Bone and Bones
Bone Marrow Cells
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Alveolar Bone Loss
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7
Bone Marrow Neoplasms
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
Bone Demineralization Technique
Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal
Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6
Giant Cell Tumor of Bone
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Bone Marrow Purging
Collagen Type I
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Bone Demineralization, Pathologic
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I
Disease Models, Animal
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors
Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit
Bones of Upper Extremity
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1
Prostheses and Implants
Finite Element Analysis
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
Graft vs Host Disease
Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle. (1/142)A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed. (+info)
Malunion in the lower limb. A nomogram to predict the effects of osteotomy. (2/142)Nomograms derived from mathematical analysis indicate that the level of malunion is the most important determinant of changes in the moment arm of the knee, the plane of the ankle and alterations in limb length. Testing in five patients undergoing reconstruction showed a mean error of postoperative limb length of 2.2 mm (SD 0.8 mm), knee moment arm of 4.7 mm (SD 3.3 mm) and ankle angle of 2.6 degrees (SD 2.3 degrees). These nomograms provide the information required when assessing whether a particular degree of angulation may be accepted. (+info)
Nerve palsy after leg lengthening in total replacement arthroplasty for developmental dysplasia of the hip. (3/142)We reviewed 508 consecutive total hip replacements in 370 patients with old developmental dysplasia of the hip, to relate the amount of leg lengthening to the incidence of nerve palsies after operation. There were eight nerve palsies (two femoral, six sciatic), two complete and six incomplete. We found no statistical correlation between the amount of lengthening and the incidence of nerve damage (p = 0.47), but in seven of the eight hips, the surgeon had rated the intervention as difficult because of previous surgery, severe deformity, a defect of the acetabular roof, or considerable flexion deformity. The correlation between difficulty and nerve palsy was significant (p = 0.041). We conclude that nerve injury is most commonly caused by direct or indirect mechanical trauma and not by limb lengthening on its own. (+info)
Leg lengthening over an intramedullary nail. (4/142)Distraction osteogenesis is widely used for leg lengthening, but often requires a long period of external fixation which carries risks of pin-track sepsis, malalignment, stiffness of the joint and late fracture of the regenerate. We present the results of 20 cases in which, in an attempt to reduce the rate of complications, a combination of external fixation and intramedullary nailing was used. The mean gain in length was 4.7 cm (2 to 8.6). The mean time of external fixation was 20 days per centimetre gain in length. All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. There were three cases of deep infection, two of which occurred in patients who had had previous open fractures of the bone which was being lengthened. All resolved with appropriate treatment. This method allows early rehabilitation, with a rapid return of knee movement. There is a lower rate of complications than occurs when external fixation is used on its own. The time of external fixation is shorter than in other methods of leg lengthening. The high risk of infection calls for caution. (+info)
Arrest of the growth plate after arterial cannulation in infancy. (5/142)Seven children who had partial arrest of the growth plate after neonatal arterial cannulation, developed obvious skeletal changes in adolescence. Cannulation of the femoral artery produced ischaemia which led to four cases of ipsilateral shortening of the lower limb and one of partial arrest of the proximal femoral physis with subsequent coxa valga. The two arrests in the upper limb affected the humerus, ulna and radius, and the radius alone, after cannulation of the brachial and radial arteries, respectively. These late effects of cannulation are not widely appreciated, and may occur as a result of thrombosis rather than extravasation. (+info)
Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of posteromedial bowing of the leg: two case reports. (6/142)Congenital posteromedial bowing of the leg was prenatally detected in two pregnancies, at 20 and 31 weeks of gestation. Posteromedial bowing is a rare anomaly of unknown etiology. The prenatal course, monitored by ultrasonography, and the postnatal clinical and radiographic outcomes are discussed and show a complex differential diagnosis. The initial postnatal therapy is conservative. Leg length discrepancy can eventually be treated by lengthening or epiphysiodesis on the contralateral side. (+info)
Leg lengthening for short stature in Turner's syndrome. (7/142)We describe ten patients with Turner's syndrome (karyotype 45, XO) who had leg lengthening for short stature. A high incidence of postoperative complications was encountered and many patients required intramedullary fixation as a salvage procedure. We discuss the reasons for this and highlight the differences between our findings and those of a similar series recently reported. In view of the considerable difficulties encountered, we do not recommend leg lengthening in Turner's syndrome. (+info)
Missed chronic anterior Monteggia lesion. Closed reduction by gradual lengthening and angulation of the ulna. (8/142)Two consecutive cases of chronic dislocation of the head of the radius after missed Bado type-I Monteggia lesions are presented. Reduction was successfully achieved in both patients after ulnar corticotomy, gradual lengthening and angulation of the ulna using an external fixator. Open reduction or reconstruction of the radio-ulnar capitellar joint was not undertaken. The age at injury was seven years in the older and two years in the younger patient. The time from injury to treatment was five years in the older and three months in the younger child. At follow-up, nine years after completion of treatment in the older and eight months in the younger patient, both show satisfactory movement, function of the forearm and reduction of the head of the radius. This technique may be considered in missed Monteggia lesions before open procedures on the radio-ulnar capitellar joint are undertaken. (+info)
There are several factors that can contribute to bone resorption, including:
1. Hormonal changes: Hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin can regulate bone resorption. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to excessive bone resorption.
2. Aging: As we age, our bones undergo remodeling more frequently, leading to increased bone resorption.
3. Nutrient deficiencies: Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients can impair bone health and lead to excessive bone resorption.
4. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can increase bone resorption, leading to bone loss and weakening.
5. Genetics: Some genetic disorders can affect bone metabolism and lead to abnormal bone resorption.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants, can increase bone resorption.
7. Diseases: Conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and bone cancer can lead to abnormal bone resorption.
Bone resorption can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:
1. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing: This test measures the density of bone in specific areas of the body. Low BMD can indicate bone loss and excessive bone resorption.
2. X-rays and imaging studies: These tests can help identify abnormal bone growth or other signs of bone resorption.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can measure levels of certain hormones and nutrients that are involved in bone metabolism.
