Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Marrow DiseasesOsteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Mice, Inbred C57BLHematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.OsteomyelitisBone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Bones of Lower Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Mice, Inbred BALB CHip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Tibial FracturesRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Femoral NeoplasmsFractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Mandibular DiseasesOsteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).

Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle. (1/142)

A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed.  (+info)

Malunion in the lower limb. A nomogram to predict the effects of osteotomy. (2/142)

Nomograms derived from mathematical analysis indicate that the level of malunion is the most important determinant of changes in the moment arm of the knee, the plane of the ankle and alterations in limb length. Testing in five patients undergoing reconstruction showed a mean error of postoperative limb length of 2.2 mm (SD 0.8 mm), knee moment arm of 4.7 mm (SD 3.3 mm) and ankle angle of 2.6 degrees (SD 2.3 degrees). These nomograms provide the information required when assessing whether a particular degree of angulation may be accepted.  (+info)

Nerve palsy after leg lengthening in total replacement arthroplasty for developmental dysplasia of the hip. (3/142)

We reviewed 508 consecutive total hip replacements in 370 patients with old developmental dysplasia of the hip, to relate the amount of leg lengthening to the incidence of nerve palsies after operation. There were eight nerve palsies (two femoral, six sciatic), two complete and six incomplete. We found no statistical correlation between the amount of lengthening and the incidence of nerve damage (p = 0.47), but in seven of the eight hips, the surgeon had rated the intervention as difficult because of previous surgery, severe deformity, a defect of the acetabular roof, or considerable flexion deformity. The correlation between difficulty and nerve palsy was significant (p = 0.041). We conclude that nerve injury is most commonly caused by direct or indirect mechanical trauma and not by limb lengthening on its own.  (+info)

Leg lengthening over an intramedullary nail. (4/142)

Distraction osteogenesis is widely used for leg lengthening, but often requires a long period of external fixation which carries risks of pin-track sepsis, malalignment, stiffness of the joint and late fracture of the regenerate. We present the results of 20 cases in which, in an attempt to reduce the rate of complications, a combination of external fixation and intramedullary nailing was used. The mean gain in length was 4.7 cm (2 to 8.6). The mean time of external fixation was 20 days per centimetre gain in length. All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. There were three cases of deep infection, two of which occurred in patients who had had previous open fractures of the bone which was being lengthened. All resolved with appropriate treatment. This method allows early rehabilitation, with a rapid return of knee movement. There is a lower rate of complications than occurs when external fixation is used on its own. The time of external fixation is shorter than in other methods of leg lengthening. The high risk of infection calls for caution.  (+info)

Arrest of the growth plate after arterial cannulation in infancy. (5/142)

Seven children who had partial arrest of the growth plate after neonatal arterial cannulation, developed obvious skeletal changes in adolescence. Cannulation of the femoral artery produced ischaemia which led to four cases of ipsilateral shortening of the lower limb and one of partial arrest of the proximal femoral physis with subsequent coxa valga. The two arrests in the upper limb affected the humerus, ulna and radius, and the radius alone, after cannulation of the brachial and radial arteries, respectively. These late effects of cannulation are not widely appreciated, and may occur as a result of thrombosis rather than extravasation.  (+info)

Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of posteromedial bowing of the leg: two case reports. (6/142)

Congenital posteromedial bowing of the leg was prenatally detected in two pregnancies, at 20 and 31 weeks of gestation. Posteromedial bowing is a rare anomaly of unknown etiology. The prenatal course, monitored by ultrasonography, and the postnatal clinical and radiographic outcomes are discussed and show a complex differential diagnosis. The initial postnatal therapy is conservative. Leg length discrepancy can eventually be treated by lengthening or epiphysiodesis on the contralateral side.  (+info)

Leg lengthening for short stature in Turner's syndrome. (7/142)

We describe ten patients with Turner's syndrome (karyotype 45, XO) who had leg lengthening for short stature. A high incidence of postoperative complications was encountered and many patients required intramedullary fixation as a salvage procedure. We discuss the reasons for this and highlight the differences between our findings and those of a similar series recently reported. In view of the considerable difficulties encountered, we do not recommend leg lengthening in Turner's syndrome.  (+info)

Missed chronic anterior Monteggia lesion. Closed reduction by gradual lengthening and angulation of the ulna. (8/142)

Two consecutive cases of chronic dislocation of the head of the radius after missed Bado type-I Monteggia lesions are presented. Reduction was successfully achieved in both patients after ulnar corticotomy, gradual lengthening and angulation of the ulna using an external fixator. Open reduction or reconstruction of the radio-ulnar capitellar joint was not undertaken. The age at injury was seven years in the older and two years in the younger patient. The time from injury to treatment was five years in the older and three months in the younger child. At follow-up, nine years after completion of treatment in the older and eight months in the younger patient, both show satisfactory movement, function of the forearm and reduction of the head of the radius. This technique may be considered in missed Monteggia lesions before open procedures on the radio-ulnar capitellar joint are undertaken.  (+info)

*3-M syndrome

Possible management options for short stature are surgical bone lengthening or growth hormone therapy. Orthopedic techniques ... These usually reveal long bones that are slender, tall vertebral bodies that shorten over time, small pelvic bones, a broad ... Skeletal anomalies aren't present at birth but develop in the individual and include delayed bone maturation, slender long ... tubular bones, and tall vertebral bodies. Joint hyper-mobility and increased risk of hip dislocation has been presented in ...

*Fibular hemimelia

In humans, the disorder can be noted by ultrasound in utero to prepare for amputation after birth or complex bone lengthening ... Although the missing bone is easily identified, this condition is not simply a missing bone. Males are affected twice as often ... It is the most common long bone deficiency and is the most common skeletal deformity in the leg. It most often is unilateral ( ... Achterman, C; Kalamchi, A (May 1979). "Congenital deficiency of the fibula". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British ...

*Limusaurus

... their middle hand bones lengthened, and the "hook" of their pubis grew longer. Additionally, the shaft of the quadrate bone in ... Other bones with distinctive morphologies in the skull of Limusaurus are the nasal bones, which were ridged on each side, and ... and the jugal bones, the branches of which were slender and rod-like. In Limusaurus, the sternum was fused into a single, large ... with the bones laid out as they were in life) skeleton; and the other, IVPP V 15304, is a likewise almost complete articulated ...

*Carlo Mauri

After an accident where he suffered a broken leg, Mauri became the first Italian to undergo Gavril Ilizarov's bone-lengthening ...

*List of MeSH codes (E04)

... bone lengthening MeSH E04.555.120.380 --- ilizarov technique MeSH E04.555.120.690 --- osteogenesis, distraction MeSH E04.555. ... 130 --- bone transplantation MeSH E04.555.130.100 --- bone-patellar tendon-bone graft MeSH E04.555.200 --- diskectomy MeSH ... bone transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.050.100 --- bone-patellar tendon-bone graft MeSH E04.936.450.475 --- heart ... bone marrow transplantation MeSH E04.936.225.687.312 --- cord blood stem cell transplantation MeSH E04.936.225.687.500 --- ...

*Gavriil Ilizarov

In the center the Ilizarov method of transosseous osteosynthesis is applied to lengthen or reshape limb bones. Ilizarov was the ... Textbook of Ilizarov Surgical Techniques: Bone Correction and Lengthening, p. XX. Jaypee Brothers Publishers, 2010 Dror Paley. ... known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for the method of surgery named after him, the ... and the bone would grow to fill the gap. He also discovered that bone regrows at a fairly uniform rate across people and ...

*Long bone

... of the bones. There is a surgical procedure called distraction osteogenesis which is used to lengthen long bones. Long bones in ... Additionally, the outer shell of the long bone is compact bone, then a deeper layer of cancellous bone (spongy bone) which ... The outer shell of the long bone is made of cortical bone also known as compact bone. This is covered by a membrane of ... shown in red) Parts of a long bone (Femur) Classification of bones by shape Distribution of forces on a long bone (Femur) al ...

*Qusar (city)

... known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for his eponymous surgery. Sedaget Kerimova, Lezgin ... Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Surgery. CRC Press. pp. 3-6. ISBN 0849340519. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ...

