether the lack of antibody response is caused by the absence of ongoing infection, the presence of a novel viral strain associated with MM, or underlying immunodeficiency in these patients.  (+info)

Bone marrow and peripheral blood dendritic cells from patients with multiple myeloma are phenotypically and functionally normal despite the detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus gene sequences. (6/12182)

Multiple myeloma (MM) cells express idiotypic proteins and other tumor-associated antigens which make them ideal targets for novel immunotherapeutic approaches. However, recent reports show the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) gene sequences in bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) in MM, raising concerns regarding their antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. In the present study, we sought to identify the ideal source of DCs from MM patients for use in vaccination approaches. We compared the relative frequency, phenotype, and function of BMDCs or peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDCs) from MM patients versus normal donors. DCs were derived by culture of mononuclear cells in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The yield as well as the pattern and intensity of Ag (HLA-DR, CD40, CD54, CD80, and CD86) expression were equivalent on DCs from BM or PB of MM patients versus normal donors. Comparison of PBDCs versus BMDCs showed higher surface expression of HLA-DR (P =.01), CD86 (P =. 0003), and CD14 (P =.04) on PBDCs. APC function, assessed using an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), demonstrated equivalent T-cell proliferation triggered by MM versus normal DCs. Moreover, no differences in APC function were noted in BMDCs compared with PBDCs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genomic DNA from both MM patient and normal donor DCs for the 233-bp KSHV gene sequence (KS330233) was negative, but nested PCR to yield a final product of 186 bp internal to KS330233 was positive in 16 of 18 (88.8%) MM BMDCs, 3 of 8 (37.5%) normal BMDCs, 1 of 5 (20%) MM PBDCs, and 2 of 6 (33.3%) normal donor PBDCs. Sequencing of 4 MM patient PCR products showed 96% to 98% homology to the published KSHV gene sequence, with patient specific mutations ruling out PCR artifacts or contamination. In addition, KHSV-specific viral cyclin D (open reading frame [ORF] 72) was amplified in 2 of 5 MM BMDCs, with sequencing of the ORF 72 amplicon revealing 91% and 92% homology to the KSHV viral cyclin D sequence. These sequences again demonstrated patient specific mutations, ruling out contamination. Therefore, our studies show that PB appears to be the preferred source of DCs for use in vaccination strategies due to the ready accessibility and phenotypic profile of PBDCs, as well as the comparable APC function and lower detection rate of KSHV gene sequences compared with BMDCs. Whether active KSHV infection is present and important in the pathophysiology of MM remains unclear; however, our study shows that MMDCs remain functional despite the detection of KSHV gene sequences.  (+info)

Effects of short-term administration of G-CSF (filgrastim) on bone marrow progenitor cells: analysis of serial marrow samples from normal donors. (7/12182)

To determine the effect of G-CSF administration on both the total number of CD34+ cells and the primitive CD34+ subsets in bone marrow (BM), we have analyzed BM samples serially obtained from 10 normal donors in steady-state and during G-CSF treatment. Filgrastim was administered subcutaneously at a dosage of 10 microg/kg/day (n = 7) or 10 microg/kg/12 h (n = 3) for 4 consecutive days. Peripheral blood sampling and BM aspirates were performed on day 1 (just before G-CSF administration), day 3 (after 2 days of G-CSF), and day 5 (after 4 days of G-CSF). During G-CSF administration, a significant increase in the total number of BM nucleated cells was observed. The percentage (range) of CD34+ cells decreased in BM from a median of 0.88 (0.47-1.44) on day 1 to 0.57 (0.32-1.87), and to 0.42 (0.16-0.87) on days 3 and 5, respectively. We observed a slight increase in the total number of BM CD34+ cells on day 3 (0.66 x 10(9)/l (0.13-0.77)), and a decrease on day 5 (0.23 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.23)) as compared with steady-state (0.40 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.68)). The proportion of primitive BM hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+CD38-, CD34+HLA-DR-, CD34+CD117-) decreased during G-CSF administration. In parallel, a significant increase in the total number of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood was observed, achieving the maximum value on day 5. These results suggest that in normal subjects the administration of G-CSF for 5 days may reduce the number of progenitor cells in BM, particularly the most primitive ones.  (+info)

Immunoregulatory cytokines in bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell products. (8/12182)

In these studies, we compared the phenotype, function, and expression of type 1, type 2, and monocyte-associated cytokine mRNA transcripts in autologous bone marrow (BM) and growth factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PSC) products. These studies demonstrate that lymphocytes and monocytes in stem cell products are abnormally activated, expressing significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-2, 4 and 10, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), but not IL-8, as compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In addition, the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-alpha are significantly higher in mobilized PSC as compared to BM products. The high cytokine levels are unexpected as T cell function in stem cell products is depressed. PSC products have high levels of T cell inhibitory activity, which directly correlates with IL-10 expression, both of which are mechanisms that might be involved in the immune dysfunction within stem cell products used for autologous stem cell transplantation. These data demonstrate that: (1) immune cells in autologous BM and PSC products are activated with the expression of high levels of type 1 and type 2 cytokines as well as monokines; (2) PSC products contain a high frequency of monocytes which mediate T cell inhibitory activity; and (3) despite the high levels of cytokine expression, T cell function in stem cell products is depressed. The significance of these immune abnormalities within stem cell products for myeloid and lymphoid recovery following autologous stem cell transplantation remains to be determined.  (+info)

*GRID2

Hess DC, Hill WD, Carroll JE, Borlongan CV (Apr 2004). "Do bone marrow cells generate neurons?". Archives of Neurology. 61 (4 ... Kemp K, Wilkins A, Scolding N (Nov 2014). "Cell fusion in the brain: two cells forward, one cell back". Acta Neuropathologica. ... "Fusion of bone-marrow-derived cells with Purkinje neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes". Nature. 425 (6961): 968-73. doi: ... "Stable reprogrammed heterokaryons form spontaneously in Purkinje neurons after bone marrow transplant". Nature Cell Biology. 5 ...

*Thymidine kinase in clinical chemistry

Wickramasinghe SN, Olsen I, Saunders JE (1975). "Thymidine kinase activity in human bone marrow cells". Scandinavian Journal of ... TK1 is synthesized by the cell during the S phase of cell division. After cell division is completed, TK1 is degraded ... in peripheral lymphocytes during monocytosis and in bone marrow during pernicious anemia. As TK1 is present in cells during ... Enzymes of thymidine and thymidylate metabolism in normal and pathological blood and bone marrow cells]". Blut (in German). 25 ...

*Mir-154 microRNA precursor family

Debernardi, S.; Dixon-Mciver, A. (2010). "MicroRNA Detection in Bone Marrow Cells by LNA-FISH". MicroRNAs and the Immune System ... Choong, M. L.; Yang, H. H.; McNiece, I. (2007). "MicroRNA expression profiling during human cord blood-derived CD34 cell ... "Mature miR-184 as Potential Oncogenic microRNA of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Tongue". Clinical Cancer Research. 14 (9): 2588- ... "Differential MicroRNA Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Graves' Disease Patients". Journal of Clinical ...

*Immunology and Cell Biology

"The growth of mouse bone marrow cells in vitro". "Clinical and Translational Immunology". ... Immunology and Cell Biology is an academic journal of the Australasian Society of Immunology covering basic immunology research ... and was converted in 1987 to Immunology and Cell Biology, making it one of the oldest speciality immunology journals in ...

*New York Blood Center

Bone Marrow Cells - Advances in Research Application: 2013 Edition. ScholarlyEditions - via Google Books. Liu, Phillip Z.; ... "FDNY Honors Life-Saving Bone Marrow Donors". CBS New York. Retrieved 6 October 2016. Daily News (29 April 2016). "Bone marrow ... FDNY members represent more than 10% of all NYBC bone marrow donors. Each year, at an annual induction ceremony hosted by FDNY ... FDNY Press Office (29 April 2016). "Fire Commissioner and New York Blood Center Honor FDNY Bone Marrow Donors". Fire Department ...

*Multiple Sclerosis Trust

"Bone marrow cell treatment for chronic multiple sclerosis". MS Trust website. Retrieved 29 November 2012. "Pilates based core ... Research currently being funded includes: University of Bristol, Bone marrow cell treatment for chronic multiple sclerosis ...

*Vital stain

Hathaway WE, Newby LA, Githens JH (1964). "THE ACRIDINE ORANGE VIABILITY TEST APPLIED TO BONE MARROW CELLS. I. CORRELATION WITH ... the living cells exclude the stain i.e. stain negatively and only the dead cells stain positively and thus viability can be ... apoptotic and normal cells. Trypan Blue, a living-cell exclusion dye Erythrosine, which is Red No. 3 in food coloring, can be ... A vital stain in a casual usage may mean a stain that can be applied on living cells without killing them. Vital stains have ...

*Cardiac muscle

... including bone marrow stem cells. For example, in one study, researchers transplanted bone marrow cells, which included a ... Other clinical trials have shown that autologous bone marrow cell transplants delivered via the infarct-related artery ... In the centre of the cell they join together, running into and along the cell as a transverse-axial network. Inside the cell ... T-tubules are microscopic tubes that run from the cell surface to deep within the cell. They are continuous with the cell ...

*Stroke recovery

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for the repair of central nervous system injury. Bone Marrow Transplantation 40: ... 2000). "Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro". Experimental Neurology. 164 (2): 247-256. ... 2001). "Multi-organ, multi-lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow-derived stem cell". Cell. 105 (3): 369-377. doi:10.1016/ ... receptor 4 enhances bone marrow stromal cell migration into ischemic brain after stroke". Stem Cells. 25 (11): 2777-2785. doi: ...

*Glutathione

Prasad S, Srivastava S, Singh M, Shukla Y (2009). "Clastogenic effects of glyphosate in bone marrow cells of swiss albino mice ... It has roles in progression of the cell cycle, including cell death. GSH levels regulate redox changes to nuclear proteins ... Manageably low levels result in the systematic breakage of the cell whereas excessively low levels result in rapid cell death. ... Differences in GSH levels also determine the expressed mode of cell death, being either apoptosis or cell necrosis. ...

*CBX5 (gene)

Lessard J, Baban S, Sauvageau G (Feb 1998). "Stage-specific expression of polycomb group genes in human bone marrow cells". ... "Localization and phosphorylation of HP1 proteins during the cell cycle in mammalian cells". Chromosoma. 108 (4): 220-34. doi: ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ...

*Vitamin B12

Wickramasinghe, S. N. (1995). "Morphology, biology and biochemistry of cobalamin- and folate-deficient bone marrow cells". ... For the vitamin to serve inside cells, the TC-II/B12 complex must bind to a cell receptor, and be endocytosed. The ... and the formation of red blood cells. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the ... in particular red blood cells, and also intestinal wall cells which are responsible for absorption. THF may be regenerated via ...

*Citrinin

doi:10.1016/0304-3835(83)90165-9. Jeswal, P (1996). "Citrinin-induced chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow cells of Mus ... The ESC-B5 cells were treated with 10-30 μM CTN for 24 hours and a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability was found. Chan ... In vivo it induced chromosome abnormalities and hypodiploidy in the bone marrow of mice. This indicates that citrinin is ... 2006) investigated the effect of CTN on cell viability for a HL-60 cell line. When exposed to 25 μM CTN for 24 hours, no ...

*CBX1

Lessard J, Baban S, Sauvageau G (Feb 1998). "Stage-specific expression of polycomb group genes in human bone marrow cells". ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... "Localization and phosphorylation of HP1 proteins during the cell cycle in mammalian cells". Chromosoma. 108 (4): 220-34. doi: ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Molecular Cell. 7 (4): 729-39. ...

*CBX3

Lessard J, Baban S, Sauvageau G (1998). "Stage-specific expression of polycomb group genes in human bone marrow cells". Blood. ... 1999). "Localization and phosphorylation of HP1 proteins during the cell cycle in mammalian cells". Chromosoma. 108 (4): 220-34 ... 2001). "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Mol. Cell. 7 (4): 729-39 ... "Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins". Mol. Cell. United States. 7 (4): ...

*Purkinje cell

There is evidence in mice and humans that bone marrow cells either fuse with or generate cerebellar Purkinje cells, and it is ... with basket cells synapsing on the Purkinje cell axon initial segment and stellate cells onto the dendrites. Purkinje cells ... possible that bone marrow cells, either by direct generation or by cell fusion, could play a role in repair of central nervous ... Hess DC, Hill WD, Carroll JE, Borlongan CV (2004). "Do bone marrow cells generate neurons?". Archives of Neurology. 61 (4): 483 ...