4. Bone biopsy: A bone biopsy can provide a direct view of the bone tissue and help diagnose conditions such as Paget's disease or bone cancer.
Treatment for bone resorption depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Medications: Bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, and other medications can help slow or stop bone resorption.
2. Diet and exercise: A healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, along with regular exercise, can help maintain strong bones.
3. Physical therapy: In some cases, physical therapy may be recommended to improve bone strength and mobility.
4. Surgery: In severe cases of bone resorption, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.
Some common types of bone neoplasms include:
* Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that grow on the surface of a bone.
* Giant cell tumors: These are benign tumors that can occur in any bone of the body.
* Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that develop in the cartilage of a bone.
* Ewing's sarcoma: This is a malignant tumor that usually occurs in the long bones of the arms and legs.
* Multiple myeloma: This is a type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
Symptoms of bone neoplasms can include pain, swelling, or deformity of the affected bone, as well as weakness or fatigue. Treatment options depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the symptoms. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
Some common types of bone diseases include:
1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle, porous bones that are prone to fracture.
2. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that causes pain and stiffness in the joints.
3. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
4. Bone cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the bones.
5. Paget's disease of bone: A condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and deformity.
6. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone and can cause brittle bones and other skeletal deformities.
7. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare condition characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone tissue.
8. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
9. Bone cysts: Fluid-filled cavities that can form in the bones and cause pain, weakness, and deformity.
10. Bone spurs: Abnormal growths of bone that can form along the edges of joints and cause pain and stiffness.
Bone diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and bone biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.
* Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone tissue, leading to fragile bones and an increased risk of fractures.
* Rickets: A vitamin D-deficient disease that causes softening of the bones in children.
* Osteomalacia: A condition similar to rickets, but affecting adults and caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium.
* Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to an imbalance in bone metabolism and an increase in bone resorption.
* Hypoparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too little PTH, leading to low levels of calcium and vitamin D and an increased risk of osteoporosis.
Bone diseases, metabolic are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to evaluate bone metabolism. Treatment depends on the specific underlying cause of the disease and may include medications, dietary changes, or surgery.
Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.
Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.
Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.
Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.
Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.
Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.
Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.
The alveolar bone is a specialized type of bone that forms the socket in which the tooth roots are embedded. It provides support and stability to the teeth and helps maintain the proper position of the teeth in their sockets. When the alveolar bone is lost, the teeth may become loose or even fall out completely.
Alveolar bone loss can be detected through various diagnostic methods such as dental X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for alveolar bone loss depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, bone grafting, or tooth extraction.
In the context of dentistry, alveolar bone loss is a common complication of periodontal disease, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums and bone. The bacteria that cause periodontal disease can lead to the destruction of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss.
In addition to periodontal disease, other factors that can contribute to alveolar bone loss include:
* Trauma or injury to the teeth or jaw
* Poorly fitting dentures or other prosthetic devices
* Infections or abscesses in the mouth
* Certain systemic diseases such as osteoporosis or cancer
Overall, alveolar bone loss is a significant issue in dentistry and can have a major impact on the health and function of the teeth and jaw. It is essential to seek professional dental care if symptoms of alveolar bone loss are present to prevent further damage and restore oral health.
There are several types of bone cysts, including:
1. Simple bone cysts: These are the most common type of bone cyst and typically occur in children and young adults. They are filled with air or fluid and do not contain any cancerous cells.
2. Angiomatous cysts: These are smaller than simple bone cysts and are usually found near the ends of long bones. They are also filled with blood vessels and do not contain any cancerous cells.
3. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts: These are similar to simple bone cysts but are larger and may be more complex in shape.
4. Multicameral bone cysts: These are larger than unicameral bone cysts and may contain multiple chambers filled with air or fluid.
5. Enchondromas: These are benign tumors that occur within the cartilage of a bone. They are usually found in the long bones of the arms and legs.
6. Chondromyxoid fibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that occur in the cartilage of a bone. They are typically found in the long bones of the arms and legs.
7. Osteochondromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the cartilage and bone of a joint. They are usually found near the ends of long bones.
8. Malignant bone cysts: These are rare and can be cancerous. They may occur in any bone of the body and can be aggressive, spreading quickly to other areas of the body.
The symptoms of bone cysts can vary depending on their size and location. They may cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. In some cases, they may also lead to fractures or deformities.
Diagnosis of bone cysts usually involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible conditions.
Treatment for bone cysts depends on their size, location, and severity. Small, asymptomatic cysts may not require any treatment, while larger cysts may need to be drained or surgically removed. In some cases, medication such as bisphosphonates may be used to help reduce the risk of fractures.
In conclusion, bone cysts are abnormalities that can occur in any bone of the body. They can be benign or malignant and can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size and location. Diagnosis is usually made through imaging tests, and treatment may involve observation, draining, or surgical removal.
There are several types of osteoporosis, including:
1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by hormonal changes that occur during menopause. It is the most common form of osteoporosis and affects women more than men.
2. Senile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by aging and is the most common form of osteoporosis in older adults.
3. Juvenile osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis affects children and young adults and can be caused by a variety of genetic disorders or other medical conditions.
4. secondary osteoporosis: This type of osteoporosis is caused by other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis.
The symptoms of osteoporosis can be subtle and may not appear until a fracture has occurred. They can include:
1. Back pain or loss of height
2. A stooped posture
3. Fractures, especially in the spine, hips, or wrists
4. Loss of bone density, as determined by a bone density test
The diagnosis of osteoporosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as X-rays or bone density tests. Treatment for osteoporosis can include medications, such as bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, or rANK ligand inhibitors, as well as lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.
Preventing osteoporosis is important, as it can help to reduce the risk of fractures and other complications. To prevent osteoporosis, individuals can:
1. Get enough calcium and vitamin D throughout their lives
2. Exercise regularly, especially weight-bearing activities such as walking or running
3. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Maintain a healthy body weight
5. Consider taking medications to prevent osteoporosis, such as bisphosphonates, if recommended by a healthcare provider.
1. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the immune system, often involving the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
3. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): A group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
5. Osteopetrosis: A rare genetic disorder that causes an overgrowth of bone, leading to a thickened bone marrow.
6. Bone marrow failure: A condition where the bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and other complications.