*Lisa Kruger

For three months she had to tighten the screws every day, in order to slightly lengthen the bone. This radical surgery did not ... As far as trying to extend the non-growing bone, the bone had been pushed over her carpal bones, which only caused her to have ... that one bone was no longer growing. Because the other bones in her arm are still growing, her left arm is growing crooked. ... Kruger was born healthy in 2000, but in 2006 she fell from a wall, breaking several bones in her left arm. She had surgery ...

*Human leg

Leg Bones Distraction osteogenesis (leg lengthening) "Lower Extremity". Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). National Library of ... The major bones of the leg are the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), and adjacent fibula, and these are all long bones. ... Both heads are inserted on the lateral sesamoid bone of the first digit. The muscle acts as a tensor to the arches of the foot ... The patella (kneecap) is the sesamoid bone in front of the knee. Most of the leg skeleton has bony prominences and margins that ...

*Białowieża

Gavriil Ilizarov, Soviet orthopedic surgeon, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for his ...

*William Harrison Bell

... a technique used to gradually lengthen bone at a rate of 1mm a day. A prolific author, his publications provided a thorough ...

*Araripesuchus wegeneri

Both the wrist and hand bones (radiale, ulnare, and metacarpals) and leg bones are lengthened, demonstrating the potential for ... This species is also characterized by elongate carpals (wrist bones) relative to the metacarpals (hand bones). These skeletal ... The long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula) are straight and relatively gracile, which stands in contrast ... Other skull bones are distinctly textured on their outside surfaces, including the maxillae, frontal, and parietal. Many of the ...

*Anabolic steroid

For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones (premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of ... increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow, which increases the production of red blood cells. ... Bone marrow stimulation: For decades, AAS were the mainstay of therapy for hypoplastic anemias due to leukemia or kidney ... Stimulation of lean body mass and prevention of bone loss in elderly men, as some studies indicate. However, a 2006 placebo- ...

*Conradi-Hünermann syndrome

Treatment can involve operations to lengthen the leg bones, which involves many visits to the hospital. Other symptoms can be ... disproportionate shortening of long bones, particularly those of the upper arms and the thigh bones, short stature, and/or ... disorders of skeletal development involving abnormal accumulations of calcium salts within the growing ends of long bones. ...

*Nonunion

... and the remaining bone lengthened using an external fixator device. The time course of healing after such treatment is longer ... are used to stabilize the broken bone fragments. Bone grafting. Donor bone or autologous bone (harvested from the same person ... Bone is the only tissue that can heal without a fibrous scar. Autologus bone graft is the "gold standard" treatment of the non ... The normal process of bone healing is interrupted or stalled. Since the process of bone healing is quite variable, a nonunion ...

*Anthropometric cosmetology

Slow bone regeneration. This is particularly common in patients who smoke intensively during the lengthening process[citation ... The apparatus he initially used was modified to support the lengthening of finger (phalanx) bones. The first experiments ... The legs may be lengthened at most one millimeter per day. At present, the average period of lengthening in patients takes 3-6 ... Gavriil Ilizarov determined that bone fragments could be carefully pulled apart without disrupting their alignment. These bone ...

*Handslides

A handslide is the portion of a trombone that the player lengthens and shortens to adjust the instrument's pitch. A handslide ...

*Osseointegration Group of Australia

... she became the first person in the world to be fitted with a bionic limb after lengthening her bone by two inches as the ...

*List of -otomies

Osteotomy -> A bone is cut to shorten or lengthen it or to change its alignment Phlebotomy -> An incision in a vein with a ... A bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain Cricothyrotomy -> An incision made through the skin and ...

*Ilizarov apparatus

... whereby a defect in a long bone can be treated by transporting a segment of bone, whilst simultaneously lengthening regenerate ... The Ilizarov apparatus is a type of external fixation used in orthopedic surgery to lengthen or reshape limb bones; as a limb- ... As the patient recovers, the fractured bone begins to grow together. While the bone is growing, the frame is adjusted by means ... Additional surgery may be necessary, in the case of leg lengthening, to lengthen the Achilles tendon to accommodate the longer ...

*Human height

... results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by somatotropin (human growth hormone (hGH)) ... of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone. The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg ... Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed. The majority of growth during growth ... spurts is of the long bones. Additionally, the variation in height between populations and across time is largely due to ...

*Gavril

... known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones Gavril Krastevich, Bulgarian politician Gavril Myasnikov ...

*Flying squirrel

... northern and southern flying squirrels show lengthening in bones of the lumbar vertebrae and forearm, whereas bones of the feet ... their limb bones are longer and their hand, foot bones and distal vertebrae are shorter. Flying squirrels are able to steer and ... largely controlled by small cartilaginous wrist bones. There is a cartilage projection from the wrist that squirrel holds ...

*Bone age

As these cartilaginous zones become obliterated, the epiphyses are said to be "closed" and no further lengthening of the bones ... The long bones are those that grow primarily by elongation at an epiphysis at one end of the growing bone. The long bones ... Automated determination of bone age. A fuller description of the use of bone age films from the University of Utrecht. Bone Age ... The bones in the x-ray are compared to the bones of a standard atlas, usually "Greulich and Pyle". A more complex method also ...

