An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Diseases of BONES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
These criteria are identified through blood tests and bone marrow tests. The differential diagnosis list includes infectious ... and doses of cyclophosphamide to prepare the JMML child's body for bone marrow transplant. Use of TBI is controversial, though ... The EWOG-MDS JMML Study includes busulfan in place of TBI due to its own research findings that appeared to show that busulfan ... After bone marrow transplant, reducing ongoing immunosuppressive therapy has worked successfully to reverse the course of a ...
"Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow ... Carboplatin and busulfan dosing rely upon results from blood tests to calculate the optimal dose for each person. Simple blood ... Chemotherapeutic drugs may be used at high doses to permanently remove the recipient's bone marrow cells (myeloablative ... or at lower doses that will prevent permanent bone marrow loss (non-myeloablative and reduced intensity conditioning). When ...
"Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow ... Carboplatin[25]:4 and busulfan[26][27] dosing rely upon results from blood tests to calculate the optimal dose for each patient ... Chemotherapeutic drugs may be used at high doses to permanently remove the recipient's bone marrow cells (myeloablative ... or at lower doses that will prevent permanent bone marrow loss (non-myeloablative and reduced intensity conditioning).[137] ...
... bone marrow - bone marrow ablation - bone marrow aspiration - bone marrow biopsy - bone marrow metastases - bone marrow ... busulfan - buthionine sulfoximine C cell - c-erbB-2 - c-kit - CA 19-9 assay - CA-125 - CA-125 test - cachexia - calcitonin - ... dose - dose-dense chemotherapy - dose-dependent - dose-limiting - dose-rate - dosimetrist - double-blinded - double-contrast ... autologous bone marrow - autologous bone marrow transplantation - autologous lymphocyte - autologous stem cell transplantation ...
The bone marrow can be ablated (destroyed) with dose-levels that cause minimal injury to other tissues. In allogeneic ... People who would like to be tested for a specific family member or friend without joining any of the bone marrow registry data ... busulfan, and cyclophosphamide (TBC) conditioning in patients with CNS involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma". Biol Blood Marrow ... "Bone Marrow Transplant" redirects here. For the journal abbreviated Bone Marrow Transplant, see Bone Marrow Transplantation ( ...
... joining any of the bone-marrow registry data banks may contact a private HLA testing laboratory and be tested with a blood test ... The bone marrow can be ablated (destroyed) with dose-levels that cause minimal injury to other tissues. In allogeneic ... January 2012). "Autologous stem cell transplantation with thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide (TBC) conditioning in ... Bone-marrow transplantation usually requires that the recipient's own bone marrow be destroyed (myeloablation). Prior to the ...
... bone marrow aspirate, and bone marrow biopsy are still the screening tests used to decide which classification is best and ... Wijermans P, Lübbert M, Verhoef G, Bosly A, Ravoet C, Andre M, Ferrant A (March 2000). "Low-dose 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA ... busulfan, and chlorambucil) or radiation (therapeutic or accidental), or both (e.g., at the time of stem cell transplantation ... in the bone marrow or blood. The types of MDS are based on specific changes in the blood cells and bone marrow. Treatments may ...
2001). "Pregnancy outcomes after peripheral blood or bone marrow transplantation: a retrospective survey". Lancet. 358 (9278): ... The healthcare provider may order tests, including the following: Lab tests Hormone testing, to measure levels of female ... The radiation dose to the ovaries that generally causes permanent female infertility is 20.3 Gy at birth, 18.4 Gy at 10 years, ... busulfan, melphalan, chlorambucil and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as ...
Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, liver toxicity, vomiting, and loss of appetite.[1] Other serious side ... The dose should be reduced or allopurinol should be discontinued. Several published studies have demonstrated that the use of ... Payne, K.; Newman, W.; Fargher, E.; Tricker, K.; Bruce, I. N.; Ollier, W. E. R. (2007). "TPMT testing in rheumatology: Any ... It may be toxic to bone marrow. Quarterly blood counts are necessary for people on mercaptopurine. People should stop taking ...
"Getting Tested: Bone Marrow Donor Options". *^ a b Russell N, Bessell E, Stainer C, Haynes A, Das-Gupta E, Byrne J (2000). " ... The bone marrow can be ablated (destroyed) with dose-levels that cause minimal injury to other tissues. In allogeneic ... busulfan, and cyclophosphamide (TBC) conditioning in patients with CNS involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma". Biol Blood Marrow ... Redirected from Bone marrow transplant). "Bone Marrow Transplant" redirects here. For the journal abbreviated Bone Marrow ...
... bone marrow and other germ cells. For this reason, common chemotherapy side effects such as hair loss occur; sometimes this can ... Increased dose resulted in a linear increase of the area under the concentration-time curve and so it is concluded that dose is ... in patients with elevated baseline liver function tests (liver dysfunction).[14][16] ... Administration a 100 mg/m2 dose over a one-hour infusion gave a mean total body clearance of 21 L/h/m2 and a mean steady state ...
... the memory B cell pool repopulates very slowly from the bone marrow. ... Each course consists of a dose based on body weight, given over five days, in the first month, followed by a second dosing of ... After treatment, people with MS are monitored with regular blood tests, looking specifically at the white cell count and liver ... The recommended dose of Mavenclad is 3.5 mg/kg over 2 years, given in two treatment courses of 1.75 mg/kg/year. Therefore, the ...
Mulroney, CM; S Gluck; AD Ho (1994). "The use of photodynamic therapy in bone marrow purging". Semin Oncol. 21 (6 Suppl 15): 24 ... Metallated cationic porphyrazines (PZ), including PdPZ+, CuPZ+, CdPZ+, MgPZ+, AlPZ+ and GaPZ+, have been tested in vitro on V- ... The light dose supplies sufficient energy to stimulate the photosensitiser, but not enough to damage neighbouring healthy ... pathogens present in samples of blood and bone marrow can be decontaminated before the samples are used further for ...
These criteria are identified through blood tests and bone marrow tests. The differential diagnosis list includes infectious ... and doses of cyclophosphamide to prepare the JMML childs body for bone marrow transplant. Use of TBI is controversial, though ... The EWOG-MDS JMML Study includes busulfan in place of TBI due to its own research findings that appeared to show that busulfan ... After bone marrow transplant, reducing ongoing immunosuppressive therapy has worked successfully to reverse the course of a ...
"Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow ... Carboplatin and busulfan dosing rely upon results from blood tests to calculate the optimal dose for each person. Simple blood ... Chemotherapeutic drugs may be used at high doses to permanently remove the recipients bone marrow cells (myeloablative ... or at lower doses that will prevent permanent bone marrow loss (non-myeloablative and reduced intensity conditioning). When ...
"Bone marrow suppression (primarily neutropenia) is the dose-limiting toxicity of HYCAMTIN.". "Carcinogenicity testing of ... "The most frequent, serious side effect of treatment with busulfan is the induction of bone marrow failure (which may or may not ... "IDAMYCIN is a potent bone marrow suppressant. IDAMYCIN should not be given to patients with pre-existing bone marrow ... "Dose-limiting bone marrow suppression is the most significant toxicity associated with VUMON therapy.". "Children at SJCRH with ...
Self bone marrow transplant; Procedure: Total Body Irradiation; Procedure: Total-Body Irradiation; Procedure: biopsy; Procedure ... Diagnostic Test: CMRI; Diagnostic Test: Imaging; Diagnostic Test: P-MPA concentration; Diagnostic Test: Pulmonary function test ... Drug: High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (Venoglobulin-IH). Benesis Corporation. NULL. Completed. 16 Years. N/A. Both. 60. ... Busulfan; Butanoic acid; C-82 Topical Gel, 1%; C21; C225; CAM2043; CAPILLAREMA; CC; CC-4047; CD; CD34 selected autologous ...
Bone marrow tests. Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration are used to collect bone marrow samples for laboratory testing ... high doses of chemotherapy drugs are used to kill the blood-forming cells in your bone marrow. Then blood stem cells from a ... MyleranBusulfexBusulfan. References. "Chronic myelogenous leukemia," Mayo Clinic. "Chronic myelogenous leukemia," MedlinePlus; ... These tests involve collecting bone marrow from your hipbone.. *Tests to look for the Philadelphia chromosome. Specialized ...
Targeted, Dose-Escalated Intravenous Busulfan and Bolus Etoposide as Preparative Therapy for Patients With Acute Myeloid ... Genetic Study of Cancer Risk and Gene Identification in Patients With Inherited Bone Marrow Disorders and Their Families. ... Genetic Testing in Screening Patients With Stage IB-IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Has Been or Will Be Removed by Surgery ... Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Young Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Leukemia, Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome, or ...
Circulating Tumor DNA Testing in Predicting Treatment for Patients with Stage IIA Colon Cancer After Surgery, COBRA Trial ... Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant *Chemoprevention *Chemotherapy - cytotoxic *Correlative *Gene Therapy *Hormonal Therapy ... High Dose Cytarabine (HD ARAC) *High Dose Methotrexate (HD MTX) *I-MIBG ... Testing for ctDNA levels may help identify patients with colon cancer who benefit from receiving chemotherapy after surgery. It ...
... show that an immunomodulatory induction treatment in first line FL can achieves high rate of MR in both blood and bone marrow; ... Blood test for early detection of cancer: final study results support screening use. Test can detect over 50 types of cancer, ... GS2-6 - LOW-DOSE INFUSIONS OF CD45RA DEPLETED DONOR LYMPHOCYTES AFTER TCR ALPHA/BETA-DEPLETED TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH ... GS2-2 - IMPROVED SURVIVAL OF AML- AND MDS-PATIENTS AFTER TREOSULFAN-BASED COMPARED TO REDUCED‑INTENSITY BUSULFAN-BASED ...
  • Personalizing intravenous busulfan doses to a target plasma concentration at steady state ( C ss ) is an essential component of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). (
  • Endocrine Deficits After Fractionated Total Body Irradiation with High Dose AraC and Melphalan (TAM) for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children. (
  • Busulfan is a chemotherapeutic agent used as a component in a myeloablative preconditioning regimen before hematological stem cell transplantation. (
  • Evaluate the efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a HLA-matched sibling donor, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or HLA-mismatched familial donor, in terms of the frequency of relapse and duration of remission, in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have either achieved complete remission (CR1) after induction chemotherapy or who experienced recurrent AML then achieved second CR (CR2) after salvage chemotherapy. (
  • 15 to 55 years of age without significant co-morbidity* undergoing HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (BuCy conditioning): Patients receive busulfan IV once daily on days -7 to -4 and cyclophosphamide IV over 1-2 hours once daily on days -3 and -2. (
  • Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome is a rare but significant complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) . (
  • Slattery JT, Risler LJ (1998) Therapeutic monitoring of busulfan in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Objective: To examine the effi cacy and safety of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after low-dose (50-65 %) Busulfan, full-dose Fludarabine conditioning and in-vivo T-cell depletion in high-risk pediatric and adult chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. (
  • Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for FA-related marrow failure or leukemia, but both radiation exposure during transplant and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may increase risk of later malignancies of the head and neck and anogenital area. (
  • Conclusions Hepatitis C virus seropositivity is a significant risk factor for non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation even in patients with normal or minimally abnormal liver function tests. (
  • Fludarabine, low-dose busulfan and antithymocyte globulin as conditioning for Fanconi anemia patients receiving bone marrow transplantation from HLA-compatible related donors. (
  • Bone marrow/stem cell transplantation. (
  • A Children's Oncology Group clinical trial comparing 2 cycles of high-dose chemotherapy to 1 cycle of high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation has recently been completed. (
  • Clinical and transplantation outcomes data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) were merged with inpatient cost data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database using a probabilistic merge methodology. (
  • Busulfan injection is used in combination with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. (
  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 19, no. 9 (2013): 1301-1309. (
  • Mini test dose of intravenous busulfan (busulfex(®)) in allogeneic non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation, followed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. (
  • Before transplantation can take place, the person receiving the transplant will be given aggressive high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy to destroy any cancerous cells in their body. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, commonly called bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is indicated for various hematopoietic disorders (aplastic anemia, hemoglobinopathies), storage diseases, and severe immunodeficiencies. (
  • Major sources of stem cells for transplantation include bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. (
  • Studies comparing bone marrow to PBSC transplantation have shown that PBSCs are associated with a shorter period of neutropenia and red blood cell and platelet transfusion dependence, with an equal probability of acute and chronic GVHD. (