7. Myelofibrosis: A condition characterized by the scarring of the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
8. Polycythemia vera: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
9. Essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of platelets, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
10. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of rare blood disorders that are characterized by the overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
These are just a few examples of bone marrow diseases. There are many other conditions that can affect the bone marrow, and each one can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a bone marrow disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform tests and provide a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.
These tumors can cause a variety of symptoms such as pain, swelling, and weakness in the affected area. Treatment options for bone marrow neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.
Here are some examples of bone marrow neoplasms:
1. Osteosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the bone-forming cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in children and young adults.
2. Chondrosarcoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the cartilage-forming cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in older adults.
3. Myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow. These cells produce antibodies to fight infections, but with myeloma, the abnormal plasma cells produce excessive amounts of antibodies that can cause a variety of symptoms.
4. Ewing's sarcoma: A rare malignant tumor that arises from immature nerve cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in children and young adults.
5. Askin's tumor: A rare malignant tumor that arises from the fat cells in the bone marrow. This type of cancer is most common in older adults.
These are just a few examples of the many types of bone marrow neoplasms that can occur. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms that may indicate a bone marrow neoplasm, such as pain or swelling in the affected area, fatigue, fever, or weight loss. A healthcare professional can perform diagnostic tests to determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Surgery is often necessary to treat bone cysts, aneurysmal, and the type of surgery will depend on the size and location of the cyst. The goal of surgery is to remove the cyst and any associated damage to the bone. In some cases, the bone may need to be repaired or replaced with a prosthetic.
Bone cysts, aneurysmal are relatively rare and account for only about 1% of all bone tumors. They can occur in people of any age but are most commonly seen in children and young adults. Treatment is usually successful, but there is a risk of complications such as infection or nerve damage.
Bone cysts, aneurysmal are also known as bone aneurysmal cysts or BACs. They are different from other types of bone cysts, such as simple bone cysts or fibrous dysplasia, which have a different cause and may require different treatment.
Overall, the prognosis for bone cysts, aneurysmal is generally good if they are treated promptly and effectively. However, there is always a risk of complications, and ongoing follow-up with a healthcare provider is important to monitor for any signs of recurrence or further problems.
The hallmark of GCTB is its large size, with tumors often measuring several centimeters in diameter. The tumor cells are giant cells, which are larger than normal osteoblasts, and they have a distinctive "salt and pepper" appearance under the microscope due to the mixture of light and dark-staining cytoplasmic granules.
The clinical presentation of GCTB varies depending on the location and size of the tumor. Large tumors can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. Smaller tumors may not cause any symptoms and may be incidentally discovered on imaging studies performed for other reasons.
GCTB is a slow-growing tumor, and the exact cause of its development is unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in some cases, but the exact mechanisms underlying GCTB remain unclear. Treatment options for GCTB include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and the patient's overall health.
In conclusion, giant cell tumor of bone is a rare and benign bone tumor that can occur in any bone of the body. It is characterized by its large size and distinctive histopathological features. Treatment options vary depending on the size and location of the tumor and the patient's overall health.
Osteolysis can be caused by several factors, including:
1. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infections can cause osteolysis by secreting enzymes that break down bone tissue.
2. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can lead to the destruction of bone tissue, causing osteolysis.
3. Tumors: Malignant tumors like multiple myeloma or osteosarcoma can cause osteolysis by producing enzymes that destroy bone tissue.
4. Degenerative conditions: Conditions like osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Paget's disease can lead to osteolysis due to the gradual breakdown of bone tissue.
Symptoms of osteolysis may include:
1. Bone pain or tenderness
2. Fractures or fracture risk
3. Limited mobility or stiffness in affected joints
4. Swelling or redness in the affected area
5. Difficulty healing from injuries or infections
Treatment for osteolysis depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Antibiotics to treat infections
2. Pain management with medication or physical therapy
3. Surgery to repair or replace damaged bone tissue
4. Orthotics or assistive devices to support affected joints
5. Medications to slow down or stop bone loss, such as bisphosphonates or denosumab
In conclusion, osteolysis is a condition where there is a gradual loss or destruction of bone tissue, leading to a decrease in bone density and structural integrity. It can be caused by various factors, including infection, inflammation, tumors, and degenerative conditions. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain management, surgery, orthotics, and medications to slow down or stop bone loss.
During menopause, the levels of estrogen in the body decrease significantly, which can lead to a loss of bone density and an increased risk of developing osteoporosis. Other risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis include:
* Family history of osteoporosis
* Early menopause (before age 45)
* Poor diet or inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake
* Sedentary lifestyle or lack of exercise
* Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants
* Other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver or kidney disease.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, which can determine the density of bones and detect any loss of bone mass. Treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis typically involve a combination of medications and lifestyle changes, such as:
* Bisphosphonates, which help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can help to replace the estrogen that is lost during menopause and improve bone density
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which mimic the effects of estrogen on bone density but have fewer risks than HRT
* RANK ligand inhibitors, which can help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues, which can help to increase bone density and improve bone quality.
It is important for women to discuss their individual risks and benefits with their healthcare provider when determining the best course of treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding substances that can harm bone health (such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption) can also help to manage the condition.
Examples of infectious bone diseases include:
1. Osteomyelitis: This is a bacterial infection of the bone that can cause pain, swelling, and fever. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Bacterial arthritis: This is an infection of the joints that can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness. It is often caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes.
3. Tuberculosis: This is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect the bones.
4. Pyogenic infections: These are infections caused by Pus-forming bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause osteomyelitis and other bone infections.
5. Fungal infections: These are infections caused by fungi such as Aspergillus or Candida that can infect the bones and cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
6. Viral infections: Some viral infections such as HIV, HTLV-1, and HTLV-2 can cause bone infections like osteomyelitis.
7. Mycobacterial infections: These are infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect the bones.
8. Lyme disease: This is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi that can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
9. Endometriosis: This is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus and can cause pain, inflammation, and bone damage.