*Senescence

Williams suggested the following example: Perhaps a gene codes for calcium deposition in bones, which promotes juvenile ... whether it be the result of telomere lengthening or not, to divide without limit that it will be possible to genetically alter ...
An experimental model of leg lengthening was used to study the morphology of, the collagenous proteins present, and the collagen genes expressed in the regenerating tissue following 20% lengthening at four different distraction rates. At a distraction rate of 0.3 mm/day (8 weeks distraction), the regenerate consists of intramembranous bone and localized areas of fibrocartilage. At rates of 0.7 (4 weeks) and 1.3 mm/day (2 weeks), the bone that grows from the cut ends of the cortical bone is separated by fibrous tissue and cartilage is present. At 2.7 mm/day (1 week), only fibrous tissue and sparse bone are present. Type I collagen is present in the matrices around the cells expressing its mRNA and similarly, type II collagen is located around the chondrocytes. Type I collagen mRNA is expressed predominantly by the fibroblasts in the fibrous tissue, the bone surface cells and to a reduced extent by the osteocytes. Type II collagen mRNA is expressed by chondrocytes. The results suggest that osteoblasts and
When I was invited to attend and lecture at the International meeting in Kurgan, the very birthplace of the Ilizarov method, I knew this was an
Methods. The authors carried out a retrospective study of a series of cases regarding the treatment of patients suffering from the outcome of physeal fractures of the lower limbs, with a follow-up from 3 to 7 years depending on the place of the previous injury. 12 patients are included (4 distal tibia, 6 distal femur, 2 proximal tibia), in which the rare unfavourable outcomes are related to growth disorders. If the physeal injury affects the entire cartilage or its central portion, the limb will present length discrepancy due to shortening, whereas in case of partial damage the deformity will be an axial deviation. The treatment includes surgery of the growing cartilage and bone surgery. In the first case, medial hemiepiphysiodesis according to Blount is the treatment of choice for the correction during the growth of genu valgum. As to bone surgery, it should be performed towards the end of skeletal growth and includes osteotomies, and lengthenings, that can be performed with axial external ...
OverviewA Leg Length Inequality or Leg Length Discrepancy is exactly as it sounds. One or more bones (the Femur or thigh bone, the Tibia or shin bone, and/or th…
Dr.: Dr. Scharf has already given you an answer I can agree with. I would like to address the 2 last parts of your question. Today, intraoral treatments are almost always done with some form of local anesthetic so the procedure itself should not only be pain free but feeling free. Postoperatively, as the area heals sensation gradually returns and the area becomes normal feeling again. Rarely does a patient need more than over-the-counter pain meds for the usual minimal discomfort experienced after these procedures. A quality practitioner should be aware of your concerns and address them accordingly. Personally speaking, I had a crown lengthening done on myself by a colleague and dont remember it to be a painful experience. Your question about commonality of this procedure is interesting. As I am a periodontist who also does crowns (not-limited to periodontics) I can only speak from personal experience. In my office, probably less than 5% of the crowns that I do get crown lengthenings. Other ...
Overview Leg length discrepancy is an orthopaedic problem that usually appears in childhood, in which ones two legs are of unequal lengths. Often abbreviated a…
True leg length discrepancies are rare in my experience. Or, if its there, its so minor its not worth worrying about. Its such a simple, quick test, its worth doing sometimes though. When to do this test Typically a new person will tell me they have one leg longer than the other, or Ill decide…
OverviewThe majority of people in the world actually have some degree of leg length discrepancy, up to 2cm. One study found that only around 1/4 of people have …
Overview Surgery to shorten the longer leg. This is less involved than lengthening the shorter leg. Shortening may be done in one of two ways. Closing the growt…
OverviewSome people have an ?apparent? LLD which may make the affected leg seem longer than the other leg. There are several factors that can contribute to this…
Overview Some people have an ?apparent? LLD which may make the affected leg seem longer than the other leg. There are several factors that can contribute to thi…
OverviewBone growth restriction (epiphysiodesis) The objective of this surgical procedure is to slow down growth in the longer leg. During surgery, doctors alte…
Introduction. The treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) disease continues to be controversial with disputed and uncertain outcomes reported. The work by the Perthes Study Group reported by Herring, Kim and Browne1 dealt with children 6 years of age and older, and did not include the younger age groups. The treatment recommended for children 5 years or younger by Kim2 in a review article is non-surgical, despite reports that this group does not have a universally good outcome.3-6 It would be beneficial to be able to define accurately which children are likely to have a poor outcome, and whether any treatment can change this. Rosenfeld, Herring and Chao6 reporting on 188 hips showed that the prognosis in this age group is favourable with 80% having a good result, and that patients with a Herring lateral pillar classification B-C or C have a less favourable outcome. Of note is that all their patients were treated conservatively. Fabry, Fabry and Moens5 reported on 36 hips in 30 patients with more ...
I had perthes as a child. I was only small so cant really remember anything about it. I am now 42 years old and I have got severe pain in my right hip. I have read that as I had perthes there is a ver...
What is Legg-Calvé Perthes Disease? Temporary condition where the ball shape part of the thigh bone, femoral head, loses its blood supply Occurs on one side and rarely occurs on both Idiopathic, the cause is unknown Two year process Who gets Legg-Calvé Perthes Disease? It affects those between 2 and 18 years of age, but is most commonly seen in boys from 4 to 8 years of age. What are the Signs and Symptoms?
Bones that are too long can cause a visible or measureable length discrepancy or asymmetry when comparing the right and left upper and lower extremities. Leg length discrepancies are more commonly the source of clinical symptoms and are more perceivable by patients since the imbalance in height between sides can be detected with standing and normal walking.
Regular exercise and physical therapy is important for the rehabilitation of the affected limb(s). Otherwise, it may result in delayed recovery and poor response to treatment. In some dogs, small lead weights are attached as ankle bracelets above hock joint to encourage early weight bearing.. Follow-up checkups are generally recommended every two weeks to ensure physiotherapy and exercises are working as desired. Overall recovery may take three to six months, thus patience is required. Dogs that are obese may undergo certain diet restrictions.. Those with Manchester terriers suffering from Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease will be informed of the breeds genetic association with the disease, and are often recommended against breeding the dog in the future.. ...
Multiple films of the pelvis obtained over 2.5 years, demonstrate progressive collapse of the right femoral head consistent with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease ...
How to enhance data, both 2-D images and 3-D range maps, through localized histogram equalization, with examples and explanation.
Stephen Maher: It is a dangerous mistake to view Canada as a piggybank into which some provinces make payments and others withdrawals
https://catalyst.phrma.org/icymi-cancer-death-rate-declines-at-record-levels-thanks-to-innovative-medicines In recent years, melanoma has showed the biggest mortality-rate drop of any cancer. Similar to lung cancer, this decline is aided by breakthrough treatments, such as immunotherapy, which was first approved for advanced melanoma in 2011.
Iatrogenic vascular injuries can result in claudication and limb length discrepancy in growing children. Traditional reconstruction has been performed with great saphenous vein as a conduit. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with a symptomatic l
We offer a comprehensive limb length discrepancy program for children at Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington.
Correction of leg-length discrepancy after hip transposition.: Four patients were treated with limb lengthening to correct a leg-length discrepancy that develop
Some children are born with absence or underdeveloped bones in the lower limbs e.g., congenital hemimelia. Others have a condition called hemihypertrophy that causes one side of the body to grow faster than the other. Sometimes, increased blood flow to one limb (as in a hemangioma or blood vessel tumor) stimulates growth to the limb. In other cases, injury or infection involving the epiphyseal plate (growth plate) of the femur or tibia inhibits or stops altogether the growth of the bone. Fractures healing in an overlapped position, even if the epiphyseal plate is not involved, can also cause limb length discrepancy. Neuromuscular problems like polio can also cause profound discrepancies, but thankfully, uncommon. Lastly, Wilms? tumor of the kidney in a child can cause hypertrophy of the lower limb on the same side. It is therefore important in a young child with hemihypertrophy to have an abdominal ultrasound exam done to rule out Wilms? tumor. It is important to distinguish true leg length ...
Leg length discrepancy is a condition where one leg is shorter than the other. Learn how Boston Childrens Hospital treats unequal leg length in children.
She had two additional medical treatments, one at age 10 years for additional muscle lengthening, and one at age 13, which consisted of a triple arthrodesis of her feet, hamstring lengthenings distally, and a rectus transfer at the knee. She continued to walk in the community with a combination of Lofstrand crutches and a walker. Around the house, she would walk holding on to furniture. During her high school years, she developed a mildly increased crouching gait pattern and was placed in a ground reaction ankle foot orthosis (AFO), which she disliked. With aggressive medical treatment, the infection can be eradicated, and approximately 30% of children are left with CP and mental retardation. 1 In our experience, most of these children who survive bacterial meningitis and have CP will have very severe spastic quadriplegic pattern involvement. Temporary neurologic deficits are caused by many toxic agents, with alcohol being the most commonly encountered. Alcohol almost never causes a static ...
The surgical approach is required for the cleaning of necrotic bone tissues and infected soft tissues.. The resection of the infected area and the artholiths lead to a physiological shortening of the limb. The procedure that is universally recognised as being the most effective for restoring normal anatomic function is the one theorised and perfected by Ilizarov.. Thanks to a frame made up of metal rings and secured to the bone, the Ilizarov apparatus is able to carry out the bone transport of separated tissues and encourage their elongation.. The two bone segments in question can thus rely on a fixed support to guide them in the process of recomposition and subsequent recalcification.. Treatment of osseous infection using the Ilizarov method. Classifiable as acute and chronic osteomyelitis, depending on whether the symptoms persist for more than six weeks, or where there is the presence of arthroliths, osteomyelitis is an infection of the osteoarticular apparatus caused by bacteria - the most ...
BACKGROUND: To reduce the morbidity of traditional quadricepsplasty for the treatment of severe arthrofibrosis of the knee, we instituted a treatment regimen consisting of an initial extra-articular mini-invasive quadricepsplasty and subsequent intra
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is a childhood hip disorder which is common enough to be a significant public health problem (affects 1 in 740 boys between ages 0-14), but uncommon enough to have a sufficient number of patients from a single institution to perform a definitive prospective study comparing the results of current treatments. The present study will establish a database of prospectively identified patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) Disease and collect information regarding their presentation, treatment, and outcomes in the course of receiving currently available treatments.. This study seeks to compare the outcomes of current treatments in the management of different age groups (ages 1-6, 6-8, 8-11, ,11) of patients with Perthes disease at two- and five-year followup and at skeletal maturity. For each age group, two to three common treatment regimens currently used by practicing pediatric orthopaedic surgeons will be compared. The intervention a patient receives is determined ...
OverviewShortening techniques can be used after skeletal maturity to achieve leg length equality. Shortening can be done in the proximal femur using a blade pla…
OverviewNeuromuscular. Muscle imbalance causing different pull on pelvis (anterior superior Ilium or posterior inferior ilium). Muscle tightness/shortness espec…
On October 31st 2016, Halloween, our sweet Little Pony and her brothers took to the street to trick or treat. Most children, except for those littles who cant keep up (like our youngest son) run door to door in their costumes as they bob down the street. But, for some reason, our daughter wasnt. She was slow. She was walking with a limp. I wasnt sure if she fell and hurt herself earlier that day, we stopped by a few houses before returning back home. What could possibly keep this Pony from trotting down the street along with everyone else? We werent sure, but the following day it continued. And the day after that. And, you guessed it, the day after that.. A trip to the doctor led to the conclusion of what was believed to be transient synovitis. Basically, a virus was leaving her body and was trapped in a joint; causing stiffness and limping. That sounded reasonable, it would last for a few weeks. In December, the limp returned. Again, in January, from time to time as well. We had blood ...