  • Human MSCs were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (i.e. busulphan, cyclophosphamide and methotrexate). (
  • Recent studies expressed concerns that high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as used in the conditioning before bone marrow transplantation (BMT), have persistent serious effects on bone marrow MSCs and thus potentially impair haemopoiesis. (
  • Of foremost importance, after conventional HSC transplantation, bone marrow stroma remains recipient in origin and the damage cannot be repaired by donor MSCs ( Devine & Hoffman, 2000 ). (
  • This medicine may also be used together with other medicines to prepare you before undergoing bone marrow or stem cell transplantation. (
  • Busulfan treatment is followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT), with T-cell depleted donor bone marrow bearing a different congenic marker (CD45.2) to that of the host mouse (CD45.1). (
  • Typically, chimeras are generated by irradiation of host mice followed by transplantation with donor bone marrow. (
  • The site will characterize the incidence, prevalence and function of MDSCs and immune checkpoint regulators in patients'' blood and bone marrow following transplantation (Objective #2). (
  • Older age, pretransplant chemotherapy, methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis, lower performance status at transplantation, transplantation for a malignant disease, high-intensity conditioning regimens (for example, bis-chloroethylnitrosourea or higher total body irradiation [TBI] dose rate greater than 6cGy/min), severe acute GVHD, Cytomegalovirus [CMV] seropositivity). (
  • These studies evaluated timing of induction therapy and compared postremission chemotherapy with marrow transplantation in 1,206 children. (
  • bone marrow transplantation offered no advantage. (
  • Antimicrobial prophylaxis in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (
  • To provide a guideline for the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis for patients in an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation setting. (
  • Mary Horowitz, MD, MS, the Robert A. Uihlein, Jr. Chair in Hematologic Research, Professor of Medicine and Chief of Hematology and Oncology at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), was presented with the 2014 Lifetime Achievement Award by the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. (
  • By contrary, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation aimed for AA treatment causes a sufficiently reduced risk of such secondary disorders [11]. (
  • The third HSCT was a haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from his mother, with post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide and tacrolimus used as graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. (
  • The first was an unrelated bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a human leucocyte antigen (HLA) 5/6-matched donor in his first complete remission (CR). (
  • Higher mortality after allogeneic peripheral-blood transplantation compared with bone marrow in children and adolescents: the Histocompatibility and Alternate Stem Cell Source Working Committee of the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry. (
  • MM is still an incurable disease however the use of drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib, as well as the introduction of autologous bone marrow transplantation have changed the course of the disease, increasing survival and the quality of life of patients ( 2 ) (D). (
  • Patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation frequently have hemorrhagic cystitis because most are exposed to cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, or both. (
  • Dr. Soiffer is chairman of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research advisory committee and has served as vice president (2006), president (2007), and immediate past president (2008) of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. (
  • It is reported to occur most commonly following high-dose chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation, but can occur with chemotherapy alone. (
  • High dose cyclophosphamide (CY), higher dose of TBI (total body irradiation), busulfan (Bu) (by inducing oxidative stress rather than direct toxicity), gemtuzumab ozogamicin, and busulfan and melphalan based regimens. (
  • Busulfan and cyclophosphamide are chemotherapy drugs that are designed to kill leukemia cells. (
  • Busulfan injection is used together with a medicine called cyclophosphamide, to prepare your body to receive a stem cell transplant from a donor 's bone marrow . (
  • Cyclophosphamide is given PO or IV, and dose-limiting leukopenia associated with bone marrow suppression is the primary toxicity. (
  • Specifically, concurrent administration of a diuretic, such as furosemide , may be used when cyclophosphamide is given as a single dose to provide a dilutional effect. (
  • Mesna coadministered with fluid diuresis is recommended when ifosfamide (an analogue of cyclophosphamide ) or high-dose cyclophosphamide is used. (
  • This may include one or more of the following drugs: cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide, cisplatin or carboplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin (adriamycin), etoposide, topotecan, and/or busulfan and melphalan (sometimes used during stem cell transplant) and/or immunotherapy. (
  • Transplant was combined with intensive chemotherapy with thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide (TBC). (
  • Acquired AA patients will receive the experimental regimen of fludarabine with dose-reduced cyclophosphamide, with results in this prospective single arm experimental group evaluated in the context of our institutional historical experience using HD Cy regimens as well as published outcomes using both fludarabine and high-dose cyclophosphamide-based regimens for MRD-BMT in aplastic anemia. (
  • Here, we report multiple CNS lesions due to PTLD in a patient with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoid leukemia (Ph+ ALL) after haplo-identical HSCT using post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). (
  • Patients received FA5-BUCY, i.e., 5-day salvage chemotherapy (Fludarabine/Ara-C) and conditioning (Busulfan/Cyclophosphamide). (
  • Cardiac tamponade has been reported in pediatric patients with thalassemia who received high doses of oral busulfan and cyclophosphamide. (
  • Administer Busulfan Injection in combination with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell replacement. (
  • What is busulfan (Busulfan, Busulfex, Myleran)? (
  • What are the possible side effects of busulfan (Busulfan, Busulfex, Myleran)? (
  • What is the most important information I should know about busulfan (Busulfan, Busulfex, Myleran)? (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using busulfan (Busulfan, Busulfex, Myleran)? (
  • BUSULFEX 0.8 mg per kg (ideal body weight or actual body weight, whichever is lower) intravenously via a central venous catheter as a two-hour infusion every six hours for four consecutive days for a total of 16 doses (Days -7, ‑6, -5 and -4). (
  • A Phase II Study of Busulfan & Melphalan as Conditioning Regimen for ASCT in Patients Who Received Bortezomib Based Induction for Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Followed by Lenalidomide Maintenance Until Progression. (
  • Investigators would like to explore all these three strategies in this study: Investigators propose to take patients who have had standard novel agent (bortezomib) based induction regimens into this study and then use a dose-adjusted combination of busulfan and melphalan as conditioning regimen and finally Investigators would like to incorporate lenalidomide maintenance post ASCT until disease progression. (