10. Bone cancer: This is a malignant tumor that develops in the bones and can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
These are just some of the possible causes of bone pain, and it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The exact cause of Osteitis Deformans is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition typically affects people over the age of 50, and is more common in men than women.
The symptoms of Osteitis Deformans can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Pain in the affected bone, which can be aching or sharp
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the affected joint
* Deformity of the bone, such as curvature or thickening
* Fatigue and tiredness
* Increased risk of fractures
The diagnosis of Osteitis Deformans is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and blood tests to rule out other conditions.
There is no cure for Osteitis Deformans, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. Treatment options may include:
* Pain medication
* Physical therapy to maintain mobility and strength
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected bone
* Surgery to correct deformities or repair fractures
* Medications to prevent or treat complications such as osteoporosis.
It is important for individuals with Osteitis Deformans to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and maintain a good quality of life. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with Osteitis Deformans are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
In the medical field, pathologic bone demineralization is often diagnosed through tests such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which measure bone mineral density (BMD), and bone biopsy, which examines bone tissue samples for signs of mineral loss. Treatment options may include addressing underlying causes, hormone replacement therapy, medications to increase bone density, and lifestyle modifications such as exercise and a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.
In summary, pathologic bone demineralization is a condition where there is an abnormal loss of minerals from the bones, leading to weakened bones and an increased risk of fractures. It can occur due to various underlying causes, and is diagnosed through tests such as DXA scans and bone biopsy. Treatment options include addressing underlying causes, hormone replacement therapy, medications to increase bone density, and lifestyle modifications.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
The word "osteomalacia" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "malakos," meaning soft. It was first used in the medical literature in the early 20th century to describe a condition that was previously known as "rachitic osteomalacia."
The symptoms of osteomalacia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include bone pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, and an increased risk of fractures. Diagnosis is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or bone scans.
Treatment of osteomalacia depends on the underlying cause, but may include vitamin D and calcium supplements, avoidance of aluminum-containing antacids, and management of any underlying disorders that are contributing to the condition. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.
Preventing osteomalacia involves maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D and calcium in the body, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and managing any underlying medical conditions that can contribute to the condition. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications such as fractures and improve quality of life for individuals with osteomalacia.
There are several types of osteosclerosis, including:
1. Juvenile osteosclerosis: A rare condition that affects children and adolescents, characterized by abnormal bone growth and development.
2. Paget's disease of bone: A chronic disorder that causes enlarged and deformed bones due to excessive bone resorption and formation.
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder characterized by brittle bones, blue sclerae, and other physical abnormalities.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: A condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, leading to an overgrowth of bone tissue.
5. Chronic kidney disease: A condition in which the kidneys do not function properly, leading to an imbalance of minerals in the body that can cause bone abnormalities.
The symptoms of osteosclerosis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Limited mobility or stiffness in the joints
* Weakness or fatigue
* Fractures or breaks in the affected bone
* Abnormal bone growth or deformity
Treatment for osteosclerosis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Medications such as bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, or surgery may be recommended to manage symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. In some cases, physicians may recommend lifestyle modifications such as a balanced diet, regular exercise, and avoiding substances that can harm the bones, such as tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption.
In conclusion, osteosclerosis is a condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and hardening of the bones, which can lead to a range of symptoms and complications. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent further damage to the bones.
ROD can lead to a range of symptoms, including:
* Weakened bones and increased risk of fractures
* Tooth decay and gum disease
* Rickets-like symptoms in children
* Difficulty healing from injuries or surgery
The condition is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood and urine tests), and imaging studies (such as X-rays or bone density scans).
Treatment for ROD typically involves managing the underlying kidney disease, correcting any nutritional imbalances, and implementing measures to strengthen bones. This may include:
* Medications to lower phosphate levels and increase calcium absorption
* Dietary modifications to reduce phosphate intake and increase calcium intake
* Vitamin D and calcium supplements
* Regular exercise and weight-bearing activities to promote bone strength
In severe cases of ROD, surgical interventions may be necessary, such as bone transplantation or the use of bone-forming medications.
ROD is a serious complication of CKD that can significantly impact quality of life and increase the risk of mortality. Early detection and management are essential to prevent or delay the progression of this condition.
Heterotopic ossification can cause a range of symptoms depending on its location and severity, including pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and difficulty moving the affected limb or joint. Treatment options for heterotopic ossification include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to maintain range of motion, and in severe cases, surgical removal of the abnormal bone growth.
In medical imaging, heterotopic ossification is often diagnosed using X-rays or other imaging techniques such as CT or MRI scans. These tests can help identify the presence of bone growth in an abnormal location and determine the extent of the condition.
Overall, heterotopic ossification is a relatively rare condition that can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life if left untreated. Prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent long-term complications.
Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:
1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.
The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:
1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.
It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.
There are several types of osteosarcomas, including:
1. High-grade osteosarcoma: This is the most common type of osteosarcoma and tends to grow quickly.
2. Low-grade osteosarcoma: This type of osteosarcoma grows more slowly than high-grade osteosarcoma.
3. Chondrosarcoma: This is a type of osteosarcoma that arises in the cartilage cells of the bone.
4. Ewing's family of tumors: These are rare types of osteosarcoma that can occur in any bone of the body.
The exact cause of osteosarcoma is not known, but certain risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing the disease. These include:
1. Previous radiation exposure
2. Paget's disease of bone
3. Li-Fraumeni syndrome (a genetic disorder that increases the risk of certain types of cancer)
4. Familial retinoblastoma (a rare inherited condition)
5. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as herbicides and industrial chemicals.
Symptoms of osteosarcoma may include:
1. Pain in the affected bone, which may be worse at night or with activity
2. Swelling and redness around the affected area
3. Limited mobility or stiffness in the affected limb
4. A visible lump or mass on the affected bone
5. Fractures or breaks in the affected bone
If osteosarcoma is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the disease. These may include:
1. Imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans
2. Biopsy, in which a sample of tissue is removed from the affected bone and examined under a microscope for cancer cells
3. Blood tests to check for elevated levels of certain enzymes that are produced by osteosarcoma cells
4. Bone scans to look for areas of increased activity or metabolism in the bones.
Examples of spontaneous fractures include:
1. Pathological fractures: Fractures that occur in the presence of a bone-weakening condition such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, or bone cancer.