*BML-190

Scutt, A; Williamson, EM (2007). "Cannabinoids stimulate fibroblastic colony formation by bone marrow cells indirectly via CB2 ... Klegeris, A; Bissonnette, CJ; McGeer, PL (2003). "Reduction of human monocytic cell neurotoxicity and cytokine secretion by ... factor Trk receptors and prolactin receptors by endocannabinoids leads to inhibition of human breast and prostate cancer cell ...

*Isabelle Dinoire

Dinoire was also given bone marrow cells to prevent rejection of the tissue. In 2009, Dinoire's doctors reported she was ...

*Epigenetics

Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have also shown a potential to differentiate into cardiac competent cells when ... "The histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX01294 enhances the cardiac potential of bone marrow cells". Stem Cells Dev. 22: 654- ... In mammals, most cells terminally differentiate, with only stem cells retaining the ability to differentiate into several cell ... "Inhibition of G9a Histone Methyltransferase Converts Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Cardiac Competent Progenitors". stem ...

*SLC14A2

1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a urea transporter from human bone marrow cells". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (50): 31649- ... In mammalian cells, urea is the chief end-product of nitrogen catabolism and plays an important role in the urinary ... J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 287 (4): C1087-93. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00363.2003. PMID 15189812. Damiano AE, Zotta E, Ibarra C ( ... Thus, the plasma membrane of erythrocytes and some renal epithelial cells exhibit an elevated urea permeability that is ...

*SLC14A1

1995). "Cloning and functional expression of a urea transporter from human bone marrow cells". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (50): 31649- ... Cell. 6 (10): 1411-21. doi:10.1091/mbc.6.10.1411. PMC 301296 . PMID 8573795. Olivès B, Martial S, Mattei MG, et al. (1996). " ... Davey S, Beach D (1996). "RACH2, a novel human gene that complements a fission yeast cell cycle checkpoint mutation". Mol. Biol ... 2002). "Antigenic and functional properties of the human red blood cell urea transporter hUT-B1". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (37): ...

*Sudan I

... there was an increase in micro-nucleated cells found in the bone marrow. The frequency of micro-nucleated bone marrow cells ... Furthermore, DNA damage was depicted in the stomach and liver cells of mice. In rats there was found to be no significant ... This supports the explanation that Sudan 1 is oxidized or activated by peroxidase in the blood cells and thereby forming micro- ... Moreover, Sultan I strongly induces CYP1A1 in rats and human cells in culture, due to activation of the cytosolic aryl ...

*Apheresis

Stem cell harvesting - circulating bone marrow cells are harvested to use in bone marrow transplantation. Single use kits - ... This process is used for red blood cell diseases such as sickle cell crises or severe malaria. The automated red blood cell ... Leukocytapheresis - removal of malignant white blood cells in people with leukemia and very high white blood cell counts ... Protein A is a cell wall component produced by several strains of Staphylococcus aureus which binds to the Fc region of IgG. ...

*Indian hedgehog (protein)

1999). "Hedgehog signaling molecules in bone marrow cells at the initial stage of fracture repair". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Cell Genet. 92 (3-4): 300-3. doi:10.1159/000056918. PMID 11435703. Gao B, Guo J, She C, et al. (2001). "Mutations in IHH, ... Cell Genet. 76 (3-4): 187-8. doi:10.1159/000134545. PMID 9186520. Pepinsky RB, Zeng C, Wen D, et al. (1998). "Identification of ... This cell signaling protein is in the hedgehog signaling pathway. The several mammalian variants of the Drosophila hedgehog ...

*Homeobox A10

"Differential expression of homeobox genes in functionally distinct CD34+ subpopulations of human bone marrow cells". ... Scott MP (Nov 1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature". Cell. 71 (4): 551-3. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90588-4. PMID ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 73 (1-2): 114-5. doi:10.1159/000134320. PMID 8646877. Thorsteinsdottir U, Sauvageau G, Hough MR ... "Overexpression of HOXA10 in murine hematopoietic cells perturbs both myeloid and lymphoid differentiation and leads to acute ...

*Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health

... of airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling Trafficking and lung homing of bone-marrow derived hemopoietic stem cells ...
One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs) seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the
IN their investigations of the fat composition and in vitro oxygen consumption of marrow from fed and fasted rabbits, Evans et al.1 observed a respiratory quotient of 0.85 for marrow cell suspensions incubated in the absence of glucose but in the presence of all the fatty material of whole marrow. The authors were unable to detect any uptake of fatty acid by the marrow cells and concluded that saturated fats were probably not degraded in the marrow for the production of local energy. In the work recorded here we have re-examined the question of in vitro uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by bone marrow cells. Our results indicate that fatty acid is taken up and oxidized by washed bone marrow cells suspended in a medium containing 5 per cent albumin as a carrier for fatty acid. Furthermore, we have found that glucose exerts a considerable influence on the rate of uptake and oxidation of fatty acid.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Derivation of hepatocytes from bone marrow cells in mice after radiation-induced myeloablation. AU - Theise, Neil D.. AU - Badve, Sunil. AU - Saxena, Romil. AU - Henegariu, Octavian. AU - Sell, Stewart. AU - Crawford, James M.. AU - Krause, Diane S.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Following a report of skeletal muscle regeneration from bone marrow cells, we investigated whether hepatocytes could also derive in vivo from bone marrow cells. A cohort of lethally irradiated B6D2F1 female mice received whole bone marrow transplants from age-matched male donors and were sacrificed at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 and months 2, 4, and 6 posttransplantation (n = 3 for each time point). Additionally, 2 archival female mice of the same strain who had previously been recipients of 200 male fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)-sorted CD34+lin- cells were sacrificed 8 months posttransplantation under the same protocol. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the Y-chromosome was performed on ...
Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. ...
Many data indicate that statins increase mobilization of bone marrow-derived stem cells, and circulating bone marrow-derived stem cells are capable of homing to sites of myocardial infarction and endothelial disruption, thereby restoring myocardial function and microvascular integrity after acute myocardial infarction. Atorvastatin is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, especially after acute myocardial infarction. High-dose atorvastatin has been known to stop the progression of atherosclerosis and to decrease the levels of inflammatory markers.. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial is to compare the effect of atorvastatin 10 mg versus 40 mg in restoring coronary flow reserve (CFR) and in serial bone marrow stem cell mobilization during the 8 months follow-up in patients with acute myocardial infarction. ...
A resident population of dendritic cells (DCs) has been identified in murine bone marrow, but its contribution to the regulation of hematopoiesis and establishment of the stem cell niche is largely unknown. Here, we show that murine bone marrow DCs are perivascular and have a type 2 conventional DC (cDC2) immunophenotype. RNA expression analysis of sorted bone marrow DCs showed that expression of many chemokines and chemokine receptors is distinct from that observed in splenic cDC2s, suggesting that bone marrow DCs might represent a unique DC population. A similar population of DCs was present in human bone marrow. Ablation of conventional DCs (cDCs) results in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization that was greater than that seen with ablation of bone marrow macrophages, and cDC ablation also synergizes with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to mobilize HSPCs. Ablation of cDCs was associated with an expansion of bone marrow endothelial cells and increased vascular ...
A resident population of dendritic cells (DCs) has been identified in murine bone marrow, but its contribution to the regulation of hematopoiesis and establishment of the stem cell niche is largely unknown. Here, we show that murine bone marrow DCs are perivascular and have a type 2 conventional DC (cDC2) immunophenotype. RNA expression analysis of sorted bone marrow DCs showed that expression of many chemokines and chemokine receptors is distinct from that observed in splenic cDC2s, suggesting that bone marrow DCs might represent a unique DC population. A similar population of DCs was present in human bone marrow. Ablation of conventional DCs (cDCs) results in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization that was greater than that seen with ablation of bone marrow macrophages, and cDC ablation also synergizes with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to mobilize HSPCs. Ablation of cDCs was associated with an expansion of bone marrow endothelial cells and increased vascular ...
A resident population of dendritic cells (DCs) has been identified in murine bone marrow, but its contribution to the regulation of hematopoiesis and establishment of the stem cell niche is largely unknown. Here, we show that murine bone marrow DCs are perivascular and have a type 2 conventional DC (cDC2) immunophenotype. RNA expression analysis of sorted bone marrow DCs showed that expression of many chemokines and chemokine receptors is distinct from that observed in splenic cDC2s, suggesting that bone marrow DCs might represent a unique DC population. A similar population of DCs was present in human bone marrow. Ablation of conventional DCs (cDCs) results in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization that was greater than that seen with ablation of bone marrow macrophages, and cDC ablation also synergizes with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to mobilize HSPCs. Ablation of cDCs was associated with an expansion of bone marrow endothelial cells and increased vascular ...
Minguell, J.J.; Bruzzone, M.S., 1986: Regulation of hydrocortisone binding sites by hydrocortisone in human bone marrow fibroblasts
In the present study, cytogenetic effects of Indian chrysotile asbestos in rat bone marrow cells after 290 days of intratracheal inoculation, when it develops massive pulmonary fibrosis, were investigated. The pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed by both histopathological studies and increased collagen content in the lung of the treated animals. In the asbestotic rats a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations was recorded and a decrease in mitotic index of bone marrow cells. The types of chromosomal aberrations in these cells were chromatid gaps and breaks. The results indicate the significant cytogenetic changes in the bone marrow cells of asbestotic rats and also suggest that these changes directly or indirectly may be one of the biological events involved in eliciting the asbestos-mediated toxic responses. ...
Bone marrow has been studied for a number of purposes in recent years because it is rich in stem cells - cells that can go on to become many different kinds of cells. In order to conduct this research, Isik and colleagues obtained a strain of mice whose bodies glow green under fluorescent light. The researchers removed bone marrow from the mice and then performed a stem cell transplant into a genetically identical strain of normal mice, whose cells do not glow green. Afterward, only the bone marrow of the transplanted mice glowed green inside the bodies of the mice, allowing researchers to track the bone marrow cells throughout the body. Researchers found green cells throughout the body, but observed that the highest concentration of bone marrow cells was in normal skin ...
HealthDayNews -- Stomach cancer may originate from bone marrow cells rather than stomach cells, as was previously believed. A new study in mice found that stomach cancer cells began as bone marrow cells that had migrated to the stomach. The bone marrow cells traveled to the stomach in response to inflammation caused by an infection with the bacterium that causes ulcers, Helicobacter pylori. These findings, published in the Nov. 26 issue of Science, are in stark contrast to the commonly held belief that cancers originate from the tissue in the surrounding area, meaning that it was believed that stomach cancer begins from stomach stem cells. "In the last five years or so, weve learned that bone marrow-derived stem cells can go to sites of injury and mimic epithelial cells [from that region], which raised the possibility that bone marrow cells could play a role in the development of cancer in that area," said one of the studys authors, Dr. Timothy Wang, chief of the division of digestive and ...
It has been postulated that adult murine bone marrow cells have the potential to differentiate into cells of neuroectodermal origin. In order to examine whether bone marrow cells can adopt an astroglial fate, various in vivo and in vitro approaches were chosen. Lethally irradiated recipient mice were transplanted with bone marrow derived from transgenic mice which express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human GFAP promoter. Four weeks after transplantation, several animals underwent transient focal cerebral ischemia. Although postischemic inflammatory processes may eventually have a permissive effect on cell differentiation, not a single cells coexpressing GFAP and GFP was found in the brains of all reci-pients examined. For in vitro studies, murine bone marrow cells were co-cultured on astrocytic monolayers or organotypic entorhinal-hippocampal brain slices. Bone marrow cells were either labelled by retroviral transfection with GFP or derived from two different ...
FA is a rare, inherited disease that is caused by a gene defect and that primarily affects an individuals bone marrow, resulting in decreased production of blood cells. The lack of white blood cells affects an individuals ability to fight infections, the lack of platelets may result in bleeding, and the lack of red blood cells usually leads to anemia. FA is typically diagnosed in childhood, and there is a high fatality rate. Bone marrow transplants are one common treatment for FA. However, there are many risks associated with transplantation, including rejection of the transplanted cells and graft-versus-host disease, a serious side effect in which donor cells attack the recipients tissues. This study will use an experimental gene transfer procedure performed in a laboratory to insert a new FA gene into the participants bone marrow cells. The gene-corrected bone marrow cells will then be re-infused into the participant and participants will be observed for successful gene transfer. The ...
Researchers also found that certain types of the stem cells were associated with the largest improvement and warrant further study.. VIDEO ALERT: Additional audio and video resources, including excerpts from an interview with Dr.Simari describing the research, are available on the Mayo Clinic News Blog.. The results were presented today at the 2012 American College of Cardiology Meeting in Chicago. They will also be published online in the Journal of the American Medical Association.. This Phase II clinical trial, designed to test this strategy to improve cardiac function, is an extension of earlier efforts in Brazil in which a smaller number of patients received fewer stem cells. For this new network study, 92 patients received a placebo or 100 million stem cells derived from the bone marrow in their hips in a one-time injection. This was the first study in humans to deliver that many bone marrow stem cells.. "We found that the bone marrow cells did not have a significant impact on the original ...
Fig. 4 Functional assays show increased transformation potential and sensitivity to TNK2 inhibition.. (A) Total colony formation in mouse bone marrow colony formation assay. Mouse bone marrow cells were cotransduced to express PTPN11, PTPN11 E76K, TNK2, or empty vector controls. Cells were selected for GFP+ (green fluorescent protein-positive) and puromycin resistance and plated in a methylcellulose GM-CSF sensitivity colony formation assay. Colonies were counted at 14 days [GM-CSF] = 0.05 nM (0.71 ng/ml). ****P , 0.0001 by one-way ANOVA. (B) Total colony formation in mouse bone marrow colony formation assay in cells transduced with PTPN11, PTPN11 E76K, or PTPN11 G60R. Cells were sorted for GFP+. Cells were plated with increasing concentrations of dasatinib. ***P , 0.005 and ****P , 0.0005 by one-way ANOVA. (C) Total colony formation and percent total colony formation in mouse bone marrow colony formation assay. Mouse bone marrow cells were cotransduced to express PTPN11 E76K and TNK2 or TNK2 ...
EBF2-EXPRESSING CELLS REPRESENT A HIGHLY PURIFIED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL POPULATION IN ADULT MOUSE BONE MARROW in EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY, vol 39, issue 8, pp S109-S109 ...
Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types under certain conditions. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy for the treatment of certain diseases. To deliver knowledge about this frontier in science and technology to medical undergraduate students, we designed an innovative practical experiment for freshmen in their second semester. The lab exercise focused on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) isolation, cell culture and differentiation, and it aimed to help students master the aseptic techniques for cell culture, the basic methods and procedures for the primary culture and passage of BMSCs, the basic procedure for the directional differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes and their subsequent identification by oil-red-O staining ...
The present invention relates to proteins associated with human bone marrow cell membranes for adhering hematopoietic cells to human bone marrow cell membranes. These proteins are soluble in lithium dodecyl sulfate but insoluble in 2% nonaethylene glycol octylphenol ether (e.g., 2% Triton X-100) solution. These proteins and antibodies raised against them are useful in the treatment and diagnosis of blood disorders. The DNA molecules encoding these proteins have use in gene therapy regimes. Also disclosed is a method for detecting binding between cell adhesion membrane proteins and cells having a potential to be bound to such proteins.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Properties of the mouse embryo conditioned medium factor(s) stimulationg colony formation by mouse bone marrow cells grown in vitro.. AU - Stanley, E. R.. AU - Bradley, T. R.. AU - Sumner, M. A.. PY - 1971/10. Y1 - 1971/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0015138971&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0015138971&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 4333458. AN - SCOPUS:0015138971. VL - 78. SP - 301. EP - 317. JO - Journal of Cellular Physiology. JF - Journal of Cellular Physiology. SN - 0021-9541. IS - 2. ER - ...
Techniques for the development of ovine bone marrow-derived haemopoietic progenitor cells and in situ identification of colony morphology are described. Both mitogen stimulated lymphoid cells and antigen stimulated helper T-cells generated potent colony-stimulating activity in conditioned medium. Monocyte/macrophage, neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil/mast cell, neutrophil/monocyte and mixed phenotype colonies developed in stimulated bone marrow cultures in a conditioned medium dose-dependent manner. Neutrophil, monocyte/macrophage and eosinophil colonies were detected in greater numbers than the other types, with mixed colonies representing only around 1% of the total. Eosinophil colonies were particularly abundant when compared to published reports of the numbers obtained with similar cultures of normal mouse or human bone marrow cells. This culture technique will allow a detailed analysis of both ovine colony-stimulating factors and of the distribution of haemopoietic progenitor cells in vivo.
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It is important to weigh both the risks and the benefits of a bone marrow/stem cell transplant. A transplant doctor can answer your questions and help you decide if a transplant is an option for you. A bone marrow transplant has serious risks. Some patients suffer from life-threatening problems as a result of their transplant. These problems can include serious infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in which the transplanted cells attack the patients body.
It is important to weigh both the risks and the benefits of a bone marrow/stem cell transplant. A transplant doctor can answer your questions and help you decide if a transplant is an option for you. A bone marrow transplant has serious risks. Some patients suffer from life-threatening problems as a result of their transplant. These problems can include serious infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in which the transplanted cells attack the patients body.
Delayed spontaneous apoptosis in immature bone marrow neutrophils compared with mature blood neutrophils. (A) Viability assay in the absence of survival and dea
Developmental biologist Lorraine Iacovitti, Ph.D., associate director of the Farber Institute for Neurosciences at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia and her co-workers had previously shown that by using a potion of growth factors and other nutrients in the laboratory, they were able to convert adult human bone marrow stem cells into adult brain cells. Human adult bone marrow stem cells - also known as pluripotent stem cells - normally give rise to human bone, muscle, cartilage and fat cells ...
Kiesche, Amy, "H-2 associated natural resistance to normal bone marrow cells." (1983). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 754 ...