Subband arrays have been proposed as a useful means to realize joint spatio-temporal domain equalization in digital mobile communications. They are used to mitigate channel impairment problems caused by inter-symbol interference (ISI) and co-channel interference (CCI). We propose normalized subband.... Full description. ...
Legal Entity Ownership Program (LEOP): The form BOE-100-B Statement of Change in Control and Ownership of Legal Entities must be obtained and filed with the Board of Equalization (not with a local agency or county)
29 years old female: Infection of left hip on age of 7, she had surgery with drainage, leg became 6 cm short. leg length discrepancy was corrected after THA ...
Following the recent US National Intelligence Estimate about Irans nuclear capabilities and ambitions, Europeans should call for a common policy with the US that focuses on domestic developments in Iran. Such a policy can include additional Security Council sanctions, but it must also carry an offer of dialogue that pragmatic forces in Iran would not refuse.
An adaptive gradient technique is applied for the minimization of a hybrid cost function that consists of amplitude-dependent and constellation-dependent terms. A time-varying weighting coefficient is induced in the combined cost function to emphasize/de-emphasize the role of the two terms in determ.... Full description. ...
California Board of Equalization (BOE) crew, featuring Fiona Ma, at the end of the Light Dep tunnel on a Spring 2015 BOE tour.. ...
Given the common presentation of limb length discrepancy, this author reviews the historical methods for diagnosis as well as an objective method for dynamic assessment. He also addresses the clinical significance of limb asymmetry and how computer-assisted gait analysis plays a key role in assessing treatment.
The basis for toe lengthening involves restoring the length to the short bone. Many methods have been described, however three techniques are used today.. ● Sliding Bone-cut lengthening: This is only used for very mild cases. It involves creating a specially oriented or angle cut in the metatarsal bone to lengthening the bone by shifting the cut bones onto one another. Because only a small amount of length can be gained, and most brachymetatarsal problems call for more advanced techniques, the sliding bone cut lengthening is the least performed type. ● Bone-graft lengthening is a common ONE stage procedure where the toe length is achieved by inserting a structural bone graft into the short bone. The bone graft size is determined on the amount of length that is needed. However, there is a limit to how much length can be obtained with this method as well. Dr. Blitz typically will consider this method for toes that need less than one centimeter of lengthening, and only involves one toe. The ...
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Ilizarov has been named after the orthopaedic surgeon Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov from the Soviet Union, who pioneered the technique.1 The apparatus is based on the principle which Ilizarov called as "the theory of tensions.2 It can be used for the treatment of infected non-union and mal-union of bones, limb lengthening, height increase and badly comminuted fractures (multiple fragments) in the limbs, even with skin loss.3-5 It is used in surgical procedures that are not amenable with other techniques.6 In addition to being used to support a fractured limb, the Ilizarov apparatus is also commonly used to correct deformity through distraction osteogenesis.7 This method is preferred over conventional treatment options such as internal fixation or cast where there is a high risk of infection or the fracture is of such severity that internal fixators are unworkable.8 The circular construction and tensioned wires of the Ilizarov apparatus provide far more structural support than the traditional ...
Looking for online definition of Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome in the Medical Dictionary? Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome explanation free. What is Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome? Meaning of Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome medical term. What does Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome mean?
Swedish University dissertations (essays) about LEG LENGTH DISCREPANCY. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free.
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OverviewMany people don?t realise it, but one of their legs is longer (or shorter) than the other one. Over time, this can lead to degenerative osteoarthritis (…
Fascia, the connective tissue that stabilizes muscles and internal organs in the human body, is an unrepresented aspect of the physical rehabilitation and recovery process. Three types of fascia exist within the human body (according to one of two major class cation systems):. Superficial Fascia. The lowermost layer of skin, superficial fascia is found throughout the body. It is easily recognizable in the human face, the nape of the neck, and along the breastbone and various other points of the body. Its primary function is to influence the shape of the body, but also serves as a storage medium for fat and water outside of organs, glands, and neurovascular bundles.. Deep Fascia. A layer of dense, fibrous tissue surrounding entire muscles, deep fascia is some of the most difficult to manipulate through massage due to the elasticity or resilience of the tissues.. Visceral Fascia. Visceral fascia helps keeps internal organs in place by wrapping them with connective tissue membranes. Depending on ...
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The veins of the lower limb drain deoxygenated blood and return it to the heart. They can be divided into two groups; deep and superficial. Deep veins are located underneath the deep fascia of the lower limb, accompanying the major arteries.
This 22 minutes film continues the journey to explore the human body extending from "Strolling under the skin" and "The Skin Excursion. In this film, the authors, a surgeon J.C.GUIMBERTEAU and a the scientist J.P. DELAGE want to prove the fact that a muscle is a contractile structure completely included in the meshwork of the multifibrillar system already described under the skin and inside the skin and not a side one. The Deep FAscia is shown live for the very first time.. On the anatomical point of view, they think that there is no tissue discontinuity and all the sheaths around or inside the muscle, epimysium, perimysium or endomysium are, in fact, one unique frame tissue in continuity with sliding tissues embedding organs. Actually, muscular cells are set inside this microfibrillar and dispersed pattern, architecture.. ...
How is Functional Leg Length (anatomy) abbreviated? FLL stands for Functional Leg Length (anatomy). FLL is defined as Functional Leg Length (anatomy) very frequently.
Mysl po predmetu ustroistva i urovneniia na etom osnovanii pozemelnykh sborov (A Thought on the Subject of Settling the Settlers and the Equalization of Tax Collections on this Basis), n.d. ...
Brachymetatarsia or hypoplastic metatarsal is a condition in which there is one or more abnormally short or overlapping toes metatarsals. This condition may result due to a congenital defect or it may be an acquired condition. It most frequently involves the fourth metatarsal. If it involves the first metatarsal, the condition is known as Mortons syndrome. Treatment is via a number of differing surgical procedures. Congenital causes include: Aarskog syndrome, Albrights hereditary osteodystrophy, maternal ingestion of thalidomide during pregnancy and Apert syndrome. Can be caused by a trauma, although the exact mechanism is not known. Symptoms may be treated by wearing wider shoes to relieve pressure, or patient can wear padding around the toes. Surgery is also an option, if the pain and discomfort cannot be treated, or for cosmetic reasons. In this procedure, the short metatarsal is typically cut and a piece of bone is grafted between the two ends. In some cases an external fixator may be ...
Birmingham Podiatrist Alabama Foot Institute is a podiatry office providing Brachymetatarsia, orthopedic, pain, diabetes, bunions and much more in Birmingham, AL.
There are many causes of leg length discrepancy. Some include, A broken leg bone may lead to a leg length discrepancy if it heals in a shortened position. This is more likely if the bone was broken in many pieces. It also is more likely if skin and muscle tissue around the bone were severely injured and exposed, as in an open fracture. Broken bones in children sometimes grow faster for several years after healing, causing the injured bone to become longer. A break in a childs bone through the growth center near the end of the bone may cause slower growth, resulting in a shorter leg. Bone infections that occur in children while they are growing may cause a significant leg length discrepancy. This is especially true if the infection happens in infancy. Inflammation of joints during growth may cause unequal leg length. One example is juvenile arthritis. Bone diseases may cause leg length discrepancy, as well. Examples are, Neurofibromatosis, Multiple hereditary exostoses, Ollier disease. Other ...
There are many causes of leg length discrepancy. Some include, A broken leg bone may lead to a leg length discrepancy if it heals in a shortened position. This is more likely if the bone was broken in many pieces. It also is more likely if skin and muscle tissue around the bone were severely injured and exposed, as in an open fracture. Broken bones in children sometimes grow faster for several years after healing, causing the injured bone to become longer. A break in a childs bone through the growth center near the end of the bone may cause slower growth, resulting in a shorter leg. Bone infections that occur in children while they are growing may cause a significant leg length discrepancy. This is especially true if the infection happens in infancy. Inflammation of joints during growth may cause unequal leg length. One example is juvenile arthritis. Bone diseases may cause leg length discrepancy, as well. Examples are, Neurofibromatosis, Multiple hereditary exostoses, Ollier disease. Other ...
There are many causes of leg length discrepancy. Some include, A broken leg bone may lead to a leg length discrepancy if it heals in a shortened position. This is more likely if the bone was broken in many pieces. It also is more likely if skin and muscle tissue around the bone were severely injured and exposed, as in an open fracture. Broken bones in children sometimes grow faster for several years after healing, causing the injured bone to become longer. A break in a childs bone through the growth center near the end of the bone may cause slower growth, resulting in a shorter leg. Bone infections that occur in children while they are growing may cause a significant leg length discrepancy. This is especially true if the infection happens in infancy. Inflammation of joints during growth may cause unequal leg length. One example is juvenile arthritis. Bone diseases may cause leg length discrepancy, as well. Examples are, Neurofibromatosis, Multiple hereditary exostoses, Ollier disease. Other ...
Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patients informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Students two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value |0.05. Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2 ± 10.3 year and male
External fixators have reinvented the art of deformity correction by incorporating the 4D technology of gradual correction over time into the operative strategy. Computer navigation through the use...
Surgical treatments vary in complexity. Sometimes the goal of surgery is to stop the growth of the longer limb. Other times, surgeons work to lengthen the shorter limb. Orthopedic surgeons may treat children who have limb-length conditions with one or a combination of these surgical techniques. Bone resection. An operation to remove a section of bone, evening out the limbs in teens or adults who are no longer growing. Epiphyseal stapling. An operation to slow the rate of growth of the longer limb by inserting staples into the growth plate, then removing them when the desired result is achieved. Epiphysiodesis. An operation to slow the rate of growth of the longer limb by creating a permanent bony ridge near the growth plate. Limb lengthening. A procedure (also called distraction osteogenesis or the Ilizarov procedure) that involves attaching an internal or external fixator to a limb and gradually pulling apart bone segments to grow new bone between them. There are several ways your doctor can ...
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INTRODUCTION: Ludloffs procedure for open reduction of congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) is recommended for its minimal tissue damage, but is criticised for the risk of late avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. The aim of present study was primarily to assess the risk of late AVN of the femoral head and secondly the range of motion (ROM) of the hip and the quality of life in children following Ludloffs procedure. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 13 hips in 11 children after Ludloffs procedure due to CDH were included retrospectively from 1997 to 2005 at Aarhus University Hospital ...
Medical term deep fascia 深筋膜; 深肌膜 and its variants in English, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese and Pinyin with audio pronunciation. 规范医学术语词汇
Perthes disease is a serious condition of both boys and girls, characterised by discomfort in the upper leg and a limp. Dont let someone tell you that it is growing pains before a proper assessment has been made.
Histogram equalisation (HE) is widely used to enhance the image contrast but it tends to over-enhance the image background brightness. Improvement schemes