2. Stress fractures: Small cracks in the bone that occur due to repetitive stress or overuse, often seen in athletes or individuals engaged in high-impact activities.
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Osteoporotic fractures: Fractures that occur due to bone loss and weakening associated with osteoporosis.
5. Frailty fractures: Fractures that occur in individuals who are frail or have a low bone mineral density, often seen in older adults.
Symptoms of spontaneous fractures may include pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for these fractures depends on the underlying cause and may involve immobilization, medication, or surgery.
The word "osteopetrosis" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "petros," meaning rock or stone. This name reflects the dense and hard nature of the bones affected by the disorder.
Osteopetrosis can be caused by mutations in several genes that are involved in bone development and growth. The condition is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disorder. However, some cases may be caused by spontaneous mutations or other factors.
Symptoms of osteopetrosis can vary depending on the severity of the disorder and the specific affected bones. Common symptoms include bone pain, limited mobility, and an increased risk of fractures. Other symptoms may include fatigue, fever, and difficulty swallowing or breathing.
Treatment for osteopetrosis usually involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications such as bisphosphonates and denintuzumab mafodotin can help reduce bone pain and the risk of fractures, while surgery may be necessary to correct deformities or repair broken bones. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended to replace damaged bone marrow with healthy cells.
Overall, osteopetrosis is a rare and debilitating disorder that can have a significant impact on quality of life. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important for managing symptoms and preventing complications.
The symptoms of a femoral fracture may include:
* Severe pain in the thigh or groin area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected area
* Difficulty moving or straightening the leg
* A visible deformity or bone protrusion
Femoral fractures are typically diagnosed through X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment for these types of fractures may involve immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or in some cases, surgical plate and screws or rods may be used to hold the bone in place as it heals.
In addition to surgical intervention, patients may also require physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg after a femoral fracture.
Tibial fractures can range in severity from minor cracks or hairline breaks to more severe breaks that extend into the bone's shaft or even the joint. Treatment for these injuries often involves immobilization of the affected leg with a cast, brace, or walking boot, as well as pain management with medication and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments.
There are different types of osteitis, including:
1. Osteitis fibrosa: A benign condition characterized by the formation of fibrous tissue in the bone, which can cause pain and stiffness.
2. Osteitis multiformis: A chronic condition that causes multiple areas of bone inflammation, often seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.
3. Osteitis pseudogout: A condition characterized by the deposition of crystals in the bone, which can cause episodes of sudden and severe joint pain.
4. Osteitis suppurativa: A chronic condition characterized by recurring abscesses or pockets of pus in the bone, often seen in patients with a history of skin infections.
Symptoms of osteitis can include pain, swelling, redness and warmth over the affected area. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for infection, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgical intervention to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.
Femoral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the femur, which is the longest bone in the human body and runs from the hip joint to the knee joint. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their impact on the affected individual can range from minimal to severe.
Types of Femoral Neoplasms:
There are several types of femoral neoplasms, including:
1. Osteosarcoma: This is a type of primary bone cancer that originates in the femur. It is rare and tends to affect children and young adults.
2. Chondrosarcoma: This is another type of primary bone cancer that arises in the cartilage cells of the femur. It is more common than osteosarcoma and affects mostly older adults.
3. Ewing's Sarcoma: This is a rare type of bone cancer that can occur in any bone, including the femur. It typically affects children and young adults.
4. Giant Cell Tumor: This is a benign tumor that occurs in the bones, including the femur. While it is not cancerous, it can cause significant symptoms and may require surgical treatment.
Symptoms of Femoral Neoplasms:
The symptoms of femoral neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. Common symptoms include:
1. Pain: Patients with femoral neoplasms may experience pain in the affected leg, which can be worse with activity or weight-bearing.
2. Swelling: The affected limb may become swollen due to fluid accumulation or the growth of the tumor.
3. Limited mobility: Patients may experience limited mobility or stiffness in the affected joint due to pain or swelling.
4. Fracture: In some cases, femoral neoplasms can cause a fracture or weakening of the bone, which can lead to further complications.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Femoral Neoplasms:
The diagnosis of femoral neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies and biopsy. Imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, can help identify the location and extent of the tumor. A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor.
Treatment for femoral neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include:
1. Observation: Small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular imaging studies to ensure that they do not grow or change over time.
2. Surgery: Many femoral neoplasms can be treated with surgery to remove the tumor and any affected bone tissue. In some cases, this may involve removing a portion of the femur or replacing it with a prosthetic implant.
3. Radiation therapy: This may be used in combination with surgery to treat more aggressive tumors or those that have spread to other areas of the body.
4. Chemotherapy: This may also be used in combination with surgery and radiation therapy to treat more aggressive tumors or those that have spread to other areas of the body.
5. Targeted therapy: This is a type of chemotherapy that targets specific molecules involved in the growth and progression of the tumor. Examples include denintuzumab mafodotin, which targets a protein called B-cell CD19, and olaratumab, which targets a protein called platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-alpha).
6. Immunotherapy: This is a type of treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer. Examples include pembrolizumab and nivolumab, which are checkpoint inhibitors that work by blocking proteins on T cells that prevent them from attacking cancer cells.
The prognosis for patients with femoral neoplasms depends on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with benign tumors than those with malignant ones. However, even for patients with malignant tumors, there are many treatment options available, and the prognosis can vary depending on the specifics of the case.
It's important to note that these are general treatment options and the best course of treatment will depend on the specifics of each individual case. Patients should discuss their diagnosis and treatment options with their healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate course of action for their specific situation.
Also known as nonunion or malunion.
Note: This term is not intended to be used as a substitute for proper medical advice. Do you have a specific question about your condition? Please ask your healthcare provider for more information.
Some common types of mandibular diseases include:
1. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the mandible to the skull, causing pain and limited mobility in the jaw.
2. Osteomyelitis: This is a bone infection that can occur in the mandible, often as a result of trauma or infection.
3. Bone cancer: This is a malignant tumor that can develop in the mandible, often affecting the jawbone and surrounding tissues.