The addition of bone marrow cells or peripheral lymphocytes to the isolated pig spleen markedly enhanced the primary antibody response after 3-day perfusion and antigenic challenge in vitro. The splenic preparation without added cells or with the addition of marrow cells to an irradiated spleen gave a limited response. Contributory evidence is provided that at least two distinct cell types are needed for antibody production. For optimal antibody response by an isolated perfused spleen, marrow cells or peripheral lymphocytes should be added to the system.. ...
A method is described for generating a clinically significant volume of neural progenitor cells from whole bone marrow. A mass of bone marrow cells may be grown in a culture supplemented with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Further methods of the present invention are directed to utilizing the neural progenitor cells cultured in this fashion in the treatment of various neuropathological conditions, and in targeting delivery of cells transfected with a particular gene to diseased or damaged tissue.
A meta-analysis by Lipinski et al. (5) included 10 of these trials (7 randomized, 3 cohort studies) on intracoronary cell injection (within the first 14 days after infarction), yielding 698 patients, of which 659 were available at follow-up (median follow-up of 6 months). In 2 trials (n = 126), peripheral blood cells were used for intracoronary infusion and in 8 investigations bone marrow-derived cells were used. For the pooled population, Lipinski et al. (5) found a significantly superior improvement in LVEF of 3.0% (95% confidence interval: 1.9% to 4.1%, p , 0.00001) for subjects receiving bone marrow transplantation in comparison with control subjects. Similarly, LV end-systolic volumes were reduced in patients receiving cell therapy by -7.4 ml (95% confidence interval: -12.2 to -2.7 ml, p , 0.002) compared with control subjects. Changes in end-diastolic volumes were not significantly different between groups in this meta-analysis.. Clinical end points, such as death, target vessel ...
AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (DCM) [ASE-5071] - Catalog Number ASE-5071; ASE-5072; ASE-5073 Quantity 2.5 x 106 viable cells/mL; 10.0 x 106 viable cells/mL; 25.0 x 106 viable cells/mL Product Information Descriptio
Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells are approximately 15 to 25 μm in diameter. Unfortunately I dont have any internal protocols for injecting mice. 27G may lyse the cells. So you may need to use 25 G needle. Prior to injecting the mice, I would recommend checking cell viability after passing the cells through the gauge needle you intend to use. You may be able to find some protocols online though.. ...
Katie Kraushaar opens a core shop bone marrow stem cell therapy for ErrorDocument vertebrae & at Hixson Middle School in St. She is to complete the schedule of having in her general by stay-connected-to-everything a sure hair with the pattern pp. and by submitting wide with her copies. In j to her seven books in the l, Katie is a Teacher Consultant for the Gateway Writing Project, a contrast of the National Writing Project. including Out the Welcome; Wagon! retailers requested wanting on, I partnered refreshing for students! I abnormally serve the something of Teaching g and Surface. I will Moreover Provide this hand with names. Katie, I stand how pulmonary you require not stopping invalid questions are incredible and services have to save! I know the aspect is a related employer and I are to work it. I not were your administrator and can please how genuine you assign not hanging format! so prosocial to call it failed Quarterly! accurate no an magical file taht! I expose up-to-the-minute ...
Helen Pearson. Prof. Catherine Verfaillie has isolated a stem cell from adult human bone marrow that can produce all tissue types.. June 21, 2002; US scientists have reversed the symptoms of Parkinsons Disease in rats using stem cells from mouse embryos [1]. Another team has compelling evidence that they have isolated a stem cell from adult human bone marrow that can produce all the tissue types in the body, from blood to muscle to nerve [2]. Stem cells from embryos were known to give rise to every type of cell. Those from adults were previously thought to have a more limited repertoire.. Researchers hope to use stem cells to repair or replace diseased or damaged organs, leading to new treatments for human disorders that are currently incurable, including diabetes, spinal-cord injury and brain diseases. The new reports may re-fuel the debate in the US Senate over whether to permit the cloning of human embryos for medical research, which stalled earlier this week. US scientists are fighting to ...
Microvascular adaptations occur through the processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and venogenesis in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli. Delivery of cells, specifically bone marrow-derived cells, is actively investigated as a means to stimulate the growth of new vasculature, and/or enlargement of pre-existing vessels. Understanding how bone marrow-derived cells impact all components of the microvascular network is important in determining their value as a therapeutic agent, but their ability to augment remodeling on the venule side of the network lacks attention. I study how the delivery of bone marrow-derived cells to a remodeling tissue can influence the processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and venogenesis, and how the dynamics of these events might influence overall microvascular network function. Specifically, I am investigating how and why venules enlarge in response to the delivery of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, and am working to identify the ...
April 11, 2013 - Researchers from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), have launched a Phase I clinical trial of CD34+ bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) for people with retinal conditions that cause vision loss from ischemia, or loss of blood flow, and cell degeneration. Led byDr. Susanna Park, the investigative team believes the
Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) as well as perivascular progenitor cells have been implicated to differentiate into vascular cells during neointima formation. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of progenitor cells to the cellular neointimal mass. Wire-induced injury of the femoral artery was performed on chimeric C57BL/6 mice transplanted with bone marrow from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Vessels were harvested at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 16 weeks after dilation (n=8 animals per time point) and analyzed using confocal microscopy. Most of the accumulating EGFP+-cells were identified as inflammatory cells (CD45, CD68), and their number in the neointima declined from 110.81±18.98 at 2 weeks to only 5.31±2.21 at 16 weeks after dilation. Whereas very few EGFP+-cells co-expressed α-smooth muscle actin or CD31, expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain or von Willebrand Factor was not detected in BM-derived cells at any time ...
Enhanced proliferation of MDS progenitors is abrogated by increased apoptosis of their progeny in vivo. We investigated whether bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) of MDS patients also showed enhanced proliferation and apoptosis in vitro in comparison with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and normal BM (NBM). NBM showed a decrease in the number of clusters in time due to apoptosis of clusters and due to development of clusters into colonies with low apoptotic level. In MDS patients, about two-fold more clusters have developed at day 4, and in contrast with NBM, the total number of clusters at day 7 remained high in spite of an increasing percentage of apoptotic clusters (from 52 to 76%) in combination with more colony formation. The number of clusters and colonies showed a sharp decrease at day 10 because of persistently high apoptosis at cluster level and increasing apoptosis in colonies. BMMNC of AML patients showed a decreased proliferation with enhanced apoptosis at cluster level in contrast ...
目的:用腺病毒表达载体将骨活素基因转染到兔骨髓基质干细(BMSCs),复合多孔丝素蛋白支架体外构建组织工程骨。方法:用表达骨活素基因的腺病毒载体转染体外培养的兔BMSC,免疫组化、原位杂交染色和蛋白印迹方法检测细胞骨活素的表达,并通过流式细胞仪和ALP活性检测分析其对细胞增殖、分化的影响。然后将转染后细胞接种到多孔丝素蛋白支架上,扫描电镜观察细胞贴附、生长状况。结果:转染后,骨活素基因在mRNA水平和蛋白水平均有表达;S期细胞比例和ALP活性明显增高。扫描电镜见转染细胞分布均匀,伸展良好。结论骨活素基因可高效转染兔BMSC,且促进细胞增殖及成骨转化。转染后细胞在多孔丝素蛋白支架上生长良好,骨活素基因治疗的组织工程骨构建成功。 Objective: Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) infected by a recombinant adenoviral vector carrying the
Bone marrow harbors cells that have the capacity to differentiate into cells of nonhematopoietic tissues of neuronal, endothelial, epithelial, and muscular phenotype. Here we demonstrate that bone marrow-derived cells populate pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Bone marrow cells from male mice that express, using a CRE-LoxP system, an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) if the insulin gene is actively transcribed were transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient female mice. Four to six weeks after transplantation, recipient mice revealed Y chromosome and EGFP double-positive cells in their pancreatic islets. Neither bone marrow cells nor circulating peripheral blood nucleated cells of donor or recipient mice had any detectable EGFP. EGFP-positive cells purified from islets express insulin, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and transcription factors typically found in pancreatic β cells. Furthermore, in vitro these bone marrow-derived cells exhibit - as do pancreatic β cells - ...
BioAssay record AID 74878 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for bone marrow cell toxicity expressed as colony forming unit of granulocyte -macrophage at a compound concentration of 30 mM in experiment-2.
Principal Investigator:KUBO Hiroshi, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2002, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
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Find cartilage regeneration bone marrow cells scaffolds. Mississsippi Stem Cell Therapy Center promotes stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine.
We describe a nonenzymatic method for obtaining bone marrow cells by flushing chick long bone with a syringe filled with sterile saline.
Suh, Y.-G., Kim, J. K., Byun, J.-S., Yi, H.-S., Lee, Y.-S., Eun, H. S., Kim, S. Y., Han, K.-H., Lee, K. S., Duester, G., Friedman, S. L. and Jeong, W.-I. (2012), CD11b+ Gr1+ bone marrow cells ameliorate liver fibrosis by producing interleukin-10 in mice. Hepatology, 56: 1902-1912. doi: 10.1002/hep.25817 ...
Read about an early study suggesting that bone marrow cell transplant can improve overall lung function and treat cystic fibrosis.
Human tissues as source of colony-stimulating factor in human bone marrow cultures.: Human bone marrow cells were cultured by the agar method using feeder layer
ABSTRACT This unit describes our current knowledge regarding the isolation human bone marrow-derived progenitor cells for the paracrine stimulation of islet regeneration after transplantation into immunodeficient mouse models of diabetes
AllCells offers a wide selection of human primary cells and related products including Bone Marrow CD105+ Endothelial Cells from our AllCells.com store.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by a pathogenic vasculature that drives aggressive local invasion. Recent work suggests that GBM cells recruit bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMDC) to facilitate recurrence after radiotherapy, but how this may be achieved is unclear. In this study, we established the spatiotemporal and regional contributions of perivascular BMDCs (pBMDC) to GBM development. We found an increased recruitment of BMDCs to GBM in response to tumor growth and following radiotherapy. However, in this study, BMDCs did not differentiate into endothelial cells directly but rather provided a perivascular support role. The pBMDCs were shown to associate with tumor vasculature in a highly region-dependent manner, with central vasculature requiring minimal pBMDC support. Region-dependent association of pBMDC was regulated by VEGF. In the absence of VEGF, following radiotherapy or antiangiogenic therapy, we documented an increase in Ang2 that regulated recruitment of ...
The current results are consistent with previous observations made in our laboratory3,19,20 in which an enriched population of c-kit-positive BMCs regenerated the infarcted myocardium. Similarly, BMCs and endothelial progenitor cells improve cardiac function in humans.4,6-12 So far, only one negative study has been reported.5 Moreover, a variety of bone marrow-derived cells capable of differentiating into the cardiac myogenic lineage have been described.3,10,17,18,20,29,30 It is therefore, difficult to reconcile our findings and the clinical and experimental studies with the claim made recently.13,14 The most likely possibility is a technical difference in the experimental protocol, identity of the therapeutic cell(s), tissue preparation, and immunocytochemical analysis of the myocardium.. The utilization of frozen tissue samples13,14 has severe limitations in terms of the quality of the sections, immunolabeling, and microscopic resolution. The infarct is rarely preserved in frozen sections. ...
Cell therapy has been shown to be useful in treating some patients with acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and ischemic limbs.1-7 In harvesting, storing, or injecting the bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMCs), an anticoagulant, such as heparin, is often added to prevent cell clumping. In this issue of Circulation Research, Drs Stephanie Dimmeler, Andreas Zeiher, and their colleagues (Seeger et al8) show in detailed studies that heparin may impair the functional capacities of BMCs. This discovery has significant implications for the processing of BMCs before administration of cell therapy and potentially in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes, chronic ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies, and peripheral vascular disease.. Article, see p 854. In their report, the authors show that heparin impairs migration and homing of BMCs by blocking a key cytokine and its receptor on the surface of BMCs. SDF-1 and CXCR4 are the ligand/receptor pair that play ...
Adult immune-defective mice resemble the B cells of normal neonatal mice, but not bone marrow B cells of adult normal mice with regard to their susceptibility to tolerance induction. A different approach to the analysis of the tolerance susceptibility of immune-defective mice was taken by McKearn and Quintans (1980), who preincubated the tolerogen TNP-fowl y-globulin (TNP-FGG) with B cells of immune-defective or normal mice prior to challenge with the TI-1 antigens TNP-BA or TNP-LPS. 94 ? 74 ? 1978b). D. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TOLERANCE The susceptibility of CBA/N B cells to tolerance induction was of particular importance in view of the functional defects demonstrated in these cells when analyzed with TI-2 antigens or B-cell mitogens. A number of approaches have been employed in studies on this subject (E. , 1978a,b). In early studies it had been demonstrated that a larger proportion of neonatal splenic B cells and a smaller proportion of adult bone marrow B cells were sensitive to tolerance ...
Autologous cell therapy with bone marrow (BM)-derived pro-angiogenic cells is a promising new treatment modality to enhance ischemic recovery after myocardial infarction. However, the introduction into the clinical mainstream is hampered by technical challenges with cell procurement, handling, selection, expansion and application. In this issue of Circulation, Jujo et al. show that mobilization of endogenous cells by a clinically approved drug inhibiting the CXCR4 receptor improves myocardial recovery after infarction in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR).1 ...
Cell competition, a process in which a weak or harmful cell population is eliminated due to the presence of more fit cells, has been observed in certain contexts but is poorly understood. The thymus, which has an integral role in the development of circulating lymphocytes, depends on continuous migration of T-cell progenitors from the bone marrow but can sustain T-cell development for several months in the absence of its normal source of T-cell progenitors. Martins and colleagues found that prolonged progenitor deprivation and thymic autonomy led to the development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, T-ALL did not develop in mouse models in which bone marrow progenitors normally populated thymi, suggesting that cell competition regulates normal thymocyte turnover and that disruption of this process leads to oncogenic transformation. In the absence of competition from bone marrow-derived progenitors, thymus-resident progenitors acquired the ability to self-renew and became ...
Bone marrow stem cells used to safeguard gastrointestinal cells from autoimmune attack Massachusetts General Medical center investigators have discovered that infusions of a specific bone marrow stem cell seemed to protect gastrointestinal cells from autoimmune strike in a mouse model finasteride uk more info . Within their survey released in the journal Stem Cells, the group from the MGH Middle for Engineering in Medication survey that mesenchymal stem cells , recognized to control several disease fighting capability actions, allowed the regeneration of the gastrointestinal lining in mice with a genetic mutation resulting in multiorgan autoimmune disease. Our findings claim that MSC therapy could turn into a useful treatment for inflammatory bowel disease, says Biju Parekkadan, PhD, of the guts for Engineering in Medication, the papers lead writer. Continue reading →. ...
Hi all, Before I ask a Q about blood cancers, can I just check - is it right that cell division of blood cells takes place only in the bone marrow (and not in...
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Methods Samples of normal colon (n=5) and NSC (n=5) from female patients who were initially transplanted with male bone marrow were studied. After detecting XY chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, tissue sections were digitalised, the coverslips were eliminated and the samples were double stained for CD45 and cytokeratin with immunofluorescence. Then CDX2 expression, as a sign of intestinal epithelial commitment of Musashi-1+ stromal BMDCs, was also tested with both immunoperoxidase and parallel immunofluorescence stainings. The slides were digitalised again and analysed simultaneously. ...
