Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Pancytopenia: Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic: A group of related disorders characterized by LYMPHOCYTOSIS; HISTIOCYTOSIS; and hemophagocytosis. The two major forms are familial and reactive.Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure: Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases: Clonal myeloid disorders that possess both dysplastic and proliferative features but are not properly classified as either MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES or MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell: Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active HISTIOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTES, but where the histiocytes are not LANGERHANS CELLS. The group includes HEMOPHAGOCYTIC LYMPHOHISTIOCYTOSIS; SINUS HISTIOCYTOSIS; xanthogranuloma; reticulohistiocytoma; JUVENILE XANTHOGRANULOMA; xanthoma disseminatum; as well as the lipid storage diseases (SEA-BLUE HISTIOCYTE SYNDROME; and NIEMANN-PICK DISEASES).Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.

Bone marrow angiogenesis and mast cell density increase simultaneously with progression of human multiple myeloma. (1/9035)

Immunohistochemical, cytochemical and ultrastructural data showing vivid angiogenesis and numerous mast cells (MCs) in the bone marrow of 24 patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared with 34 patients with non-active MM and 22 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) led us to hypothesize that angiogenesis parallels progression of MM, and that MCs participate in its induction via angiogenic factors in their secretory granules.  (+info)

Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 correct osteopetrosis in mice with osteopetrosis mutation. (2/9035)

Although young mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis (op) mutation usually developed prominent osteopetrosis, its severity was markedly reduced in aged op/op mice. This age-associated reversal of osteopetrosis was accompanied by the expansion of bone marrow cavities and increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and of macrophages in the bone marrow. The TRAP-positive cells were mononuclear and developed ruffled borders and numerous vesicles, vacuoles, and granules. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant elevation of serum granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-3 levels in the aged op/op mice. To examine whether GM-CSF and/or IL-3 could correct osteopetrosis in young op/op mice, 5 ng of recombinant murine (rm)GM-CSF and/or 100 ng of rmIL-3 were injected daily into young op/op mice. In these treated young op/op mice, the bone marrow cavities were expanded significantly at 2 weeks after administration, associated with significantly increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and bone marrow macrophages. TRAP-positive cells increased in number with days after injection. These results suggest that GM-CSF and IL-3 induce the development of osteoclasts to correct osteopetrosis in the op/op mice with aging.  (+info)

Organ-selective homing defines engraftment kinetics of murine hematopoietic stem cells and is compromised by Ex vivo expansion. (3/9035)

Hematopoietic reconstitution of ablated recipients requires that intravenously (IV) transplanted stem and progenitor cells "home" to organs that support their proliferation and differentiation. To examine the possible relationship between homing properties and subsequent engraftment potential, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were labeled with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into lethally irradiated hosts. PKH26(+) cells homing to marrow or spleen were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and assayed for in vitro colony-forming cells (CFCs). Progenitors accumulated rapidly in the spleen, but declined to only 6% of input numbers after 24 hours. Although egress from this organ was accompanied by a simultaneous accumulation of CFCs in the BM (plateauing at 6% to 8% of input after 3 hours), spleen cells remained enriched in donor CFCs compared with marrow during this time. To determine whether this differential homing of clonogenic cells to the marrow and spleen influenced their contribution to short-term or long-term hematopoiesis in vivo, PKH26(+) cells were sorted from each organ 3 hours after transplantation and injected into lethally irradiated Ly-5 congenic mice. Cells that had homed initially to the spleen regenerated circulating leukocytes (20% of normal counts) approximately 2 weeks faster than cells that had homed to the marrow, or PKH26-labeled cells that had not been selected by a prior homing step. Both primary (17 weeks) and secondary (10 weeks) recipients of "spleen-homed" cells also contained approximately 50% higher numbers of CFCs per femur than recipients of "BM-homed" cells. To examine whether progenitor homing was altered upon ex vivo expansion, highly enriched Sca-1(+)c-kit+Lin- cells were cultured for 9 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, flk-2/flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Expanded cells were then stained with PKH26 and assayed as above. Strikingly, CFCs generated in vitro exhibited a 10-fold reduction in homing capacity compared with fresh progenitors. These studies demonstrate that clonogenic cells with differential homing properties contribute variably to early and late hematopoiesis in vivo. The dramatic decline in the homing capacity of progenitors generated in vitro underscores critical qualitative changes that may compromise their biologic function and potential clinical utility, despite their efficient numerical expansion.  (+info)