4. Osteogenic sarcoma: This is a type of bone cancer that typically occurs in the mandible of young adults.
5. Fibrous dysplasia: This is a developmental disorder where abnormal fibrous tissue develops in the mandible, leading to bone deformity and pain.
6. Non-odontogenic mandibular keratocyst: This is a benign cyst that can occur in the mandible, often causing pain and swelling.
7. Mandibular fracture: This is a break in the mandible that can be caused by trauma, such as a fall or a blow to the face.
8. Ameloblastoma: This is a rare benign tumor that develops in the mandible, often causing pain and swelling.
9. Pyogenic granuloma: This is a type of bacterial infection that can occur in the mandible, often causing pain and swelling.
10. Osteochondroma: This is a benign cartilage-capped bone tumor that can occur in the mandible, often causing pain and limited mobility in the jaw.
These are just a few examples of mandibular diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the mandible as well. If you are experiencing any symptoms or pain in your jaw, it is important to see a dentist or oral surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Osteonecrosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Trauma or injury to the bone
* Blood vessel disorders, such as blood clots or inflammation
* Certain medications, such as corticosteroids
* Alcohol consumption
* Avascular necrosis can also be a complication of other conditions, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and sickle cell disease.
There are several risk factors for developing osteonecrosis, including:
* Previous joint surgery or injury
* Family history of osteonecrosis
* Age, as the risk increases with age
* Gender, as women are more likely to be affected than men
* Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes and alcoholism.
Symptoms of osteonecrosis can include:
* Pain in the affected joint, which may worsen over time
* Limited mobility or stiffness in the joint
* Swelling or redness in the affected area
* A grinding or cracking sensation in the joint.
To diagnose osteonecrosis, a doctor may use a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans to evaluate the bone and joint. Treatment options for osteonecrosis depend on the severity of the condition and can include:
* Conservative management with pain medication and physical therapy
* Bone grafting or surgical intervention to repair or replace the damaged bone and joint.
The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.
Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
There are different types of hyperostosis, including:
1. Hyperostosis fibrosa: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the thickening of the cortical bone, leading to a hard and firm consistency. It can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skull, spine, or long bones.
2. Hyperostosis iritis: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the iris of the eye, leading to symptoms such as vision loss, pain, and light sensitivity.
3. Hyperostosis mediastinitis: This is a rare condition where there is excessive bone growth in the mediastinum, a region between the lungs and the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
4. Hyperostosis of the sacrum: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the sacrum, a triangular bone at the base of the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as lower back pain, sciatica, and difficulty walking.
Hyperostosis can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy, or surgery to remove excess bone growth.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
There are several different types of leukemia, including:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.
Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Stress fractures can occur in any bone, but are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities (such as the femur, tibia, and fibula). They can also occur in the bones of the upper extremities (such as the humerus, ulna, and radius) and in the spine.
Symptoms of stress fractures may include pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness over the affected area. In some cases, a individual may experience a snapping or popping sensation when bending or twisting. If left untreated, stress fractures can progress to more severe fractures and lead to chronic pain, limited mobility, and other complications.
Treatment for stress fractures typically involves rest, physical therapy, and medication to manage pain and inflammation. In some cases, a brace or cast may be used to immobilize the affected area and allow it to heal. Surgery may be necessary in more severe cases or if the fracture does not heal properly with conservative treatment.
Preventing stress fractures involves taking steps to reduce the amount of repetitive stress placed on bones, such as increasing training intensity gradually, wearing proper footwear and protective gear, and incorporating strengthening exercises into one's workout routine. Proper nutrition and hydration can also help support bone health and reduce the risk of fractures.
Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.
Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.
In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.
1. Bone fractures: The most common symptom of OI is an increased risk of fractures, which can occur with minimal trauma or even without any apparent cause.
2. Dental problems: People with OI may have poorly formed teeth, tooth decay, and gum disease.
3. Short stature: Many individuals with OI are short in stature, due to the effects of chronic fractures and pain on growth and development.
4. Muscle weakness: Some people with OI may experience muscle weakness, particularly in the limbs.
5. Joint problems: OI can cause issues with joint mobility and stability, leading to arthritis and other degenerative conditions.
6. Scoliosis: Curvature of the spine is common in people with OI, which can lead to back pain and respiratory problems.
7. Blue sclerae: A distinctive feature of OI is the presence of blue-colored sclerae (the white part of the eye).
8. Other symptoms: Some people with OI may experience hearing loss, vision problems, and delayed development.
There are several types of OI, each caused by a mutation in a specific gene. The most common forms of OI are type I, type II, and type III. Type I is the mildest form and type III is the most severe. There is no cure for OI, but treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include:
1. Bracing and orthotics: To support weakened bones and improve posture.
2. Physical therapy: To maintain muscle strength and flexibility.
3. Pain management: To reduce the risk of chronic pain and improve quality of life.
4. Dental care: Regular dental check-ups and appropriate treatment to prevent tooth decay and gum disease.
5. Respiratory care: To manage breathing problems and prevent respiratory infections.
6. Monitoring for hearing loss: Regular hearing tests to detect any hearing loss and provide appropriate intervention.
7. Early intervention: To help children with OI develop skills and abilities to their full potential.
8. Genetic counseling: For families with a history of OI, to understand the risks and implications for future pregnancies.
It's important for people with OI to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper care and support, many people with OI can lead active and fulfilling lives.
In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:
1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.
In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.
The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:
* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting
There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:
* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.
Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.