  • To determine the toxicity of busulfan and melphalan when used as a high-dose conditioning therapy for ASCT. (
  • To determine the toxicity of lenalidomide maintenance post busulfan and melphalan conditioning ASCT. (
  • A European study compared the results for children who received conditioning prior to a stem cell transplant with carboplatin, etoposide, and melphan as compared to busulfan and melphalan. (
  • The study suggested that the outcome was better for children treated with busulfan and melphalan. (
  • The Children's Oncology Group has conducted a feasibility pilot study evaluating radioactive MIBG combined with busulfan and melphalan during consolidation therapy for newly diagnosed patients with a high-risk tumor. (
  • The conditioning regimen was busulfan and melphalan without CNS prophylaxis. (
  • Along with its needed effects, busulfan (the active ingredient contained in Myleran ) may cause some unwanted effects. (
  • Hematologic side effects including myelosuppression resulting in leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia, comprise the most frequent toxic effects that have been reported with the use of busulfan (the active ingredient contained in Myleran) Dose limiting myelosuppression is the main side effect with usual doses. (
  • You will need to undergo regular blood tests before treatment with Myleran starts and during so blood cell levels and other substances can be monitored and it's important to know how well your liver and kidneys are functioning. (
  • Your doses of Myleran may be higher if you are taking it in preparation for a stem cell or bone marrow transplant. (
  • When taken as directed, the active ingredient in Myleran, called Busulfan, will work to interfere with the DNA so the cancer cells cannot 'read' their codes in order to be able to copy the DNA and create even more cancer cells. (
  • To confirm the diagnosis of PV, a complete blood count (CBC) showing polycythemia (as measured with Hct/Hgb), JAK2V617F mutation testing, and bone marrow biopsy are typically sufficient. (
  • Testing for JAK2V617F, CBC, and bone marrow biopsy usually suffice to make the diagnosis. (
  • This can be confirmed with a bone marrow biopsy. (
  • Even if EPO levels are normal in a JAK2V617F patient, PV is still likely and bone marrow biopsy should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. (
  • In those patients with polycythemia, but lacking a JAK2V617F mutation, if the serum EPO level is low, PV is still possible and a bone marrow biopsy is recommended in combination with exon 12 mutation screening. (
  • Along with other blood tests, you'll likely need a bone marrow biopsy to confirm a diagnosis of PV. (
  • A bone marrow biopsy is often done at the same time. (
  • If your doctor suspects that you have polycythemia vera, he or she might recommend collecting a sample of your bone marrow through a bone marrow aspiration or biopsy. (
  • A bone marrow biopsy involves taking a sample of solid bone marrow material. (
  • Bone marrow biopsy is required to confirm that the proliferation is limited to the megakaryocytic lineage and the megakaryocytes show the appropriate morphology (i.e., large size, abundant cytoplasm, hyperlobated nuclei, low nuclear, cytoplasmic ratio, and minimal atypia). (
  • ET can be distinguished from PMF in the bone marrow biopsy. (
  • There is, typically, a panmyelosis in the bone marrow biopsy, as opposed to solely a megakaryocytic hyperplasia, as is seen in ET. (
  • Patients require complete blood count (CBC), bone marrow biopsy, cytogenetics, and JAK2 mutation studies. (
  • Toxicity is defined as any grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity per the Bearman toxicity grading criteria following Busulfan and Etoposide high-dose chemotherapy, stem cell transplant, and the inability to recover sufficiently by day 100 to start IL-2 therapy. (
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of Busulfan is essential for management of Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) patients, by optimizing dose, supporting compliance, and minimizing toxicity. (
  • While intravenous (IV) formulations of busulfan are now available and have lower incidences of toxicity and treatment related mortality compared to oral dosing, it still displays large pharmacokinetic variability. (
  • Busulfan levels were monitored to avoid excess toxicity. (
  • Personalized dosing strategies are have improved the efficacy and reducing the toxicity in drug therapy in pediatric populations. (
  • One of the unique toxicities of cytarabine is cerebellar toxicity when given in high doses. (
  • Also, the drugs can often be used at lower doses, reducing toxicity. (
  • In patients with aplastic anemia total body irradiation (TBI) doses as low as 200 cGy (2 Gy) and as high as 1,200 cGy (12 Gy) have been used, generally combined with chemotherapy. (
  • You will also receive other medicines to help prevent certain side effects of busulfan. (
  • Some side effects of busulfan may occur that usually do not need medical attention. (
  • The procedure involves removing stem cells from the patient's bone marrow, using the vector to insert the corrected gene, and returning the corrected cells to the patient. (
  • When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (
  • The trial is funded by a five-year, $11.9-million grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) to test technology developed by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital that delivers a functional gene into the patient's blood-producing stem cells. (
  • What is unique about this trial is that the patient's own bone marrow stem cells are collected and corrected with the gene therapy, and the corrected cells are then reinfused into the patient," said Morton Cowan , MD, of the UCSF Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Blood and Marrow Transplant , and principal investigator of the trial at UCSF. (
  • Additionally, stem cell transplants carry risks such as graft-versus-host disease and side effects from chemotherapy medications given to help the donor stem cells establish themselves in the patient's bone marrow. (
  • First, stem cells are collected from the patient's bone marrow or peripheral blood. (
  • The gene therapy approach involves first obtaining blood-forming stem cells from a patient's bone marrow. (
  • The bone marrow is replaced by collagen fibrosis, impairing the patient's ability to generate new blood cells resulting in a progressive anemia. (
  • The 5-year LFS was 60% for MSD alloHCT, 47% for well-matched matched unrelated donor bone marrow (MUD) alloHCT, 48% for mismatched unrelated donor alloHCT, and 45% for UCB alloHCT (P = .09). (
  • By using donor bone marrow bearing a congenic marker, it is possible to distinguish host- or donor-origin cells by flow cytometry. (
  • Successful strategies have included the use of preconditioning regimens consisting of sublethal gamma-irradiation ( 1 ), as well as administration of large numbers of donor bone marrow cells without preconditioning ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • We have recently developed a model in which mice are preconditioned with a minimally myelosuppressive dose of the stem cell-selective toxin busulfan, allowing for the engraftment of donor bone marrow under the cover of costimulation blockade. (
  • This is a pilot study to determine whether fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens facilitate successful donor engraftment of patients with acquired aplastic anemia (AA) and Inherited bone marrow failure (iBMF) syndromes undergoing Matched related donor bone marrow transplant (MRD-BMT). (