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He had to wait years, but 21-year-old Clayton resident Jacob Strickland finally got to help save a life - the life of a man he never met.
Molecules of the Angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor family exert gatekeeper functions within the vascular system to control tissue homeostasis and serve metabolic maintenance functions. Future work of the laboratory will be aimed at better understanding the molecular mechanisms of the vessel wall in the control of tissue homeostasis, most notably as it relates to maintenance and repair processes. Experimental approaches include (i) the vascular control of liver regeneration and liver tumorigenesis, (ii) the role of blood vessels in contributing to fibrotic tissue remodeling, (iii) the role of the vasculature in controlling tissue metabolism, including obesity, (iv) the role of blood vessels during aging and the role of vessel wall resident and bone marrow-derived stem cells during this process, and (v) the role of blood vessels in mediating the metastatic dissemination of circulating tumor cells. The lab will further intensify its efforts to elucidate the molecular and functional properties of the ...
By examining the earliest steps before influx of metastatic tumor cells in distant organs, we have defined an essential cellular event leading to the formation of the "premetastatic niche" ( 26). By flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, these bone marrow-derived cells, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), arrive and form clusters of cells in the tissue parenchyma at common sites of metastasis before evidence of fluorescently labeled red tumor cells. At these sites, bone marrow-derived cells express VEGFR1 and coexpress several other hematopoietic markers, including CD34, CD11b, c-kit, and Sca-1, maintaining their progenitor cell status within the tissue parenchyma in the premetastatic niche. As a result of multiple ongoing events in response to primary tumor chemokines, the VEGFR1+ HPCs proliferate and circulate in the bloodstream but also preferentially localize to areas of increased fibronectin, newly synthesized by resident fibroblasts and fibroblast-like cells, which often reside ...
This list is according to Dr. Steenblocks clinical website. We make NO CLAIMS about Stemgevity™, but these are the conditions bone marrow stem cells have been shown to influence ...
Stemedica announced completion of enrollment into "A Phase I/IIa, Multi-Center, Open-Label Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Single Intravenous Dose of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Cells to Subjects with Ischemic Stroke." ...
You present an interesting possibility. Prior to transplant, conditioning the bone marrow by ablating host marrow stem cells and other immunologically active cells, either by chemotherapy or...
With the expression "bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplant" we intend a complex procedure used especially, but not only, in the treatment of leukimias and lymphomas. Stem cells can be obtained not only from bone marrow but also from peripheral blood after a specific preconditioning of the patient, or from umbilical-cord blood.. Indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplant are acute leukimias, chronic leukimias, different forms of bone marrow insufficiency, thalassemias, Hodgkin lymphoma, non Hodgkin lymphomas, myelomas, other chronic myeloproliferative diseases, numerous genetic disorders and, as a recent indication, some autoimmune illnesses.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracerebral Xenotransplantation of GFP Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Intact and Stroke Rat Brain. T2 - Graft Survival and Immunologic Response. AU - Irons, H.. AU - Lind, J. G.. AU - Wakade, Chandramohan G.. AU - Yu, G.. AU - Hadman, M.. AU - Carroll, James Edwin. AU - Hess, David C. AU - Borlongan, Cesar V.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - The present study characterized survival and immunologic response of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) following transplantation into intact and stroke brains. In the first study, intrastriatal transplantation of BMSC (60,000 in 3 μl) or vehicle was performed in normal adult Sprague-Dawley male rats that subsequently received daily cyclosporin A (CsA, 10 mg/kg, IP in 3 ml) or vehicle (olive oil, similar volume) starting on day of surgery up to 3 days posttransplantation. Animals were euthanized at 3 or 30 days posttransplantation and brains were processed either for green fluorescent protein (GFP) microscopy or flow cytometry ...
BioAssay record AID 44634 submitted by ChEMBL: HSF produced by bone marrow-derived stromal cell lines C6.4 on stimulation with the compound at (1000 ng/mL) was determined in vitro in an GM-CFC assay..
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4- (CTLA4-) modified human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) might be promising seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. In the present study, we investigated whether CTLA4-modified hBMMSCs are involved in the migration of allogeneic hBMMSCs (allo-hBMMSCs) by maintaining POSTN secretion. hBMMSCs were isolated from different groups, named hBMMSCs and allo-hBMMSCs. hBMMSCs that were infected with the negative control (NC), empty adenovirus- or recombinant adenovirus-expressing CTLA4, POSTN, or CTLA4 plus the shRNA of POSTN were named NC hBMMSCs, CTLA4-modified hBMMSCs, POSTN-modified hBMMSCs, or CTLA4+shPOSTN-modified hBMMSCs, respectively. They were then cocultured with PBMCs in a 1 : 5 ratio with 2.5 |i|μ|/i|g/mL phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The coculture supernatant was collected to treat allo-hBMMSCs with anti-integrin |i|α|/i|v|i|β|/i|3 IgG, or negative
Objectives: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) are adherent fibroblast-like cells found in the bone marrow. They are a heterogeneous population of cells that includes a subset of osteoprogenitors. BMSCs have been widely used for tissue engineering, especially for bone regeneration. However, for clinical application currently, large quantities of hBMSCs are usually required for transplantation which is typically produced by serial passages of the cells ex vivo. We examined the effects of in vitro expansion on hBMSCs proliferation, multidifferentiation, and gene expression profiles. Methods: hBMSCs were harvested from surgical waste bone specimens from 3 healthy adults with IRB approval. The hBMSCs were cultured in α-MEM with 10% FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. hBMSCs were trypsinized and passaged when they reached 70-80% confluence. Cells from early passage (p2 or 3) were compared with late passage (p7 or 8). MTT assay was used to determine the growth kinetics of hBMSCs. ...
HemoGenyx is a preclinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and commercialisation of novel therapies and treatments for blood diseases, like leukemia and lymphoma. The companys leading technologies aim to change the way in which bone marrow/hematopoietic stem cell (BM/HSC) transplants are performed and improve their efficacy.
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is known to modulate Ca2+ metabolism in several cell types. Vitamin-D-dependent calcium binding proteins such as calbindin-D28K (28 kDa calcium binding proteins) have been shown to be regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 but the mechanisms controlling calbindin synthesis are still poorly understood in human osteoblast cell culture models. The human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) described in this paper developed a calcified matrix, expressed osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP) and responded to 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Calbindin-D28K protein was identified only in cells arising from the sixth subculture, which exhibited a calcified matrix and all of the osteoblastic markers, e.g. OC and OP. It was demonstrated by dot-immunodetection using immunological probes, and by in situ hybridization using labelled cDNA probes. Moreover, vitamin D3 enhanced calbindin-D28K synthesis as well as OC ...
Connexin43 (Cx43) is a component of gap junctions and is involved in intercel- lular signaling following injury to tissues. The carboxyl terminus of Cx43 binds to the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1 in order to form gap junction plaques and connect to the cytoskeleton. A biomimetic peptide known as αCT-1, replicating the last 9 amino acids found in the carboxyl terminus of CX43, has been shown to improve wound healing by preferentially binding to the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1. A possible mecha- nism for its action is through the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transformation (EMT). Scratch assays were performed on rat bone marrow stromal cells treated with the peptide and were then analyzed using qPCR, western blotting, confocal microscopy, and live cell imaging. The gene expression analysis showed up-regulation of F11r and Krt19 and down-regulation of Mmp3. Protein expression analysis indicated an increase in Krt19 and the complete absence of Snai2 in the αCT-1 treated samples. Confocal microscopy suggested increased actin
Bone marrow stromal cells protect hematopoietic cells and provide drug resistance by delivering bunch of variable proteins. Thus, alterations of protein expression are typically associated with cell-cell signal transduction and regulation of cellular functions. Co-culture models of bone marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic cells are often used in studies of their crosstalk. Studies of altered protein expression initiated by stromal cell/hematopoietic cell interactions are an important new trend in microenvironmental research. There has been no report to date of global quantitative proteomics analysis of crosstalk between hematopoietic cells and stromal cells. In this study, we analyzed quantitative proteomes in a co-culture system of stromal HS5 cells and hematopoietic KG1a cells, and simultaneously tracked differentially expressed proteins in two types of cells before and after co-culture by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) method. We have shown that in co-cultured KG1a,
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.te56 Purpose: This study investigated the role of the bone marrow derived CD34+ cell in a milieu of osteoprogenitor cells, bone marrow plasma cell adhesion molecules, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP), and a matrix of crushed cancellous allogeneic bone in the clinical regeneration of functionally useful bone in craniomandibular reconstructions. The history and current concepts of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells are reviewed as they relate to bone regeneration in large continuity defects of the mandible. Materials and Methods: Patients with 6- to 8-cm continuity defects of the mandible with retained proximal and distal segments were randomized into two groups. Group A received an in situ tissue-engineered graft containing 54 38 CD34+ cells/mL along with 54 38 CD44+, CD90+, and CD105+ cells/mL together with rhBMP-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge (1 mg/cm of defect) and crushed cancellous allogeneic bone. Group B received the ...
Here, we demonstrate that bone marrow-derived stem cells engraft the murine endometrium. Both stromal and epithelial cells were derived from bone marrow origin. These data show the potential for stem cells to have a role in the regeneration or repair of this tissue after injury. However, the small number of engrafted cells limits their potential to significantly contribute to cyclic endometrial function during each estrus cycle. In other organs, the homing and engraftment of stem cells are influenced by injury and inflammation, presumably through the generation of a signal emanating from the damaged tissue [17, [18]-19]. A more significant engraftment of endometrium by bone marrow is likely to occur after endometrial injury or inflammatory insult. Additionally, the proliferation and development of endometrium are entirely regulated by hormonal stimuli. Ovarian estrogen and progesterone drive endometrial growth and apoptosis [20, 21]. As the radiation used prior to bone marrow transplantation ...
In this study, the role of histamine in interleukin-1 (IL-1) formation in murine bone marrow stromal cells was investigated in vitro. It was found that histamine and 4-methylhistamine increased the number of granulocyte colony-forming units in murine bone marrow cells. A similar effect was elicited by dibutyryl-cAMP and theophylline. When histamine and H2 agonists, such as 4-methylhistamine and dimaprit, were added to the culture medium containing murine bone marrow stromal cells, thymocyte comitogenic activity detected in the medium increased significantly. However, no such effect was observed in the case of 2-methyl-histamine, an H1 agonist. Histamine-induced production of thymocyte comitogenic activity in bone marrow stromal cells was inhibited by some H2 antagonists, such as cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine, but not by the H1 antagonist pyrilamine. Histamine was also effective in inducing the colony-promoting activity in murine bone marrow stromal cells. This was also inhibited by H2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid 1-hour transduction of whole bone marrow leads to long-term repopulation of murine recipients with lentivirus-modified hematopoietic stem cells. AU - Kurre, Peter. AU - Anandakumar, P.. AU - Kiem, H. P.. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Efficient gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells by Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vectors benefits from ex vivo culture and cytokine support. Both also increase the risks of apoptosis and differentiation among cells targeted for transduction. In an effort to maximize the retention of stem cell properties in target cells, we developed a transduction protocol with a focus on minimizing graft manipulation, cytokine stimulation, and ex vivo exposure duration. Based on their wide host range and ability to transduce quiescent cells, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived lentivirus vectors are ideally suited for this purpose. Our present studies in a murine model show that whole bone marrow cells are readily transduced ...
1. Bone marrow is commonly collected and examined when abnormalities are found in the circulating blood. The most common abnormality is a persistent shortage of one of the blood cell types. This is a serious situation and may be due to a problem in the bone marrow. Examination of marrow can often provide information about the underlying cause, and may help to predict the outcome.. 2. Bone marrow is also collected and examined to look for certain types of cancer. Some cancers start right in the cells of the bone marrow and other cancers spread to the bone marrow from elsewhere in the body. Cancer that starts in the bone marrow is sometimes called "leukemia." Examination of the bone marrow helps to identify the cancer, and reveals how seriously the marrow is affected.. 3. Occasionally, bone marrow is collected and examined to investigate other problems such as persistent fever, unexplained weight loss, high blood calcium levels (see article on Hypercalcemia), and high serum protein level (see ...
Purpose: : To determine if bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) have the capacity in vitro and in vivo to express retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)-like markers. Methods: : In vitro, mouse Sca-1+ GFP+ cells of bone marrow origin were used in coculture with adult mouse RPE cells. The coculture in a 1:1 ratio was performed with and without cell-cell-contact for up to 3 weeks. Mouse fibroblasts served as a control. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against specific RPE markers - cytokeratin, RPE65, MITF - as well as non-RPE markers - opsin (photoreceptors) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; glia). In vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3) was used to damage the RPE. For this study, C57BL/6 mice were injected i.v. with 35 mg/kg NaIO3 followed by the subretinal (s.r.) injection of 3x104 Sca-1+ GFP+ BMSC on day 3. The mice were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after transplantation. Whole eye flat mounts (FM) were prepared and examined for GFP+ cells under a ...
The two types of bone marrow are "red marrow" (Latin: medulla ossium rubra), which consists mainly of hematopoietic tissue, and "yellow marrow" (Latin: medulla ossium flava), which is mainly made up of fat cells. Red blood cells, platelets, and most white blood cells arise in red marrow. Both types of bone marrow contain numerous blood vessels and capillaries. At birth, all bone marrow is red. With age, more and more of it is converted to the yellow type; only around half of adult bone marrow is red. Red marrow is found mainly in the flat bones, such as the pelvis, sternum, cranium, ribs, vertebrae and scapulae, and in the cancellous ("spongy") material at the epiphyseal ends of long bones such as the femur and humerus. Yellow marrow is found in the medullary cavity, the hollow interior of the middle portion of short bones. In cases of severe blood loss, the body can convert yellow marrow back to red marrow to increase blood cell production.. ...
Objectives: To investigate whether human bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and articular chondrocytes (AC) affect the in vitro proliferation of T-lymphocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) driven by the homeostatic IL 2, IL 7 and IL 15 cytokines binding to the common cytokine receptor γ-chain (γc ) in the absence of T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering.. Methods: PBMCs, total-T cells and T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) were stimulated with IL 2, IL 7 or IL 15 and exposed to cultured BM-MSCs and ACs at varying cell:cell ratio either in contact or in transwell conditions. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured by 3H-thymidine uptake or by flow cytometry on CFSE labelled lymphocytes.. Results Both MSCs and ACs enhanced and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation depending on the extent of lymphocyte baseline proliferation and on the MSC/AC to lymphocyte ratio. Enhancement was significant on poorly proliferating lymphocytes and mostly at lower MSC/ AC to lymphocyte ratio. ...