Bone marrow ribonucleic acid polymerase. Effect of testosterone on nucleotide incorporation into nuclear RNA. (4/9035)

The incorporation of 3H-UTP into RNA by isolated rat bone marrow nuclei is stimulated by testosterone. This effect is hormone and tissue specific. Using alpha-amanitine and different ionic strength conditions it was found that testosterone enhances preferentially RNA polymerase I activity. The sedimentation pattern of RNA isolated from bone marrow nuclei shows that the synthesis of RNA species within the 14-30 S range is mainly stimulated by the hormone.  (+info)

In irradiation chimeras, K or D regions of the chimeric host, not of the donor lymphocytes, determine immune responsiveness of antiviral cytotoxic T cells. (5/9035)

The H-2 haplotype of the chimeric host determines the responder phenotype of maturing T cells. Spleen cells of chimeric mice formed when (K(k) nonresponder to D(b) x K(b) responder to D(b) plus vaccinia)F(1) bone marrow cells were used to reconstitute K(b)D(b) (C57BL/6 D(b) responder) irradiated recipients generated high levels of D(b) plus vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. The same stem cells used to reconstitute K(k)D(b) (B10.A (2R) D(b) nonresponder) irradiated recipients resulted in spleen cells that responded well to K plus vaccinia, but responsiveness to D(b) was low. A generally low response to D(k) plus vaccinia, which seems to be regulated by D(k), was confirmed in chimeras. Thus, K(d)D(d) (D(d) plus vaccinia responder) stem cells differentiating in a K(d)D(k) chimeric host failed to generate a measurable response to D(k) plus vaccinia. In contrast, stem cells from K(d)D(k) (D(k) plus vaccinia low responders) differentiating in a K(d)D(d) (K(d) and D(d) high responders to vaccinia) host do generate responsiveness to D(d) plus vaccinia. These results indicate that in chimeras, the Ir phenotype is independent of the donor T cell's Ir genotype, and that thymic selection of a T cell's restriction specificity for a particular H-2 allele of the chimeric host also defines that T cell's/r phenotype.  (+info)

Hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems. Histology and histomorphometry around five components retrieved at post mortem. (6/9035)

We performed a histological and histomorphometric examination in five cadaver specimens of the femoral and acetabular components and the associated tissue which had been recovered between 3.3 and 6.2 years after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a proximal hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium alloy implant. All had functioned well during the patients' life. All the stems were fixed in the femur and showed osseointegration of both the proximal and distal parts. The amount of residual HA was greatest in the distal metaphyseal sections, indicating that the rate of bone remodelling may be the main factor causing loss of HA. The level of activity of the patient was the only clinical factor which correlated with loss of coating. The percentage of bone-implant osseointegration was almost constant, regardless of the amount of HA residue, periprosthetic bone density or the time of implantation. HA debris was seldom observed and if present did not cause any adverse or inflammatory reaction. Partial debonding did occur in one case as a result of a polyethylene-induced inflammatory reaction.  (+info)

Mutant N-ras induces myeloproliferative disorders and apoptosis in bone marrow repopulated mice. (7/9035)

Mutations that activate the N-ras oncogene are among the most frequently detected genetic alterations in human acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). However, because N-ras has not been shown to induce these disorders in an in vivo model, the role of N-ras in the evolution of myeloid leukemia is unclear. To investigate the potential of N-ras to induce myeloid leukemia, lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with bone marrow (BM) cells infected with a retroviral vector carrying activated N-ras. Approximately 60% of these mice developed hematopoietic disorders, including severe MPDs resembling human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or AML with differentiation (French-American-British [FAB] classification M2). Other reconstituted mice succumbed to hematopoietic defects that were pathologically similar to human MDSs. The latter disorders appeared to be due to a myeloid impairment that was demonstrated by enumeration of day-12 colony-forming units-spleen (CFU-S) and by in vitro colony assays. A high level of apoptosis associated with thymic atrophy and peripheral blood (PB) lymphopenia was also evident in N-ras reconstituted mice. Our results are consistent with a model in which antiproliferative effects are a primary consequence of N-ras mutations and secondary transforming events are necessary for the development of myeloid leukemia. This is the first report of an in vivo model for N-ras induced MPD and leukemia.  (+info)