Limb lengthening surgery is done when someone has a leg length discrepancy (one leg is shorter than the other). Sometimes this is treated with an internal lengthening device (a rod with a magnet).
A first filtering module filters actual pixel values in a first direction (e.g., vertically), and a second filtering module filters interpolated pixel values received from the first filtering module in a second direction (e.g., horizontally). Also, a third filtering module filters actual pixels in the second direction. A computation module is coupled to the first, second and, third filtering modules. The computation module generates quarter-sample interpolated pixel values. These values are based on combinations of pixel values selected from actual pixel values and interpolated pixel values received from the first, second and, third filtering modules.
Information National Library of new palindroom reuma C0853082 A6617405 L4991651 S5679156 10029343 10029343 neurotische stoornis op kinderleeftijd C0270736 A6594077 L4974846 S5662352 10015496 http ri search yahoo com ylt AwrBT GGf6VUJr0ACX9XNyoA ylu X3oDMTBzcnU2aXU5BHNlYwNzcgRwb3MDMTEEY29sbwNiZjEEdnRpZAM RV 2 RE 1420161030 RO 10 RU http www nlm nih gov research umls sourcereleasedocs 2010AA MDRDUT termtypes html RK 0 RS EdB3MyZ0WZ8eOYHarfgnYg17i4 63 Result found by AltaVista VOEDING allergie MILIEU Dr JR Tisscher genomen verkeerd gediagnosticeerd zijn als jicht of reuma dat het palindroom reumabeeld veroorzaakt wordt door een overgevoeligheid ten opzichte van http www drtisscher org publicaties documenten Voeding en 20Milieu pdf 63 Result found by CompuServe Palindroom Reuma Archives Symptomen Informatie Symptomen new Bijna alle reuma symptomen zijn hetzelfde bij alle drie groepen reuma Vaak is dit langdurige pijn beperking in uw beweging en vermoeidheid Bijna altijd beginnen de http ri search ...
When it was developed, the Ilizarov device represented a revolutionary advance that made it possible to correct previously untreatable conditions through the stimulation of bone growth based on the pr
Legg Perthes.com is here to help inform you about this disease that affects many small dog breeds, and to show you how to get help.
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Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. ...
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Definition of equalization in the diving glossary, part of the scuba diving community GoodDive.com including explanations, pictures and related articles.
4) Sports Chiro - So many people misunderstand what sports chiropractors do. I did, as well. I thought a chiro just "cracked backs," the sound of air popping between cartilage - not really doing anything clinically, but making a good noise. My first trip to a chiropractor when I was in my 20s in Canada did nothing to help get rid of the stereotype that it was quackery. He told me I had a leg length discrepancy (some people do, but I didnt - it turned out I had a tight hip rotating the leg up). He told me I should never carry heavy things, thought I might need a lift in one shoe, strapped me to some electric device and left the room for 20 minutes. None of it was workable solutions. I was a nanny - carrying small children was a day-to-day occurrence. I went to my GP who told me (in quite kind words) that I was getting overweight and out of shape and needed to go do some sit-ups. He was right. Years later, out of desperation again (another issue - I hadnt just given up on the core work!) I tried ...
I was determined that I would at least walk as far as the end of the homes, where the public restrooms begin. I did have to stop a couple of times to just stand there and breathe. Coming back, I decided I could handle the sidewalk as the slant evened out my leg length discrepancy. I managed quite well with that, except for the areas where the sand had blown across the pavement. Loose sand is not easy to walk on, when you are as out of practice as I am. Soon, I had lost my momentum, and the pain slowed me down considerably. Other walkers were passing me by, even an old lady with a dog! The jogger, (Bless him!) ran by me, back and forth, so many times, it was Déjà Vu, all over again. Along the sidewalk is a sort of metal bar fence. (something to hang onto when the wind is blowing hard, or the waves are rushing by) I stopped four times, and pushed my spine up against them to help relieve the pain. The burning shins were gone by this time. It was my rib cage and shoulders that were complaining. ...
The deep fascia of the leg and foot has been removed. However, the superficial nerves (1,7,18) and the large saphenous vein (11) have beem retained to illustrate their relations to the deeper structures ...
The deep fascia has been removed. A well-developed sternalis muscle (9) is present. Later dissection revealed that this variant was not bilateral ...
Page 67 - ... over it is reddened, tense, and glistening. As the disease progresses, the pus forms and burrows in the direction of least resistance, and may point in the rectum or upon the surface in any part of the ischio-rectal region, where fluctuation may be obtained. Goodsall says: The weak points in this region are (1) the interval between the sphincters, (2) the incomplete stratum of deep fascia separating the fat of the fossa from that of the subcutaneous tissue, and (3) the incomplete attachment... ...
Treatment will depend on your childs symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. The goal of treatment is to keep the roundness of the femoral head and to prevent deformity while the condition runs its course. Treatment depends on the amount of hip pain and stiffness. Its also based on X-ray changes over time and how much the femoral head has collapsed. The first step of treatment is usually to regain hip motion. It also tries to stop the pain that results from the tight muscles around the hip and the inflammation inside the joint. Treatment may include: ...
I absolutely adore the Internet, but theres no doubt it has made us more distracted than ever.. I can see this in myself, and in watching everyone else around me: constant use of laptops, switching between browser tabs, checking things on iPhones, typing in a message here and there … we all do it.. But its not a good formula for getting things done.. We may feel productive when were constantly switching between things, constantly doing something, but in all honesty, were not.. Were just distracted.. A friend recently told me she thinks she has a problem: its hard to get work done, or focus on anything at all, with all of the distractions. In truth, we all have this problem.. Were all suffering from Distraction Syndrome.. This causes people not to be able to study for class, to get important or difficult work done, to create, to be mindful throughout their day.. So whats the cure for Distraction Syndrome?. Heres what works for me:. ...
Adding air to an acoustic guitar recorded with inferior mics is almost impossible. Cutting is better then raising. Cut narrow, raise wide. it doesnt matter if an instrument sounds bad when soloed, so feel free to cut a lot of low end out of an electric guitar so it doesnt conflict with drum & bass. If you want an instrument to cut better through the mix dont raise the fundamental freq, but instead decrease it a little and raise the overall level of the track. If you want more more kick / bass in your mix you probably dont need eq but more compression on these (and only these). Instead of adding f.e. 6 dB at 1 kHz, try adding 4 dB at 1 kHz and 2dB at 2kHz. ...
Abstract: With the new General Regulatory Plan for Rome, adopted with D.C.C. No. 33/2003 and approved with D.C.C. No. 18/2008, in the part concerning the criteria for equalization, they introduce/insert the so-called "Extraordinary Contribution" to urbanization, one of the most important innovations, introduced by the new Plan, which fixes an amount in addition to the cost of primary urbanization and those related to building permit, borne by the promoter of urban transformation development project. However, at a distance of eleven years after the adoption of the new General Regulatory Plan for Rome and more than six after its final approval, the regulation for the calculation of the Extraordinary Contribution was finally approved by the Rome City Council. One of the reasons for this delay is identified in the legal basis of the additional financial obligation of the project developer, and an appeal brought before the Regional Administrative Court of Law [T.A.R.] was put to rest with the ...
These days we are all wondering how we can resist distraction. Neuroscience and ancient wisdom both point to a one word answer...
Posted 29/09-10 at 11.54. Zambia Deaf Youth and Women (ZDYW) was setup in 2009. Its mission is to advocate for the rights and equalization of opportunities for the Deaf Youth and Women. .... ...
Why is it that whenever the Lib Dems have influence whether that be in local or national government they use that influence to promote causes or policies that are either anti liberal or anti democratic? This applies whatever the policy, whether it be the equalisation of parliamentary boundaries, voting systems that favour the unrepresentative political…
Unfortunately, with the pressures of daily life being what they are, it seems that we're more or less expected to be able to do more than one thing at a time.
The American Meteor Society, Ltd. is established to inform, encourage, and support the research activities of people who are interested in the field of Meteor Astronomy.
Every year, about 1 million patients worldwide and 16000 patients in Sweden undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA). This surgical intervention is considered a successful, safe and cost-effective procedure to regain pain-free mobility and restore hip joint function in patients suffering from severe hip joint disease or trauma. Besides relieving the pain, restoration of biomechanical forces around the hip with appropriate femoral offset (FO), leg length and proper component position and orientation are important goals. The radiographic preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation of these parameters require good validity, interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. It remains controversial as to how much postoperative leg length discrepancy (LLD) and FO change are acceptable. Generally, lengthening of the operated leg ≥ 10mm and FO reduction of the operated hip , 5mm should be avoided by using preoperative radiological templating and intraoperative measurement methods. There ...
Historically, surgeons have utilized circular and monolateral external fixation for the management of complicated high-energy orthopedic trauma and reconstruction of congenital or posttraumatic deformities through the Ilizarov and deBastiani principles of callotasis and distraction osteogenesis.1-3 Demonstrating success in bone healing and deformity correction in limbs that would have otherwise left patients with permanent disabilities or necessitated limb amputation, external fixation has found its way into the treatment of Charcot foot, arguably one of the most challenging prob
ABSTRACT. Limb lengthening using distraction osteogenesis is an established technique; however it is often limited by prolonged external fixation times, with their associated difficulties and complications. A case is presented where a leg lengthening was performed with a relatively short external fixation time. This was made possible by the equal distribution of the patients leg length discrepancy between the femur and tibia, secondary to an iatrogenic nerve injury while the patient was still growing. The technique of simultaneous ipsilateral femoral and tibial lengthening was shown to be an effective method of shortening external fixator time in this case and opens the door for further application of this technique in other clinical scenarios.. ...
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Generally, surgeon-driven musculoskeletal evaluation systems are used for evaluating outcomes of patients who are treated with high tibial osteotomy. In this study, we investigated the effects of high tibial osteotomy using circular external fixator on quality of life. Twenty-one high tibial osteotomy of 19 patients were evaluated. Quality of life assessment was made using Short Form -36 at preoperative, before fixator removal and 6 months after fixator removal. After applying fixator, the physical function and physical role scores of Short Form-36 decreased and emotional role score did not improve. In other categories, significant improvements were observed when fixator in place. At the sixth month after fixator removal, significant improvements were dedected in all categories of Short Form-36. Although there was a decrease in physical functions after fixator application in patients who were treated with high tibial osteotomy using circular external fixator, significant improvement occurred in quality
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy with monolateral external fixator in hips for patients with severe cerebral palsy. AU - Agashe, Mandar. AU - Song, Sang Heon. AU - Tong, Xue Bo. AU - Hong, Jin Ho. AU - Song, Hae Ryong. PY - 2013/2/1. Y1 - 2013/2/1. N2 - Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy has been used for painful hip joint dislocation in patients with severe cerebral palsy. The goal of this study was to evaluate 11 patients (17 hips) with severe cerebral palsy who had chronically dislocated and painful hips treated with subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy using a monolateral external fixator. A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients (average age, 17.8 years) with severe quadriplegic cerebral palsy with flexion-adduction contractures due to chronically dislocated and painful hips. A subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy with a monolateral fixator was performed in all patients. Patients were analyzed clinicoradiologically, and caregivers were asked about ease of handling, ...
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Patente US5976142 - Apparatus and method for distraction osteogenesis of small alveolar bone - Google PatentesPatente US5976142 - Apparatus and method for distraction osteogenesis of small alveolar bone - Google Patentes