  • A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for rapid and accurate quantification of Busulfan in plasma was developed and validated in the Department of Chemistry at Baptist Hospital of Miami. (
  • This phase II trial studies the side effects and how well giving busulfan and etoposide followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) and low-dose aldesleukin works in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (
  • PREPARATIVE REGIMEN: Patients receive busulfan IV over 2 hours or PO every 6 hours on days -7 to -4 and etoposide IV on day -3. (
  • POST-TRANSPLANT ALDESLEUKIN THERAPY: Beginning 30-100 days after transplant, patients receive low-dose aldesleukin SC daily for 12 weeks. (
  • How the Busulfan testing improved the management of Bone Marrow Transplant Patients? (
  • The TDM and timely plasma concentration reporting of Busulfan would provide an improvement in the quality-of-care for BMT patients. (
  • Identify our purpose to measure Busulfan in BMT patients' samples. (
  • PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well donor stem cell transplant or bone marrow transplant works in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia in remission. (
  • and for patients of any age undergoing HLA-mismatched familial donor HSCT (BuFluATG conditioning): Patients receive busulfan IV once daily on days -7 and -6, fludarabine phosphate IV over 30 minutes once daily on days -7 to -2, anti-thymocyte globulin IV over 4 hours once daily on days -3 to -1, and methylprednisolone IV over 30 minutes once daily on days -4 to -1. (
  • Patients also receive leucovorin calcium orally or IV over 4 hours after IT methotrexate and then once every 6 hours for a total of 8 doses after each dose of IT methotrexate. (
  • Patients undergoing lentiviral gene therapies must first take the chemotherapy drug busulfan in a process called conditioning, which helps the gene-modified stem cells take root in their bone marrow. (
  • The company joined forces with Saladex Biomedical on Monday to develop a rapid blood test that monitors how quickly patients metabolize the drug. (
  • Pediatric patients received a therapeutic drug monitoring aiming at a cumulative AUC of Busulfan between 45 to 65 mg/L x h. (
  • Bone marrow (2.3-6.0 x 10 6 CD34/kg) was the prefered stem cell source, three patients received PBSC (5-11 x 10 6 CD34/kg). (
  • Two patients with a low cumulative AUC for Busulfan under 45 mg/L x h had autologuous reconstitution. (
  • Hepatitis B or C may increase risk of VOD in patient receiving hepatotoxic myeloablative regimens, but appear safer in patients receiving RIC, particularly fludarabine plus low dose TBI. (
  • All 26 patients younger than 10 years of age undergoing HCT for marrow failure using lower-dose busulfan-containing regimen survived. (
  • Established an inpatient pharmacy service for advanced clinical pharmacology consults and therapeutic drug monitoring for pediatric bone marrow transplant patients. (
  • HCT may serve as a rescue procedure in patients with malignant disorders treated with high-dose cytotoxic regimens or as replacement therapy in patients with missing, aberrant, or defective lymphohematopoietic cells, including marrow failure and autoimmune disorders. (
  • However, there is a strong trend to avoid or reduce the radiation doses in patients who are transplanted for non-malignant disorders (to avoid potential long-term/delayed effects). (
  • Cy has also been combined with Flu, ATG and low dose TBI in patients with aplastic anemia. (
  • Patients who received tandem cycles of high-dose therapy had improved event-free survival. (
  • Based on these results, the Children's Oncology Group now considers 2 cycles of high-dose therapy with stem cell transplant the new standard of care for high-risk neuroblastoma patients. (
  • A new Children's Oncology Group Phase III study will test the activity and side effects of MIBG therapy in induction in newly diagnosed patients with a high-risk tumor. (
  • A new Children's Oncology Group clinical trial will test the activity and side effects of crizotinib in newly diagnosed patients with neuroblastoma with ALK mutations. (
  • In one study, four out of 243 patients treated with busulfan developed leukemia . (
  • Respiratory side effects including lung damage have frequently been reported (approximately 33% of patients with the higher doses used for bone marrow transplant ). (
  • In 7 patients (11%) it was first reported during busulfan administration. (
  • Bone marrow and stem cell transplants are an alternative option in patients who do not respond to chemotherapy. (
  • After WBRT, more than half of patients had a decrease in their neuropsychological test scores. (
  • In contrast, more than half of patients assigned to ASCT had an improvement in their test scores. (
  • Commenting on the study, Michael Scordo, MD, of the adult bone marrow transplant service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, told Cancer Network that the PRECIS study is a highly important clinical trial for the field, since it is only the second published multicenter randomized study aimed at determining whether WBRT or ASCT is the optimal first-line consolidation strategy for patients with primary CNS lymphoma. (
  • AIII: All patients being considered for allogeneic stem cell transplant should have anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG-antibody testing. (
  • Thus, a single dose of disease resistant GM-HSPC could provide an effective treatment for HIV-1+ patients who require (or desire) an alternative to lifelong antiretroviral chemotherapy. (
  • We look forward to working with St. Jude to advance this program through ongoing Phase 1/2 trials, with the goal of providing a novel, long-term treatment to the more than 80 percent of infants who lack fully matched bone marrow transplant donors and those patients who continue to have significant impairment of immunity. (
  • All patients received stem cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood, and achieved successful engraftment, except two who died before. (
  • In patients undergoing HSCT, depleting donor marrow T cells with an antibody to a T cell surface structure results in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of GVHD. (
  • Patients must display a sustained thrombocytosis with characteristic bone marrow histomorphology. (
  • Low-dose conventional chemotherapy: Studies have shown no influence from low-dose conventional chemotherapy on JMML patients' length of survival. (
  • Busulfan oral (taken by mouth) is used to treat the symptoms of chronic myelogenous leukemia (a type of blood cancer). (
  • Busulfan is not a cure for leukemia . (
  • Long term, PV can lead to scarring of the bone marrow as well as leukemia , another type of blood cancer. (
  • The case of endocardial fibrosis was reported in a 79-year-old woman who received a total dose of 7,200 mg over a period of 9 years for the management of chronic myelogenous leukemia . (
  • Treatment for AML carried out in two stages - the initial stage or induction stage to kill the leukemia cells of the bone marrow and the consolidation stage to kill any remaining leukemia cells that may be present in the body. (
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant disease arising from a primitive hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow that involves all three myeloid lineages: granulocytes, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. (
  • Leahy TR, Smith OP, Bacon CL, Storey L, Lynam P, Gavin PJ, Butler KM, O'Marcaigh AS, Does vaccine dose predict response to the monovalent pandemic H1N1 influenza a vaccine in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia? (
  • Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) is a cancer of white blood cells in which too many white blood cells are made in the bone marrow . (