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- Limb-length equalization procedures have primarily been performed by following one of two general approaches: slowing the growth of the longer limb with an epiphysiodesis or lengthening the shorter limb. (medscape.com)
- The first published report of a limb-lengthening procedure in the English literature dates to 1904 in Italy (Codivilla). (medscape.com)
- Circular external fixation for fractures, joint contractures, fusions, limb lengthening, deformity correction and bone and soft tissue reconstruction in pediatric patients and adults. (stryker.com)
- The Stryker Hoffmann LRF (Limb Reconstruction Frame) System is intended for fixation of fractures, joint contractures, fusions, limb lengthening, deformity correction, bone and soft tissue reconstruction in pediatric patients and adults. (stryker.com)
- My practice as a children's orthopaedic surgeon includes foot and ankle problems, limb lengthening, deformity correction, fractures and the management of the complications of fractures in children such as growth plate (areas of cartilage at the ends of the body's long bones) disturbances, fracture nonunion or fracture malunion. (spirehealthcare.com)
- I have extensive experience in over 150 cases in the use of circular external fixators (Ilizarov or Taylor Spatial Frame) in both adults and children, for severe trauma as well as limb lengthening and deformity correction. (spirehealthcare.com)
- The present study demonstrates that joint loading is potentially useful for stimulating bone lengthening and treating limb length discrepancy. (cdc.gov)
- A combined study consisting of WBC imaging and complementary bone marrow imaging performed with technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) sulfur colloid is approximately 90% accurate and is especially useful for diagnosing osteomyelitis in situations involving altered marrow distribution. (rsna.org)
- The prevalence and role of anaerobic bacteria in bone infection were investigated in this prospective study on 134 cases with pyogenic osteomyelitis. (who.int)
- Some investigators have noticed that, as the duration of chronic osteomyelitis lengthens, the number of isolated species of anaerobes increases [2,3]. (who.int)
- Osteomyelitis is inflammation of the bone caused by an infecting organism. (medscape.com)
- Management of osteomyelitis requires systemic treatment with antibiotics and local treatment at the site of bone infection to eradicate infection, and reconstruction is often required for the sequelae of bone and joint infection. (medscape.com)
- Hematogenous osteomyelitis most commonly involves the vertebrae, but infection may also occur in the metaphysis of the long bones, pelvis, and clavicle. (medscape.com)
- Contiguous-focus osteomyelitis often occurs in the bones of the feet in patients with diabetes mellitus and vascular compromise. (medscape.com)
- However, when microorganisms are introduced into bone hematogenously from surrounding structures or from direct inoculation related to surgery or trauma, osteomyelitis can occur. (medscape.com)
- When bone infection persists for months, the resulting infection is referred to as chronic osteomyelitis and may be polymicrobial. (medscape.com)
- Primary hematogenous osteomyelitis is more common in infants and children, usually occurring in the long-bone metaphysis. (medscape.com)
- Nwadinigwe, C.U. bones with contractures. (who.int)
- LANAP is a minimally invasive, highly successful alternative to conventional surgery-resulting in periodontal regeneration, new bone growth, and gum tissue reattachment. (dbusiness.com)
- Movement hurts when bones are pushing up against tissue instead of moving freely. (4yourtype.com)
- During this treatment, the dentist removes excess gum or bone tissue and reveals more of your natural tooth and creates a more even gum line. (webdental.com)
- Crown lengthening in Astoria is typically performed to improve the health of the gum tissue or prepare your mouth for certain restorative procedures - for example, if not enough of the tooth sticks out above the gum line to support a filling or crown. (webdental.com)
- You may also consider crown lengthening if your smile can be described as "gummy," where the teeth are covered with excess gum tissue. (webdental.com)
- The doctor will typically use local anesthesia and then gradually reshape or remove the excess gum and bone tissue to expose more of the natural tooth. (webdental.com)
- Bone infection may result from the treatment of trauma, which allows pathogens to enter bone and proliferate in the traumatized tissue. (medscape.com)
- Bone lengthening and bone transport are regeneration processes that commonly rely on distraction osteogenesis, a widely accepted surgical procedure to deal with numerous bony pathologies. (uhu.es)
- Dr. Bokser can give you a wider, more symmetrical smile through a crown lengthening procedure. (webdental.com)
- You may also need crown lengthening if you require a restorative dental procedure, such as fixing a broken tooth or getting a porcelain crown. (webdental.com)
- Crown lengthening is a common surgical procedure performed by Dr. Bokser who will extend the height or size of the portion of the tooth that is visible above the gum line. (webdental.com)
- This is called the physis, and it's made out of cartilage, which is weaker than bone. (kidshealth.org)
- Other examples in bone are the signal description of a necrotic fragment in osteonecrosis, the signal description of tumoral matrix that has different components (necrosis, hemorrhage, cartilage, bone formation). (philips.com)
- In healthy joints, there's a firm rubbery coating called cartilage at the end of the bones to act as a cushion. (4yourtype.com)
- Osteoarthritis is when cartilage in one or more joints breaks down over time, causing bones to rub together and causing pain, inflammation, and stiffness. (4yourtype.com)
- Bone rubbing against bone, without cartilage to cushion them, causes pain. (4yourtype.com)
- Adrienne Socci, MD, is a pediatric orthopedist who treats problems ranging from broken bones to congenital conditions that require careful monitoring over a period of years, such as hip dysplasia (where the socket doesn't fully cover the ball portion of the hip). (yalemedicine.org)
- Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Again, I want you to focus on, as always during our pregnancy, just letting the normal adjustments of the pelvis be present, but not tipping too much weight towards your pubic symphisis towards your pubic bone. (pilatesanytime.com)
- I want you to try to keep it a little bit more equal on that triangle of the pubic bone and the two sits bones that are underneath you. (pilatesanytime.com)
- Press down fi rmly through both of your feet and inhale to raise your hips, lifting from the pubic bone. (nxtbook.com)
- For bone assessment near joints, mDIXON TSE provides the visualization and multiple contrasts to describe abnormalities within a limited number of acquisitions. (philips.com)
- Joints are the places where bones connect, allowing our bodies to move. (4yourtype.com)
- The body is designed so that there's enough "empty space" around joints to allow the bones to move freely. (4yourtype.com)