In order to allow for bone growth and/or distraction, a constant activation rate between bone segments is applied by a torque. ... The alveolar distraction osteogenesis device may be affixed to small and thin bone segments. An alveolar distraction ... An apparatus and method for osteogenesis distraction of small alveolar bone is provided. ... Device for lengthening and reshaping bone by distraction osteogenesis. US6758673. 5 Dic 2001. 6 Jul 2004. Ofir Fromovich. ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US5976142?dq=flatulence

Extensive Bone Lengthening for a Patient with Linear MorpheaExtensive Bone Lengthening for a Patient with Linear Morphea

... Kenichi Mishima, Hiroshi Kitoh, Masaki Matsushita, Tadashi Nagata ... for whom bone shortening or amputation has been indicated, whereas extensive bone lengthening has rarely performed. To our ... P. Merloz, "Bone regeneration and limb lengthening," Osteoporosis International, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2033-2036, 2011. View at ... We report on a rare case of extensive bone lengthening for LLD in a patient with linear morphea. Satisfactory correction of LLD ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2018/4535804/

Bone lengthening implant - Stock Image M600/0402 - Science Photo LibraryBone lengthening implant - Stock Image M600/0402 - Science Photo Library

This procedure is often used to treat individuals with bone deformities or shorter bones than normal. Photographed at ... a surgical procedure that enables progressive bone lengthening. Once implanted, the nail is extended by about 1 millimetre a ... Demonstration of a telescopic nail (lower centre) and the nail after implantion in a model of a human tibia (shin bone, upper ... day over several months, which induces new bone growth. ... bone formation, bone implant, bone lengthening, demonstrated, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/279979/view/bone-lengthening-implant

Bone lengthening implant - Stock Image - M600/0402 - Science Photo LibraryBone lengthening implant - Stock Image - M600/0402 - Science Photo Library

Demonstration of a telescopic nail (lower centre) and the nail after implantion in a model of a human tibia (shin bone, upper ... Bone lengthening implant. Demonstration of a telescopic nail (lower centre) and the nail after implantion in a model of a human ... This procedure is often used to treat individuals with bone deformities or shorter bones than normal. Photographed at ... a surgical procedure that enables progressive bone lengthening. Once implanted, the nail is extended by about 1 millimetre a ...
more infohttps://www.sciencephoto.com/media/279979/view

US9968379B2 - Subcutaneous implantable device for gradually aligning a spine and subcutaneous implantable device for gradually...US9968379B2 - Subcutaneous implantable device for gradually aligning a spine and subcutaneous implantable device for gradually...