  • Chronic leukemia is a cancer that starts in the blood cells made in the bone marrow . (
  • The site will use a myeloablative regimen of fludarabine with busulfan, adopted from CALGB 100801, to define clinical endpoints, including engraftment, 100 day survival and one year survival (Objective #1). (
  • Similarly, monoclonal antibodies (for example, anti-CD33) conjugated to chemotherapeutic agents have been tested in transplant conditioning regimens. (
  • Common regimens for consolidation in childhood ALL include high dose methotrexate with mercaptopurine, high dose asparaginase over an extended period and a repetition of the initial induction therapy in the first few months of remission. (
  • Targeting Busulfan is regarded to be of major importance to prevent autologous reconstitution. (
  • DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Global Stem Cell Therapy Market by Type (Allogeneic, Autologous), Therapeutic Application (Musculoskeletal, Wound & Injury, CVD, Autoimmune & Inflammatory), Cell Source (Adipose tissue, Bone Marrow, Placenta/Umbilical Cord) - Forecasts to 2026" report has been added to's offering. (
  • Individuals were treated in this dose-escalation study (New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy [NANT] C2000-01) with 131I-MIBG on days 0 and 14 and NR2B3 received autologous peripheral-blood stem-cell infusion on day time 28. (
  • The odds are that your child will need a college education more than an autologous bone marrow transplant. (
  • Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 18, no. 11 (November 2012): 1664-1676.e1. (
  • Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 18, no. 10 (October 2012): 1488-1499. (
  • Avrobio uses therapeutic drug monitoring to tailor busulfan dosing to each patient, to improve the odds of success for its gene therapies while tamping down on side effects. (
  • Launch Neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumor of children that is derived from the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, is frequently metastatic at analysis, with long-term survival of less than 40%.1 As new treatment options are tested, it is essential to reliably assess disease response as a measure of therapeutic activity. (
  • The evidence recovered was critically assessed using discriminatory instruments (scores) according to the category of the question: diagnostic (Quality in Diagnostic and Screening tests -QADAS) or therapeutic (JADAD for randomized clinical trials and the Newcastle Ottawa scale for non-randomized studies). (
  • Increasingly sensitive laboratory tests identify the monoclonal component and its quantity and the type of abnormal protein present in serum or urine, thereby assisting in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluations. (
  • During the past 15 years, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has evolved into a vital technology used to perform routine tests in many clinical laboratories. (
  • Clinical laboratories have also experienced situations in which manufacturers unexpectedly withdraw immunoassays from the market, leaving labs searching frantically for alternate methods to get test results back to the ordering physician. (
  • Describe a clinical method to measure Busulfan in plasma by LC-MS/MS. (
  • Current methods for assaying busulfan include the use of GC/MS, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS. The clinical need for faster turnaround times and increased testing volumes has required laboratories to develop faster methods of analysis for higher throughput of samples. (
  • Langman L.J., Danso D., Robert E., Jannetto P.J. (2016) High-Throughput Quantitation of Busulfan in Plasma Using Ultrafast Solid-Phase Extraction Tandem Mass Spectrometry (SPE-MS/MS). In: Garg U. (eds) Clinical Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Drug Analysis. (
  • At Hopkins, he taught courses on Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis, Diagnostic and prognostic testing, and several courses on epidemiologic, clinical research and inferential methods. (
  • Through novel clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics clinical research, Long-Boyle is able to develop dosing strategies for small children. (
  • Over the past decade there has been great clinical interest in improving bone healing by altering the mechanical environment through the fixation stability around the lesion. (
  • What Tests Should I Request to Confirm My Clinical Dx? (
  • Crizotinib, lorlatinib, and other drugs that inhibit ALK , a tyrosine kinase that is mutated in a subset of neuroblastomas, as well as other tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being tested in early-phase clinical trials. (
  • Besides bone marrow, other stem cell sources like granulocyte-colony stimulating-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells have been established in clinical routine. (
  • The bone marrow-derived MSCs segment is expected to witness the highest growth rate during the forecast period, owing to an increasing number of clinical trials focused on bone marrow-derived cell therapies and the rising demand for these cells in blood-related disorders. (
  • Aplastic anemia (АА) is the most common clinical form of bone marrow failure which is still considered as a non-malignant disorder. (
  • In this research study, researchers will either collect marrow stromal cells from a family member through a bone marrow aspiration, or they will use "off-the-shelf" marrow stromal cells that have been collected from a healthy donor. (
  • In a bone marrow aspiration, a doctor or nurse uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of liquid bone marrow, usually from a spot in the back of your hipbone (pelvis). (
  • During an aspiration, your doctor withdraws a sample of the liquid portion of your marrow. (
  • Alternatively, a bone marrow exam provides a sample of dividing marrow cells by aspiration that will demonstrate the t(9;22) by cytogenetic analysis of metaphase cells. (
  • Busulfan injection is given as an infusion into a vein in your upper chest (central IV). (
  • Since busulfan injection is given by a healthcare professional, you are not likely to miss a dose. (
  • Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. (
  • Your doctor will give you another medication to help prevent seizures before and during therapy with busulfan injection. (
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of busulfan injection in the pediatric population. (
  • Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of busulfan injection in the elderly. (
  • Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of spleen cells ( 1 ) or infusion of bone marrow (BM) cells ( 2 ) achieved the same protective effect resulting in animals' survival. (
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BUSULFAN INJECTION safely and effectively. (
  • See full prescribing information for BUSULFAN INJECTION. (
  • Seizures: Initiate anticonvulsant prophylactic therapy prior to treatment with Busulfan Injection. (
  • Drugs that Increase Busulfan Injection Clearance: Phenytoin. (
  • Busulfan Injection causes severe and prolonged myelosuppression at the recommended dosage. (
  • Twenty-five received their first HCT from an HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 12 from a HLA matched unrelated bone marrow donor (MUD 10/10, n = 12) and 7 other HLA mismatched donors (MMD). (
  • In the United States, the National Marrow Donor Program has typed nearly 4 million volunteer donors and uses 118 donor centers and over 57 transplant centers to add 40,000 potential new donors each month. (
  • Al: Transplant recipients who are CMV-seronegative should receive blood products from donors who have also tested negative. (