In vitro osteogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells cultivated in porous scaffolds from mineralized collagen.: Porous 3D structures from mineralize
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) constitute a cell population routinely used as a representation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. They reside within the bone marrow cavity alongside hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which can give rise to red blood cells, immune progenitors, and osteoclasts. Thus, extractions of cell populations from the bone marrow results in a very heterogeneous mix of various cell populations, which can present challenges in experimental design and confound data interpretation. Several isolation and culture techniques have been developed in laboratories in order to obtain more or less homogeneous populations of BMSCs and HSCs invitro. Here, we present two methods for isolation of BMSCs and HSCs from mouse long bones: one method that yields a mixed population of BMSCs and HSCs and one method that attempts to separate the two cell populations based on adherence. Both methods provide cells suitable for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation experiments as well as functional assays
BACKGROUND: The expression of the two types of ferritin subunits, the H-subunit and L-subunit, has been shown to be differentially regulated by cytokines. The primary aim of the present study was to quantitatively measure the expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron in patients with chronic T-helper cell type-1 immune stimulation. METHODS: The expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron was quantitatively evaluated by post-embedding immunolocalisation with immunogold transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The present study showed up-regulation of the H-subunit of ferritin in the bone marrow macrophage in patients with pronounced cellular immune activation (94.7 ± 37.3 counts/μm2; n = 31 vs 72.4 ± 34.0 counts/μm2; n = 13, p-value = 0.037). CONCLUSION: This supports a possible role for H-subunit rich ferritins in the hypoferraemia of chronic disease ...
P220 To determine the degree and extent of changes in cellular metabolic demand after stroke and bone marrow cell transplantation, a histochemistry assay of cytochrome oxidase (COx) which correlates with neuronal activity was employed,. Adult Wistar rats (n=9) were subjected to transient (2 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). At 1 d after ischemia, bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs, 4x105 in 10 :l) were transplanted intracerebrally into the ischemic boundary zone in the striatum and the cortex. The ischemia rats with (n=4) or without (n=5) MSC transplantation were sacrificed at 14 d after MCAo. Bone marrow cells were harvested from normal donor adult rats and cultured in Iscove s Modified Dulbecco s medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. MSCs were isolated by their adherence to the plastic dishes from the whole bone marrow cells at 72 h of incubation. Subsequently, the MSCs were cultured for 2 weeks and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, as a tracer to identify cells derived from bone ...
This year marks the 60th anniversary of one of the seminal publications that triggered the introduction of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in medical practices worldwide. This landmark paper by Thomas et al. entitled, Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy was published in the New England Journal on the 12th September 1957. The same year, this group also published other landmark papers in Blood. From the mid-1950s, Thomas developed methods for providing people with new bone marrow cells through transplants. Using radiation, chemotherapy, and nowadays immunosuppressive drugs, the bodys own bone marrow cells are killed and the immune systems rejection mechanism is subdued. Bone marrow cells from a donor are then provided through a blood transfusion. In 1958, a year after Thomas paper, Georges Mathé performed the first ever successful allogeneic bone marrow transplant on unrelated human beings. Since then, major developments in the ...
Bioencapsulation of cells is one of the many areas of artificial cells being extensively investigated by centers around the world. This includes the bioencapsulation of hepatocytes. A number of methods have been developed to maintain the specific function and phenotype of the bioencapsulated hepatocytes for in vitro and in vivo applications. These include supplementation of factors in the culture medium; use of appropriate substrates and the co-cultivation of hepatocytes with other type of cells, the so called feeder cells. These feeder cells can be of liver origin or non-liver origin. We have recently studied the role of bone marrow cells in the maintenance of hepatocytes viability and phenotype by using the coculture of hepatocytes with bone marrow cells (nucleated cells including stem cells), and the coencapsulation of hepatocytes with bone marrow stem cells. This way, the hepatocytes viability and specific function can be maintained significantly longer. In vivo studies of both syngeneic and
Purpose: : To study the role of in-vitro generated Bone Marrow derived Dendritic Cells (BMDC) after glucocorticoid treatment on corneal allograft survival in the rat. Methods: : BMDC were propagated from either Lewis (LEW) or Dark Agouti (DA) rat bone marrow precursors cells (1.5x106 cells/ml) in complete medium supplemented with rat GMCSF (5ng/µl) and IL-4 (5ng/µl). For glucocorticoid treatment of BMDCs, dexamethasone (Dexa) (10-6M) was added on d5 and d7 of a 10 day culture. BMDC and Dexa BMDC phenotype was characterised and analysed for expression of cell surface markers CD11b/c, MHC II, CD80, CD86 and His36 by flow cytometry. BMDC and Dexa BMDC antigen presenting cell function was examined in both antigen specific (Ovalbumin) and allo-antigen specific lymphocyte assays. Responder cells were analysed by FACS for proliferation and expression of lymphocyte activation markers CD25 or OX40. Moreover recall experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of immunomodulation in vivo. A fully ...
The major concern for the halogenated compounds is their widespread distribution, in addition to occupational exposures. Several chlorinated alkanes and alkenes were found to induce toxic effects. In this study, we investigated the genotoxic potential of 1,1-dichloroethane in the bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss-Webster mice, using chromosomal aberrations (CA), mitotic index (MI), and micronuclei (MN) formation as toxicological endpoints. Five groups of three male mice each, weighing an average of 24 + 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once with doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) of 1,1-dichloroethane dissolved in ethanol. A control group was also made of three animals injected with ethanol (1%) without the chemical. All animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparations were obtained from bone marrow cells following standard protocols. Chromatid and chromosome aberrations were investigated in 100 metaphase cells per animal and
Certain diseases of the bone marrow like leukemia, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), pancytopenia, anemia etc. require examination of the bone marrow tissue. This is called bone marrow aspiration or bone marrow biopsy. A needle is used to withdraw samples of the marrow from within the bone. This is often a very painful process.. Bone marrow is suppressed with the use of cancer chemotherapy. This leads to severe drop in production of RBCs (leading to anemia), WBCs (leading to increased risk of life threatening infections) and platelets (leading to risk of bleeding tendencies).. With advent of medical science it is possible now to transplant the bone marrow in diseased individuals. This process has shown success in a number of cancer patients.. Reviewed by April Cashin-Garbutt, BA Hons (Cantab). ...
Photobiomodulation effects of Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) on regeneration have been reported in skin, nerve, and skeletal muscle tissues and bone. Bone Mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are derived from bone marrow, which exhibited a ?broblast-like appearance, and could differentiate in vitro into different lineages. However, there is a reciprocal relationship between growth and osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. Therefore, its important to investigate the effect of LLLI on BMSCs. The aim of our study was to investigate the proliferation effect of 635 nm red laser light on bone marrow MSCs with or without osteogenic supplements. Bone marrow was collected from the 4-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats femur and tibiae. MSCs with and without osteogenic supplements both were divided into three groups. A continuous 635 nm wavelength red light diode laser (a power output of 960 mW) was used in the study. The size of light spot was 35mm in diameter. Irradiation was performed every other day since the half of
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Background: Microglia, the macrophages of the brain, have been implicated in the causes of neurodegenerative diseases and display a loss of function during aging. Throughout life, microglia are replenished by limited proliferation of resident microglial cells. Replenishment by bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is still under debate. In this context, we investigated the differentiation of mouse microglia from bone marrow (BM) stem cells. Furthermore, we looked at the effects of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) and GM-CSF on the differentiation to microglia-like cells.Methods: We assessed in vitro-derived microglia differentiation by marker expression (CD11b/CD45, F4/80), but also for the first time for functional performance (phagocytosis, oxidative burst) and in situ migration into living brain tissue. Integration, survival and migration were assessed in organotypic brain slices.Results: The cells differentiated from mouse BM show function, markers ...
Once suitable stem cells are found, your child will receive high doses of chemotherapy or radiation (sometimes both) to destroy existing bone marrow. This gives the new bone marrow cells room to grow. This may be called ablative or myeloablative therapy. It stops new blood cells from being made. The bone marrow becomes empty. An empty marrow is needed to make room for the new stem cells to grow and create a new system to make new blood cells. Next, stem cells are given to your child through an IV in a large vein, often in the chest. This is called a central venous catheter. Getting the stem cells is like having a blood transfusion. The stem cells find their way into the bone marrow. They begin growing and making new, healthy blood cells. During infusion of the bone marrow, your child may have:. ...
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is biomaterial widely used in the regeneration of bone tissue. Addition of osteogenic cells to HAp implants may accelerate the bone repair process. The aim of this study was to investigate how the bone marrow cells (BMCs) loading of porous hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) act to ectopic osteogenesis. In this purpose HAp/PLLA with and without BMCs was subcutaneously implanted into BALB/c mice. As a control served implants from both types which werent implanted. Three weeks after implantation, histological analysis of implants was done. It was observed significant resorption and induction of collagenogenesis in implanted biomaterials. The structure of new bone was seen in implants loaded with bone marrow cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Survivin Is Required for Mouse and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Function. AU - Singh, Pratibha. AU - Fukuda, Seiji. AU - Liu, Liqiong. AU - Chitteti, Brahmananda Reddy. AU - Pelus, Louis. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have significant potential in cell-based therapies, little is known about the factors that regulate their functions. While exploring regulatory molecules potentially involved in MSC activities, we found that the endogenous multifunctional factor Survivin is essential for MSC survival, expansion, lineage commitment, and migration. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of Survivin expression in mouse and human bone marrow MSC enhances caspase 3 and 7 expression and reduces proliferation resulting in fewer MSC and clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F), whereas ectopic Survivin overexpression in MSC results in their expansion. Survivin is also required for the MSC proliferative responses to basic ...
Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration. Bone marrow examination is used in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, including leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, anemia, and pancytopenia. The bone marrow produces the cellular elements of the blood, including platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. While much information can be gleaned by testing the blood itself (drawn from a vein by phlebotomy), it is sometimes necessary to examine the source of the blood cells in the bone marrow to obtain more information on hematopoiesis; this is the role of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Bone marrow samples can be obtained by aspiration and trephine biopsy. Sometimes, a bone marrow examination will include both an aspirate and a biopsy. The aspirate yields semi-liquid bone marrow, which can be examined by a pathologist under a light microscope and analyzed by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transplantation of expanded bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) improves left ventricular function and remodelling after myocardial infarction. AU - Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.. AU - Guo, Yiru. AU - Taher, Hisham. AU - Sanganalmath, Santosh K.. AU - Hunt, Greg. AU - Vincent, Robert J.. AU - Kucia, Magda. AU - Abdel-Latif, Ahmed. AU - Tang, Xian Liang. AU - Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.. AU - Dawn, Buddhadeb. AU - Bolli, Roberto. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Adult bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) exhibit a Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- phenotype and can differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. We have previously reported that transplantation of a small number (1 × 106) of freshly isolated, non-expanded VSEL-SCs into infarcted mouse hearts resulted in improved left ventricular (LV) function and anatomy. Clinical translation, however, will require large numbers of cells. Because the frequency of ...
Ge, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Tang, Q.; Gao, J.; Yang, H.; Gao, Z.; Zhao, R.Chunhua., 2019: Mechanisms of the Immunomodulation Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Facial Nerve Injury in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Looking for online definition of autologous bone marrow transplantation in the Medical Dictionary? autologous bone marrow transplantation explanation free. What is autologous bone marrow transplantation? Meaning of autologous bone marrow transplantation medical term. What does autologous bone marrow transplantation mean?
Stem Cell Transplantation. Stem cell transplantation, also referred as bone marrow transplantation, is currently being performed in the treatment of leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, various cancers, poorly functioning bone marrow, hereditary anemia, immunodeficiencies and hereditary metabolic diseases.. Stem cells can be obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood or cord blood. Although bone marrow has been used historically as a stem cell source in the first transplantations, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is currently performed in 75% of cases. Stem cell from the cord blood is collected as soon as the baby is born. Collected stem cells are stored in sterile conditions.. Stem cell transplants are defined as autologous or allogeneic transplantation.. Autologous transplantation is the process by which the patients own stem cells are collected and stored frozen, then given back to the patient. The most common uses for autologous stem cell transplantation are solid tumors such as ...
Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous bone marrow transplantation: report of two cases. Hauke, R.J.; Greiner, T.C.; Smir, B.N.; Vose, J.M.; Tarantolo, S.R.; Bashir, R.M.; Bierman, P.J. // Bone Marrow Transplantation;6/15/98, Vol. 21 Issue 12, p1271 Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders have been frequently reported as a complication of solid organ and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Their occurrence is rare after autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with only five published reports in the literature.... ...
Most tissue engineering studies use human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for differentiation into desirable lineages. We derived a novel stem cell from the human umbilical cord Whartons jelly (hWJSC) that has numerous advantages over other stem cell types in that they can be harvested in abundance very efficiently and painlessly with no risk of patient morbidity, have prolonged stemness properties in vitro, are hypoimmunogenic, and can be differentiated into many tissue types in two-dimensional culture. We compared four different three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds (polycaprolactone [PCL], PCL/collagen [PCL/Coll], PCL/hydroxyapatite [PCL/HA], and PCL/Coll/HA) for the attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of hWJSCs into an osteogenic lineage. The collagen-based scaffolds (PCL/Coll and PCL/Coll/HA) showed better cell attachment and proliferation than PCL and PCL/HA, with increases of 41.80% and 38.52%, respectively. hWJSCs cultured on PCL/Coll/HA in the osteogenic ...