A subcutaneous implantable device for gradually lengthening a bone. ... An added object of the invention is to supply a bone lengthening assembly for the precise lengthening of a target bone. ... also shows bone marrow 162 having filled in passage 164 with femur 150 lengthened by the width of the gap that was lengthened ... Bone screw 120 and strut 122 are components of bone screw-strut construction 130 shown in FIG. 18B. . This bone screw-strut ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US9968379B2/en

Leg lengthening and shortening: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaLeg lengthening and shortening: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Leg lengthening and shortening are types of surgery to treat some people who have legs of unequal lengths. ... Epiphysiodesis; Epiphyseal arrest; Correction of unequal bone length; Bone lengthening; Bone shortening; Femoral lengthening; ... The bone to be lengthened is cut.. *Metal pins or screws are placed through the skin and into the bone. Pins are placed above ... The amount of time it takes the bone to heal depends on the amount of lengthening. Each centimeter of lengthening takes 36 days ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002965.htm

OrthopedicsOrthopedics

Bone lengthening: Aveons story. After six surgeries to correct a condition she was born with, Aveon undergoes surgery at ... The lengthening of the rod is done in the clinic and requires no surgery. The lengthening takes only a few minutes and it done ... The device is lengthened until early adolescence when the lengthening procedures stop and the rod is left or replaced with ... OrthoKids is designed for both kids and parents to learn about different types of bones, bone fractures and how they are ...
more infohttps://www.childrensmercy.org/departments-and-clinics/orthopedics/

Patient Stories | Childrens Mercy Kansas CityPatient Stories | Children's Mercy Kansas City

Bone Lengthening: Aveons Story. After six surgeries to correct a condition she was born with, Aveon undergoes surgery at ... Childrens Mercy to lengthen her bone. She will receive a new magnetic implant through a new technique. Dr. Olney has cared for ... Now thanks to a successful bone marrow transplant at Childrens Mercy, where survival rates are at or above national averages, ... A bone marrow transplant at Childrens Mercy, was his best chance for survival. ...
more infohttps://www.childrensmercy.org/patient-stories/

December 2000 - Volume 4 - Issue 4 : Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity SurgeryDecember 2000 - Volume 4 - Issue 4 : Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery

Progressive Bone Distraction Lengthening in the Treatment of Congenital Malformations of the Hand. PAJARDI, G.; LAMAS, C.; ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/techhandsurg/toc/2000/12000

Journal of Childrens Orthopaedics - SpringerJournal of Children's Orthopaedics - Springer

Long bone deformity correction and bone lengthening procedures Pierre Lascombes, Hakan Omeroglu (December 2016) ... The journal will continue in cooperation with a new publisher, The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/journal/11832

Dadun: Lengthening of the first metatarsal bone. A case of congenital shorteningDadun: Lengthening of the first metatarsal bone. A case of congenital shortening

A percutaneous osteotomy and slow distraction by an external fixator for 10 weeks lengthened the bone from 32 mm to 60 mm. ... Amillo S, Gil-Albarova J, Pampliega T. Lengthening of the first metatarsal bone. A case of congenital shortening. Acta Orthop ... A 14-year-old boy had a congenital shortening of the first right metatarsal bone, with overloading of the central metatarsals ... After the distraction, a bone graft was performed, and tenotomies and a capsulotomy corrected a threatening subluxation. ...
more infohttp://dadun.unav.edu/handle/10171/36406

For dwarfs, mixed reaction to radical limb lengthening procedure  | Health and Fitness | billingsgazette.comFor dwarfs, mixed reaction to radical limb lengthening procedure | Health and Fitness | billingsgazette.com

Jones underwent lengthening of the tibia, the lower leg bone, last August and will have surgery on her upper arms early next ... Orthopedist, a dwarf himself, says no to bone-lengthening procedure By PAUL PAYNE Associated Press Writer ... The bone makes new bone to fill the gap and we pull it a little more, Paley said. ... The bone then is set in a normal cast. The whole job takes about three years. The cost is about $150,000, including physical ...
more infohttps://billingsgazette.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/for-dwarfs-mixed-reaction-to-radical-limb-lengthening-procedure/article_d32f6824-c13c-5c95-b2c0-cfcfff58ac6e.html

Best Stories for Carpal Tunnel Surgery, Orthopedic Knee Surgery in TurkeyBest Stories for Carpal Tunnel Surgery, Orthopedic Knee Surgery in Turkey

Memorial Hizmet Offers Ilizarov Bone Lengthening Method - by: PlacidWay , Memorial Hizmet Hospital Individuals with different ... and damage to bones and joints due to sports injuries or auto... Read Article Request Info Chat With Us ... limb length or limb deformities have increasingly benefited from limb lengthening surgery. However, not all surgeries and ...
more infohttps://www.placidway.com/search-medical-articles/Carpal-Tunnel-Surgery+Orthopedic-Knee-Surgery/Istanbul+Turkey/1

No Summer Break - tribunedigital-baltimoresunNo Summer Break - tribunedigital-baltimoresun

... the narrow bone next to the main shin bone.. Paley brought limb-lengthening to the United States in the 1980s after studying it ... Five percent of Paleys operations are to lengthen limbs of those born with achondroplasia, a bone disorder that causes ... Automated bone-lengthening allows UM to stride into future.... September 13, 1991 ... The turns pull the bone apart, stretching it, so new bone can grow and fill in. The mother is anxious to have the childs other ...
more infohttp://articles.baltimoresun.com/2002-08-24/features/0208240299_1_paley-limb-lengthening-orthopedic-surgeon

Medical Xpress - jawsMedical Xpress - jaws

Bone lengthening technique proves useful in patients with cleft palate. A technique called distraction osteogenesis can create ... A review of more than a decades worth of research on osteonecrosis of the jaw-when the bone in the jaw is exposed and begins ... Biting and chewing force our buried teeth to emerge, not an innate eruptive force from within the bone of the jaw as ... Review highlights ways to prevent and manage jaw bone disease. ... 19 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.. Aug 31, 2015 5 ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/tags/jaws/

6.Orthopedic Hardware6.Orthopedic Hardware

Roger Anderson External Fixator (RAEF)  For comminuted fracture of the long bone  Delta Frame External Fixator  For fractur ... Ilizarov External Fixator  For comminuted fracture; Non-union; Malunion; Bone lengthening; Both upper and lower extremities ... Osteotome (Chisel)  Used for obtaining bone chips for spinal fusion. For scraping dead or necrotic bone. For iliac bone graft ... Roger Anderson External Fixator (RAEF)  For comminuted fracture of the long bone ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/doc/168990437/6-Orthopedic-Hardware

Zoledronic Acid in Children (1 -17 Years) With Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govZoledronic Acid in Children (1 -17 Years) With Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Any surgical bone-lengthening procedure. *Any kidney diseases or abnormalities. *Low calcium or vitamin D levels in the blood ... Bone Diseases, Developmental. Bone Diseases. Musculoskeletal Diseases. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Collagen Diseases. Connective ... Measure percentage change of lumbar spine bone mineral density at month 18 and 24 compared to baseline in the core study.. ... Deformity or abnormality which would prevent spine bone density from being done ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00131118

Remote Suturing Device - Carlson, Mark A.Remote Suturing Device - Carlson, Mark A.

AUTOMATIC LENGTHENING BONE FIXATION DEVICE. August, 2009. Mcclintock et al.. 20080228195. INSTRUMENT GUIDE FOR USE WITH A ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2008/0177288.html

TRIGEN INTERTAN Intertrochanteric Antegrade Nail, or intramedullary femoral nail for Hip Fractures or fractures of the femur |...TRIGEN INTERTAN Intertrochanteric Antegrade Nail, or intramedullary femoral nail for Hip Fractures or fractures of the femur |...