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, or if you have kidney disease, liver disease, blood or bone marrow problems, oral thrush, yeast infection, or a history of seizures. (
  • You may also receive medicines to help prevent seizures after using busulfan. (
  • 4. Prior treatment with busulfan or gemtuzumab ozogamicin for any reason. (
  • Treatment with busulfan, hycanthone (HC), or triethylenemelamine (TEM) failed to induce SCE in vivo in spermatogonia, but these compounds did induce SCE in bone marrow. (
  • Before you begin treatment with busulfan, you and your doctor should talk about the benefits this medicine will do as well as the risks of using it. (
  • Many drugs can cause abnormal liver function tests and can be diagnosed clinically by excluding other etiologies. (
  • Many drugs can cause abnormal liver function tests, including immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine and tacrolimus (mainly elevated direct bilirubin due to inhibition of bilirubin transport), total parenteral nutrition (TPN), antimicrobiological agents including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (mainly cholestasis), or antifungal azoles (itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole) which cause transaminitis. (
  • Azathioprine may cause a rare type of lymphoma (cancer) of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow that can be fatal. (
  • heart, liver, and kidney function) may be done while you are being treated with Busulfan. (
  • Intravenous doses of cytarabine exhibit a biphasic elimination, with an initial distribution half-life of about ten minutes during which time a major portion of the drug is metabolised in the liver to the inactive metabolite uracil arabinoside. (
  • Extramedullary haematopoeisis occurs as the haemopoetic cells migrate away from the bone marrow, to the liver and spleen. (
  • Oral mucositis (OM) remains one of the most significant complications of high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT [5]. (
  • The conditioning drug busulfan is used to ablate host haematopoietic stem cells while leaving the peripheral immune system intact. (
  • 2004). To avoid the perturbation of immune homeostasis caused by irradiation, we turned our attention to the conditioning drug busulfan. (
  • If you take busulfan with other medications that may cause a low blood count, the side effects of the medications may be more severe. (
  • Take busulfan at around the same time every day. (
  • Take busulfan exactly as directed. (
  • Take Busulfan exactly as directed by your doctor or according to the instructions on the label. (
  • The most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the control of chronic phase CML are busulfan and hydroxyurea. (
  • However, cytarabine is not very selective and causes bone marrow suppression and other severe side effects, so it is used mainly for the chemotherapy of hematologic cancers. (
  • Serious adverse reactions include bone marrow suppression and anaphylaxis. (
  • Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) contain higher numbers of progenitor cells, natural killer cells, and T cells as compared to bone marrow. (
  • Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a proliferation of megakaryocytes, granulocytes, and erythrocytes in the bone marrow, leading to thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, and erythrocytosis in the peripheral blood. (
  • If you have polycythemia vera, analysis of your bone marrow or blood might show the gene mutation that's associated with the disease. (
  • Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia , also known as agnogenic myeloid metaplasia , chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis , and primary myelofibrosis , [1] was first described in 1879 and is currently classified as a myeloproliferative disease caused by the growth and proliferation of an abnormal bone marrow stem cell, resulting in the replacement of the bone marrow with fibrous connective tissue . (
  • ET bone marrows, typically, show normocellularity or only mild hypercellularity with an intact myeloid to erythroid ratio and a marked increase in megakaryocytes, particularly large megakaryocytes with hyperlobation. (
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as busulfan and etoposide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (
  • 3: The patient receives a low dose of busulfan to help make room in the bone marrow for the gene-corrected stem cells. (
  • Animal studies suggest it could clear space in bone marrow for gene-modified stem cells to take root, Magenta said in the statement. (
  • Busulfan can cause a severe decrease in the number of blood cells in your bone marrow. (
  • Your doctor will order laboratory tests before, during and after your treatment to check your body's response to busulfan to see if your blood cells are affected by this drug. (
  • Busulfan tablets are also used in combination with other drugs to destroy the bone marrow and cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. (
  • Busulfan is a commonly used antineoplastic agent to condition/ablate bone marrow cells before hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (
  • 5. Study participants in whom the minimum stem cell dose of 2.0 x 106 cluster of differentiation (CD)34+ cells/kg has been collected. (
  • The genetically corrected stem cells then are infused back into the patient, who has received a low dose of the chemotherapy medication busulfan to help the cells establish themselves in the bone marrow and begin producing new immune cells. (
  • If you are found to be eligible to take part in this study, this catheter will be used for the collection of stem cells, infusion of chemotherapy, fluids, electrolytes, other medications, and also for blood sampling for lab tests. (
  • If this is the case, you may need to have bone marrow stem cells collected. (
  • The in vivo application of this test was investigated by examining the chemical induction of SCE in spermatogonia, intestinal epithelium and bone marrow cells from Chinese hamsters. (
  • In order to collect a larger expansion of the numbers of cord blood cells, recent research suggests that growing the cord blood cells on a layer of bone marrow stromal cells increases the number of expanded cells which can be collected. (
  • In the body, these stromal cells form a matrix or "spider web" in the bone marrow. (
  • Blood-forming bone marrow cells (looking like dewdrops) grow on this stromal cell matrix (spider web) and are nurtured by the stromal cells. (
  • These "off-the-shelf" marrow stromal cells were grown and frozen by Mesoblast Systems. (
  • Collection of back-up stem cells: Because collecting additional cells from the donor of the cord blood is not possible if the transplant with cord blood fails, a back-up PBPC or bone marrow sample to ensure recovery of your marrow function will be collected from you and frozen before the high dose chemotherapy begins. (
  • Peripheral blood progenitor cell collection (Leukapheresis): Before collection of the PBPC, you will be treated with a drug called granulocyte colony stimulating factor ( G-CSF ), which will cause the important stem cells in the marrow to move the peripheral blood where they will be collected. (
  • The stimulation of the erythropoietin receptor in the marrow stem cells also allows for increased EEC formation in vitro . (
  • Busulfan can lower blood cells that help your body fight infections and help your blood to clot. (
  • a type of cancer of the white blood cells) in combination with other medications to destroy bone marrow and cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. (
  • Since the growth of normal body cells may also be affected by busulfan, other effects will also occur. (