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the detection of micrometastases in patients with breast cancer. (8/9035)

PURPOSE: Previous reports have indicated that reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) may be useful in the management of patients with breast cancer. However, the specificity of this technique is low, principally because of a high rate of false-positive results. To improve the specificity of this assay, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR methodology that enables an estimate to be made of the number of CK-19 transcripts in blood and bone marrow samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 45 peripheral-blood samples and 30 bone marrow samples from patients with a variety of nonneoplastic conditions using nested RT-PCR for CK-19. We also examined bone marrow and peripheral-blood samples from 23 patients with primary breast cancer and peripheral-blood samples from 37 patients with metastatic breast cancer. The number of CK-19 transcripts was estimated in positive specimens by competitive PCR and normalized to the number of ABL transcripts as an internal control for the quality and quantity of cDNA. RT-PCR results were compared with the numbers of CK-19-positive cells detected by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Analysis of samples from patients without cancer enabled us to define an upper limit for the background ratio of CK-19 to ABL transcripts (1:1,000 for blood samples and 1:1,600 for bone marrow samples). Using these figures as cut-off points, elevated CK-19: ABL ratios were detected in peripheral-blood samples of 20 of 37 (54%) patients with metastatic breast cancer and in bone marrow samples of 14 of 23 (61%) patients with primary breast cancer. Only three of 23 (13%) primary breast cancer peripheral-blood samples and none of the control samples were positive by these criteria. Only two of 23 patients (9%) with primary breast cancer showed immunocytochemically detectable cells in the blood; 10 of 23 (43%) showed immunocytochemically detectable cells in the bone marrow. Of 36 patients with metastatic breast cancer, eight (22%) showed positive events. CONCLUSION: Quantitative RT-PCR for CK-19 detects a percentage of patients with breast cancer and may enable the progression or regression of the disease to be monitored.  (+info)

  • It is intended for the collection, storage, and transport of human bone marrow and stabilization of intracellular RNA in a closed tube and subsequent isolation and purification of total RNA. (preanalytix.com)
  • International Journal of Bone Marrow Research seeks to publish manuscripts focusing on the researches how the doctors would need less stem cells and increase the scale of doing more transplants. (heighpubs.org)
  • International Journal of Bone Marrow Research publishes rigorously peer-reviewed manuscripts focusing on latest advancements related to all aspects of bone marrow. (heighpubs.org)
  • International Journal of Bone Marrow Research aims to publish valuable researches encompassing all aspects of bone marrow research that can assist in making bone marrow, stem cell or cord blood transplant an overwhelming experience for the patients and the doctors. (heighpubs.org)
  • The manuscripts published in International Journal of Bone Marrow Research also seek to focus on the vital role of bone marrow in understanding blood and autoimmune diseases and in evaluating treatment options for patients. (heighpubs.org)
  • The scope of International Journal of Bone Marrow Research reclines in uncovering new pathways and molecular mechanisms that contribute and highlight new avenues in bone marrow research. (heighpubs.org)
  • The PAXgene Bone Marrow RNA System consists of a bone marrow collection tube ( PAXgene Bone Marrow RNA Tube ) and nucleic acid preparation kit (PAXgene Bone Marrow RNA Kit). (preanalytix.com)
  • A team of scientists and engineers at the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) [新加坡-麻省理工学院科研中心] have invented a new technique to identify populations of rare stem cells from bone marrow based on their different combinations of biophysical characteristics such as cell size, cell stiffness and nucleus deformation. (mit.edu)
  • The reason for taking this sample is that as my form of cancer is related to white blood cells, there is a chance that the bone marrow has been infected. (robinbtaylor.com)
  • Anti-human CD117 antibody-mediated bone marrow niche clearance in nonhuman primates and humanized NSG mice. (ca.gov)
  • Fish oil and borage oil (rich in ω3 fatty acids) can partially prevent aged-related bone loss in SAMP8 mice. (aging-us.com)
  • For patients who have certain malignancies of the blood and bone marrow (such as leukemias and lymphomas), or autoimmune diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus), or other blood-related disorders (like aplastic anemia and thalassemia major), HSCT has been part of the standard treatment regimen, backed by large and long-term studies on efficacy. (negosentro.com)