J Bone Joint Surg (A). 1994: 76-1, 751-758. 4. AAOS Position Statement 1144. Hip fracture in seniors: A call for health system ... Bone & Joint Science. Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2011 6. Rueger J, Moore C. Shortening of the Femoral Neck Following Peritrochanteric ... Bone&Joint Science ( www.KLEOS.md) 2011; 2(5). "… the newly developed INTERTAN intertrochanteric antegrade nail improves ...
more infohttp://www.smith-nephew.com/new-zealand/advanced-surgical-devices/key-products/trauma/trigen-intertan-intertrochanteric-antegrade-nail-/

TRIGEN INTERTAN Intertrochanteric Antegrade Nail, or intramedullary femoral nail, that treats hip fractures or fractures of the...TRIGEN INTERTAN Intertrochanteric Antegrade Nail, or intramedullary femoral nail, that treats hip fractures or fractures of the...

Bone Joint Sci. 2011 May;2(5). 32. Zlowodzki M, Brink O, Switzer J, et al. The effect of shortening and varus collapse of the ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:1266-1272. 5. Hoffmann S, Paetzold R, Stephan D, Püschel K, Buehren V, Augat P. Biomechanical ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95:200-208. 8. Sanders D, Bryant D, Tieszer C, et al. A Multicenter Randomized Control Trial ... Bone&Joint Outcome. 2017:4(1):1-20. Lit no: 10205 V1 07/17.. 17. Serrano-Riera R, Blair JA, Downes K, Sanders R. Cephalo- ...
more infohttp://global.smith-nephew.com/professional/products/all-products/trigen-intertan/

TRIGEN INTERTAN Intertrochanteric Antegrade Nail, or intramedullary femoral nail, that treats hip fractures or fractures of the...TRIGEN INTERTAN Intertrochanteric Antegrade Nail, or intramedullary femoral nail, that treats hip fractures or fractures of the...

Bone Joint Sci. 2011 May;2(5). 32. Zlowodzki M, Brink O, Switzer J, et al. The effect of shortening and varus collapse of the ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:1266-1272. 5. Hoffmann S, Paetzold R, Stephan D, Püschel K, Buehren V, Augat P. Biomechanical ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95:200-208. 8. Sanders D, Bryant D, Tieszer C, et al. A Multicenter Randomized Control Trial ... Bone&Joint Outcome. 2017:4(1):1-20. Lit no: 10205 V1 07/17.. 17. Serrano-Riera R, Blair JA, Downes K, Sanders R. Cephalo- ...
more infohttps://www.smith-nephew.com/professional/products/all-products/trigen-intertan/

Osteosynthesis Devices Market Size | Industry Report, 2013-2024Osteosynthesis Devices Market Size | Industry Report, 2013-2024

Bone Lengthening), By Material (Degradable & Non-degradable) And Segment Forecasts, 2013 - 2024. Published: December 2016 , 90 ... External fixators are used in a per-cutaneous approach to provide a stabilizing frame to the injured bone and are mostly used ... Osteoporosis, or reduction in bone mass, can result in painful fractures and is responsible for causing more than 8.9 million ... This equipment aids in holding the broken bone together and help in stabilizing and supporting it. Being the most common ...
more infohttps://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/osteosynthesis-devices-market

Free Nursing Flashcards about health assessmentFree Nursing Flashcards about health assessment

Bone lengthening occurs at the epiphyses, or growth plates. the vertebral column has ___ curves 4. ... bone over growth of the distal interphalangeal joint toward the wrist bouchard node is a bone over growth of the proximal ... complete loss of contact between the two bones in a joint. subluxation is when two bones in a joint stay in contact but their ... articulation of the radius and a row of the carpal bones. the knee joint is the articulation of 3 bones femur, tibia and the ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-1098727

3-M syndrome - Wikipedia3-M syndrome - Wikipedia

Possible management options for short stature are surgical bone lengthening or growth hormone therapy. Orthopedic techniques ... These usually reveal long bones that are slender, tall vertebral bodies that shorten over time, small pelvic bones, a broad ... Skeletal anomalies arent present at birth but develop in the individual and include delayed bone maturation, slender long ... tubular bones, and tall vertebral bodies. Joint hyper-mobility and increased risk of hip dislocation has been presented in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3-M_syndrome

Patent US8114088 - Geared spinal implant inserter-distractor - Google PatentsPatent US8114088 - Geared spinal implant inserter-distractor - Google Patents

Implantable bone lengthening apparatus using a drive gear mechanism. US6033405. Mar 3, 1998. Mar 7, 2000. Surgical Dynamics, ... A bone graft, taken from a patients pelvic bone (autograft) or from a donor (allograft), can be inserted between two adjacent ... In some embodiments, implant 200 can be a bone graft. Bone graft 200 can be an autograft or an allograft. In some embodiments, ... In some embodiments, the intervertebral implant can be an interbody device or a bone graft. In some embodiments, the bone graft ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US8114088?dq=5,222,134
  • A healing index exceeded 100 days/cm except for the first femoral lengthening that was complicated by regenerate fracture. (hindawi.com)
  • Osteosynthesis devices in the form of specifically designed metal plates, screws, and nails are used to scientifically repair the bone through inter-fragmental compression and achieve fracture union. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Osteoporosis, or reduction in bone mass, can result in painful fractures and is responsible for causing more than 8.9 million fractures annually leading to an osteoporotic fracture every 3 seconds. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • In addition, traumatic incidents such as road traffic & sporting accidents coupled with some type of cancers resulting in easy fracture of bones are noteworthy factors responsible for the industry growth. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The apparatus is accessible from outside the limb, and the advantage of this technique is to allow the Practitioner to act on the apparatus at specified periods of time to induce in a gradual way some lengthening of the bone, generally at its diaphyseal level, after its section. (google.com)
  • Using a chisel, Paley and Herzenberg cut the bone in two. (billingsgazette.com)
  • The mother is anxious to have the child's other arm lengthened, but Paley is not. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Before Paley can get to the next examining room, a mother in the waiting room, Crystal Kappenman, spots him and rushes down the hallway with her daughter, Rachel, hoping to salve her worry: The child, who uses a wheelchair, had her leg caught on a carousel over the weekend, she tells him, and now green goop is oozing from the hole where pins are pulling the bone apart. (baltimoresun.com)
  • These usually reveal long bones that are slender, tall vertebral bodies that shorten over time, small pelvic bones, a broad thorax with slender ribs, and delayed bone age in affected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He and Dr. John Herzenberg, a colleague at Sinai Hospital in Baltimore, extend the arms and legs of dwarfs by breaking their bones and slowly pulling them apart. (billingsgazette.com)
  • Pins are placed above and below the cut in the bone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the stretching phase, which lasts three months, the bone is held in place with pins. (baltimoresun.com)
  • With a Lucite ruler, he measures bone growth on the child's X-ray and calculates how much the mom needs to turn the pins. (baltimoresun.com)
  • We report on a case of extensive bone lengthening for appreciable LLD in a pediatric patient with linear morphea. (hindawi.com)
  • Skeletal anomalies aren't present at birth but develop in the individual and include delayed bone maturation, slender long tubular bones, and tall vertebral bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous authors [ 3 , 4 , 16 , 17 ] have reported that pin tract problems always develop from the outside to the inside, a hypothesis based on the belief that such problems start with a soft tissue inflammation that leads to soft tissue infection and finally to bone infection. (springer.com)
  • External fixators are used in a per-cutaneous approach to provide a stabilizing frame to the injured bone and are mostly used when it is unsuitable to execute internal fixation as primary treatment. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Dysplastic and/or atrophic bones of the affected lower extremity can lead to clinically significant leg length discrepancy (LLD). (hindawi.com)
  • In the technique based on external fixators, we use an external apparatus with some parts of it (e.g. metal wires) transfixing soft tissues to reach the bone to which they are secured. (google.com)
  • 16 ] also incriminated fluid accumulation around the pin-bone interface as a cause of PTI. (springer.com)
  • According to their theory, it is the instability of the external fixator pin-bone construct that leads to pin loosening and infection and, consequently, it is pin loosening that is the initiating event which ultimately leads to pin tract sepsis. (springer.com)
  • In this hypothesis, the external fixator construct appears to be vital to the prevention of pin site complications since excessive movement at the fixator pin-bone interface leads to pin site irritation and infection. (springer.com)
  • We report on a juvenile LM case who underwent extensive bone lengthening to correct substantial LLD. (hindawi.com)
  • HealthDay)-The risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is highest in association with intravenous bisphosphonate use, according to a study published online Aug. 19 in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. (medicalxpress.com)