  • CML is a result of your bone marrow making too many white blood cells. (
  • Pleiotrophin regulates the retention and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow vascular niche. (
  • Bone marrow is then transplanted after killing off the cancer cells. (
  • Since the mid-1990s, peripheral blood-derived stem cells have been used with increasing frequency over the traditional marrow cells. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important cellular component of the bone marrow microenvironment for supporting haemopoiesis. (
  • In addition to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs), human bone marrow contains a second type of stem cells, recently termed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). (
  • Busulfan will cause the level of your red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets to drop. (
  • The accelerated phase is characterized by loss of response to previously effective therapy, increasing granulocytic dysplasia, loss of maturation in neutrophils with more immature cells in the circulation, increasing anemia or thrombocytopenia, increasing spleen size, constitutional symptoms of fever, sweats, and weight loss, and increasing reticulin fibrosis in the marrow. (
  • Either of these tests can be done on granulocytes in the peripheral blood, as they do not require dividing cells. (
  • The most common sources of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells are bone marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord blood. (
  • These include adipose tissue-derived MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), bone marrow-derived MSCs, placenta/umbilical cord-derived MSCs, and other cell sources (which include human corneal epithelium stem cells, peripheral arterial-derived stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cell lines). (
  • Stem cells are found in the bone marrow, the bloodstream and umbilical cords. (
  • A stem cell transplant is used to replace stem cells when stem cells or the bone marrow are damaged. (
  • In this type of transplant, the stem cells are taken from the child's own bone marrow or blood and are frozen and stored. (
  • The bone marrow makes precursor cells called "blasts" or "stem cells" that mature into different types of blood cells. (
  • During the normal course of events our immune system creates the T cells it needs from our bone marrow stem cells. (
  • Dr Heng and her colleagues have found a way to introduce foreign bone marrow stem cells from the donor into the recipient's bone marrow. (
  • The technique involves using a small dose of Busulfan (a chemotherapy drug usually given before a stem cell transplant for leukaemia) to slightly reduce the number of the recipient's bone marrow stem cells, making space for the donor stem cells. (
  • The stem cells are then transplanted into the recipient's bone marrow combined with a small amount of anti-rejection drug for a few days to stop the donor stem cells being rejected. (
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (
  • For years Dr. Deborah Spiva made bizarre diagnoses, ordered strange treatments, and prescribed massive doses of powerful drugs. (
  • These studies test a new drug, a new combination of drugs, or a new surgical procedure in comparison to the current standard. (
  • Your healthcare team will consider your personal needs to plan the drugs, doses and schedules of chemotherapy. (
  • Because the only way to make all that pain go away is by taking a hearty (sometimes heroic) dose of anti-rejection drugs. (
  • Dr Heng noted that a variant of this approach has been trialled in the US, using larger doses of chemotherapy drugs or radiation, which may not be suitable for the sick or elderly (both groups are heavily represented on transplant lists). (
  • Timely, independent, evidence-based information on new drugs and medical tests, and changes to the PBS and MBS. (
  • Chlorambucil , the slowest-acting nitrogen mustard, achieves effects gradually and often can be used in animals with compromised bone marrow. (
  • The author used a table to rate available evidence-based articles about antimicrobial prophylaxis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients. (
  • In this study, we tested a radiation-free conditioning regimen with a T-cell-depleted graft to eliminate radiation exposure and minimize early and late toxicities of transplant. (
  • They can be damaged by disease or destroyed by high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. (
  • It generally takes longer for older women and those who had higher doses of radiation therapy or chemotherapy to start menstruating again. (
  • We believe this trial will not only help us understand more about how lentiviral gene therapy works, but how the use of low-dose busulfan potentially will be effective in treating other non-malignant diseases like sickle-cell anemia, chronic granulomatous disease, marrow failure syndromes and even some cancers in which the patient is too ill to undergo the more toxic traditional treatments," said Cowan. (
  • It has long been recognized that T lymphocytes from the donor marrow play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GVHD. (
  • This is a blood and bone marrow disease that can occur during or after reaching middle-age and rarely happens in children. (
  • Peripheral blood monocytosis >1 x 109/L. Less than 20% blasts (including promonocytes) in the blood and bone marrow (blast count is less than 2% on average) Splenomegaly At least one of: Mutation in RAS or PTPN11 Diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 1 Chromosome 7 monosomy Or two or more of the following criteria: Hemoglobin F increased for age. (
  • While reported only rarely, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (busulfan lung) warrants the immediate discontinuation of busulfan administration. (
  • Giving busulfan and etoposide together followed by PBSCT and aldesleukin may be an effective treatment for AML. (
  • MS/MS also exhibits flexibility and versatility in enabling laboratories to offer novel laboratory-developed- tests (LDTs) for biomarkers or for newly approved medications before FDA-approved kits or immunoassays to measure them come on the market. (
  • Busulfan is in a class of medications called alkylating agents. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to busulfan, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in busulfan tablets. (
  • Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects. (
  • Many other medications may also interact with busulfan, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. (
  • Medications such as busulfan, fludarabine, and mycophenolate currently lack standard dosing guidelines in the pediatric population. (
  • They need CNS prophylaxis in the form of cranial irradiation (less commonly used now), intrathecal (methotrexate, cytarabine, steroids) and high-dose systemic chemotherapy (methotrexate, cytarabine, L-asparaginase). (
  • The EWOG-MDS JMML study allows each child's physician to determine whether or not a splenectomy should be done, and large spleens are commonly removed prior to bone marrow transplant. (
  • The secondary process of bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) is the result of nonclonal fibroblastic proliferation and hyperactivity induced by growth factors abnormally shed from clonally expanded megakaryocytes. (
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disorder characterized by abnormal clonal proliferation of plasmocytes in the bone marrow resulting in the production of monoclonal immunoglobulins associated with organic disorders ( 2 ) (D). MM accounts for 1% of all neoplastic diseases and 13% of hematologic neoplasms ( 2 ) (D). (