- Union in Lateral Column Lengthening by Plate Fixation Without Bone Graft in Flexible Flatfoot: A Case Series. (bvsalud.org)
- This study's goal was to evaluate the outcomes of lateral column lengthening by plate fixation without bone graft in the management of symptomatic flexible flatfoot . (bvsalud.org)
- Using an interposition wedge plate for LCL without bone graft leads to a high union rate, maintains the correction, and avoids possible complications of autografts and allografts . (bvsalud.org)
- For the strength and freedom of breath it takes to sing long phrases with ease, try practicing Gate Pose ( Parighasana ) to help strengthen and lengthen the intercostals, which connect and wrap around the ribs. (coc.ca)
- Our less invasive treatment options include crown lengthening, lip repositioning, and gum depigmentation. (dbusiness.com)
- If you have any questions about crown lengthening or if you'd like Dr. Bokser to review your options, contact Astoria dental center today to schedule an appointment. (webdental.com)
- Dr. Bokser can perform crown lengthening on a single tooth, for a more even gum line, or to several teeth to reveal a broader smile or prepare you for further dental work. (webdental.com)
- Try to keep your shoulders over your hips and back lengthened. (coc.ca)
- If a doctor thinks you may have SCFE you'll need to see an orthopedic doctor (a doctor who specializes in the treatment of bones), who will do a physical exam, checking the range of motion of the hips and legs and seeing if there is any pain. (kidshealth.org)
- She also cares for adults who have broken bones and other injuries after trauma. (yalemedicine.org)
- The infecting organism may reach bone through blood or as a consequence of events such as trauma, surgery, the presence of foreign bodies, or the placement of prostheses that disrupt bony integrity and predispose to the onset of bone infection. (medscape.com)
- Bone marrow signal abnormalities are common MRI findings that can represent various underlying causes, from normal variance to malignancy. (philips.com)
- Detection of occult infection following total joint arthroplasty using sequential technetium-99m HDP bone scintigraphy and indium-111 WBC imaging. (rsna.org)
- Bone is normally resistant to infection. (medscape.com)
- Although all bones are subject to infection, the lower extremity is most commonly involved. (medscape.com)
- The hip is a ball-and-socket joint, which means that the rounded end of one bone (in this case, the "ball" of the thighbone) fits into the hollow of another bone (the pelvis). (kidshealth.org)
- As an ingredient, UniQTMBONE can play a role in ensuring that consumers receive their recommended daily dose of calcium as it contains calcium and phosphorus in a ratio of 2:1 in its natural hydroxyapatite form - the same structure that is also present in human bones and teeth, as well as, typically, 17% naturally occurring collagen," the company said. (petfoodindustry.com)
- The loss of alveolar bone is typically irreversible, and with increasing bone loss, the tooth becomes mobile and is eventually lost. (upenn.edu)
- it is typically found in the tibia but can occur in any bone. (medscape.com)
- It is used to restrict the growth of a longer bone, while the shorter bone continues to grow to match its length. (medlineplus.gov)
- Its subsidiary, Thai Union Ingredients (TUI), ushered in 2021 by introducing a new product called UniQTMBone made from the bones of tuna. (petfoodindustry.com)
- Bone lengthening was associated with increases in bone weight, BMD and BMC. (cdc.gov)
- Dr. Amar Katranji specializes in dental implants, advanced bone grafting, and full-arch restoration. (dbusiness.com)
- For more information about the relevant anatomy, see Skeletal System Anatomy in Adults and Osteology (Bone Anatomy) . (medscape.com)
- This progression can result in alveolar bone loss (alveolar bone is the bone that surrounds the tooth). (upenn.edu)
- Collagen is a ubiquitous protein present in regenerating bone tissues that experiences multiple biological phenomena during distraction osteogenesis until the deposition of phosphate crystals. (researchgate.net)
- The surgeon makes a cut over the growth plate at the end of the bone in the longer leg. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bone growth restriction is recommended for children whose bones are still growing. (medlineplus.gov)
- Elbow loading promotes longitudinal bone growth of the ulna and the humerus. (cdc.gov)
- Mechanical stimulation plays a critical role in bone development and growth. (cdc.gov)
- Using a fluoroscope - a special X-ray machine that produces a real-time image of the hip on a TV screen - as a guide, the surgeon makes a tiny incision near the hip, then puts a metal screw through the bone and across the growth plate to hold it in place. (kidshealth.org)
- In adolescents, steroids can prematurely stop the lengthening of bones resulting in stunted growth. (pasadenarecoverycenter.com)
- Continuing the legacy of innovation found in the Hoffmann External Fixation product family, the market's first dedicated bone transport strut is now available in the modern Hoffmann LRF Circular External Fixation System. (stryker.com)
- Hoffmann LRF can be configured to perform a Trifocal bone transport. (stryker.com)
- Des prélèvements ont été ensemencés immédiatement dans la salle d'opération ou dans la salle d'hôpital et placés en incubation dans des conditions aérobie et anaérobie sans recourir à des milieux de transport. (who.int)
- This technique can result in an increase of 25% or more in bone length. (medscape.com)
- The job of the physis is to connect the femoral head (the "ball") to the femur while still allowing the bone to lengthen and grow. (kidshealth.org)
- However, physical activity across all BMI levels helped to lengthen life. (superdoctors.com)
- It can improve your bone strength, balance, and coordination. (medlineplus.gov)
- The effects of elbow loading were evaluated through measurement of bone length, weight, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC), as well as mRNA expression levels of load-sensitive transcription factors such as c-fos, egr1, and atf3. (cdc.gov)
- Regulations require all pet food products and companies to be registered individually, lengthening registration times. (petfoodindustry.com)
Hold it in place1
- A metal plate with screws or a nail down the center of the bone is placed across the bone to hold it in place during healing. (medlineplus.gov)
- Leg lengthening is considered if a person has a large difference in leg length (more than 5 cm or 2 inches). (medlineplus.gov)
- A new product from Thai Union made from tuna bones can provide additive support for bone health in both the human and pet spaces. (petfoodindustry.com)
- Crushed into an off-white powder, UniQTMBONE promises to deliver a range of nutrients for bone health when used as supplements in capsule and tablet forms, added to different kinds of human food or used as an additive for pet food and pet nutrition. (petfoodindustry.com)
- Shortening a longer leg may be recommended for children whose bones are no longer growing. (medlineplus.gov)
- The human skeleton consists of 213 bones, of which 126 are part of the appendicular skeleton, 74 are part of the axial skeleton, and six are part of the auditory ossicles. (medscape.com)