Climb For Life -   4. What is bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplant used for?Climb For Life - 4. What is bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplant used for?

4. What is bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplant used for?. Published on 5 September 2012 in Information about ... Stem cells can be obtained not only from bone marrow but also from peripheral blood after a specific preconditioning of the ... With the expression "bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplant" we intend a complex procedure used especially, but not ... Indications for hematopoietic stem cell transplant are acute leukimias, chronic leukimias, different forms of bone marrow ...
more infohttp://www.climbforlife.it/4-what-is-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-used-for/

Investing in the latest bone marrow / hematopoietic stem cell transplantation technology | Investor Relations | Hemogenyx...Investing in the latest bone marrow / hematopoietic stem cell transplantation technology | Investor Relations | Hemogenyx...

The companys leading technologies aim to change the way in which bone marrow/hematopoietic stem cell (BM/HSC) transplants are ... Our aim is to change the way in which bone marrow/hematopoietic stem cell transplants are performed and improve their efficacy. ...
more infohttp://www.hemogenyx-ir.com

Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase Test, Risk Factors of TRAP Test, Procedure.Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase Test, Risk Factors of TRAP Test, Procedure.

Multiple myeloma (malignancy in the plasma cells of the bone marrow). Risks. There is no major risk associated with the ... The test is performed on either the bone marrow or blood cells for the diagnosis of leukemia or on blood plasma for the ... Acid phosphatase is a typical enzyme found in the prostate gland, liver, spleen, blood cells, semen, and bone marrow. These ... it suggests a diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. It may also be a sign of bone breakdown mainly because of the spread of cancer ...
more infohttp://www.altiusdirectory.com/Health/tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-test.php

Myeloproliferative Disorders and MyelofibrosisMyeloproliferative Disorders and Myelofibrosis

The bone marrow contains stem cells that develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in appropriate ... Polycythemia vera is characterized by an excessive amount of red blood cells being formed by the bone marrow. There may also be ... As either of these 2 disorders progresses, bone marrow scarring may occur, which leads to myelofibrosis. Polycythemia vera ... A change in the DNA of a single stem cell causes a growth advantage for one of the cell types, which leads to an abnormal under ...
more infohttps://www.ajmc.com/journals/evidence-based-oncology/2012/2012-2-vol18-n3/myeloproliferative-disorders-and-myelofibrosis

Phys.org - bone marrow cellsPhys.org - bone marrow cells

Various cell therapies involve injecting a specific cell type into a patient. These include, for example, bone marrow ... Stem cells also rust. Oxygen in the air is well known to cause damaging rust on cars through a process known as oxidation. ... Stem cell research could lead to treatment breakthroughs. Scientists have discovered a new way to replicate the regenerative ... Living color: Rainbow-hued blood stem cells shed new light on cancer, blood disorders. A new color-coding tool is enabling ...
more infohttps://phys.org/tags/bone+marrow+cells/sort/date/all/

Primary cultivation of embryonic chick bone marrow cells | SpringerLinkPrimary cultivation of embryonic chick bone marrow cells | SpringerLink

We describe a nonenzymatic method for obtaining bone marrow cells by flushing chick long bone with a syringe filled with ... We describe a nonenzymatic method for obtaining bone marrow cells by flushing chick long bone with a syringe filled with ... Fuller, M.D., Gardner, R.M., Trueblood, M.S. et al. Primary cultivation of embryonic chick bone marrow cells. Journal of Tissue ... Primary cultivation of embryonic chick bone marrow cells. *Mike D. Fuller1. , ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01666015

Bone marrow cells routinely help with wound healingBone marrow cells routinely help with wound healing

"Weve known that bone marrow cells are involved in wound healing and inflammation - now we have data that shows bone marrow ... Bone marrow has been studied for a number of purposes in recent years because it is rich in stem cells - cells that can go on ... Researchers found green cells throughout the body, but observed that the highest concentration of bone marrow cells was in ... "What we have here is a new cell population that was not previously recognized," Isik said. "The bone marrow cells help form the ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/report-33141.html

Bioengineered bone marrow cells let transplant recipients live drug-free | ZDNetBioengineered bone marrow cells let transplant recipients live drug-free | ZDNet

A mix of bioengineered cells can mean that transplant recipients no longer need to take a lifetime of anti-rejection drugs. ... Bone marrow stem cells were collected from donors.. *The team made those stem cells more transplant-friendly by enriching ... Bioengineered bone marrow cells let transplant recipients live drug-free. A mix of bioengineered cells can mean that transplant ... Now, scientists have combined stem cells and other cells from bone marrow to promote a drug-free organ tolerance. ...
more infohttp://www.zdnet.com/article/bioengineered-bone-marrow-cells-let-transplant-recipients-live-drug-free/

Malfunctioning bone marrow cells sabotage nerve cells in diabetesMalfunctioning bone marrow cells sabotage nerve cells in diabetes

Nerve cells that have not merged with the insulin-producing bone marrow cells remain intact and function normally. "Based on ... "These insulin-producing bone marrow cells are like terrorists that infiltrate the nerve-cell populations," he said. They ... Previously, Chan and members of his laboratory had found that bone marrow cells were among a group of cells in organs other ... They found that, in diabetes, only nerve cells that have fused with bone marrow cells display the abnormal function and ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/report-48122.html

Breast cancer tumors may recruit bone marrow cells for growth - UPI.comBreast cancer tumors may recruit bone marrow cells for growth - UPI.com

Breast cancer tumors can grow by recruiting other cells from bone marrow, lowering the chances of a patients survival, a new ... 26 (UPI) -- Breast cancer tumors can grow by recruiting other cells from bone marrow, lowering the chances of a patients ... New research suggests that breast cancers can increase their growth by recruiting stromal cells that form in bone marrow. Photo ... Breast cancer tumors may recruit bone marrow cells for growth. By Tauren Dyson ...
more infohttps://www.upi.com/Health_News/2018/11/26/Breast-cancer-tumors-may-recruit-bone-marrow-cells-for-growth/4781543264079/

Heart Calls on Bone Marrow Cells for Healing After Heart AttackHeart Calls on Bone Marrow Cells for Healing After Heart Attack

... reduced CXCR4 expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells and caused mobilization of progenitor cells out of the bone marrow. ... Inside those progenitor cells, the microRNAs turn off a specific gene that allows the progenitor cells to leave the bone marrow ... For 15 years, it had been known that progenitor cells are released from the bone marrow after a heart attack. These cells move ... These myo-miRs were preferentially taken up by bone marrow mononuclear cells, and to a lesser extent, kidney cells. MicroRNAs, ...
more infohttps://www.infowars.com/heart-calls-on-bone-marrow-cells-for-healing-after-heart-attack/

Hematopoietic Bone Marrow Cell Sorting - Beckman CoulterHematopoietic Bone Marrow Cell Sorting - Beckman Coulter

A video from Beckman Coulter Life Sciences on hematopoietic bone marrow cell sorting. Its a novel approach with seven lasers, ...
more infohttps://www.beckman.com/resources/videos/webinars/hematopoietic-bone-marrow-cell-sorting

Bone Marrow Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - JPBone Marrow Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - JP

... but cell numbers can be very low. For such critical samples you need a quality medium that you can trust. MarrowMAX™ medium ... Bone marrow aspirates provides unique and valuable research data, ... Figure 2 - Consistency of MarrowMAX™ medium. Normal bone marrow mononuclear cells were seeded at 1x106 cells/ml in 4 different ... Bone marrow aspirates provides unique and valuable research data, but cell numbers can be very low. For such critical samples ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/jp/en/home/clinical/clinical-translational-research/cytogenics/bone-marrow-cells.html

Functional Studies on Subpopulations of B-Lymphocytes and Bone Marrow Cells | SpringerLinkFunctional Studies on Subpopulations of B-Lymphocytes and Bone Marrow Cells | SpringerLink

... functionally distinct classes of lymphocytes and charting their ontogeny from a multipotential stem cell in the bone marrow. ... Bone Marrow Cell Spleen Cell Multipotential Stem Cell FACS Profile Hybrid Culture These keywords were added by machine and not ... Functional Studies on Subpopulations of B-Lymphocytes and Bone Marrow Cells. In: Nieuwenhuis P., van den Broek A.A., Hanna M.G ... functionally distinct classes of lymphocytes and charting their ontogeny from a multipotential stem cell in the bone marrow. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-9066-4_8

Bone Marrow Cells Could Yield A New Lease of LifeBone Marrow Cells Could Yield A New Lease of Life

Researchers offer intriguing results from a study involving women with leukemia who died after receiving a bone marrow ... Bone Marrow Transplantation. Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this stem cell from bone marrow are ... Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy. Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration is the removal of some bone marrow tissue for diagnosis ... suggesting some of the bone marrow cells were actually acting as stem cells -- basic cells capable of developing into any type ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/news/view_news_main.asp?x=2706

Mobilized bone marrow cells repair the infarcted heart, improving function and survival | PNASMobilized bone marrow cells repair the infarcted heart, improving function and survival | PNAS

... kitPOS cells in the bone marrow and a redistribution of these cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood. This protocol ... bone marrow cells;. SCF,. stem cell factor;. G-CSF,. granulocyte-colony stimulating factor;. LV,. left ventricle;. EC,. ... It could be argued that cytokine treatment mobilized bone marrow stem cells and resident cardiac stem cells, which together ... kitPOS cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood (13). The number of circulating Lin− c-kitPOS cells increased 250- ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/98/18/10344?ijkey=85042f3cf2d62dc81fc75e6bea88cee4223dd168&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs (Journal Article) | SciTech ConnectLasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

... or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or ... MAT.; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; BONE MARROW CELLS; TRANSPLANTS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION ... Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. ... protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6355364

Umbilical cord cells outperform bone marrow cells - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.comUmbilical cord cells outperform bone marrow cells - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com

Most stem cell therapies use cells harvested from bone marrow to stimulate tissue repair and control inflammation. But a new ... Umbilical cord cells improved cardiac function by 40% compared with no treatment, while bone marrow cells improved function by ... only 18.3%. The umbilical cord cells were 120% more effective in improving heart function than bone marrow cells - a ... cells originating from the tissues surrounding the blood vessels of the human umbilical cord are superior to those of marrow. " ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/medical-breakthroughs/34204-umbilical-cord-cells-outperform-bone-marrow-cells.html

Bone marrow cells that convert into skin cells could revolutionise wound treatment - Thaindian NewsBone marrow cells that convert into skin cells could revolutionise wound treatment - Thaindian News

Scientists have identified specific bone marrow cells that can transform into skin cells to repair damaged skin tissue. ... Bone marrow cells that convert into skin cells could revolutionise wound treatment. April 5th, 2011 - 2:18 pm ICT by ANI Tweet ... The key achievement has been to find out which bone marrow cells can transform into skin cells and repair and maintain the skin ... The research showed that around one in every 450 bone marrow cells has the capacity to transform into skin cells and regenerate ...
more infohttp://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/health/bone-marrow-cells-that-convert-into-skin-cells-could-revolutionise-wound-treatment_100522294.html

IVF.net - No new eggs from bone marrow cells - IVF NewsIVF.net - No new eggs from bone marrow cells - IVF News

This, say the scientists, is proof that circulating bone marrow stem cells do not normally produce new eggs.. The team carried ... A new US study has cast serious doubt on controversial research that suggested bone marrow stem cells can produce new eggs in ... No new eggs from bone marrow cells. Dr Jess Buxton. Progress Educational Trust. 17 June 2006. ... it seems that such stem cells may not actually exist - at least not in bone marrow.. In the latest study, the researchers ...
more infohttps://ivf.net/ivf/no-new-eggs-from-bone-marrow-cells-o2058.html

Encapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial HepatectomyEncapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial Hepatectomy

... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... "Encapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial Hepatectomy," Stem Cells International, ... Encapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial Hepatectomy. Carolina Uribe-Cruz,1,2 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/4831524/cta/

IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Cytogenetic Effects of 1,1-Dichloroethane in Mice Bone Marrow CellsIJERPH | Free Full-Text | Cytogenetic Effects of 1,1-Dichloroethane in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

In this study, we investigated the genotoxic potential of 1,1-dichloroethane in the bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss- ... Chromosome and micronuclei preparations were obtained from bone marrow cells following standard protocols. Chromatid and ... increased the number of chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow cells of Swiss- ... Our results indicate that 1,1-dichloroethane has a genotoxic potential as measured by the bone marrow CA and MN tests in Swiss ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/2/1/101

Patent US5521067 - Bone marrow cell adhesion molecules and process for detecting adherence ... - Google PatentsPatent US5521067 - Bone marrow cell adhesion molecules and process for detecting adherence ... - Google Patents

Also disclosed is a method for detecting binding between cell adhesion membrane proteins and cells having a potential to be ... The present invention relates to proteins associated with human bone marrow cell membranes for adhering hematopoietic cells to ... human bone marrow cell membranes. These proteins are soluble in lithium dodecyl sulfate but insoluble in 2% nonaethylene glycol ... Bone marrow cells are bone marrow supporting cells, such as stromal cells, fibroblasts, fat cells, endothellial cells, ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5521067?dq=7751826

Stem Cell, Bone Marrow Cell Therapy Safe for Patients With Ischemic CardiomyopathyStem Cell, Bone Marrow Cell Therapy Safe for Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

A new study has now been conducted to examine the safety of transendocranial stem cell injection with autologous mesenchymal ... Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy. Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration is the removal of some bone marrow tissue for diagnosis ... Umbilical Cord Cells More Effective in Repairing Damaged Heart Than Bone Marrow Cells. Cells extracted from umbilical cord, ... Bone Marrow Cells are the Answer to Avoid Rejection. Scientists from Iowa and Iran have used cells from mice and have ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/news/stem-cell-bone-marrow-cell-therapy-safe-for-patients-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-128035-1.htm

Failure of Transplanted Bone Marrow Cells to Adopt a Pancreatic β-Cell Fate | DiabetesFailure of Transplanted Bone Marrow Cells to Adopt a Pancreatic β-Cell Fate | Diabetes

GFP bone marrow cells and the ubiquitous GFP expression in CD45.2 blood cells in mice transplanted with β/GFP bone marrow cells ... Although the use of MIP/GFP bone marrow cells allows specific and high-resolution tracking of bone marrow-derived cells ... Generation of bone marrow chimeric mice.. Whole bone marrow cells were collected from femurs and tibias of 10- to 14-week-old ... Thus, we next performed the same experimental bone marrow transplantation protocol in nondiabetic mice, using bone marrow cells ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/55/2/290
  • Previous research have found that mixing bone marrow stem cells from both the recipient and donor helps to promote organ tolerance - but this can also trigger graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) , where donor immune cells attack the healthy tissues of the recipient. (zdnet.com)
  • Researchers found green cells throughout the body, but observed that the highest concentration of bone marrow cells was in normal skin. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers found that even after six weeks, long after the infection-fighting role seems to be over, the bone marrow-derived cells cluster within the healing area of a wound. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers ran these skin cells through a flow cytometer to separate them into green and non-green fractions and found only the green cells in the skin produced collagen type III, which is one of the two most abundant collagens in skin. (innovations-report.com)
  • The native skin cells produced only collagen type I. Researchers do not know why bone marrow would produce collagen III, which is typically found in connective tissues such as skin. (innovations-report.com)
  • While emphasizing that much more work should be done to confirm these findings, researchers believe that bone marrow cells may one day be used to treat neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease. (medindia.net)
  • But again, the researchers found no evidence of the damaged ovaries being replenished with cells from the other mouse. (ivf.net)
  • After this, three types of castor oil polyurethane membranes associated with the MSCs were kept on the 6-well plate for 5 days and were analyzed by optical microscopy to confirm cell aggregation and growth. (scielo.br)
  • In our latest studies, we were surprised to discover that insulin-producing cells originating from bone marrow caused premature cell death and dysfunction when they merged with neurons, resulting in neuropathy," said Chan. (innovations-report.com)
  • The recently discovered growth and transdifferentiation potential of primitive bone marrow cells (BMC) prompted us, in an earlier study, to inject in the border zone of acute infarcts Lin − c- kit POS BMC from syngeneic animals. (pnas.org)
  • Two main determinants seem to be critical for colonization and transdifferentiation of BMC into a variety of tissues: recent damage and a high number of circulating stem cells ( 8 , 9 , 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Whereas most other reports ( 13 , 26 , 27 ) of bone marrow plasticity have indicated that transdifferentiation occurs at a very low rate, the studies of Ianus et al. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although some subsequent studies ( 32 , 33 ) have obtained results compatible with the generation of insulin-expressing pancreatic cells from transplanted bone marrow cells, the reported efficiency has been several orders of magnitude lower than initially reported, and other studies have failed to detect any transdifferentiation into β-cells at all ( 34 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is at present unclear whether bone marrow stem cells overcome their intrinsic restrictions upon exposure to nervous system environment ("transdifferentiation"), or are truly pluripotent stem cells capable of supplying the adult CNS with neurons and glia. (rupress.org)
  • Our study shows that the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts is important for promoting tumor growth, likely by enhancing blood vessel formation," Neta Erez, researcher at Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, said in a press release. (upi.com)
  • Breast cancer tumors with these bone marrow-associated fibroblasts can therefore grow more blood vessels that allow them to develop more quickly than tumors without fibroblast interactions. (upi.com)
  • Erez and her colleagues observed that human breast cancer tumors also have fibroblasts without PDGFRα, meaning human tumors may also pull in bone marrow cells. (upi.com)
  • Understanding the function of these cancer-associated fibroblasts could form the basis of developing novel therapeutic manipulations that co-target bone marrow-derived fibroblasts as well as the cancer cells themselves," Erez said. (upi.com)
  • The mortar which surrounds the bricks is known as the extracellular matrix, produced by supporting cells known as fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recognition that stem cells, particularly those from the bone marrow, have the capacity to colonize different tissues, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into cell lineages of the host organ ( 8 , 9 ), prompted us in an earlier study ( 10 ) to inject Lin − c- kit POS bone marrow cells (BMC) in the contracting myocardium bordering acute infarcts. (pnas.org)
  • A mix of bioengineered cells can mean that transplant recipients no longer need to take a lifetime of anti-rejection drugs. (zdnet.com)
  • Previously, Chan and members of his laboratory had found that bone marrow cells were among a group of cells in organs other than the pancreas that unexpectedly produced small amounts of insulin. (innovations-report.com)
  • By chance, we observed insulin-producing bone marrow cells outside the pancreas, and wondered why these cells were migrating to other organs and whether they were detrimental or beneficial," said Chan. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dr. Keating calls the HUCPVC results "statistically and significantly better" than bone marrow cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These tiny extracellular, membrane-bound vesicles can carry cargo for cell-to-cell communication, ferrying diverse loads of proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. (infowars.com)
  • The effects of ZOL on the bone marrow microenvironment (bone volume, bone cell number/activity, extracellular matrix composition) were established at various time points following treatment, using micro-computed tomography (μCT) analysis, histomorphometry, ELISA and immunofluorescence. (harvard.edu)
  • Myocardium is composed of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) joined together by intercalated disks, encased by collagen fibres and other substances forming the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are continuous with the cell membrane, are composed of the same phospholipid bilayer, and are open at the cell surface to the fluid that surrounds the cell (the extracellular fluid). (wikipedia.org)
  • A gain of channel function, resulting from a point mutation in mouse GRID2, is associated with the phenotype named 'lurcher', which in the heterozygous state leads to ataxia and motor coordination deficits resulting from selective, cell-autonomous apoptosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells during postnatal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separation procedures 1 and 2 allowed adequate isolation of MSCs and favored cell growth with the passage being carried out at 70% confluence after 15 days in culture. (scielo.br)
  • MarrowMAX™ medium far outperforms commercially available formulations supplemented with giant cell tumor (GCT) conditioned media (Figure 1), providing consistent lot-to-lot performance (Figure 2) with a higher mitotic index and superior chromosome morphology. (thermofisher.com)
  • Mitotic cells were assayed 24 hrs after plating. (thermofisher.com)
  • Irvine Scientific's CHANG Marrow ® and CHANG BMC ® are optimized for short-term bone marrow culture, and provide consistent mitotic cells that are suitable for karyotyping and a more accurate cytogenetic analysis. (irvinesci.com)
  • Conclusions: These findings provide novel evidence that alterations to the bone marrow play a role in the anti-tumor activity of ZOL and suggest possibilities for capitalizing on the beneficial effects of ZOL in reducing breast cancer development and progression. (harvard.edu)
  • So, to create an environment where two bone marrow systems exist and function in one person , a team led by Suzanne Ildstad the University of Louisville looked to bioengineered versions of cells from donor bone marrow. (zdnet.com)
  • Single, fully developed cerebellar Purkinje neurons were found to derive from the donor BM, underscoring the tremendous differentiative capacity of adult BM cells. (rupress.org)
  • The study used standard heart function tests to measure the effect of the therapy after the cells were injected. (healthcanal.com)
  • Keating, director of the Cell Therapy Program at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and University Health Network (UHN), said he hopes to begin clinical trials of the HUCPVC cells on patients within the next 12 to 18 months. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, until this controversy has been resolved, bone marrow cells continue to be promoted as a candidate source for cell replacement therapy for diabetes ( 31 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Standard heart function tests measured the effect of the therapy after the cells were injected. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They found that, in diabetes, only nerve cells that have fused with bone marrow cells display the abnormal function and premature death found in neuropathy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chapters cover methods of culture, observation and evaluation of cell cultures, cultures of normal and abnormal blood and bone marrow cells, and effect of nutrients and stimulants and of cytotoxic therapeutic agents. (annals.org)
  • Each cardiomyocyte needs to contract in coordination with its neighbouring cells to efficiently pump blood from the heart, and if this coordination breaks down then - despite individual cells contracting - the heart may not pump at all, such as may occur during abnormal heart rhythms such as ventricular fibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts to replace the necrotic zone of the heart by transplanting cardiomyocytes or skeletal myoblasts ( 3 - 7 ), although successful in the survival of many of the grafted cells, have invariably failed to reconstitute healthy myocardium and coronary vessels integrated structurally and functionally with the spared ventricular wall. (pnas.org)
  • Encapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial Hepatectomy," Stem Cells International , vol. 2016, Article ID 4831524, 9 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Background: The bone-targeting agent zoledronic acid (ZOL) increases breast cancer survival in subsets of patients, but the underlying reasons for this protective effect are unknown. (harvard.edu)
  • The Heeschen study demonstrates that the Harvest BMAC System is, in fact, capable of producing a bone marrow cell composition that is equal to, and may in fact be clinically superior to, the cell composition prepared by the gold standard. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Left ventricular function and exercise capacity increased, while the area of the heart muscle damaged shrank, in 18 patients given infusions of their own bone marrow cells up to eight years after a heart attack, according to a new study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a gene transfer procedure in generating new, healthy cells in individuals with FA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will use an experimental gene transfer procedure performed in a laboratory to insert a new FA gene into the participant's bone marrow cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants will be required to have the initial bone marrow transfer procedure performed at Cincinnati Children's Hospital, but will be allowed to see their own doctor for the majority of study visits. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, the white blood cells involved in contact dermatitis express a certain protein, CD45. (innovations-report.com)
  • Damaged skin can release a distress protein called HMGB1 that can mobilise the cells from bone marrow and direct them to where they are needed. (thaindian.com)
  • Understanding how the protein HMGB1 works as a distress signal to summon these particular bone marrow cells is expected to have significant implications for clinical medicine, and could potentially revolutionise the management of wound healing. (thaindian.com)
  • BM cells were transduced with a retroviral vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and an antifolate-resistant dihydrofolate reductase gene. (rupress.org)
  • Each cell contains myofibrils, specialised protein fibres that slide past each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Shane underwent intensive chemotherapy to kill off his own bone marrow cells , 30% of Jaydon's bone marrow was transplanted at Alder Hey Children's Hospital in Liverpool in August 2010. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Within the myocardium there are several sheets of cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the wall is taken up by bricks, which in cardiac muscle are individual cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same way that the walls of a house contain electrical wires and plumbing, cardiac muscle also contains specialised cells for conducting electrical signals rapidly (the cardiac conduction system), and blood vessels to bring nutrients to the muscle cells and take away waste products (the coronary arteries, veins and capillary network). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes are the contracting cells which allow the heart to pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viewed through a microscope, cardiac muscle cells are roughly rectangular, measuring 100-150μm by 30-40μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual cardiac muscle cells are joined together at their ends by intercalated disks to form long fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regular organisation of myofibrils into sarcomeres gives cardiac muscle cells a striped or striated appearance when looked at through a microscope, similar to skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle cells contain many mitochondria which provide the energy needed for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), making them highly resistant to fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene-corrected bone marrow cells will then be re-infused into the participant and participants will be observed for successful gene transfer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • New research suggests that breast cancers can increase their growth by recruiting stromal cells that form in bone marrow. (upi.com)
  • With blood cells, however, we need both red and white in order to stay healthy and function well. (phys.org)
  • Nerve cells that have not merged with the insulin-producing bone marrow cells remain intact and function normally. (innovations-report.com)
  • It's the first clinical trial to use a large dose of nucleated bone marrow cells infused into the coronary sinus of heart failure patients," he said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GluD2-containing receptors are selectively/predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum where they play a key role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and motor coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research showed that around one in every 450 bone marrow cells has the capacity to transform into skin cells and regenerate the skin. (thaindian.com)
  • The team also identified the signal that triggers recruitment of the bone marrow cells to repair skin. (thaindian.com)
  • We may actually be able to use a person's own bone marrow cells and get them to differentiate into [liver cells} and then transplant them back into [the person's] own liver without having to go through the trauma of a liver transplant," said Bryon Petersen of the University of Pittsburgh, Penn. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If these findings can be confirmed, bone marrow cells might clearly play a role in the adaptive increase in β-cell mass that occurs physiologically during, for example, obesity and pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)